**Previous months:**

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2017 - 1701(18) - 1702(14) - 1703(10) - 1704(15) - 1705(10) - 1706(15) - 1707(15) - 1708(14) - 1709(18) - 1710(24) - 1711(10)

Any replacements are listed further down

[1144] **viXra:1711.0346 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-17 20:07:54*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 1 Page.

If you know and understand the way everything truly works -- with slight adjustments everything becomes completely compatible.

● Newton's gravitational force.

● Tesla's energy from the environment.

● Einstein's curved space-time.

● Heisenberg's probability and uncertainty.

They fit together like a glove.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1143] **viXra:1711.0328 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-17 04:36:51*

**Authors:** Zhixian Lin

**Comments:** 4 Pages. "Choose File" option is not working.

For beginners, the traditional explanation of a Transistor is not easy to understand. The traditional explanation can not explain why a slightly change of IB will create a significant change of IC clearly. This paper proposed the Distance Principle which can clearly and easily explain why a Transistor can work. Make beginners easier to understand the physical mechanism of a Transistor.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1142] **viXra:1711.0322 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-15 15:23:21*

**Authors:** Guido F. Nelissen

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In my paper Part 1 on the physical nature of “Linear Momentum”, I have demonstrated that the difference between thermal motion and congruent motion is characterized by the degree of isotropy of the velocities of the particles and in my paper Part 3 on the physical nature of “Work, Kinetic Energy and Planck’s constant” I have demonstrated that the generation of work in particle systems consist in the transformation of isotropic motion into congruent translational motion.
In my paper Part 5 on the physical nature of “Pressure, Temperature and Thermal Energy” I came to the conclusion that the statistical Maxwell – Boltzmann speed distribution function is a consequence of the repetitive isotropic collisions, that are typical for thermal motion.
This allows me, on the basis of Clausius’ and Boltzmann’s absolute concepts of entropy, to propose a new proportionate entropy, in function of the degree of isotropy of the velocities of the elements of a particle system, which makes it possible to reveal the link between the second law of thermodynamics and Newton’s first law of motion, and which in my next paper will allow me to explain the physical nature of the variable velocity of particle systems.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1141] **viXra:1711.0321 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-15 15:26:24*

**Authors:** Guido F. Nelissen

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Physics today has an ambiguous attitude towards ‘velocity’. On the one hand relativistic physics considers it a “relative” characteristic of which the numerical value depends on the chosen reference frame, but on the other hand that same physics tells us that velocity causes a length contraction, a time dilation and a mass increase and that it has an absolute upper limit, which is equal to the invariable speed of light.
This duality is caused by the fact that the Lorentz transformations accomplish a mathematical bridging between a relative velocity at low speeds and an absolute velocity at the speed of light, but that it is not clear whether these equations describe observational or real physical phenomena. It is this vagueness that has led to the a number of internal contradictions, such as e.g. the “twin paradox” and the “pole an barn paradox”.
In this paper I demonstrate that mass particles are 3-dimensional particle systems that consist of 2-dimensional massless particles and that their variable velocity is not so much distance divided by time, but that it is an emerging physical state of these a particle systems.
This physical nature of velocity leads in a self-evident way to the Lorentz contraction of moving particle systems in their direction of motion, which I demonstrate to be a real physical distortion.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1140] **viXra:1711.0313 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-15 05:09:36*

**Authors:** Carlos Alejandro Chiappini

**Comments:** 131 Pages.

Las ecuaciones de Maxwell son los postulados del desarrollo presentado. De ellas se deducen como teoremas propiedades físicas fundamentales, como9 la distribución discreta de la energía, el valor teórico de la constante de estructura fina, el factor g del electrón, la unidad de masa elemental basada en las leyes de las partículas elementales (no de tipo convencional como la una) y varias propiedades más. El documento tiene estilo ameno y didáctico, para optimizar la comprensión.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1139] **viXra:1711.0294 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-13 08:35:09*

**Authors:** D.H.W. Reffer

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Inescapable question

We formulate and discuss, as much as we can, an inevitable mathematical and philosophical question: why do the General Theory of Relativity and the Relative-Velocity Dependence of Gravitational Interaction lead to the same well-known formula for the anomalous Perihelion Advance ?

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1138] **viXra:1711.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-08 04:13:28*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

It is noted that the known solution for a spherical electromagnetic wave in the far zone does not satisfy the law of conservation of energy (it is retained only on the average), the electric and magnetic intensities of the same name (in coordinate) are in phase, only one of Maxwell's equations is satisfied. A solution is offered that is free from these shortcomings.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1137] **viXra:1711.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-08 04:24:37*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 11 Pages. in Russian

It is noted that the known solution for a spherical electromagnetic wave in the far zone does not satisfy the law of conservation of energy (it is retained only on the average), the electric and magnetic intensities of the same name (in coordinate) are in phase, only one of Maxwell's equations is satisfied. A solution is offered that is free from these shortcomings. \\ Отмечается, что известное решение для сферической электромагнитной волны в дальней зоне не удовлетворяет закону сохранения энергии (она сохраняется только в среднем), одноименные (по координатам) электрические и магнитные напряженности синфазны, выполняется только одно из системы уравнений Максвелла. Предлагается решение, свободное от этих недостатков.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1136] **viXra:1711.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-04 08:28:04*

**Authors:** Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed

**Comments:** 2 Pages. The discussion in The Naked Scientist forum : https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/index.php?topic=69618.0

This article aims to specify accurately the time duration spent for an object at free fall when it is at its highest point, as well as violating the current value for this time duration.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1135] **viXra:1711.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-01 15:03:08*

**Authors:** Louai Hassan Elzein Bashier

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper is prepared to show that a rigid body which undergoes an angular
acceleration relative to a fixed point must simultaneously accelerate angularly
relative to its center of mass. Formulae which coupling of the angular momentum
and kinetic energy due to this spin motion to the angular momentum and kinetic
energy due to the rotational motion of the same spinning rigid body have been
derived. The paper also bringing to light the nature of the force which causes this
spin motion and the formula which coupling of this highlighted force to the force
which causes the rotation of the rigid body has been also derived.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1134] **viXra:1710.0349 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-31 03:04:07*

**Authors:** Kenneth C. Johnson

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A solar-sail spacecraft propulsion concept uses a large Fresnel lens to concentrate radiation onto one or two small beam-steering mirrors. The lens itself does not effect significant momentum transfer from the photon flux; it only functions as a condenser, which allows the use of much smaller mirrors as momentum-transfer elements.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1133] **viXra:1710.0338 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-31 19:14:08*

**Authors:** Roman Vinokur

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper was earlier saved in academia.com. site. But it might be also interesting to multiple readers on vixra.com.
The sound transmission loss of windows at very low frequencies cannot be interpreted by the theory of infinitely large partitions. Here, the bending wave resonances are essential but not the only contributors. The low sound radiation coefficient and “niche effect” are also important. The goal is to illustrate such phenomena via simplified theoretical models and experimental results. In particular, the role of low sound radiation is interpreted using the sound radiation model of a piston inside the aperture cut in a rigid baffle between the source and receiving rooms. The “niche effect” is compared to the low-frequency sound transmission via symmetric triple windows (where the middle element is the real window and the role of the edge leaves is played by the air masses entrained at the aperture edges). In addition to the previously published results, the new experimental data are provided to support this theory in the “double-niche” case: the aperture consists of two in-series halves with different areas, and the window is installed in the smaller one. Such simple models can also be utilized to interpret the experimental sound transmission data for relatively small partitions mounted in the aperture made in a thick wall between two rooms. The paper may be helpful for students and engineers engaged in measurements of the sound transmission loss.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1132] **viXra:1710.0317 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-27 09:45:35*

**Authors:** V.S. Vasilenko, A.A. Malgota

**Comments:** 4 Pages. 4 p. Russian

The drift (directed downward) and diffusive (directed upward) streams of
molecules of ideal gas in the gravitational field were considered. It is shown that in
the Boltzmann distribution of concentration of molecules on a height these streams
are not equal to each other. They try to create quasi Boltzmann distribution. But
such distribution can not be carried out.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1131] **viXra:1710.0303 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-29 05:26:44*

**Authors:** Sergey Bilyk

**Comments:** 142 Pages.

Basic complete ultimate knowledge about the universe.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1130] **viXra:1710.0284 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-26 09:51:42*

**Authors:** Vladimir Vasilenko

**Comments:** 7 Pages. 7 p., Russian

The hypothesis of real acceleration of time was proposed to explain a subjective acceleration of time at strong psychological stresses. The using of the single physical parameter k of acceleration of time of local system allow us to explain some of well known experimental date. It was shown due to principle of simultaneously, that the time of local system must be two-dimensional.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1129] **viXra:1710.0275 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-23 17:15:19*

**Authors:** V.S. Vasilenko, I.Yu. Obuhovskiy

**Comments:** 4 Pages. 4 p. Russian

Glaciologists and historians of architecture discovered that at the end of the last freezing, the North geographical pole of Earth moved approximately to 20o from territory of Greenland to modern position. Our model allowed to estimate the depth of immersion of locality in an ocean in Portugal (near 4км) and in Mesopotamia (about 500 м). Results well comport with the conclusions of ДНК-genealogy on Turkey and biology on Crimea.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1128] **viXra:1710.0260 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-23 00:18:18*

**Authors:** V.S. Vasilenko, A.A. Malgota

**Comments:** 6 Pages. 6

For the first time it is shown that diffusion and drift of ideal gas molecules
in the gravitational field create a temperature gradient on altitude, not
equalize temperature over all volume. The case of heat-insulated gas with
default both convection and adiabatic expansion was considered.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1127] **viXra:1710.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-22 15:27:42*

**Authors:** V.S.Vasilenko, P.I.Kohanovskiy

**Comments:** 5 Pages. 5 р. Russian. Odessa State Enveronmental University

The new method of the high-fidelity measuring of resistances was proposed. A Wheatstone bridge was used with two unknown base resistors of R1 and R2 in one branch, the resistance decade boxes and unknown resistance Rx was plugged in other branch. By the selection of Rm1 of resistance decade boxes bridge was balanced. R1 and R2 switched places then. By the selection of Rm2 of resistance decade boxes the bridge was balanced in second times. Unknown resistance settled accounts on the formula of Rx=(Rm1•Rm2)1/2.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1126] **viXra:1710.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-21 03:53:33*

**Authors:** Walter Ruh

**Comments:** 28 Pages. language is German, for copyright see: ruhwalter47@gmail.com

This work claims to be a theory of everything (theory of everything, ToE or TOE). This is not a mathematical fake with fifteen dimensions, but a real concept, based on a hypothetical model-medium with which all physical phenomena in the universe can be linked and explained. With the presented hypothetical model medium the forces of gravitation and mass inertia can be put on a common base. This also clarifies the presence of dark matter. The relativistic mass results as an inevitable consequence. Electrostatic force and magnetic force can be explained with the same concept without a distance force. For the Atomic model, there is a logical improvement.
This work is based on the findings made during the assignment of a real variable for the Coulomb charge unit. "What is Behind Coulomb" / http://vixra.org/abs/1710.0211
The free course for those thoughts with a model medium is given from the findings in "Mistakes and Contradictions in the Michelson Morley Experiment" / http://vixra.org/abs/1710.0211. There the heavy mistakes of the Michelson Morley experiment are proved and therefore the results of this experiment and the conclusions drawn from them are untenable.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1125] **viXra:1710.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-19 09:46:07*

**Authors:** Walter Ruh

**Comments:** 7 Pages. language is German, for copyright see: ruhwalter47@gmail.com

In the following, it is shown that the Michelson & Morley experiment is subject to heavy mistakes. All considerations are based on the original publication, »AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, ARTICLE XXXVI On the Relative Motion of the Earth and the Luminiferous Ether, by ALBERT A. MICHELSON and EDWARD W. MORLEY".
1. The experiment presents measurements and expects results in the evening at around 18:00. This is wrong! Anyone with a knowledge of the earth's rotation and the course around the sun can see that the Michelson and Morley experiment makes sense only at the high noon and at midnight. The "ether wind" is only at this time in the measurable direction to the measuring device. In the evening and in the morning, the ether wind is in any case perpendicular (from top to bottom or from bottom to top) to the horizontal measuring device.
2. The light path, as described, cannot be correct. The perpendicular deflected light path can never be against the "ether wind".
3. Intellectual bases for the experiment are incomplete and therefore incorrect. The assumptions and conditions do not correspond with the mathematics for this experiment.
At the end is only one conclusion possible: The Michelson and Morley experiment is very roughly mistaken and therefore the results must be considered irrelevant.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1124] **viXra:1710.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-18 13:34:47*

**Authors:** Walter Ruh

**Comments:** 7 Pages. language is German, for copyright see: ruhwalter47@gmail.com

Starting from the deviation «of the good order» that Coulomb / Ampere disappears in energies, it was shown that behind the in the abstract unit Coulomb is a real value, composed of kilograms, meters and seconds. This gives the field equations a real substance which can represent power and energy in real terms. The results are indicative of a (forbidden) "model medium" without concluding that a medium exists in reality. The logic and physical beauty of this system is overwhelming.
Ausgehend von der stossenden Abweichung «von der guten Ordnung», dass Coulomb/Ampere bei Energierechnungen verschwindet wurde aufgezeigt, dass hinter der abstrakten Einheit Coulomb ein realer Wert, zusammengesetzt aus Kilogramm, Metern und Sekunden zu finden ist. Dadurch bekommen die Feldgleichungen eine reale Substanz welche Leistung und Energie real darstellen kann.
Die Resultate ergeben Indizien auf ein (verbotenes) "Modell-Medium", ohne zu folgern, dass ein Medium in Realität existiert. Die Logik und physikalische Schönheit dieser Systematik ist überwältigend.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1123] **viXra:1710.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-15 09:03:46*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A solution of the Maxwell equations for a variable voltage capacitor with a variable voltage is given, which is a development of inconsistency (corresponding to the energy conservation law) solution of the Maxwell equations for vacuum. It is shown that in an electromagnetic wave propagating through a capacitor, the flux of electromagnetic energy does not change with time. It is shown that there exists a longitudinal (along the radius) standing electromagnetic wave. For a simple verification of the findings, detailed proof is given.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1122] **viXra:1710.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-15 09:07:50*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 16 Pages. in Russian

A solution of the Maxwell equations for a variable voltage capacitor with a variable voltage is given, which is a development of inconsistency (corresponding to the energy conservation law) solution of the Maxwell equations for vacuum. It is shown that in an electromagnetic wave propagating through a capacitor, the flux of electromagnetic energy does not change with time. It is shown that there exists a longitudinal (along the radius) standing electromagnetic wave. For a simple verification of the findings, detailed proof is given. \\ Приводится решение уравнений Максвелла для конденсатора с переменным напряжением, которое является развитием непротиворечивого (соответствующего закону сохранения энергии) решения уравнений Максвелла для вакуума. Показано, что в электромагнитной волне, распространяющейся через конденсатор, поток электромагнитной энергии не изменяется во времени. Показано, что существует продольная (вдоль радиуса) стоячая электромагнитная волна.
Для простой проверки полученных выводов приводится подробное доказательство.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1121] **viXra:1710.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-14 15:01:31*

**Authors:** Nikitin A P

**Comments:** 22 Pages. (RUS)

The article is devoted to Mach's "many-sided" principle and relativity principle, which are considered from the point of view of the energy theory, in which all changes and interactions (including gravitational ones) are viewed not as power interactions and manifestations of space-time curvature, but as manifestations and consequences of motion matter, which occurs as a drain and the source of matter and is described as the movement of energy. The article gives an overview of the primary sources of these principles, created by the founders. In the course of the famous thought experiment with two bodies, along with the principle of Mach and the principle of relativity, which are surprisingly interconnected and intertwined, the energy dynamics of moving bodies and such a mysterious phenomenon as the mechanical motion of material bodies in space and time are explored.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1120] **viXra:1710.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-15 03:32:34*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya, Adrian Dube, Godwin Musosi

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Accepted to Prespacetime Journal

As is well known – Newton's corpuscular model of light can explain the Law of Reflection and Snell's Law of Refraction. Sadly and regrettably – its predictions about the speed of light in different mediums runs contrary to experience. Because of this, Newton's theory of light was abandoned in favour of the wave theory. It [Newton's corpuscular model of light] predicts that the speed of light is larger in higher density mediums. This prediction was shown to be wrong by Foucault's 1850 landmark-ing experiment that brought down Newton's theory. The major assumption of Newton's corpuscular model of light is that the corpuscles of light have an attraction with the particle of the medium. When the converse is assumed, i.e., the corpuscles of light are assumed to not have an attraction-effect, but a repulsion-effect with the particles of the medium, one obtains the correct predictions of the speed of light in denser mediums. This assumption of Newton's corpuscles repelling with the particles of the medium – this, might explain why light has the maximum speed in any given medium.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1119] **viXra:1710.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-12 07:40:37*

**Authors:** Alberto Coe

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The standard cosmological model defines the Observable Universe as the region of the Universe observed from the earth at the present time ; all the signals that have arrived to the earth since the beginning of the cosmological expansion .The fruitful formula of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle allow us to explore some issues concerning the observable universe . One of them is the possible topology of the universe according to recent cosmological data . The other one is the cosmological constant value , arising numerically from the Heisenberg principle . Finally will describe a numerical depiction about the evolution of the observable universe wich involves the Hubble parameter , the number of stars , the hydrogen molecule , the degrees of freedom of the hydrogen mulecule related to the amount of information of ordinary matter and the surface area of the observable universe as the universe’s event horizon .

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1118] **viXra:1710.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-13 01:09:58*

**Authors:** Walter Ruh

**Comments:** 7 Pages. language is German, for copyright see: ruhwalter47@gmail.com

This work provides the long-sought explanation for the heat transportation between matter.
Outgoing from the fact that degrees Kelvin disappears in heat-energy calculations and easily transforms into Energy-units it has been recognized that for Kelvin there must be a physical base consisting of a certain quantity defined by the units of kg, m, s.
The solution is old and long known. The Bolzmann constant is 1.38064*10^-23 J/K
The exact statement of this constant is: The kinetic energy per degree Kelvin per atom of different kind (or per particle) is always 1.38064*10^-23 J. The full interpretation of the physical statement of this constant is not obvious: Each atom, each particle, has the same kinetic energy at the same temperature, which is 1.38064*10^-23 J per degree Kelvin.
This explanation provides the detailed explanation for heat transfer. From the results the physical explanations for the Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube and for "friction generates heat" is given.
Diese Arbeit liefert die seit langem gesuchte Erklärung für den Wärmetransport zwischen Materie. Ausgehend von der Tatsache, dass Grad Kelvin bei der Berechnung der Wärmeenergie verschwindet und sich in Energieeinheiten umwandelt, wurde erkannt, dass es für Kelvin eine physikalische Grösse geben muss, die aus Wert und durch die Einheiten kg, m, s definiert ist. Die Lösung ist alt und seit langem bekannt. Die Bolzmann-Konstante ist 1.38064*10^-23 J / K. Die genaue Aussage dieser Konstante lautet: Die kinetische Energie pro Grad Kelvin pro Atom verschiedener Art (oder pro Teilchen) beträgt immer 1.38064*10^-23 J. Die vollständige Interpretation der physikalischen Aussage dieser Konstante ist nicht offensichtlich: Jedes Atom, jedes Teilchen hat dieselbe kinetische Energie bei der gleichen Temperatur, die 1,38064*10^-23*J pro Grad Kelvin ist. Diese Einsicht liefert eine detaillierte Erklärung für die Wärmeübertragung. Aus den Ergebnissen werden die physikalischen Grundlagen für das Ranque-Hilsch-Wirbelrohr und für "Reibung erzeugt Wärme" erklärbar.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1117] **viXra:1710.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-11 22:40:39*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Is shown the solution the problem scalar longitudinal waves without introducing any additional members in the canonical Lagrangian of the field or in the Maxwell equations that ensure the existence of a longitudinal wave component. The Lame equation for the electromagnetic field is obtained, which describes transverse and longitudinal waves, as well as the Fock-Podolsky wave equation for longitudinal electroscalar waves that do not have a magnetic component. It is shown that the terms of the Lorentz gauge condition describe a four-dimensional volume deformation of the electromagnetic field

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1116] **viXra:1710.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-11 23:58:28*

**Authors:** Robert Stach

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Wechselwirkung zwischen der Rotationsenergie der Erde und der Graviationskraft zur Gewinnung von elektr. Energie, Michelson- Experiment und die Realativitätstheorie

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1115] **viXra:1710.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-08 07:16:50*

**Authors:** D.H.W. Reffer

**Comments:** 13 pages

Herein we propound the property, present its empirical law—a two Relative-Velocity Dependent (RVD) terms completion of Newton’s law of gravitation—and thereby solve some historic problems as: Solar cycle, apparent connection with Jupiter ’s revolution, and why the two periods do not quite coincide; about 2.9–4.5×1019 joules/yr
from earth’s rotation slowdown (Secular retardation) “missing” in tidal effects and attributed to some “unknown mechanism”; and the “unknown” nature (and magnitude) of the “driving/propelling force” in Tectonic plates drift; moreover, the RVD completion of Newton’s gravity law predicts that tectonic plates drift, globally, to the west, not randomly, causing earthquakes and volcano eruptions to occur most probable at equinoxes (around March and September). The well-known formula of Perihelion advance is also derived. Several experiments are proposed, some feasible now.
Keywords: solar cycle, perihelion advance, secular retardation, continental drift, earthquakes.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1114] **viXra:1710.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-08 06:45:37*

**Authors:** Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A better and symmetric new Lagrangian functional of the simple harmonic oscillator has been proposed. The derived equation of motion is exactly the same as that derived from the first variation’s Lagrangian functional. The equation of motion is derived from Euler-Lagrange equation by performing partial derivatives on the Lagrangian functional of the second variation of the calculus of variations. Although the better new Hamiltonian functional is off that derived from the first variation by a factor of two, it symmetric than in the previous paper.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1113] **viXra:1710.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-07 13:50:32*

**Authors:** Luca Nascimbene

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The elementary particles that make up the universe can distinguish in particle-matter, of a fermionic type (quark, neutrino and neutrino, mass-equipped) and force-particles, bosonic type, carrying the fundamental forces in nature (photons and gluons, , And the W and Z bosons, endowed with mass). The Standard Model contemplates several other unstable particles that exist under certain conditions for a variable time, but still very short, before decaying into other particles. Among them there is at least one Higgs boson, which plays a very special role. The bosonic N, is an elementary discovery discovery thanks to various electronic devices and sensors. All this is a physical-electronic theoretical study. This particle seen on the oscilloscope has a different shape from the other, in particular it moves by looking at the oscilloscope and has a round shape.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1112] **viXra:1710.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-05 05:42:55*

**Authors:** Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A new Lagrangian functional of the simple harmonic oscillator has been proposed. The derived equation of motion is almost same as that of the conventional Lagrangian functional. The equation of motion is derived from Euler-Lagrange equation by performing partial derivatives on the Lagrangian functional of the second variation of the calculus of variations. The new Hamiltonian functional of the simple harmonic oscillator has also been derived.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1111] **viXra:1710.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-01 06:37:59*

**Authors:** Popov Boris

**Comments:** 68 Pages. language Russian

Nebow of this book, the author, guided by the installation of Isaac Newton, that nature all around is very simple and economical and, if she than and gave body in the process of their generation, one only by force of inertia, the fundamental principle of the action of gravity considering inertia. Thanks to the approach based on such a setting, the law of gravity and the other three of Newton's law reduced to one law – the law of inertia, formulated and substantiated long before Newton, Galileo Galilei. This allowed, based on the fundamental principle of action, known since the times of Euler as the conservation of angular momentum, to give a constructive definition of gravity, namely to offer the technology to any group of physical bodies localized in the free space gravitating Association. The reality of the technology is grounded in controlled experiments that the reader can easily repeat yourself. In the metaphysical aspect, without going beyond the main provisions of classical mechanics, we consider the nature itself and inertia, and the Foundation of stability and the principle of the existence of real entities, methods of imparting substances not only gravitational abilities, but also the electromagnetic.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1110] **viXra:1709.0440 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-30 12:28:15*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The conventional definition of potential energy leads, considered from a fundamental scientific point of view, to absurd consequences. It is strongly advised to eliminate the intermediate variable ‘work’ in the definition of potential energy and, as a result, to reverse the boundaries in the definite integral.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1109] **viXra:1709.0435 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-30 01:26:07*

**Authors:** Robert Stach

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Nachtrag1 zum Manuskript "die Swastika und ihre technische Bedeutung"

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1108] **viXra:1709.0361 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-24 08:00:37*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

A brief description of the non-contradictory solution of the Maxwell equations given in [1] and new additions are given.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1107] **viXra:1709.0333 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-23 09:06:00*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 13 Pages. in Russian

A brief description of the non-contradictory solution of the Maxwell equations given in [1] and new additions are given. \ Приводится краткое описание непротиворечивого решения уравнений Максвелла, данного в [1], и новые дополнения.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1106] **viXra:1709.0299 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-19 22:03:13*

**Authors:** John C. Hodge

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) model of photons is extended to model the inertia of mass. The characteristic of the plenum, hods, and their interactions yields the Newtonian characteristics of gravitational mass and inertial mass.
The medium of the wave in the Hodge Experiment was the massless plenum.
The plenum is the carrier of the inertia. The hods are the carrier of the gravitational mass. The Equivalence Principle is derived rather being assumed. Mach's Principle is inconsistent with the STOE.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1105] **viXra:1709.0296 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-20 01:14:28*

**Authors:** Nikitin Aleksandr Pavlovich

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

Abstract
This article presents the foundations of cosmodynamics - energy theory, which lays the foundation for a new paradigm of physical science, which allows to combine the modern theory of the microcosm and macrocosm. It is proposed to consider the motion of matter in space-time, i.e all of the changes and interactions, including gravity, taking place in the cosmos, not as a police cooperation body, charges, particles, fields, and displays the curvature of space-time, as well as displays and consequences of energy processes in the same cosmos. The measure of these processes is the energy of the cosmos, including the "dark matter" and "dark energy", with absolute power, equal to Planck's constant. Proposed movement of matter in space to consider (to describe, reflect in our minds) as the movement of energy, as the energy dynamics of the vector field, material and energy "cell" structure which is a proton. On the basis of the theory developed by the energy available energy interpretation of the hydrogen atom, and all of baryonic matter, for example, the Earth and the Sun, when the motion of matter occurs and thus describes a "drain" and "radiation" the energy flow vector material-energy field. Planck values are given in the dimensions LT system. It is alleged that the cosmic "relic" radiation is generated in the atoms existing baryonic matter and has nothing to do with the mythical "Big Bang".

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1104] **viXra:1709.0266 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-17 14:15:43*

**Authors:** Edgars Alksnis

**Comments:** 4 Pages. in Russian

Perihelion precession of planets is explained here in terms of vortical рhysics and mass-dynamic forces. Weakening of „geomagnetic” field should
weaken Earth’s vortex and therefore- slow down perihelion precession of Earth’s orbit. Taking in account this should be important for asteroide threat calculations in advance.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1103] **viXra:1709.0263 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-18 01:09:08*

**Authors:** Nikitin A P

**Comments:** Pages.

Abstract General relativity (GRT), created by the genius of Einstein from 1907 to 1915 as a geometric theory of gravity, developing special theory of relativity (STR), has been 100 years does not rest and excites minds. Since then, it performed many experiments to confirm with great accuracy GRT. In this paper, we propose to draw attention to the possibility of direct experimental verification of the dependence of the velocity of light by the gravitational potential, what Einstein wrote in 1911 in his article «On the effect of gravity on light propagation» [1, V1, p.172 ]. We assume that nature itself has put this experiment in space in the presence of "dark matter", namely: February 23, 1987 in the Large Magellanic Cloud broke out amazing supernova SN1987A, from which the light came to Earth 2h 47m later neutrinos. On the basis of numerous observations are given an explanation of this fact in terms of changing the speed of light neutrinos, and depending on the time-varying gravitational potential of the Universe.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1102] **viXra:1709.0262 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-18 01:22:30*

**Authors:** Aleksandr Nikitin

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Abstract
In this article it is stated that there is a fundamental connection between the basic constant of the quantum theory - the Planck constant h and the basic constant of astrophysics - the Hubble constant H, which states the material-energy unity of our world in theory.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1101] **viXra:1709.0253 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-17 07:45:10*

**Authors:** Osvaldo Domann

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Copyright. All rights reserved. The content of the present work, its ideas, axioms, postulates, definitions, derivations, results, findings, etc., can be reproduced only by making clear reference to the author.

The intention of theoretical physics is to construct mathematical models
so that experimental data can be predicted through calculation. If the
prevailing model cannot explain new experimental data because of its imperfections,
theorists add to the model fictitious entities and helpmates
which are defined on the basis of the new experimental data, so that the
new experimental data can now be calculated with the modified model.
Remaining contradictions are camouflaged as good as possible to make the
model consistent. If later on calculated data obtained indirectly from new
experiments are consistent with the fictitious entities and helpmates, theorists
conclude that this is the prove that the fictitious entities and helpmates
really exist. The conclusion is a fallacy because it ignores that the model
was previously made consistent, what means that all data obtained through
experiments and calculations must be explained with the model, otherwise
the model would not be consistent. Adding more and more fictitious entities
and helpmates to an imperfect model makes it, with the time, more
and more complex, untrustworthy and non-physical and finally a radically
new model is required to overcome these problems.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1100] **viXra:1709.0250 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-17 06:15:04*

**Authors:** Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In search to construct a Lagrangian functional of a damped harmonic oscillator I thought to study higher derivatives of coordinates with respect to time in the Lagrangian of a simple harmonic oscillator by adding a term proportional to the square of the second derivative of the coordinate with respect to time in its Lagrangian. In Newtonian mechanics a damping term is added directly to the equation of motion of a simple harmonic oscillator, whereas in Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics (Analytical Mechanics as opposed to Vectroial Mechanics of Newton) adding a term to the Lagrangian of the simple harmonic oscillator wouldn’t reveal whether the term is a damping driving or a forced driving agent until one study the solutions of the equation of motion.
Here, The Euler-Lagrange and equation of motion of a harmonic oscillator in a potential energy proportional to the square of the second derivative of the coordinate with respect to time have been formulated and discussed. The equation of motion is derived from Euler-Lagrange equation by performing the partial derivatives on the Lagrangian functional of the second variation of the calculus of variations.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1099] **viXra:1709.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-15 14:25:28*

**Authors:** John C. Hodge

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

We are at a special moment in our scientific evolution that requires the big of cosmology and the small of light and of particle physics be united by a single model. The Scalar Theory of Everything model (STOE) suggests fundamental assumptions with consideration for the successful parts of current models and for the data inconsistent with current models. The STOE is simpler, corresponds to both General Relativity and quantum mechanics, and solves many current mysteries and inconsistencies. Data comparisons with redshift, discrete redshift, rotation curves, asymmetric rotation curves, universe temperature, and the double slit experiment are successful. Therefore, the STOE is founded on orthodox science. Data analysis in 2011 confirmed predictions of the STOE made in 2006 that no other model suggested. A new test of the double slit experiment rejected the wave model of light and confirmed predictions of the STOE. The fundamental principles are applied to life and the purpose of life in our universe.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1098] **viXra:1709.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-14 21:42:22*

**Authors:** Adham ahmed mohamed ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This is a toe that explanis the reasons for movement of masses in the universe and gravity

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1097] **viXra:1709.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-14 05:45:18*

**Authors:** Dan Aurelian Ivan

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Conclusion explained to the of ,,Contraction of the universe with the speed of light theory" 1

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1096] **viXra:1709.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-12 13:57:07*

**Authors:** Dan Aurelian Ivan

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The Universe constricts at the speed of light c. This theory is based on some assumptions of the "The Expanding Spacetime Theory" [1], but instead of using measurements of distance, speed, mass and time as fourth dimension in an attempt to prove that the universe expands in space and time, I support that the universe has only one absolute and constant value which is the speed of constriction.
Any measurement of distance and mass in the Universe is relative, having a different value every given moment.
The change of scale measurement by the constriction of the Universe.is the way in which the Universe exist, phenomenon that can not be observed due to the fact that our sense organs and our instruments of measurement and observation are parts of the same universe and everything constricts at the same speed
The constricting Universe is infinite and the time is the measure of movements taking place in the Universe, according to Infinite Universe Theory [2].

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1095] **viXra:1709.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-10 12:32:07*

**Authors:** Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed.

**Comments:** 2 pages. Email: yahya-sharif@hotmail.com

This article aims to redefine speed by eliminating time , considering time as something that does not
exist.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1094] **viXra:1709.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-10 06:11:14*

**Authors:** Dan Aurelian Ivan

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The theory of relativity establishes the speed of light in the vacuum as the highest possible speed and shows that the speed of light towards different observers is the same. The speed of light is set as an absolute constant. The paradox of constancy of light speed created a great problem for physics, a problem that Albert Einstein considered to have solved it suggesting that physical theories should not depend on the observer's state of motion but also that the speed of light must remain a constant and the rest of the physics has to change to align to this.
Why is this speed the only absolute constant in physics? The question is fundamental, considering that modern physics and all cosmological theories are based on this constant. While the velocity of any body or particle except the photon is relative, why is the propagation velocity of the wave that supports the photon constant? But what if everything is observed and demonstrated is not real?
What if this speed considered to be a constant and a limit in the universe is not the speed of light but the speed of contraction of the infinite universe itself?
What if the radiation and the force fields are oscillations of the molecules, atoms , ions and elementary particles that the contraction of the universe converts into waves?
My hypothesis answers these questions : the universe constricts at the speed of light.
My hypothesis provides the sort of firm advance in general understanding of universe.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1093] **viXra:1709.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-01 23:41:54*

**Authors:** Adham ahmed mohamed ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This is how to explode a mass into a bomb or make several masses merge or make a mass move using two balls and pressure.
the inner ball contains the mass and the outer ball contains the inner ball

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1092] **viXra:1708.0422 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-28 07:34:18*

**Authors:** Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

I constructed a Lagrangian functional and equation of motion of a classical particle in a potential that is proportional to square of second derivative of its position with respect to time. Solution of equation of motion is identical to the solution of the equation of motion of the conventional simple harmonic oscillator in a potential that is proportional to square of its position.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1091] **viXra:1708.0366 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-25 23:40:12*

**Authors:** Adham ahmed mohamed ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page.

We are shrinking

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1090] **viXra:1708.0340 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-24 22:53:22*

**Authors:** Michael Harney

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Author's email address is mharney1268@yahoo.com

A method of triangulating point sources is described that uses the placement of four omnidirectional sensors in a triangular pattern. With this method, the derivation of the Cartesian coordinates of the source relative to the sensor array is described, as well as the source’s intensity.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1089] **viXra:1708.0245 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-20 14:40:40*

**Authors:** D.G. Kiryan, G.V. Kiryan

**Comments:** 13 Pages. 4 Figures, 4 Tables

Term "gravitational constant" was for the first time introduced more than 200 years ago, and since that time attempts are still being made to refine its value. As per the materials of Committee on Data for Science and Technology, all indirect measurements of the "gravitational constant" obtained by various research groups exhibit equality of two first decimals in the SI system and spread of subsequent decimals. We have found an explanation for this situation by solving the direct metrological problem, namely, calculation of the required measurement accuracies of each torsion balance parameter from the preset accuracy of the "gravitational constant" value, based on the torsion balance mathematical model. Decimal-by-decimal analysis of the torsion balance sensitivity, jointly with the CODATA data, lead us to the assumption that all the variety of the "gravitational constant" values obtained at different experimental setups may be explained by the absence of appropriate planning of the final result accuracy.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1088] **viXra:1708.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-16 01:18:46*

**Authors:** Youngdae Seo

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The memristor is a kind of resistor with memory characteristic, not new fourth circuit element. The relationship between electric charge and magnetic flux linkage represents the resistor. The linear resistor has linear relationship between charge and magnetic flux, and the non-linear resistor has nonlinear relationship between them. The memristor has non-volatile and memory characteristic as well as non-linear characteristic. In addition, from the viewpoint of the mechanical system instead of the electrical system, it can be seen that the relationship between the momentum and the displacement represents the drag coefficient. This implies that there is a new term associated with consumption, not the momentum mv we usually think of. Generally, total energy is expressed as the sum of kinetic energy and potential energy. This may be due to stereotypes, and it has to be corrected because we have not considered the concept of consumption enough. It may be too far ahead, but these ideas may be the key to solving many contradictions arising from relativity, quantum mechanics, and dark energy.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1087] **viXra:1708.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-14 11:54:09*

**Authors:** Adham ahmed mohamed ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This talks about gravity is produced in the universe and how to induce gravitational fields

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1086] **viXra:1708.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-13 03:36:47*

**Authors:** Osvaldo Domann

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Copyright. All rights reserved. The content of the present work, its ideas, axioms, postulates, definitions, derivations, results, findings, etc., can be reproduced only by making clear reference to the author.

The intention of theoretical physics is to construct mathematical models
so that experimental data can be predicted through calculation.
Models are based on approaches which define the nature of the models.
The most common approaches used are of mythological, mathematical or
physical nature.
Examples of mythological approaches are gluons, gravitons, dark matter,
dark energy. Examples of mathematical approaches are the MOND
theory for gravitation, special relativity and general relativity, the theory
of quantum mechanics with the gauge principle. Examples of approaches of
physical nature are the String, Vortex and Focal Point theories, the Emission
theories, the theory of gravitation as the result of the reintegration
of migrated electrons and positrons to their nuclei, the theory of Galilean
relativity with the gamma factor.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1085] **viXra:1708.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-12 05:48:33*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

It is customary to assume that the law of conservation of the angular momentum is violated for an asymmetric energy-momentum tensor. This is the reason for criticizing the Minkowski tensor and other asymmetric energy-momentum tensors. In this paper, it is shown that the laws of conservation of energy and momentum following from an asymmetric tensor in the form of its total divergence are equivalent to the divergence of its symmetric part. It is shown that the total divergence of the antisymmetric part of the asymmetric tensor is identically zero. From this, it follows that for the asymmetric energy-momentum tensor the law of conservation of the angular momentum is also fulfilled. It is shown that the linear invariant of the Minkowski tensor for a vacuum does not correspond to the quadratic invariant of the electromagnetic field. This indicates that the linear invariant of the Minkowski tensor and the three-dimensional stress tensor are not correct.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1084] **viXra:1708.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-12 01:13:28*

**Authors:** Tong Wang

**Comments:** 3 Pages. The possibility of a photon being made of mass and negative mass

We wish to propose a configuration of a photon. This configuration has novel features which are of considerable physical implications. The potential existence of negative mass has been presented before and some of its unique attributes were discussed. Here we show that a photon is able to be made of mass and negative mass. We have emphasized the importance of an intrinsic distance between mass and negative mass inside a photon. The mass-negative mass interaction can formulate a relationship between the wavelength of a light and the intrinsic distance inside its photon. As a pair of mass and negative mass a photon can have zero active gravitational mass and positive passive gravitational mass at the same time.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1083] **viXra:1708.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-10 08:08:09*

**Authors:** Alberto Coe

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper will introduce a numerical equivalence between the strain amplitude of a gravitational wave and the wavelength of a photon emited when an electron dropps from the energy level 2 to the ground state .

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1082] **viXra:1708.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-08 17:28:12*

**Authors:** Dham Ahmed Mohammed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. Mass of photon

Mass of photon found

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1081] **viXra:1708.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-06 02:19:02*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The asymmetric and symmetric tensors can be associated with to the electromagnetic field (EMF) canonical antisymmetric tensor. From these tensors, in the form of their divergences, new EMF equations of follow. The introduction of field sources into Maxwell's equations is mathematically incorrect, since these equations are a four-dimensional divergence with respect to one of the indices of the four-dimensional rotor (antisymmetric tensor). The total divergence of the antisymmetric EMF tensor is equal to the sum of divergences for each of its indices. These divergences have different signs, and their sum is identically zero. Thus, EMF sources can only be attributed to the total divergence of asymmetric or symmetric EMF tensors, the full divergences of which can be non-zero. As a result, it can be argued that Maxwell's equations do not carry a real physical meaning and should be replaced by field equations that follow in the form of a four-dimensional divergence from the symmetric EMF tensor. Only these EMF equations can be attributed to the field sources. These equations represent a new complete system of EMF equations, replacing the system of Maxwell's equations. From the symmetric EMF tensor follows the dynamic Navier-Stokes equation for the vector potential showing the unity of the field and the continuum.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1080] **viXra:1707.0411 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-31 10:01:18*

**Authors:** Radi I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 15 Pages. The face of Journal of Modern Optics is presented

This is a discussion. The discussion involves an exchange of opinions and three papers: the new paper, the first paper and another paper.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1079] **viXra:1707.0404 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-31 01:08:45*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 3 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

On the example of the Michelson-Morley experiment. It is clear that there is no ether in nature. But if you imagine that there is. Then, for different radii, there will be a different speed of the light signal. This gives a different geometric configuration. This configuration completely compensates for the change in speed. Therefore, it is impossible to detect a change.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1078] **viXra:1707.0396 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-30 06:28:13*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 3 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

It is clear that there is no ether in nature. But there is a Michelson-Morley device and there are references to the experiment with this device. And there is a conclusion of this experiment, which supposedly proves something there. Here it is simply shown that nothing could prove this experiment.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1077] **viXra:1707.0306 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-24 13:30:56*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 7 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

In recent years, there is a growing number of proposals to use a novel concept of energy
harvesting using nanogenerators. This concept can be used for water wave energy harvesting,
wind energy harvesting, but also for self-powered microdevices. This novel concept is based on
the reality of Maxwell’s displacement current. On the other hand, it is known that Huygens’
Principle (HP) contains both the principle of action-at-proximity and the superposition principle.
Although the propagation of sharp, non-spreading wave fronts is included in Huygens’ (1690)
original formulation, it can be left out without touching those principles. HP for Maxwell’s
equations is discussed in terms of the Helmholtz-decomposed fields and currents.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1076] **viXra:1707.0299 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-23 10:32:52*

**Authors:** I. N. Tukaev

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This work considers Coulomb forces acting on a charged point particle located between the two coaxial, likely charged rings laying at some distance between one another. Conditions under which the charged particle, while being affected by Coulomb repulsion forces of charges of the rings, localises in the space between the rings and moves along a closed trajectory around the axis of charged rings, not leaving the space between them, were determined. Also, conditions at which a controlled ejection of the charged particle from its localisation zone (or the capability to control the kinetic energy and direction of ejection of the particle) is possible, were determined. Based on the obtained results, we conclude that the considered method of localisation and controlled ejection of charged particles is applicable both in experiments on the nuclear synthesis in swarms of localised positively charged particles and for the formation of beams of likely charged particles with the given velocity of motion relatively to the charged rings.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1075] **viXra:1707.0293 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-23 04:40:45*

**Authors:** Hans-Joerg Hochecker

**Comments:** 17 Pages. International Journal of Physics. 2017; 5(4):121-134. doi: 10.12691/ijp-5-4-4

The matter-waves, well-known from numerous experiments, can be described
as beat waves of two counter-moving waves. Thus mass is oscillating space-time, which
results from the superposition of two counter-moving space-time waves. The duality of
this counter-motion derives the duality of the electric force. And the inertia of the mass
arises from the frequency. The electric force arises from a space- or energy- shift.
Gravitation arises from the change of the energy-density of the electric field (by which
the gravitational acceleration is independent of the mass) and yields the same results as
GR. And the magnetic field appears to be an angle between the direction in which the
electric field propagates and the direction in which it exerts its force.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1074] **viXra:1707.0270 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-20 10:40:29*

**Authors:** I. N. Tukaev

**Comments:** 207 Pages.

A system of equations of motion of point particles is considered within the framework of the classical dynamics (the three Newton’s laws). Equations of the system are similar to the equation by Wilhelm Eduard Weber from his theory of electrodynamics. However, while deriving equations of the system, the Coulomb law as the law for point particles which are motionless relatively one another (used by Weber for formulation of his equation) is regarded as a hypothesis unverified experimentally. An alternative hypothesis was proposed, presuming that the Coulomb law describes the interaction of the two electrically charged point particles within a determined range of their relative velocity magnitudes excluding a zero value – if the relative velocity magnitude is equal to zero, particles with like charges attract one another and those with unlike charges repulse. The results of mathematical analysis of the system of equations of motion of point particles with Coulomb forces modified in accordance with the alternative hypothesis and acting between them were used for modelling of the various physical phenomena and processes.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1073] **viXra:1707.0265 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-20 05:12:37*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 6 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

In recent years, there are growing number of proposals to use a novel concept of energy harvesting using nanogenerators. This concept can be used for water wave energy harvesting, wind energy harvesting, but also for self-powered microdevices. This novel concept is based on the reality of Maxwell’s displacement current. On the other hand, such a displacement current has been debated for many years: whether it is real or just a mathematical entity. This paper is intended to dispelling the myth surrounding the reality and correct interpretation of displacement current based on on Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory. We also briefly discuss a plausible extension of Maxwell equations based on vortex sound theory of Prof. Tsutomu Kambe. It is our hope that discerning the myth from reality is very important step toward tapping and harvesting energy from the hidden electromagnetic structure in Nature.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1072] **viXra:1707.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-12 07:04:22*

**Authors:** Xiao Jun

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

On the basis of Maxwell 's electromagnetic theory, the relationship between the speed of light and source is obtained for the first time according to the conclusion that the form of wave equation has nothing to do with the moving velocity of light source. Under the condition to do not make any amendments to the classical absolute space-time theory, all the current dynamic electromagnetic measurement results are easily explained by using this relationship.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1071] **viXra:1707.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-08 16:46:36*

**Authors:** Ionel DINU, M.Sc.

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Formulated almost 150 years ago, Thomas Young’s hypothesis that light might be a transverse wave has never been seriously questioned, much less subjected to experiment. In this article I report on an attempt to prove experimentally that Young’s hypothesis is untenable. Although it has certain limitations, the experiment seems to show that sound in air, a longitudinal wave, can be “polarized” by reflection just like light, and this can be used as evidence against Young’s hypothesis. Further refinements of the experimental setup may yield clearer results, making this report useful to those interested in the important issue of whether light is a transverse or a longitudinal wave.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1070] **viXra:1707.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-05 11:42:46*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

From the energy-momentum tensors of the electromagnetic field and the mechanical energy-momentum, the equations of energy conservation and balance of electromagnetic and mechanical forces are obtained. The equation for the Abraham force in a dielectric medium with losses is obtained

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1069] **viXra:1707.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-05 11:47:51*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The article is devoted to the Abragam force in a conducting medium. From the energy-momentum tensor of the electromagnetic field interaction with moving charges the equation for the Abraham force is obtained. It is shown that the Abraham force in a conducting medium, as well as in a dielectric medium, has vortical character. Сurrent density vectors and vector potential must be non-collinear.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1068] **viXra:1707.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-05 11:50:37*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this article the final results on the Abraham-Minkowski problem are presented. It is shown that the Minkowski momentum is related to the dielectric characteristics of the medium, and the Abraham momentum is related to the magnetic characteristics of the medium. The total electromagnetic momentum in the medium is equal to the half-sum of the Minkowski and Abraham momentums. Therefore, the Minkowski momentum and the Abraham momentum have equal importance in electrodynamics, and the discussion of which of these forms of electromagnetic momentum is better does not make sense. It is shown that only an asymmetric energy-momentum tensor describes the total electromagnetic momentum in the medium. The Abraham force in a dielectric and conducting medium is described. It is shown that the Abraham force does not transmit a mechanical impulse to the medium, that means it is a fictitious force that really does not exist and it is impossible to detect it experimentally

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1067] **viXra:1707.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-01 21:38:47*

**Authors:** Carlos Barona

**Comments:** 2 Pages. In the pdf document there is a link that allows access to all the information: electrodynamic calculations, didactic animations of the same, and an experimental proposal.

This is a scientific proposal with which it's sought to establish the theoretical-practical basis that permits that a device can be able to change its gravity environment (self-acceleration without lose mass).
I propose that such effect might appear in an oscillating magnetic dipoles system.
This work is based on simultaneous electrodynamic calculations, the results of which lead me to pose that effect as probabilistic exotic acceleration that must be taken into account in the Equivalence Principle analysis.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1066] **viXra:1707.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-01 09:28:54*

**Authors:** Domenico Oricchio

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

I search to obtain a generalized probability equation

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1065] **viXra:1706.0563 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-30 09:25:16*

**Authors:** Domenico Oricchio

**Comments:** 1 Page.

I search to obtain the general dynamic for a probabilistic system

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1064] **viXra:1706.0558 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-29 18:58:47*

**Authors:** Antonio Iovane

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Not that this is my point (*), but I propose for speculation.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1063] **viXra:1706.0545 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-28 15:31:47*

**Authors:** Peter Bissonnet

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

DERIVATION OF A TRANSPORT FLUX
FROM THE FOKKER-PLANCK EQUATION AND WHERE SUCH A CURRENT DENSITY HAS FOUND APPLICATION

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1062] **viXra:1706.0495 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-27 03:22:26*

**Authors:** Xiao Jun, Wuanding

**Comments:** 10 Pages. It is believed that gravitation is a kind of surplus of electric field force, so as to achieve the purpose of unifying gravity and electromagnetic force.

This article is based on the Maxwell's electromagnetic theory ，by the introduction of virtual particle
cloud , and strict mathematics and physics verification ,firstly get the conclusion of gravitation field,
nuclear power field and weak field all are result of the electrostatic field’s different forms effect, and
unify this four field force in an equation. This is the only unified field theory including gravitation at
present.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1061] **viXra:1706.0481 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-25 14:01:08*

**Authors:** Peter Bissonnet

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Could the changing magnetic field of the earth lead ultimately to more powerful lightning bolts?

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1060] **viXra:1706.0480 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-25 18:25:20*

**Authors:** Peter Bissonnet

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Three very strange consequences of zero inertia are deduced by very simple reasoning.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1059] **viXra:1706.0465 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-25 00:08:53*

**Authors:** Temur Z. Kalanov

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Abstract. Modern analysis of the Boltzmann distribution on the basis of probability theory and of Gibbs quantum canonical distribution is proposed. It is shown that the Boltzmann distribution function is neither a reliable result of probability theory nor a consequence of Gibbs quantum canonical distribution. Conclusion is that the Boltzmann distribution function has no statistical and physical meaning, and the concept “Boltzmann distribution” should be abolished.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1058] **viXra:1706.0463 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-25 00:16:24*

**Authors:** Temur Z. Kalanov

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The critical analysis of the generally accepted foundations of classical thermodynamics is proposed. The principle of the unity of formal logic and rational dialectics is a methodological basis of the analysis. The main result is as follows: the foundations of classical thermodynamics (i.e., the first and second laws, equation of state, concepts of internal energy, of heat energy, of entropy, of temperature) contain logical errors. The existence of logical errors is irrefutable proof of incorrectness of thermodynamics. The correct statistical foundations are proposed.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1057] **viXra:1706.0428 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-22 05:38:58*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment would be due to that the electric field is contracted in the line of motion.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1056] **viXra:1706.0395 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-19 20:20:08*

**Authors:** Peter Bissonnet

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Using Quattro Pro Optimizer in order to assist in calculating the dimensions of a to be built military runway, given only the area of the runway, as part of a bid challenge to supposed government contractors!

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1055] **viXra:1706.0386 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-19 05:27:00*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper, two experimental designs are proposed to approach the internal relation of Lorentz Force law and Faraday’s Induction Law. In the two experiments, when a part of a conductor loop moves in a uniform magnetic field, there is only one of the two mechanisms working (either Lorentz Force Law or Faraday’s Flux Rule). By the experimental results, the deeper relation of the two laws could be further revealed.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1054] **viXra:1706.0285 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-15 09:10:50*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper, Faraday’s law of induction was further investigated. The purpose is to see that besides there is the change of magnetic flux through the region enclosed by a conductor loop, if the magnetic flus change inside the wire of the loop is also required to generate an induction current in the conductor loop. An experiment is design and performed. The result shows that it is also a necessary condition that there is magnetic flux change inside the wire of the loop to generate an induction current in the conductor loop.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1053] **viXra:1706.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-14 15:14:46*

**Authors:** Elio Proietti

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this short article we use the notoriety of the EmDrive to get more attention
to the important theoretical paper
''Momentum conservation in electromagnetic systems''
(removed by the moderators of arxiv). \\

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1052] **viXra:1706.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-09 03:13:58*

**Authors:** Louai Hassan Elzein Bashier

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper is prepared to show that as a consequence of induced inertial force over accelerated mass-body that have internal structure, an addi-tional kind of energy will build up in that body beside the kinetic energy of it when it is accelerated in free space. The Lagrange of this body will acquire an additional term to represent this energy.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1051] **viXra:1706.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-08 03:04:51*

**Authors:** Elio Proietti

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Newton's third law doesn't apply to electromagnetic systems.
Nevertheless a relativistic dissertation, directly founded on Maxwell's equations
and on relativistic dynamics, allows us to establish rigorously the law of total
momentum for such systems.
Some undervalued details about the role of internal forces in isolated systems
are emphasized.
The laws governing momentum in systems subject to electromagnetic forces
are consistent in every situation.
There are no reasons to postulate the existence of a hidden momentum to avoid
non-existent paradoxes in the case of static fields.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1050] **viXra:1706.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-01 17:59:21*

**Authors:** Domenico Oricchio

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

An attempt to obtain an ideal refractive surface

**Category:** Classical Physics

[478] **viXra:1711.0243 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-13 11:42:10*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

It is noted that the known solution for a spherical electromagnetic wave in the far zone does not satisfy the law of conservation of energy (it is retained only on the average), the electric and magnetic intensities of the same name (in coordinate) are in phase, only one of Maxwell's equations is satisfied. A solution is offered that is free from these shortcomings.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[477] **viXra:1711.0242 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-13 11:40:43*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

It is noted that the known solution for a spherical electromagnetic wave in the far zone does not satisfy the law of conservation of energy (it is retained only on the average), the electric and magnetic intensities of the same name (in coordinate) are in phase, only one of Maxwell's equations is satisfied. A solution is offered that is free from these shortcomings. \\ Отмечается, что известное решение для сферической электромагнитной волны в дальней зоне не удовлетворяет закону сохранения энергии (она сохраняется только в среднем), одноименные (по координатам) электрические и магнитные напряженности синфазны, выполняется только одно из системы уравнений Максвелла. Предлагается решение, свободное от этих недостатков.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[476] **viXra:1710.0091 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-09 05:35:51*

**Authors:** D.H.W. Reffer

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Completion of the universal gravitation law (Sir Isaac Newton, 1687)

Herein we propound the property, present its empirical law—a two Relative-Velocity Dependent (RVD) terms completion of Newton’s law of gravitation—and thereby solve some historic problems as: Solar cycle, apparent connection with Jupiter’s revolution, and why the two periods do not quite coincide; about 2.9–4.5×1019 joules/yr from earth’s rotation slowdown (Secular retardation) “missing” in tidal effects and attributed to some “unknown mechanism”; and the “unknown” nature (and magnitude) of the “driving/propelling force” in Tectonic plates drift; moreover, the RVD completion of Newton’s gravity law predicts that tectonic plates drift, globally, to the west, not randomly, causing earthquakes and volcano eruptions to occur most probable at equinoxes (around March and September). The well-known formula of Perihelion advance is also derived. Several experiments are proposed, some feasible now.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[475] **viXra:1709.0333 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-24 08:02:49*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

A brief description of the non-contradictory solution of the Maxwell equations given in [1] and new additions are given. \ Приводится краткое описание непротиворечивого решения уравнений Максвелла, данного в [1], и новые дополнения.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[474] **viXra:1708.0405 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-01 13:16:29*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 18 Pages. En/Ru

The canonical antisymmetric electromagnetic field tensor has four-dimensional divergences for each of the indices, so the introduction of a field source into its divergence equation for only one of the indices is incorrect. The total divergence of the antisymmetric tensor is identically zero and does not have a field source. The article is devoted to the mathematically correct introduction of the electromagnetic field source into the field equations. The field equations follow from a symmetric tensor having a full four-dimensional divergence not equal to zero. This divergence is equal to the four-dimensional source of the electromagnetic field. From the new system of equations of the electromagnetic field follow the canonical wave equations for the electric field strength, magnetic induction, electromagnetic potential (Maxwell's equations in the Lorentz gauge), and also follow the wave equation for the divergence of the electromagnetic potential describing longitudinal waves that do not have a magnetic component. A new system of electromagnetic field equations solves the problem of Newton's third law in electrodynamics.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[473] **viXra:1708.0405 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-30 12:26:46*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 18 Pages. EN/RU

The canonical antisymmetric electromagnetic field tensor has four-dimensional divergences for each of the indices, so the introduction of a field source into its divergence equation for only one of the indices is incorrect. The total divergence of the antisymmetric tensor is identically zero and does not have a field source. The article is devoted to the mathematically correct introduction of the electromagnetic field source into the field equations. The field equations follow from a symmetric tensor having a full four-dimensional divergence not equal to zero. This divergence is equal to the four-dimensional source of the electromagnetic field. From the new system of equations of the electromagnetic field follow the canonical wave equations for the electric field strength, magnetic induction, electromagnetic potential (Maxwell's equations in the Lorentz gauge), and also follow the wave equation for the divergence of the electromagnetic potential describing longitudinal waves that do not have a magnetic component.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[472] **viXra:1708.0265 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-15 04:32:28*

**Authors:** Cyrus Master-Khodabakhsh

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This paper shows why the Michelson and Morley experiment did not give the expected result, and that the disappointment was due to a hidden error in Michelson’s assumptions.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[471] **viXra:1708.0245 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-19 17:17:15*

**Authors:** Dmitry G. Kiryan, George V. Kiryan

**Comments:** 12 Pages. 4 Figures, 4 Tables

Term “gravitational constant” was for the first time introduced more than 200 years ago, and since that time attempts have been made to refine its value. As per the materials of Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA), all indirect measurements of the “gravitational constant” obtained by various research groups exhibit in the SI system equality of two first decimals and spread in subsequent decimals. We have analyzed this situation by using the torsion balance mathematical model. This paper shows that this situation might be explained by solving the direct metrological problem, namely, calculation of the necessary measurement accuracies of each of the torsion balance parameters from the preset accuracy of the “gravitational constant” value. Decimal-by-decimal analysis of the torsion balance sensitivity, jointly with the CODATA data, has lead us to the assumption that all the variety of the “gravitational constant” values was obtained at experimental setups without appropriately planning the final result accuracy.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[470] **viXra:1708.0245 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-29 13:29:53*

**Authors:** Dmitry G. Kiryan, George V. Kiryan

**Comments:** 13 Pages. 4 Figures, 4 Tables, russian edition

Term "gravitational constant" was for the first time introduced more than 200 years ago, and since that time attempts are still being made to refine its value. As per the materials of Committee on Data for Science and Technology, all indirect measurements of the "gravitational constant" obtained by various research groups exhibit equality of two first decimals in the SI system and spread of subsequent decimals. We have found an explanation for this situation by solving the direct metrological problem, namely, calculation of the required measurement accuracies of each torsion balance parameter from the preset accuracy of the "gravitational constant" value, based on the torsion balance mathematical model. Decimal-by-decimal analysis of the torsion balance sensitivity, jointly with the CODATA data, lead us to the assumption that all the variety of the "gravitational constant" values obtained at different experimental setups may be explained by the absence of appropriate planning of the final result accuracy.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[469] **viXra:1708.0134 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-15 10:57:31*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

It is customary to assume that the law of conservation of the angular momentum is violated for an asymmetric energy-momentum tensors. This is the reason for criticizing the Minkowski tensor and other asymmetric energy-momentum tensors. In this paper, it is shown that the laws of conservation of energy and momentum following from an asymmetric tensor in the form of its total divergence are equivalent to the divergence of its symmetric part. It is shown that the total divergence of the antisymmetric part of the asymmetric tensor is identically zero. From this, it follows that for the asymmetric energy-momentum tensor the law of conservation of the angular momentum is also fulfilled. It is shown that the linear invariant of the Minkowski tensor for a vacuum does not correspond to the quadratic invariant of the electromagnetic field. This indicates that the linear invariant of the Minkowski tensor and the three-dimensional stress tensor are not correct.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[468] **viXra:1708.0091 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-15 10:25:08*

**Authors:** Adham ahmed mohamed ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Mass of photons from big photons to small photons

**Category:** Classical Physics

[467] **viXra:1707.0306 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-27 03:30:26*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This paper has been submitted to a conference administered for IEEE

In recent years, there is a growing number of proposals to use a novel concept of energy harvesting using nanogenerators. This concept can be used for water wave energy harvesting, wind energy harvesting, but also for self-powered microdevices. This novel concept is based on the reality of Maxwell’s displacement current. On the other hand, it is known that Huygens’ Principle (HP) contains both the principle of action-at-proximity and the superposition principle. Although the propagation of sharp, non-spreading wave fronts is included in Huygens’ (1690) original formulation, it can be left out without touching those principles. HP for Maxwell’s equations is discussed in terms of the Helmholtz-decomposed fields and currents.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[466] **viXra:1707.0170 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-24 08:38:52*

**Authors:** Xiao Jun

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

On the basis of Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory, the relationship between the speed of light and
source is obtained for the first time according to the conclusion that the form of wave equation has
nothing to do with the moving velocity of light source. Under the condition to do not make any
amendments to the classical absolute space-time theory, all the current dynamic electromagnetic
measurement results are easily explained by using this relationship.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[465] **viXra:1707.0170 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-24 06:07:00*

**Authors:** Xiao Jun

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

On the basis of Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory, the relationship between the speed of light and
source is obtained for the first time according to the conclusion that the form of wave equation has
nothing to do with the moving velocity of light source. Under the condition to do not make any
amendments to the classical absolute space-time theory, all the current dynamic electromagnetic
measurement results are easily explained by using this relationship.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[464] **viXra:1707.0170 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-21 05:19:43*

**Authors:** Xiao Jun

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

On the basis of Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory, the relationship between the speed of light and
source is obtained for the first time according to the conclusion that the form of wave equation has
nothing to do with the moving velocity of light source. Under the condition to do not make any
amendments to the classical absolute space-time theory, all the current dynamic electromagnetic
measurement results are easily explained by using this relationship.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[463] **viXra:1706.0122 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-22 13:41:53*

**Authors:** Louai Hassan Elzein Bashier

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

This paper is prepared to show that as a consequence of induced inertial
force due to the acceleration of a system of particles or rigid body, an
additional kind of energy will arise in that body or system of particles
beside the kinetic energy of it. The Lagrange of this body will acquire an
additional term to represent this energy. The paper shows multiple cases
of object motion in which this energy is present and shows the derivation
of its energy expressions.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[462] **viXra:1706.0122 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-13 00:51:29*

**Authors:** Louai Hassan Elzein Bashier

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper is prepared to show that as a consequence of induced inertial
force due to the acceleration of a mass-body that has internal structure, an
additional kind of energy will accumulate in that body beside the kinetic
energy of it. The Lagrange of this body will acquire an additional term
to represent this energy. The paper shows multiple cases of object motion
in which this energy is present and shows the derivation of its energy
expressions.

**Category:** Classical Physics