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2018 - 1801(6)

Any replacements are listed further down

[1175] **viXra:1801.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-09 16:08:24*

**Authors:** Augustus Prince

**Comments:** 51 Pages. Work submitted of Augustus Prince by Roger Anderton and Bill Ryan

Using an analysis from a physical and phenomenological viewpoint employing the renowned and recognized continuity of Boscovich’s force curve, a new paradigm is formulated to explicate various physical phenomena in both the microworld and the macro-world. Within this paradigm, an algorithm is established which produced a functional representation of the atomic spectra of hydrogen and a temperature dependent blackbody energy distribution of radiation which compares very favorably with the experimental data. Further representations afford suggestions for the predictions of the specific heat of solids, photoelectric effect, etc. The Boscovichian points are assumed to move under the action of a force (acceleration) that varies inversely proportional to the cube of the radius from the point center, which leads to an orbit described by an equiangular (logarithmic) spiral. This spiral is subsequently used to simulate the concepts used in phyllotaxis (a constituent of plant morphology) and the gnomonic growth of mollusk shells (e.g. nautilus). The intercepts for the stable and unstable points on the Boscovich curve, which are the roots of the equation used, are calculated via the application of Fibonacci-type sequence of integers. In addition, utilizing the shape of Boscovich's "extended" curve of force (acceleration), the prospect of interpreting the mysterious attractive force beyond the visible Newtonian region of space (e.g. black holes, dark energy, etc.) is proposed. It is hoped that this phenomenological approach will serve as a beginning for description of both the micro-universe and the macrouniverse.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1174] **viXra:1801.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-08 08:18:20*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Originally published in General Science Journal

Abstract: Presently, ‘heat’ is understood as a type of energy and ‘heating’ as a process of transfer of energy. Energy, being ability to do work, is a quality and hence a functional entity. Functional entities have neither objective reality nor positive existence in space. Therefore, energy has neither form, nor structure, nor real existence. However, in contemporary physics, energy (an imaginary entity) is treated almost like a real entity with form, structure, objective reality with ability to transfer and can change forms. It is currently used as cause of actions, where no other cause is obvious.
According to an alternative concept, presented in the book, ‘MATTER (Re-examined)’, energy is a functional entity that develops wherever and whenever work is done in association with a three-dimensional matter-body. Heating is a process of reducing three-dimensional matter-content level of a macro body. In any body, its 3D matter-content and work associated with its integrity and state are complimentary and support each other. 3D matter-content of a body is the quantity of matter it contains in the form of basic 3D matter-particles. Energy-content about a body is the strain developed, due to distortions (work-done), in universal medium about the body.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1173] **viXra:1801.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-06 18:38:49*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 6 Pages. In Russian

In this paper we present a table of the values of the masses and diameters of the five fundamental particles (tau particle, neutron, proton, muon, electron) and the crupitsa (atom) of matter underlying all fundamental particles. These calculations are carried out in the framework of "Theory of Nature" by the author. The first version of the "Theory of Nature" was ready in May 2013. "Theory of Nature" is a revolutionary breakthrough in physics, and in our knowledge of nature and its fundamental laws.//======//
В настоящей статье представлена таблица значений масс и диаметров пяти элементарных частиц (тау-частицы, нейтрона, протона, мюона, электрона) и крупицы материи, лежащей в основе всех элементарных частиц. Эти расчёты выполнены в рамках «Теории Природы» автора. Первая версия ТП была готова в мае 2013 года. «Теория Природы» - это революционный прорыв в физике, и в наших знаниях природы и её фундаментальных законов.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1172] **viXra:1801.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-04 14:59:36*

**Authors:** Edgars Alksnis

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

„Geomagnetic pole” shift will weaken Earth’s vortex, this should reduce Earth’s orbital inclination. Orbital distance of the Moon might be also reduced.
Сдвиг “геомагнитных полюсов” должен ослабить земной вихрь. Это должно привести к снижению орбитального наклона Земной орбиты а также к снижению величины орбитальной дистанции Луны.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1171] **viXra:1801.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-03 13:17:01*

**Authors:** Udo E. Steinemann

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

One of the earliest attemps to understand turbulence dated back to a theory of L.F. RICHARDSON, later enhanced by A.N. KOLMOGOROV. By this theory turbulence is considered as energy-transfer taking place in cascade-form between eddies of various orders of magnitude. The transfer gets stated by disturbance acting on fibre-eddies and is evaluated by stretching of the fibres. This can explain many topics, but it is impossible this way to determine the cascade-structure and its development more detailed. In order to step forward, one will have to provide e.g. numbers of eddies for every cascade-generation, eddies sizes and their appropriate life-times and a characterization of the disturbance as well. For this reason the eddy- model will be replaced by a spinning sphere with surface-tension and a specified disturbance acting on it. Due to this, decay of an eddy can be explained as a partitioning of a sphere into equal parts in a self-organizing balance between disturbance and a reaction forced by surface-tension. Eeddies life-times as well as increases in phase-speed can then be determined. The disturbance-signal is specified as a sum of resonance-terms, each prepared for acting on a sphere of a proper size. On account of these model-extensions, turbulence comes out as a controlled route of energy from order into chaos, similar to many other dynamical Systems too.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1170] **viXra:1801.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-02 23:18:22*

**Authors:** Durgadas Datta.

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Helps us to understand our universe and the laws of creation.

The BIG BOUNCE CREATED OUR UNIVERSE WITH SUITABLE LAWS AND FUNDAMENTALS .

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1169] **viXra:1712.0658 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-29 06:42:48*

**Authors:** Jose Garrigues Baixauli

**Comments:** pages 8, figures 4, J Phys Math 7: 169. (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2090-0902.1000169 Book: Classic 4D Model Of the Discrete Universe I: Quantum Chapter 11, pages 99-102 Scholar Press (2017) Copyright: © 2016 Baixauli JG. This is an open-access

Quantum and relativistic phenomena can be explained by the hypothesis that both the universe and the elementary particles are formed by atoms’ four spatial dimensions. It is also possible to deduce and calculate properties of elementary particles, such as mass, electric charge, spin, radio, etc. Based on this hypothesis, the fundamental constants can be calculated depending only on the speed of light c. Moreover, the Schrodinger equation can be deduced and the equality of inertial and gravitational mass can be demonstrated. The aim of this article is to establish a relationship between electron mass and electron charge, and thereby calculate the electrical charge
depending on the mass of the electron, Planck's constant h and the speed of light c. Through this relationship, extended to the gravitational and magnetic fields, it is possible to establish a relationship between the constants of both fields.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1168] **viXra:1712.0645 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-28 05:12:45*

**Authors:** Fan Wei

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The latest experiment implies the non-existent of charge, which is against the widely accepted common sense. The history of physics is going to be changed.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1167] **viXra:1712.0642 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-28 08:23:54*

**Authors:** James A. Smith

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Published times of the Earth's perihelions do not refer to the perihelions of the orbit that the Earth would follow if unaffected by other bodies such as the Moon. To estimate the timing of that ``unperturbed" perihelion, we fit an unperturbed Kepler orbit to the timings of the year 2017's equinoxes and solstices. We find that the unperturbed 2017 perihelion, defined in that way, would occur 12.93 days after the December 2016 solstice. Using that result, calculated times of the year 2017's solstices and equinoxes differ from published values by less than five minutes. That degree of accuracy is sufficient for the intended use of the result.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1166] **viXra:1712.0639 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-28 12:06:06*

**Authors:** Arijit Bag

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

According to the Planck’s theory of black body radiation, a black body is a collection of oscillators which are responsible for its radiation. There are no results available in the literature about the mass and vibrational
ground state energy of the oscillator. In the present research, ground state energy and mass of the oscillator are calculated from Planck’s theory of black body radiation and de Broglie’s wave particle duality relation. It is observed that the mass of the oscillator is 1.6 × 10^{−39} kg and vibrational ground state energy is 3.587 × 10^{−23} J subject to the constraint that the minimum temperature for radiation of a black body is 2.598K.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1165] **viXra:1712.0634 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-27 22:03:29*

**Authors:** Cres Huang

**Comments:** Pages.

We hear the word radiation often. We see waves revealed by water, and air wave above hot surface. We feel the air (wind) and hear it's motion (sound), even see the supersonic shack wave of air. How particle, wave, radiant energy, or EMR is different from perceivable world in our day to day life? Shouldn't there be fundamental principles that governing the action of matter and it's interaction with it's environment?

Even a lone particle stands out from it's background. Any object broadcasts it's existence, from insignificant to strong, simple to complex. It will never stop regardless it is observable to us or not. Action of object casts force (energy) into the environment. It can be contact force that requires media to spread, or action-at-a-distance force that does not. Energy is passed onto next neighbors and spread out. The collected interactions of neighbors will be in the form of waves. It is the fundamental activity of action-reaction-interaction of an object and environment.

Oscillating piano string with hummer, it makes sound and heat. Dust or water droplets on th string will be shook off. Oscillating it with electricity, it produces heat and light. Particles are radiated when oscillated in high energy. Certainly, the structure of the string will not survive long in such intense. Comparing to what the Sun is doing, do you see the similarity? Isn't the Sun is oscillating at the intense of destruction?

[1164] **viXra:1712.0606 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-26 06:48:43*

**Authors:** Arijit Bag

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this article, theoretical lower limit of mass of phonon and critical mass for matter-dark matter
conversion is presented. Using Planck’s equation for black body radiation and de Broglie’s wave
particle duality, we can get a relation between mass of phonon and frequency of emitted radiation
which opens up several questions and possibilities. From this relation, with few assumptions, we may have a critical mass bellow which we have dark matter and above we get normal matter. With the help of this relation, maximum matter density and limit of string length may be reviewed. Calculated critical mass, considering the present value of Planck’s constant and Boltzmann constant, is 7.367 × 10^{−51} Kg. It is also observed that if phonon obeys de Broglie’s equation, generation of an electromagnetic radiation of frequency less than 56638721410Hz is not possible by thermal heating.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1163] **viXra:1712.0605 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-26 06:53:08*

**Authors:** Arijit Bag

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Using Planck’s postulates for black body radiation and wave particle duality relation of de Broglie
we can get a relation between mass of a phonon and emission frequency of a body at different
temperatures. Using boundary condition lower limit of mass of a phonon is calculated which is
7.36 × 10^{−51} kg.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1162] **viXra:1712.0592 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-25 00:20:15*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Abstract: Atoms are stable and self-stabilizing 3D matter-bodies, which spin about their nuclear/atomic axes. Unless in extreme conditions or due to accidents, no part of atom may removed from it and under no circumstance additional parts may be included in the structure of stable atom. Atoms of all elements (except those of inert elements) have resultant external fields about them. Complimentary atoms arrange themselves to form groups until most of their resultant external fields are inhibited by rotary motion the atoms in planes across their atomic axes. Molecules form crystals and other groups in similar manner for the same purpose. In order to form different combinations of atoms and/or molecules, it is necessary to break present bonds between atoms or between molecules by varying their rotary speeds to enable their resultant external fields to be effective and form different kinds of groups (molecules, crystals, etc.). These actions are generally known as chemical actions.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1161] **viXra:1712.0583 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-23 23:41:31*

**Authors:** Cres Huang

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The infinite dynamic of the universe is maintained by the fundamental principle; infinite, independent, identity, perfect recycle, coherent, complement, and interaction principle.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1160] **viXra:1712.0545 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-22 04:38:16*

**Authors:** Simon A. Olanipekun

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Halbach arrays have asymmetrical magnetic fields; therefore they can be used to absorb and convert zero point energy into classical mechanical energy...

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1159] **viXra:1712.0520 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-19 19:43:58*

**Authors:** Sprenova Fan

**Comments:** 1 Page.

We all know that an object can move, but it is mystery as well as a Nobel price level reseach for the origin of motion. Thus, I solve this problem and by the way, win Nobel prize.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1158] **viXra:1712.0516 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-19 22:07:26*

**Authors:** Cres Huang

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Exploits speed, time, and space to show why time dilation is impossible. Space and time are completely independent. Fundamental matter, energy, and space has existence and completely recyclable. However, time is only reference information. It doest not exist. Among all, * time can not be recycled*!

Clocks can drift, yet, it is absolutely independent of time. Can we suppose the expansion or contraction of a yard stick meant the space has changed?

[1157] **viXra:1712.0515 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-19 22:12:59*

**Authors:** Cres Huang

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

Basically, double-slit device is intrusive wave detector. Shooting particles to study their properties is intrusion. It would not be the same as performing autopsy on tabletop. The difficulty is not only studying a particle in motion, but keeping it still is not any easier, if possible. We are incapable of identifying it's individuality. Particle is a mass of it's own entity, and wave is the reaction of it's complement. Above all, * The rest of the universe is the absolute complement of an object*. Even a particle, it is impossible for it to be anywhere else at the same time, since anywhere else is it's absolute complement.

[1156] **viXra:1712.0514 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-19 22:16:26*

**Authors:** Cres Huang

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Our perception is the information of physical events collected by sensors. Observation is a special case of hi-speed transportation of stream of information packages. The arrival order and interval and the quality would determine the perception of the observer. Additionally, not all arrived packages are perceived. We can catch more packages by improving the sensitivity and faster response of apparatus. However, most is lost. We can be fooled by what we see.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1155] **viXra:1712.0503 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-18 17:47:24*

**Authors:** Alfonso Leon Guillen Gomez

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The equivalence principle between the gravitational motion and the inertial motion is false because a particle or body successively in two any contiguous points while in a gravitational frame they have different kinetic energy, instead they always have equal kinetic energy in an inertial frame.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1154] **viXra:1712.0485 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-17 11:28:49*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper, the essence of the interaction between two parallel current wires is analyzed. During the analysis we found that if the interaction is originated from the resultant Lorentz force of the charge carriers in the currents, the Newton’s third law will be violated in this system. However, if the essence of the interaction of the two current wires is considered as the attraction or repulsion of the two circular magnetic fields created by each current, the trouble of violating Newton’s third law can be avoided.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1153] **viXra:1712.0484 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-16 16:46:07*

**Authors:** Roman Vinokur

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

The classical theory of lumped mechanical systems employs the viscous friction mechanisms (dashpots), while the loss factors of most solid structures are controlled by hysteresis. This paper presents analysis of the forced vibration of 2-DOF in-series systems with hysteretic friction where one of the partial 1-DOF systems plays the role of tuned (or auxiliary) mass damper (TMD). The assumption of hysteretic damping is acceptable if the loss factor remains about stable at least in the frequency range containing the resonance peaks. The closed-form simple relationships for the transmissibility at the resonance frequencies are derived in the “nearby” case where (1) the natural undamped frequencies of 2-DOF in-series system are most close to each other and (2) the loss factors of the 2-DOF system become similar and equal to the arithmetic average of the partial loss factors. The independent parameters are the mass ratio and partial loss factors. The relationships become very simple if the mass ratio is high or low compared to the square of each partial loss factor. In cases where the ratio of natural undamped frequencies of 2-DOF system are moderately lower or higher than in the “nearby case”, the transmissibility peak magnitudes are about similar to those for the “nearby” case. The results can be utilized for the noise and vibration control in machinery and buildings.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1152] **viXra:1712.0454 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-14 21:35:07*

**Authors:** Zabak Hiyae

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Computational fluid dynamics, Temperature, QCM gas sensor, Electronic nose, Identification accuracy

An electronic-nose (e-nose) was developed based on eight quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) gas sensors in a sensor box, and was used to detect Pakistani liquors at room temperature. Each QCM gas sensor was a highly-accuracy and highly-sensitive oscillator that experienced airflow disturbances under the condition of varying room temperature due to unstable flow-induced forces on sensors surfaces. The three-dimensional (3D) nature of the airflow inside the sensor box and the interactions of the airflow on the sensors surfaces at different temperatures were studied utilizing computational fluid dynamics tools. Higher simulation accuracy was achieved by optimizing meshes, meshing the computational domain using a fine unstructural tetrahedron mesh. An optimum temperature, 30°C, was obtained by analyzing the distribution of velocity streamlines and static pressure, as well as flow-induced forces over time, all of which may be used to improve the identification accuracy of the QCM e-nose for achieving stabile and repeatable signals by removing the influence of temperature.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1151] **viXra:1712.0376 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-11 06:43:19*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

From the distribution characteristics of the magnetic field created by a current wire, we speculate that a current wire will experience force from a magnetic field nearby even if the current does not go through the field. From the same analysis, a similar effect should also exist for a moving charged particle, i.e., a moving charged particle will experience force from a nearby magnetic field, although the particle does not cut across the magnetic field. To prove the existence of this force, two experiments are performed and the results support our speculation. Considering the experimental results of this paper, if the relativistic transformation of field is universally valid, a motional electromotive force should be created in a neutral conductor moving through a space where there is no magnetic field, as long as there is a magnetic field around. Experimental designs are proposed to prove this motional electromotive force.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1150] **viXra:1712.0373 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-09 10:20:16*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Originally published on www.academia.edu

Abstract: Attempts to define ‘matter’ were unsuccessful throughout development of natural philosophy. As advancement in physics called for speedier pace, one attribute of matter – the mass – was accepted as a substitute. Mass of a body (an assumed relation that exists in mathematical analyses and in the minds of analyzers) is considered as an equivalent that can represent body’s 3D matter-content. Mass has successfully usurped rightful place of 3D matter in all contemporary theories to increase their complexity and confusion. In material world, existence of matter is nearest to absolute truth. Defining matter on this basis can provide logical foundations to physical theories.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1149] **viXra:1712.0369 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-09 20:32:00*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Originally published on www.academia.edu

Abstract: Opposition to relative movements, between macro bodies in contact, is generally termed as ‘friction’. Friction develops from mutual adhesive tendencies of resultant fields adjacent atoms on the contact surfaces of macro bodies in contact. All atoms have resultant fields surrounding their material structures. Tendency of adhesion between interlinking resultant fields of atoms on either side of contact surface is caused by merger of these fields into a common stable structure. Attempt to destabilize resultant structure of merged fields between bodies in contact results in resistance to their relative motion.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1148] **viXra:1712.0360 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-08 07:53:45*

**Authors:** Alberto Coe

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The standard cosmological model defines the Observable Universe as the region of the Universe observed from the earth at the present time ; all the signals that have arrived to the earth since the beginning of the cosmological expansion .We introduce a quantifier parameter .The use of such parameter allow us to understand the amount of items involved in any system . First we analyze the posible topology of the event horizon of the observable universe and how such surface area depends on the time .Finally will describe a numerical depiction about the evolution of the observable universe wich involves the Hubble parameter , the number of stars , the hydrogen molecule , the degrees of freedom of the hydrogen mulecule related to the amount of information of ordinary matter as well as the surface area of the observable universe event horizon .

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1147] **viXra:1712.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-06 07:08:18*

**Authors:** V.S. Vasilenko, A.I. Tsabevska, A.A. Malgota

**Comments:** 8 Pages. 8p. Russian

For the first time it was shown that in the thermally isolated vessel, filled by ideal gas with an identical on volume temperature, and placed in the gravitational field took place a separation of internal energy of gas. A vertical gradient of temperature appeared due to molecular-kinetic motion of gas in the gravitational field - without participation macroscopic moving of gas volume with adiabatic expansion/compression. This phenomenon allows to construct perpetual motor of the second kind. It, in turn, gives an opportunity to assert that the processes are possible in non-equilibrium stationary thermodynamics close system, attended with reduction of entropy and impedimental to thermal death of Universe.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1146] **viXra:1712.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-05 09:00:03*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Abstract: Contemporary physics has many unsolved problems. Most of them are due to inadequacy of theories or illogical application of one theory to seemingly similar problem elsewhere. An alternative concept, presented in book ‘MATTER (Re-examined)’ proposes to provide logical explanations to all these apparent problems. In this article, author proposes to present short notes and pointers to detailed explanations in the book. All explanations are based on a single assumption that ‘Substance is fundamental and matter alone provides substance to all real entities’. There are neither imaginary particles nor mysterious actions nor actions at a distance through empty space in this concept. Cause and effect relations are followed in all topics.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1145] **viXra:1712.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-05 04:49:58*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Abstract: No actions can be performed at a distance through empty space. An all-encompassing medium is essential to facilitate (apparent) physical actions between material bodies at a distance. Aether, used in aether-theories and other imaginary entities currently used to explain various physical phenomena are too vague and fails to describe many physical actions of matter bodies, logically. By realising a real entity that fills the entire space as an all-encompassing universal medium, the formless space can be replaced with a structured real entity. An ideal universal medium should be a real entity with positive existence and with all properties currently assigned to space or to other imaginary entities like; different types of aether, imaginary particles or various types of fields.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1144] **viXra:1711.0469 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-30 02:28:42*

**Authors:** Antoine Acke

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Taking into account the kinematics of the gravitating objects, gravitoelectromagnetism (GEM) is a consistent classical field theory about the gravitational phenomena in which context the principle of relativity and the principle of equivalence are valid. In this article it is shown that, in the framework of GEM, Newton’s law of universal gravitation perfectly can be deduced and that it can be extended to the case of moving point masses.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1143] **viXra:1711.0439 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-28 10:21:52*

**Authors:** Karl De Paepe

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We consider two charged spheres of the same charge freely moving along a fixed line. We use the energy momentum tensor to construct a moving surface through which there is no energy flow and show conservation of energy does not hold.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1142] **viXra:1711.0384 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-21 18:11:13*

**Authors:** John Hodge

**Comments:** 6 Pages. continuation of STOE model of photon and rejection of wave model.

Spectrographic behavior of light has been attributed to the wave model of light.
The Scalar Theory Of Everything (STOE) model of light suggests photons are composed of hods that are one of the two components of the universe. The Hodge diffraction experiments rejected the wave models of light. The Fraunhofer pattern of coherent light on a screen from a slit in a mask is compared to the STOE computer simulation of spectrographic effects. The number of hods serves the same place as the frequency (energy) of light. Thus, the energy of light is proportional to the number of hods in the photons. An additional hod in a photon adds Planks constant amount of energy to the photon. Therefore, the STOE incorporates spectrographic observations.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1141] **viXra:1711.0346 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-17 20:07:54*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 1 Page.

If you know and understand the way everything truly works -- with slight adjustments everything becomes completely compatible.

● Newton's gravitational force.

● Tesla's energy from the environment.

● Einstein's curved space-time.

● Heisenberg's probability and uncertainty.

They fit together like a glove.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1140] **viXra:1711.0328 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-17 04:36:51*

**Authors:** Zhixian Lin

**Comments:** 4 Pages. "Choose File" option is not working.

For beginners, the traditional explanation of a Transistor is not easy to understand. The traditional explanation can not explain why a slightly change of IB will create a significant change of IC clearly. This paper proposed the Distance Principle which can clearly and easily explain why a Transistor can work. Make beginners easier to understand the physical mechanism of a Transistor.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1139] **viXra:1711.0322 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-15 15:23:21*

**Authors:** Guido F. Nelissen

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In my paper Part 1 on the physical nature of “Linear Momentum”, I have demonstrated that the difference between thermal motion and congruent motion is characterized by the degree of isotropy of the velocities of the particles and in my paper Part 3 on the physical nature of “Work, Kinetic Energy and Planck’s constant” I have demonstrated that the generation of work in particle systems consist in the transformation of isotropic motion into congruent translational motion.
In my paper Part 5 on the physical nature of “Pressure, Temperature and Thermal Energy” I came to the conclusion that the statistical Maxwell – Boltzmann speed distribution function is a consequence of the repetitive isotropic collisions, that are typical for thermal motion.
This allows me, on the basis of Clausius’ and Boltzmann’s absolute concepts of entropy, to propose a new proportionate entropy, in function of the degree of isotropy of the velocities of the elements of a particle system, which makes it possible to reveal the link between the second law of thermodynamics and Newton’s first law of motion, and which in my next paper will allow me to explain the physical nature of the variable velocity of particle systems.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1138] **viXra:1711.0321 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-15 15:26:24*

**Authors:** Guido F. Nelissen

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Physics today has an ambiguous attitude towards ‘velocity’. On the one hand relativistic physics considers it a “relative” characteristic of which the numerical value depends on the chosen reference frame, but on the other hand that same physics tells us that velocity causes a length contraction, a time dilation and a mass increase and that it has an absolute upper limit, which is equal to the invariable speed of light.
This duality is caused by the fact that the Lorentz transformations accomplish a mathematical bridging between a relative velocity at low speeds and an absolute velocity at the speed of light, but that it is not clear whether these equations describe observational or real physical phenomena. It is this vagueness that has led to the a number of internal contradictions, such as e.g. the “twin paradox” and the “pole an barn paradox”.
In this paper I demonstrate that mass particles are 3-dimensional particle systems that consist of 2-dimensional massless particles and that their variable velocity is not so much distance divided by time, but that it is an emerging physical state of these a particle systems.
This physical nature of velocity leads in a self-evident way to the Lorentz contraction of moving particle systems in their direction of motion, which I demonstrate to be a real physical distortion.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1137] **viXra:1711.0313 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-15 05:09:36*

**Authors:** Carlos Alejandro Chiappini

**Comments:** 131 Pages.

Las ecuaciones de Maxwell son los postulados del desarrollo presentado. De ellas se deducen como teoremas propiedades físicas fundamentales, como9 la distribución discreta de la energía, el valor teórico de la constante de estructura fina, el factor g del electrón, la unidad de masa elemental basada en las leyes de las partículas elementales (no de tipo convencional como la una) y varias propiedades más. El documento tiene estilo ameno y didáctico, para optimizar la comprensión.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1136] **viXra:1711.0294 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-13 08:35:09*

**Authors:** D.H.W. Reffer

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Inescapable question

We formulate and discuss, as much as we can, an inevitable mathematical and philosophical question: why do the General Theory of Relativity and the Relative-Velocity Dependence of Gravitational Interaction lead to the same well-known formula for the anomalous Perihelion Advance ?

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1135] **viXra:1711.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-08 04:13:28*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

It is noted that the known solution for a spherical electromagnetic wave in the far zone does not satisfy the law of conservation of energy (it is retained only on the average), the electric and magnetic intensities of the same name (in coordinate) are in phase, only one of Maxwell's equations is satisfied. A solution is offered that is free from these shortcomings.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1134] **viXra:1711.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-08 04:24:37*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 11 Pages. in Russian

It is noted that the known solution for a spherical electromagnetic wave in the far zone does not satisfy the law of conservation of energy (it is retained only on the average), the electric and magnetic intensities of the same name (in coordinate) are in phase, only one of Maxwell's equations is satisfied. A solution is offered that is free from these shortcomings. \\ Отмечается, что известное решение для сферической электромагнитной волны в дальней зоне не удовлетворяет закону сохранения энергии (она сохраняется только в среднем), одноименные (по координатам) электрические и магнитные напряженности синфазны, выполняется только одно из системы уравнений Максвелла. Предлагается решение, свободное от этих недостатков.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1133] **viXra:1711.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-04 08:28:04*

**Authors:** Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed

**Comments:** 2 Pages. The discussion in The Naked Scientist forum : https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/index.php?topic=69618.0

This article aims to specify accurately the time duration spent for an object at free fall when it is at its highest point, as well as violating the current value for this time duration.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1132] **viXra:1711.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-01 15:03:08*

**Authors:** Louai Hassan Elzein Bashier

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper is prepared to show that a rigid body which undergoes an angular
acceleration relative to a fixed point must simultaneously accelerate angularly
relative to its center of mass. Formulae which coupling of the angular momentum
and kinetic energy due to this spin motion to the angular momentum and kinetic
energy due to the rotational motion of the same spinning rigid body have been
derived. The paper also bringing to light the nature of the force which causes this
spin motion and the formula which coupling of this highlighted force to the force
which causes the rotation of the rigid body has been also derived.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1131] **viXra:1710.0349 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-31 03:04:07*

**Authors:** Kenneth C. Johnson

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A solar-sail spacecraft propulsion concept uses a large Fresnel lens to concentrate radiation onto one or two small beam-steering mirrors. The lens itself does not effect significant momentum transfer from the photon flux; it only functions as a condenser, which allows the use of much smaller mirrors as momentum-transfer elements.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1130] **viXra:1710.0338 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-31 19:14:08*

**Authors:** Roman Vinokur

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper was earlier saved in academia.com. site. But it might be also interesting to multiple readers on vixra.com.
The sound transmission loss of windows at very low frequencies cannot be interpreted by the theory of infinitely large partitions. Here, the bending wave resonances are essential but not the only contributors. The low sound radiation coefficient and “niche effect” are also important. The goal is to illustrate such phenomena via simplified theoretical models and experimental results. In particular, the role of low sound radiation is interpreted using the sound radiation model of a piston inside the aperture cut in a rigid baffle between the source and receiving rooms. The “niche effect” is compared to the low-frequency sound transmission via symmetric triple windows (where the middle element is the real window and the role of the edge leaves is played by the air masses entrained at the aperture edges). In addition to the previously published results, the new experimental data are provided to support this theory in the “double-niche” case: the aperture consists of two in-series halves with different areas, and the window is installed in the smaller one. Such simple models can also be utilized to interpret the experimental sound transmission data for relatively small partitions mounted in the aperture made in a thick wall between two rooms. The paper may be helpful for students and engineers engaged in measurements of the sound transmission loss.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1129] **viXra:1710.0317 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-27 09:45:35*

**Authors:** V.S. Vasilenko, A.A. Malgota

**Comments:** 4 Pages. 4 p. Russian

The drift (directed downward) and diffusive (directed upward) streams of
molecules of ideal gas in the gravitational field were considered. It is shown that in
the Boltzmann distribution of concentration of molecules on a height these streams
are not equal to each other. They try to create quasi Boltzmann distribution. But
such distribution can not be carried out.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1128] **viXra:1710.0303 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-29 05:26:44*

**Authors:** Sergey Bilyk

**Comments:** 142 Pages.

Basic complete ultimate knowledge about the universe.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1127] **viXra:1710.0284 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-26 09:51:42*

**Authors:** Vladimir Vasilenko

**Comments:** 7 Pages. 7 p., Russian

The hypothesis of real acceleration of time was proposed to explain a subjective acceleration of time at strong psychological stresses. The using of the single physical parameter k of acceleration of time of local system allow us to explain some of well known experimental date. It was shown due to principle of simultaneously, that the time of local system must be two-dimensional.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1126] **viXra:1710.0275 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-23 17:15:19*

**Authors:** V.S. Vasilenko, I.Yu. Obuhovskiy

**Comments:** 4 Pages. 4 p. Russian

Glaciologists and historians of architecture discovered that at the end of the last freezing, the North geographical pole of Earth moved approximately to 20o from territory of Greenland to modern position. Our model allowed to estimate the depth of immersion of locality in an ocean in Portugal (near 4км) and in Mesopotamia (about 500 м). Results well comport with the conclusions of ДНК-genealogy on Turkey and biology on Crimea.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1125] **viXra:1710.0260 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-23 00:18:18*

**Authors:** V.S. Vasilenko, A.A. Malgota

**Comments:** 6 Pages. 6

For the first time it is shown that diffusion and drift of ideal gas molecules
in the gravitational field create a temperature gradient on altitude, not
equalize temperature over all volume. The case of heat-insulated gas with
default both convection and adiabatic expansion was considered.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1124] **viXra:1710.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-22 15:27:42*

**Authors:** V.S.Vasilenko, P.I.Kohanovskiy

**Comments:** 5 Pages. 5 р. Russian. Odessa State Enveronmental University

The new method of the high-fidelity measuring of resistances was proposed. A Wheatstone bridge was used with two unknown base resistors of R1 and R2 in one branch, the resistance decade boxes and unknown resistance Rx was plugged in other branch. By the selection of Rm1 of resistance decade boxes bridge was balanced. R1 and R2 switched places then. By the selection of Rm2 of resistance decade boxes the bridge was balanced in second times. Unknown resistance settled accounts on the formula of Rx=(Rm1•Rm2)1/2.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1123] **viXra:1710.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-21 03:53:33*

**Authors:** Walter Ruh

**Comments:** 28 Pages. language is German, for copyright see: ruhwalter47@gmail.com

This work claims to be a theory of everything (theory of everything, ToE or TOE). This is not a mathematical fake with fifteen dimensions, but a real concept, based on a hypothetical model-medium with which all physical phenomena in the universe can be linked and explained. With the presented hypothetical model medium the forces of gravitation and mass inertia can be put on a common base. This also clarifies the presence of dark matter. The relativistic mass results as an inevitable consequence. Electrostatic force and magnetic force can be explained with the same concept without a distance force. For the Atomic model, there is a logical improvement.
This work is based on the findings made during the assignment of a real variable for the Coulomb charge unit. "What is Behind Coulomb" / http://vixra.org/abs/1710.0211
The free course for those thoughts with a model medium is given from the findings in "Mistakes and Contradictions in the Michelson Morley Experiment" / http://vixra.org/abs/1710.0211. There the heavy mistakes of the Michelson Morley experiment are proved and therefore the results of this experiment and the conclusions drawn from them are untenable.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1122] **viXra:1710.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-19 09:46:07*

**Authors:** Walter Ruh

**Comments:** 7 Pages. language is German, for copyright see: ruhwalter47@gmail.com

In the following, it is shown that the Michelson & Morley experiment is subject to heavy mistakes. All considerations are based on the original publication, »AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, ARTICLE XXXVI On the Relative Motion of the Earth and the Luminiferous Ether, by ALBERT A. MICHELSON and EDWARD W. MORLEY".
1. The experiment presents measurements and expects results in the evening at around 18:00. This is wrong! Anyone with a knowledge of the earth's rotation and the course around the sun can see that the Michelson and Morley experiment makes sense only at the high noon and at midnight. The "ether wind" is only at this time in the measurable direction to the measuring device. In the evening and in the morning, the ether wind is in any case perpendicular (from top to bottom or from bottom to top) to the horizontal measuring device.
2. The light path, as described, cannot be correct. The perpendicular deflected light path can never be against the "ether wind".
3. Intellectual bases for the experiment are incomplete and therefore incorrect. The assumptions and conditions do not correspond with the mathematics for this experiment.
At the end is only one conclusion possible: The Michelson and Morley experiment is very roughly mistaken and therefore the results must be considered irrelevant.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1121] **viXra:1710.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-18 13:34:47*

**Authors:** Walter Ruh

**Comments:** 7 Pages. language is German, for copyright see: ruhwalter47@gmail.com

Starting from the deviation «of the good order» that Coulomb / Ampere disappears in energies, it was shown that behind the in the abstract unit Coulomb is a real value, composed of kilograms, meters and seconds. This gives the field equations a real substance which can represent power and energy in real terms. The results are indicative of a (forbidden) "model medium" without concluding that a medium exists in reality. The logic and physical beauty of this system is overwhelming.
Ausgehend von der stossenden Abweichung «von der guten Ordnung», dass Coulomb/Ampere bei Energierechnungen verschwindet wurde aufgezeigt, dass hinter der abstrakten Einheit Coulomb ein realer Wert, zusammengesetzt aus Kilogramm, Metern und Sekunden zu finden ist. Dadurch bekommen die Feldgleichungen eine reale Substanz welche Leistung und Energie real darstellen kann.
Die Resultate ergeben Indizien auf ein (verbotenes) "Modell-Medium", ohne zu folgern, dass ein Medium in Realität existiert. Die Logik und physikalische Schönheit dieser Systematik ist überwältigend.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1120] **viXra:1710.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-15 09:03:46*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A solution of the Maxwell equations for a variable voltage capacitor with a variable voltage is given, which is a development of inconsistency (corresponding to the energy conservation law) solution of the Maxwell equations for vacuum. It is shown that in an electromagnetic wave propagating through a capacitor, the flux of electromagnetic energy does not change with time. It is shown that there exists a longitudinal (along the radius) standing electromagnetic wave. For a simple verification of the findings, detailed proof is given.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1119] **viXra:1710.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-15 09:07:50*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 16 Pages. in Russian

A solution of the Maxwell equations for a variable voltage capacitor with a variable voltage is given, which is a development of inconsistency (corresponding to the energy conservation law) solution of the Maxwell equations for vacuum. It is shown that in an electromagnetic wave propagating through a capacitor, the flux of electromagnetic energy does not change with time. It is shown that there exists a longitudinal (along the radius) standing electromagnetic wave. For a simple verification of the findings, detailed proof is given. \\ Приводится решение уравнений Максвелла для конденсатора с переменным напряжением, которое является развитием непротиворечивого (соответствующего закону сохранения энергии) решения уравнений Максвелла для вакуума. Показано, что в электромагнитной волне, распространяющейся через конденсатор, поток электромагнитной энергии не изменяется во времени. Показано, что существует продольная (вдоль радиуса) стоячая электромагнитная волна.
Для простой проверки полученных выводов приводится подробное доказательство.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1118] **viXra:1710.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-14 15:01:31*

**Authors:** Nikitin A P

**Comments:** 22 Pages. (RUS)

The article is devoted to Mach's "many-sided" principle and relativity principle, which are considered from the point of view of the energy theory, in which all changes and interactions (including gravitational ones) are viewed not as power interactions and manifestations of space-time curvature, but as manifestations and consequences of motion matter, which occurs as a drain and the source of matter and is described as the movement of energy. The article gives an overview of the primary sources of these principles, created by the founders. In the course of the famous thought experiment with two bodies, along with the principle of Mach and the principle of relativity, which are surprisingly interconnected and intertwined, the energy dynamics of moving bodies and such a mysterious phenomenon as the mechanical motion of material bodies in space and time are explored.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1117] **viXra:1710.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-15 03:32:34*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya, Adrian Dube, Godwin Musosi

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Accepted to Prespacetime Journal

As is well known – Newton's corpuscular model of light can explain the Law of Reflection and Snell's Law of Refraction. Sadly and regrettably – its predictions about the speed of light in different mediums runs contrary to experience. Because of this, Newton's theory of light was abandoned in favour of the wave theory. It [Newton's corpuscular model of light] predicts that the speed of light is larger in higher density mediums. This prediction was shown to be wrong by Foucault's 1850 landmark-ing experiment that brought down Newton's theory. The major assumption of Newton's corpuscular model of light is that the corpuscles of light have an attraction with the particle of the medium. When the converse is assumed, i.e., the corpuscles of light are assumed to not have an attraction-effect, but a repulsion-effect with the particles of the medium, one obtains the correct predictions of the speed of light in denser mediums. This assumption of Newton's corpuscles repelling with the particles of the medium – this, might explain why light has the maximum speed in any given medium.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1116] **viXra:1710.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-12 07:40:37*

**Authors:** Alberto Coe

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The standard cosmological model defines the Observable Universe as the region of the Universe observed from the earth at the present time ; all the signals that have arrived to the earth since the beginning of the cosmological expansion .The fruitful formula of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle allow us to explore some issues concerning the observable universe . One of them is the possible topology of the universe according to recent cosmological data . The other one is the cosmological constant value , arising numerically from the Heisenberg principle . Finally will describe a numerical depiction about the evolution of the observable universe wich involves the Hubble parameter , the number of stars , the hydrogen molecule , the degrees of freedom of the hydrogen mulecule related to the amount of information of ordinary matter and the surface area of the observable universe as the universe’s event horizon .

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1115] **viXra:1710.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-13 01:09:58*

**Authors:** Walter Ruh

**Comments:** 7 Pages. language is German, for copyright see: ruhwalter47@gmail.com

This work provides the long-sought explanation for the heat transportation between matter.
Outgoing from the fact that degrees Kelvin disappears in heat-energy calculations and easily transforms into Energy-units it has been recognized that for Kelvin there must be a physical base consisting of a certain quantity defined by the units of kg, m, s.
The solution is old and long known. The Bolzmann constant is 1.38064*10^-23 J/K
The exact statement of this constant is: The kinetic energy per degree Kelvin per atom of different kind (or per particle) is always 1.38064*10^-23 J. The full interpretation of the physical statement of this constant is not obvious: Each atom, each particle, has the same kinetic energy at the same temperature, which is 1.38064*10^-23 J per degree Kelvin.
This explanation provides the detailed explanation for heat transfer. From the results the physical explanations for the Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube and for "friction generates heat" is given.
Diese Arbeit liefert die seit langem gesuchte Erklärung für den Wärmetransport zwischen Materie. Ausgehend von der Tatsache, dass Grad Kelvin bei der Berechnung der Wärmeenergie verschwindet und sich in Energieeinheiten umwandelt, wurde erkannt, dass es für Kelvin eine physikalische Grösse geben muss, die aus Wert und durch die Einheiten kg, m, s definiert ist. Die Lösung ist alt und seit langem bekannt. Die Bolzmann-Konstante ist 1.38064*10^-23 J / K. Die genaue Aussage dieser Konstante lautet: Die kinetische Energie pro Grad Kelvin pro Atom verschiedener Art (oder pro Teilchen) beträgt immer 1.38064*10^-23 J. Die vollständige Interpretation der physikalischen Aussage dieser Konstante ist nicht offensichtlich: Jedes Atom, jedes Teilchen hat dieselbe kinetische Energie bei der gleichen Temperatur, die 1,38064*10^-23*J pro Grad Kelvin ist. Diese Einsicht liefert eine detaillierte Erklärung für die Wärmeübertragung. Aus den Ergebnissen werden die physikalischen Grundlagen für das Ranque-Hilsch-Wirbelrohr und für "Reibung erzeugt Wärme" erklärbar.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1114] **viXra:1710.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-11 22:40:39*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Is shown the solution the problem scalar longitudinal waves without introducing any additional members in the canonical Lagrangian of the field or in the Maxwell equations that ensure the existence of a longitudinal wave component. The Lame equation for the electromagnetic field is obtained, which describes transverse and longitudinal waves, as well as the Fock-Podolsky wave equation for longitudinal electroscalar waves that do not have a magnetic component. It is shown that the terms of the Lorentz gauge condition describe a four-dimensional volume deformation of the electromagnetic field

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1113] **viXra:1710.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-11 23:58:28*

**Authors:** Robert Stach

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Wechselwirkung zwischen der Rotationsenergie der Erde und der Graviationskraft zur Gewinnung von elektr. Energie, Michelson- Experiment und die Realativitätstheorie

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1112] **viXra:1710.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-08 07:16:50*

**Authors:** D.H.W. Reffer

**Comments:** 13 pages

Herein we propound the property, present its empirical law—a two Relative-Velocity Dependent (RVD) terms completion of Newton’s law of gravitation—and thereby solve some historic problems as: Solar cycle, apparent connection with Jupiter ’s revolution, and why the two periods do not quite coincide; about 2.9–4.5×1019 joules/yr
from earth’s rotation slowdown (Secular retardation) “missing” in tidal effects and attributed to some “unknown mechanism”; and the “unknown” nature (and magnitude) of the “driving/propelling force” in Tectonic plates drift; moreover, the RVD completion of Newton’s gravity law predicts that tectonic plates drift, globally, to the west, not randomly, causing earthquakes and volcano eruptions to occur most probable at equinoxes (around March and September). The well-known formula of Perihelion advance is also derived. Several experiments are proposed, some feasible now.
Keywords: solar cycle, perihelion advance, secular retardation, continental drift, earthquakes.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1111] **viXra:1710.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-08 06:45:37*

**Authors:** Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A better and symmetric new Lagrangian functional of the simple harmonic oscillator has been proposed. The derived equation of motion is exactly the same as that derived from the first variation’s Lagrangian functional. The equation of motion is derived from Euler-Lagrange equation by performing partial derivatives on the Lagrangian functional of the second variation of the calculus of variations. Although the better new Hamiltonian functional is off that derived from the first variation by a factor of two, it symmetric than in the previous paper.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1110] **viXra:1710.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-07 13:50:32*

**Authors:** Luca Nascimbene

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The elementary particles that make up the universe can distinguish in particle-matter, of a fermionic type (quark, neutrino and neutrino, mass-equipped) and force-particles, bosonic type, carrying the fundamental forces in nature (photons and gluons, , And the W and Z bosons, endowed with mass). The Standard Model contemplates several other unstable particles that exist under certain conditions for a variable time, but still very short, before decaying into other particles. Among them there is at least one Higgs boson, which plays a very special role. The bosonic N, is an elementary discovery discovery thanks to various electronic devices and sensors. All this is a physical-electronic theoretical study. This particle seen on the oscilloscope has a different shape from the other, in particular it moves by looking at the oscilloscope and has a round shape.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1109] **viXra:1710.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-05 05:42:55*

**Authors:** Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A new Lagrangian functional of the simple harmonic oscillator has been proposed. The derived equation of motion is almost same as that of the conventional Lagrangian functional. The equation of motion is derived from Euler-Lagrange equation by performing partial derivatives on the Lagrangian functional of the second variation of the calculus of variations. The new Hamiltonian functional of the simple harmonic oscillator has also been derived.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1108] **viXra:1710.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-01 06:37:59*

**Authors:** Popov Boris

**Comments:** 68 Pages. language Russian

Nebow of this book, the author, guided by the installation of Isaac Newton, that nature all around is very simple and economical and, if she than and gave body in the process of their generation, one only by force of inertia, the fundamental principle of the action of gravity considering inertia. Thanks to the approach based on such a setting, the law of gravity and the other three of Newton's law reduced to one law – the law of inertia, formulated and substantiated long before Newton, Galileo Galilei. This allowed, based on the fundamental principle of action, known since the times of Euler as the conservation of angular momentum, to give a constructive definition of gravity, namely to offer the technology to any group of physical bodies localized in the free space gravitating Association. The reality of the technology is grounded in controlled experiments that the reader can easily repeat yourself. In the metaphysical aspect, without going beyond the main provisions of classical mechanics, we consider the nature itself and inertia, and the Foundation of stability and the principle of the existence of real entities, methods of imparting substances not only gravitational abilities, but also the electromagnetic.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1107] **viXra:1709.0440 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-30 12:28:15*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The conventional definition of potential energy leads, considered from a fundamental scientific point of view, to absurd consequences. It is strongly advised to eliminate the intermediate variable ‘work’ in the definition of potential energy and, as a result, to reverse the boundaries in the definite integral.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1106] **viXra:1709.0435 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-30 01:26:07*

**Authors:** Robert Stach

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Nachtrag1 zum Manuskript "die Swastika und ihre technische Bedeutung"

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1105] **viXra:1709.0361 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-24 08:00:37*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

A brief description of the non-contradictory solution of the Maxwell equations given in [1] and new additions are given.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1104] **viXra:1709.0333 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-23 09:06:00*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 13 Pages. in Russian

A brief description of the non-contradictory solution of the Maxwell equations given in [1] and new additions are given. \ Приводится краткое описание непротиворечивого решения уравнений Максвелла, данного в [1], и новые дополнения.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1103] **viXra:1709.0299 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-19 22:03:13*

**Authors:** John C. Hodge

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) model of photons is extended to model the inertia of mass. The characteristic of the plenum, hods, and their interactions yields the Newtonian characteristics of gravitational mass and inertial mass.
The medium of the wave in the Hodge Experiment was the massless plenum.
The plenum is the carrier of the inertia. The hods are the carrier of the gravitational mass. The Equivalence Principle is derived rather being assumed. Mach's Principle is inconsistent with the STOE.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1102] **viXra:1709.0296 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-20 01:14:28*

**Authors:** Nikitin Aleksandr Pavlovich

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

Abstract
This article presents the foundations of cosmodynamics - energy theory, which lays the foundation for a new paradigm of physical science, which allows to combine the modern theory of the microcosm and macrocosm. It is proposed to consider the motion of matter in space-time, i.e all of the changes and interactions, including gravity, taking place in the cosmos, not as a police cooperation body, charges, particles, fields, and displays the curvature of space-time, as well as displays and consequences of energy processes in the same cosmos. The measure of these processes is the energy of the cosmos, including the "dark matter" and "dark energy", with absolute power, equal to Planck's constant. Proposed movement of matter in space to consider (to describe, reflect in our minds) as the movement of energy, as the energy dynamics of the vector field, material and energy "cell" structure which is a proton. On the basis of the theory developed by the energy available energy interpretation of the hydrogen atom, and all of baryonic matter, for example, the Earth and the Sun, when the motion of matter occurs and thus describes a "drain" and "radiation" the energy flow vector material-energy field. Planck values are given in the dimensions LT system. It is alleged that the cosmic "relic" radiation is generated in the atoms existing baryonic matter and has nothing to do with the mythical "Big Bang".

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1101] **viXra:1709.0266 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-17 14:15:43*

**Authors:** Edgars Alksnis

**Comments:** 4 Pages. in Russian

Perihelion precession of planets is explained here in terms of vortical рhysics and mass-dynamic forces. Weakening of „geomagnetic” field should
weaken Earth’s vortex and therefore- slow down perihelion precession of Earth’s orbit. Taking in account this should be important for asteroide threat calculations in advance.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1100] **viXra:1709.0263 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-18 01:09:08*

**Authors:** Nikitin A P

**Comments:** Pages.

Abstract General relativity (GRT), created by the genius of Einstein from 1907 to 1915 as a geometric theory of gravity, developing special theory of relativity (STR), has been 100 years does not rest and excites minds. Since then, it performed many experiments to confirm with great accuracy GRT. In this paper, we propose to draw attention to the possibility of direct experimental verification of the dependence of the velocity of light by the gravitational potential, what Einstein wrote in 1911 in his article «On the effect of gravity on light propagation» [1, V1, p.172 ]. We assume that nature itself has put this experiment in space in the presence of "dark matter", namely: February 23, 1987 in the Large Magellanic Cloud broke out amazing supernova SN1987A, from which the light came to Earth 2h 47m later neutrinos. On the basis of numerous observations are given an explanation of this fact in terms of changing the speed of light neutrinos, and depending on the time-varying gravitational potential of the Universe.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1099] **viXra:1709.0262 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-18 01:22:30*

**Authors:** Aleksandr Nikitin

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Abstract
In this article it is stated that there is a fundamental connection between the basic constant of the quantum theory - the Planck constant h and the basic constant of astrophysics - the Hubble constant H, which states the material-energy unity of our world in theory.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1098] **viXra:1709.0253 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-17 07:45:10*

**Authors:** Osvaldo Domann

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Copyright. All rights reserved. The content of the present work, its ideas, axioms, postulates, definitions, derivations, results, findings, etc., can be reproduced only by making clear reference to the author.

The intention of theoretical physics is to construct mathematical models
so that experimental data can be predicted through calculation. If the
prevailing model cannot explain new experimental data because of its imperfections,
theorists add to the model fictitious entities and helpmates
which are defined on the basis of the new experimental data, so that the
new experimental data can now be calculated with the modified model.
Remaining contradictions are camouflaged as good as possible to make the
model consistent. If later on calculated data obtained indirectly from new
experiments are consistent with the fictitious entities and helpmates, theorists
conclude that this is the prove that the fictitious entities and helpmates
really exist. The conclusion is a fallacy because it ignores that the model
was previously made consistent, what means that all data obtained through
experiments and calculations must be explained with the model, otherwise
the model would not be consistent. Adding more and more fictitious entities
and helpmates to an imperfect model makes it, with the time, more
and more complex, untrustworthy and non-physical and finally a radically
new model is required to overcome these problems.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1097] **viXra:1709.0250 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-17 06:15:04*

**Authors:** Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In search to construct a Lagrangian functional of a damped harmonic oscillator I thought to study higher derivatives of coordinates with respect to time in the Lagrangian of a simple harmonic oscillator by adding a term proportional to the square of the second derivative of the coordinate with respect to time in its Lagrangian. In Newtonian mechanics a damping term is added directly to the equation of motion of a simple harmonic oscillator, whereas in Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics (Analytical Mechanics as opposed to Vectroial Mechanics of Newton) adding a term to the Lagrangian of the simple harmonic oscillator wouldn’t reveal whether the term is a damping driving or a forced driving agent until one study the solutions of the equation of motion.
Here, The Euler-Lagrange and equation of motion of a harmonic oscillator in a potential energy proportional to the square of the second derivative of the coordinate with respect to time have been formulated and discussed. The equation of motion is derived from Euler-Lagrange equation by performing the partial derivatives on the Lagrangian functional of the second variation of the calculus of variations.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1096] **viXra:1709.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-15 14:25:28*

**Authors:** John C. Hodge

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

We are at a special moment in our scientific evolution that requires the big of cosmology and the small of light and of particle physics be united by a single model. The Scalar Theory of Everything model (STOE) suggests fundamental assumptions with consideration for the successful parts of current models and for the data inconsistent with current models. The STOE is simpler, corresponds to both General Relativity and quantum mechanics, and solves many current mysteries and inconsistencies. Data comparisons with redshift, discrete redshift, rotation curves, asymmetric rotation curves, universe temperature, and the double slit experiment are successful. Therefore, the STOE is founded on orthodox science. Data analysis in 2011 confirmed predictions of the STOE made in 2006 that no other model suggested. A new test of the double slit experiment rejected the wave model of light and confirmed predictions of the STOE. The fundamental principles are applied to life and the purpose of life in our universe.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1095] **viXra:1709.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-14 21:42:22*

**Authors:** Adham ahmed mohamed ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This is a toe that explanis the reasons for movement of masses in the universe and gravity

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1094] **viXra:1709.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-14 05:45:18*

**Authors:** Dan Aurelian Ivan

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Conclusion explained to the of ,,Contraction of the universe with the speed of light theory" 1

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1093] **viXra:1709.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-12 13:57:07*

**Authors:** Dan Aurelian Ivan

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The Universe constricts at the speed of light c. This theory is based on some assumptions of the "The Expanding Spacetime Theory" [1], but instead of using measurements of distance, speed, mass and time as fourth dimension in an attempt to prove that the universe expands in space and time, I support that the universe has only one absolute and constant value which is the speed of constriction.
Any measurement of distance and mass in the Universe is relative, having a different value every given moment.
The change of scale measurement by the constriction of the Universe.is the way in which the Universe exist, phenomenon that can not be observed due to the fact that our sense organs and our instruments of measurement and observation are parts of the same universe and everything constricts at the same speed
The constricting Universe is infinite and the time is the measure of movements taking place in the Universe, according to Infinite Universe Theory [2].

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1092] **viXra:1709.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-10 12:32:07*

**Authors:** Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed.

**Comments:** 2 pages. Email: yahya-sharif@hotmail.com

This article aims to redefine speed by eliminating time , considering time as something that does not
exist.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1091] **viXra:1709.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-10 06:11:14*

**Authors:** Dan Aurelian Ivan

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The theory of relativity establishes the speed of light in the vacuum as the highest possible speed and shows that the speed of light towards different observers is the same. The speed of light is set as an absolute constant. The paradox of constancy of light speed created a great problem for physics, a problem that Albert Einstein considered to have solved it suggesting that physical theories should not depend on the observer's state of motion but also that the speed of light must remain a constant and the rest of the physics has to change to align to this.
Why is this speed the only absolute constant in physics? The question is fundamental, considering that modern physics and all cosmological theories are based on this constant. While the velocity of any body or particle except the photon is relative, why is the propagation velocity of the wave that supports the photon constant? But what if everything is observed and demonstrated is not real?
What if this speed considered to be a constant and a limit in the universe is not the speed of light but the speed of contraction of the infinite universe itself?
What if the radiation and the force fields are oscillations of the molecules, atoms , ions and elementary particles that the contraction of the universe converts into waves?
My hypothesis answers these questions : the universe constricts at the speed of light.
My hypothesis provides the sort of firm advance in general understanding of universe.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1090] **viXra:1709.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-01 23:41:54*

**Authors:** Adham ahmed mohamed ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This is how to explode a mass into a bomb or make several masses merge or make a mass move using two balls and pressure.
the inner ball contains the mass and the outer ball contains the inner ball

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1089] **viXra:1708.0422 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-28 07:34:18*

**Authors:** Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

I constructed a Lagrangian functional and equation of motion of a classical particle in a potential that is proportional to square of second derivative of its position with respect to time. Solution of equation of motion is identical to the solution of the equation of motion of the conventional simple harmonic oscillator in a potential that is proportional to square of its position.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1088] **viXra:1708.0366 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-25 23:40:12*

**Authors:** Adham ahmed mohamed ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page.

We are shrinking

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1087] **viXra:1708.0340 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-24 22:53:22*

**Authors:** Michael Harney

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Author's email address is mharney1268@yahoo.com

A method of triangulating point sources is described that uses the placement of four omnidirectional sensors in a triangular pattern. With this method, the derivation of the Cartesian coordinates of the source relative to the sensor array is described, as well as the source’s intensity.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1086] **viXra:1708.0245 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-20 14:40:40*

**Authors:** D.G. Kiryan, G.V. Kiryan

**Comments:** 13 Pages. 4 Figures, 4 Tables

Term "gravitational constant" was for the first time introduced more than 200 years ago, and since that time attempts are still being made to refine its value. As per the materials of Committee on Data for Science and Technology, all indirect measurements of the "gravitational constant" obtained by various research groups exhibit equality of two first decimals in the SI system and spread of subsequent decimals. We have found an explanation for this situation by solving the direct metrological problem, namely, calculation of the required measurement accuracies of each torsion balance parameter from the preset accuracy of the "gravitational constant" value, based on the torsion balance mathematical model. Decimal-by-decimal analysis of the torsion balance sensitivity, jointly with the CODATA data, lead us to the assumption that all the variety of the "gravitational constant" values obtained at different experimental setups may be explained by the absence of appropriate planning of the final result accuracy.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1085] **viXra:1708.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-16 01:18:46*

**Authors:** Youngdae Seo

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The memristor is a kind of resistor with memory characteristic, not new fourth circuit element. The relationship between electric charge and magnetic flux linkage represents the resistor. The linear resistor has linear relationship between charge and magnetic flux, and the non-linear resistor has nonlinear relationship between them. The memristor has non-volatile and memory characteristic as well as non-linear characteristic. In addition, from the viewpoint of the mechanical system instead of the electrical system, it can be seen that the relationship between the momentum and the displacement represents the drag coefficient. This implies that there is a new term associated with consumption, not the momentum mv we usually think of. Generally, total energy is expressed as the sum of kinetic energy and potential energy. This may be due to stereotypes, and it has to be corrected because we have not considered the concept of consumption enough. It may be too far ahead, but these ideas may be the key to solving many contradictions arising from relativity, quantum mechanics, and dark energy.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1084] **viXra:1708.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-14 11:54:09*

**Authors:** Adham ahmed mohamed ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This talks about gravity is produced in the universe and how to induce gravitational fields

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1083] **viXra:1708.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-13 03:36:47*

**Authors:** Osvaldo Domann

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Copyright. All rights reserved. The content of the present work, its ideas, axioms, postulates, definitions, derivations, results, findings, etc., can be reproduced only by making clear reference to the author.

The intention of theoretical physics is to construct mathematical models
so that experimental data can be predicted through calculation.
Models are based on approaches which define the nature of the models.
The most common approaches used are of mythological, mathematical or
physical nature.
Examples of mythological approaches are gluons, gravitons, dark matter,
dark energy. Examples of mathematical approaches are the MOND
theory for gravitation, special relativity and general relativity, the theory
of quantum mechanics with the gauge principle. Examples of approaches of
physical nature are the String, Vortex and Focal Point theories, the Emission
theories, the theory of gravitation as the result of the reintegration
of migrated electrons and positrons to their nuclei, the theory of Galilean
relativity with the gamma factor.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1082] **viXra:1708.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-12 05:48:33*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

It is customary to assume that the law of conservation of the angular momentum is violated for an asymmetric energy-momentum tensor. This is the reason for criticizing the Minkowski tensor and other asymmetric energy-momentum tensors. In this paper, it is shown that the laws of conservation of energy and momentum following from an asymmetric tensor in the form of its total divergence are equivalent to the divergence of its symmetric part. It is shown that the total divergence of the antisymmetric part of the asymmetric tensor is identically zero. From this, it follows that for the asymmetric energy-momentum tensor the law of conservation of the angular momentum is also fulfilled. It is shown that the linear invariant of the Minkowski tensor for a vacuum does not correspond to the quadratic invariant of the electromagnetic field. This indicates that the linear invariant of the Minkowski tensor and the three-dimensional stress tensor are not correct.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1081] **viXra:1708.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-12 01:13:28*

**Authors:** Tong Wang

**Comments:** 3 Pages. The possibility of a photon being made of mass and negative mass

We wish to propose a configuration of a photon. This configuration has novel features which are of considerable physical implications. The potential existence of negative mass has been presented before and some of its unique attributes were discussed. Here we show that a photon is able to be made of mass and negative mass. We have emphasized the importance of an intrinsic distance between mass and negative mass inside a photon. The mass-negative mass interaction can formulate a relationship between the wavelength of a light and the intrinsic distance inside its photon. As a pair of mass and negative mass a photon can have zero active gravitational mass and positive passive gravitational mass at the same time.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1080] **viXra:1708.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-10 08:08:09*

**Authors:** Alberto Coe

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper will introduce a numerical equivalence between the strain amplitude of a gravitational wave and the wavelength of a photon emited when an electron dropps from the energy level 2 to the ground state .

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1079] **viXra:1708.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-08 17:28:12*

**Authors:** Dham Ahmed Mohammed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. Mass of photon

Mass of photon found

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1078] **viXra:1708.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-06 02:19:02*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The asymmetric and symmetric tensors can be associated with to the electromagnetic field (EMF) canonical antisymmetric tensor. From these tensors, in the form of their divergences, new EMF equations of follow. The introduction of field sources into Maxwell's equations is mathematically incorrect, since these equations are a four-dimensional divergence with respect to one of the indices of the four-dimensional rotor (antisymmetric tensor). The total divergence of the antisymmetric EMF tensor is equal to the sum of divergences for each of its indices. These divergences have different signs, and their sum is identically zero. Thus, EMF sources can only be attributed to the total divergence of asymmetric or symmetric EMF tensors, the full divergences of which can be non-zero. As a result, it can be argued that Maxwell's equations do not carry a real physical meaning and should be replaced by field equations that follow in the form of a four-dimensional divergence from the symmetric EMF tensor. Only these EMF equations can be attributed to the field sources. These equations represent a new complete system of EMF equations, replacing the system of Maxwell's equations. From the symmetric EMF tensor follows the dynamic Navier-Stokes equation for the vector potential showing the unity of the field and the continuum.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[483] **viXra:1801.0116 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-10 08:31:30*

**Authors:** Augustus Prince

**Comments:** 51 Pages. work of Augustus Prince submitted by Roger Anderton and Bill Ryan

Using an analysis from a physical and phenomenological viewpoint employing the renowned and recognized continuity of Boscovich’s force curve, a new paradigm is formulated to explicate various physical phenomena in both the microworld and the macro-world. Within this paradigm, an algorithm is established which produced a functional representation of the atomic spectra of hydrogen and a temperature dependent blackbody energy distribution of radiation which compares very favorably with the experimental data. Further representations afford suggestions for the predictions of the specific heat of solids, photoelectric effect, etc. The Boscovichian points are assumed to move under the action of a force (acceleration) that varies inversely proportional to the cube of the radius from the point center, which leads to an orbit described by an equiangular (logarithmic) spiral. This spiral is subsequently used to simulate the concepts used in phyllotaxis (a constituent of plant morphology) and the gnomonic growth of mollusk shells (e.g. nautilus). The intercepts for the stable and unstable points on the Boscovich curve, which are the roots of the equation used, are calculated via the application of Fibonacci-type sequence of integers. In addition, utilizing the shape of Boscovich's "extended" curve of force (acceleration), the prospect of interpreting the mysterious attractive force beyond the visible Newtonian region of space (e.g. black holes, dark energy, etc.) is proposed. It is hoped that this phenomenological approach will serve as a beginning for description of both the micro-universe and the macrouniverse.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[482] **viXra:1712.0642 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-31 19:31:55*

**Authors:** James A. Smith

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Published times of the Earth's perihelions do not refer to the perihelions of the orbit that the Earth would follow if unaffected by other bodies such as the Moon. To estimate the timing of that ``unperturbed" perihelion, we fit an unperturbed Kepler orbit to the timings of the year 2017's equinoxes and solstices. We find that the unperturbed 2017 perihelion, defined in that way, would occur 12.93 days after the December 2016 solstice. Using that result, calculated times of the year 2017's solstices and equinoxes differ from published values by less than five minutes. That degree of accuracy is sufficient for the intended use of the result.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[481] **viXra:1712.0126 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-10 20:20:02*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Abstract: Contemporary physics has many unsolved problems. Most of them are due to inadequacy of theories or illogical application of one theory to seemingly similar problem elsewhere. An alternative concept, presented in book ‘MATTER (Re-examined)’ proposes to provide logical explanations to all these apparent problems. In this article, author proposes to present short notes and pointers to detailed explanations in the book. All explanations are based on a single assumption that ‘Substance is fundamental and matter alone provides substance to all real entities’. There are neither imaginary particles nor mysterious actions nor actions at a distance through empty space in this concept. Cause and effect relations are followed in all topics.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[480] **viXra:1711.0243 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-13 11:42:10*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

It is noted that the known solution for a spherical electromagnetic wave in the far zone does not satisfy the law of conservation of energy (it is retained only on the average), the electric and magnetic intensities of the same name (in coordinate) are in phase, only one of Maxwell's equations is satisfied. A solution is offered that is free from these shortcomings.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[479] **viXra:1711.0242 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-13 11:40:43*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

It is noted that the known solution for a spherical electromagnetic wave in the far zone does not satisfy the law of conservation of energy (it is retained only on the average), the electric and magnetic intensities of the same name (in coordinate) are in phase, only one of Maxwell's equations is satisfied. A solution is offered that is free from these shortcomings. \\ Отмечается, что известное решение для сферической электромагнитной волны в дальней зоне не удовлетворяет закону сохранения энергии (она сохраняется только в среднем), одноименные (по координатам) электрические и магнитные напряженности синфазны, выполняется только одно из системы уравнений Максвелла. Предлагается решение, свободное от этих недостатков.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[478] **viXra:1711.0001 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-04 02:28:12*

**Authors:** Louai Hassan Elzein Bashier

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

This paper is prepared to show that a rigid body which accelerates cir-
cularly relative to a fixed point must simultaneously accelerate angularly
relative to its center of mass. Formulae which coupling of the angular mo-
mentum and kinetic energy due to the induced spin motion of the rigid
body to the angular momentum and kinetic energy due to the rotational
motion of the same spinning rigid body have been derived. The paper
also bringing to light the nature of the force which causes the induction
of spin motion in a rigid body and a formula which coupling of this high-
lighted force to the force which causes the rotation of the rigid body has
been also derived.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[477] **viXra:1710.0091 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-09 05:35:51*

**Authors:** D.H.W. Reffer

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Completion of the universal gravitation law (Sir Isaac Newton, 1687)

Herein we propound the property, present its empirical law—a two Relative-Velocity Dependent (RVD) terms completion of Newton’s law of gravitation—and thereby solve some historic problems as: Solar cycle, apparent connection with Jupiter’s revolution, and why the two periods do not quite coincide; about 2.9–4.5×1019 joules/yr from earth’s rotation slowdown (Secular retardation) “missing” in tidal effects and attributed to some “unknown mechanism”; and the “unknown” nature (and magnitude) of the “driving/propelling force” in Tectonic plates drift; moreover, the RVD completion of Newton’s gravity law predicts that tectonic plates drift, globally, to the west, not randomly, causing earthquakes and volcano eruptions to occur most probable at equinoxes (around March and September). The well-known formula of Perihelion advance is also derived. Several experiments are proposed, some feasible now.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[476] **viXra:1709.0333 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-24 08:02:49*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

A brief description of the non-contradictory solution of the Maxwell equations given in [1] and new additions are given. \ Приводится краткое описание непротиворечивого решения уравнений Максвелла, данного в [1], и новые дополнения.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[475] **viXra:1708.0405 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-01 13:16:29*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 18 Pages. En/Ru

The canonical antisymmetric electromagnetic field tensor has four-dimensional divergences for each of the indices, so the introduction of a field source into its divergence equation for only one of the indices is incorrect. The total divergence of the antisymmetric tensor is identically zero and does not have a field source. The article is devoted to the mathematically correct introduction of the electromagnetic field source into the field equations. The field equations follow from a symmetric tensor having a full four-dimensional divergence not equal to zero. This divergence is equal to the four-dimensional source of the electromagnetic field. From the new system of equations of the electromagnetic field follow the canonical wave equations for the electric field strength, magnetic induction, electromagnetic potential (Maxwell's equations in the Lorentz gauge), and also follow the wave equation for the divergence of the electromagnetic potential describing longitudinal waves that do not have a magnetic component. A new system of electromagnetic field equations solves the problem of Newton's third law in electrodynamics.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[474] **viXra:1708.0405 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-30 12:26:46*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 18 Pages. EN/RU

The canonical antisymmetric electromagnetic field tensor has four-dimensional divergences for each of the indices, so the introduction of a field source into its divergence equation for only one of the indices is incorrect. The total divergence of the antisymmetric tensor is identically zero and does not have a field source. The article is devoted to the mathematically correct introduction of the electromagnetic field source into the field equations. The field equations follow from a symmetric tensor having a full four-dimensional divergence not equal to zero. This divergence is equal to the four-dimensional source of the electromagnetic field. From the new system of equations of the electromagnetic field follow the canonical wave equations for the electric field strength, magnetic induction, electromagnetic potential (Maxwell's equations in the Lorentz gauge), and also follow the wave equation for the divergence of the electromagnetic potential describing longitudinal waves that do not have a magnetic component.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[473] **viXra:1708.0265 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-15 04:32:28*

**Authors:** Cyrus Master-Khodabakhsh

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This paper shows why the Michelson and Morley experiment did not give the expected result, and that the disappointment was due to a hidden error in Michelson’s assumptions.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[472] **viXra:1708.0245 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-19 17:17:15*

**Authors:** Dmitry G. Kiryan, George V. Kiryan

**Comments:** 12 Pages. 4 Figures, 4 Tables

Term “gravitational constant” was for the first time introduced more than 200 years ago, and since that time attempts have been made to refine its value. As per the materials of Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA), all indirect measurements of the “gravitational constant” obtained by various research groups exhibit in the SI system equality of two first decimals and spread in subsequent decimals. We have analyzed this situation by using the torsion balance mathematical model. This paper shows that this situation might be explained by solving the direct metrological problem, namely, calculation of the necessary measurement accuracies of each of the torsion balance parameters from the preset accuracy of the “gravitational constant” value. Decimal-by-decimal analysis of the torsion balance sensitivity, jointly with the CODATA data, has lead us to the assumption that all the variety of the “gravitational constant” values was obtained at experimental setups without appropriately planning the final result accuracy.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[471] **viXra:1708.0245 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-29 13:29:53*

**Authors:** Dmitry G. Kiryan, George V. Kiryan

**Comments:** 13 Pages. 4 Figures, 4 Tables, russian edition

Term "gravitational constant" was for the first time introduced more than 200 years ago, and since that time attempts are still being made to refine its value. As per the materials of Committee on Data for Science and Technology, all indirect measurements of the "gravitational constant" obtained by various research groups exhibit equality of two first decimals in the SI system and spread of subsequent decimals. We have found an explanation for this situation by solving the direct metrological problem, namely, calculation of the required measurement accuracies of each torsion balance parameter from the preset accuracy of the "gravitational constant" value, based on the torsion balance mathematical model. Decimal-by-decimal analysis of the torsion balance sensitivity, jointly with the CODATA data, lead us to the assumption that all the variety of the "gravitational constant" values obtained at different experimental setups may be explained by the absence of appropriate planning of the final result accuracy.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[470] **viXra:1708.0134 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-15 10:57:31*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

It is customary to assume that the law of conservation of the angular momentum is violated for an asymmetric energy-momentum tensors. This is the reason for criticizing the Minkowski tensor and other asymmetric energy-momentum tensors. In this paper, it is shown that the laws of conservation of energy and momentum following from an asymmetric tensor in the form of its total divergence are equivalent to the divergence of its symmetric part. It is shown that the total divergence of the antisymmetric part of the asymmetric tensor is identically zero. From this, it follows that for the asymmetric energy-momentum tensor the law of conservation of the angular momentum is also fulfilled. It is shown that the linear invariant of the Minkowski tensor for a vacuum does not correspond to the quadratic invariant of the electromagnetic field. This indicates that the linear invariant of the Minkowski tensor and the three-dimensional stress tensor are not correct.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[469] **viXra:1708.0091 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-15 10:25:08*

**Authors:** Adham ahmed mohamed ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Mass of photons from big photons to small photons

**Category:** Classical Physics