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2018 - 1801(4) - 1802(5) - 1803(2)

Any replacements are listed farther down

[227] **viXra:1803.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-17 04:27:47*

**Authors:** Óscar E. Chamizo Sánchez

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Traveling salesman problem (TSP for short) is perhaps the most widely known and deeply investigated problem in computation. Given a set of cities, the simple goal is to find the cheapest way of visiting all cities and returning to the starting one. The optimal (in case of a simetric euclidean TSP the shortest) path from the starting city to itself through all the remaining cities is, in general, only one from the (n-1)!/2 set of possible tours or circuits. In this paper we present a hardware device model solving any instance of TSP in O(n2) time. In section 1 we go directly to the device model and prove mathematically its validity. In section 2 we explain the basic ideas behind the physical model. In section 3 we analyze complexity in such a device. In section 4 we outline the key aspects to put into practice the theoretical model in a feasible device. Finally in section 5 we discuss interesting implications in the field of computational complexity with special regard to the widely believed conjecture P≠NP.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[226] **viXra:1803.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-12 09:00:13*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 67 Pages.

Researchers have discovered that input-output maps, which are widely used throughout science and engineering to model systems ranging from physics to finance, are strongly biased toward producing simple outputs. [38] A QEG team has provided unprecedented visibility into the spread of information in large quantum mechanical systems, via a novel measurement methodology and metric described in a new article in Physics Review Letters. [37] Researchers from Würzburg and London have succeeded in controlling the coupling of light and matter at room temperature. [36] Researchers have, for the first time, integrated two technologies widely used in applications such as optical communications, bio-imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems that scan the surroundings of self-driving cars and trucks. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[225] **viXra:1802.0337 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-24 01:14:54*

**Authors:** Robert DiGregorio

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Using a new technique called the power key, it’s possible to imply P ≠ NP using a proof by logical contradiction.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[224] **viXra:1802.0336 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-24 03:08:38*

**Authors:** Nicolas Bourbaki, Jr

**Comments:** 1 Page.

We prove that P != NP using a simple and elegant method.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[223] **viXra:1802.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-10 16:11:01*

**Authors:** Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 24 Pages. New system (algorithm) settlement of sports competitions called R-Sport (in Polish).

Celem rozgrywek sportowych jest wyłonienie spośród grupy drużyn, bądź zawodników, drużyny najlepszej, czyli mistrza. Dlatego pomiędzy poszczególnymi drużynami muszą zostać rozegrane mecze. O tym, kto zostanie mistrzem decydują wyniki wszystkich spotkań. Zasady obowiązujące w trakcie sezonu tworzą System Rozgrywek Sportowych.
W dokumencie tym został opisany nowy System Rozgrywek Sportowych. System ten pozwala na sprawiedliwe i efektywne wyłonienie zwycięzcy całego sezonu. Posiada on zalety, których nie posiadają inne, znane i stosowane obecnie Systemy Rozgrywek Sportowych.
R-Sport jest Systemem Rozgrywek Sportowych, który pozwala przeprowadzić rozgrywki ligowe na wiele sposobów.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[222] **viXra:1802.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-04 12:01:59*

**Authors:** Bebereche Bogdan-Ionut

**Comments:** 1 Page.

.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[221] **viXra:1801.0334 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-25 10:09:43*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 54 Pages.

As cloud storage becomes more common, data security is an increasing concern. [34] Scientists of the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russia) have proposed a scheme for optical encoding of information based on the formation of wave fronts, and which works with spatially incoherent illumination. [33] A joint China-Austria team has performed quantum key distribution between the quantum-science satellite Micius and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong (near Beijing), Nanshan (near Urumqi), and Graz (near Vienna). [32] In the race to build a computer that mimics the massive computational power of the human brain, researchers are increasingly turning to memristors, which can vary their electrical resistance based on the memory of past activity. [31] Engineers worldwide have been developing alternative ways to provide greater memory storage capacity on even smaller computer chips. Previous research into two-dimensional atomic sheets for memory storage has failed to uncover their potential— until now. [30] Scientists used spiraling X-rays at the Lab) to observe, for the first time, a property that gives handedness to swirling electric patterns – dubbed polar vortices – in a synthetically layered material. [28] To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25]

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[220] **viXra:1801.0279 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-22 08:16:07*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Behind every self-driving car, self-learning robot and smart building hides a variety of advanced algorithms that control learning and decision making. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9]

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[219] **viXra:1801.0274 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-21 13:58:08*

**Authors:** Zhengjun Cao, Jeffrey Uhlmann, Lihua Liu

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We remark that Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm has confused two unitary transformations: one is performed on a pure state, the other is performed on a superposition. In the past decades, no constructive specifications on the essential unitary operator performed on the superposition have been found. We think the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm needs more constructive specifications so as to check its correctness.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[218] **viXra:1801.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-08 22:06:09*

**Authors:** Yuly Shipilevsky

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

We reduce integer factorization problem to the NP-hard problem of minimizing
a quadratic polynomial with integer coefficients over the integer points
in a quadratically constrained two-dimensional region.
Next, we reduce integer factorization problem to the problem of enumeration
of vertices of integer hull of a special two-dimensional rational polyhedron,
solvable in time polynomial by Hartmann's algorithm.
Finally, as we find a polynomial-time algorithm to solve an NP-hard problem,
we conclude that P = NP

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[217] **viXra:1712.0587 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-23 16:09:27*

**Authors:** Brian Beckman

**Comments:** 31 Pages. Creative Commons 4.0 license: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Kalman Folding 5 presents an Extended Kalman Filter in Mathematica. Python is much more accessible to average practitioners. In this follow-up article, we write a very general, foldable EKF in Python, verify it against Mathematica using sympy, Python's package for symbolic mathematics. We apply it to a spinning dashpot and demonstrate both state estimation and system identification from observing only one angle over time. It is remarkable that a complete dynamical description of eight states and parameters can be recovered from measurements of a single, scalar value.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[216] **viXra:1712.0528 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-21 01:38:25*

**Authors:** Sanjeev Saxena

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

An extremely simple, description of Karmarkar's algorithm with very few technical terms is given.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[215] **viXra:1712.0510 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-20 04:40:22*

**Authors:** Mai Ben-Adar Bessos, Amir Herzberg

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

We investigate a new threat: networks of stealthy
routers (S-Routers), communicating across a restricted area. The ‘classical’ approach of transmission-detection by triangulation fails, since S-Routers use short-range, low-energy communication, detectable only by nearby devices.
We investigate algorithms to intercept S-Routers, using one or more mobile devices, called Interceptors. Given a source of
communication, Interceptors find the destination, by intercepting packet-relaying by S-Routers along the path. We evaluate the algorithms analytically and experimentally (simulations), including against a parametric, optimized S-Routers algorithm. Our main result is a (centralized) Interceptors algorithm bounding the outcome to O(Nlog^2(N), where N is the number of S-Routers. We later improve the bound to O(Nlog(N)log(log(N))), for the case where the transmission schedule of the S-Routers is continuous.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[214] **viXra:1712.0407 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-13 01:25:52*

**Authors:** Sanjeev Saxena

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, ellipsoid method for linear programming is derived
using only minimal knowledge of algebra and matrices.
Unfortunately, most authors first describe the algorithm, then
later prove its correctness, which requires a good knowledge of
linear algebra.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[213] **viXra:1712.0374 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-09 10:21:20*

**Authors:** Steven David Young

**Comments:** 16 Pages. A proposal to Improve Tor Hidden Services

A system that incorporates distributed means of communication as well as steganographic storage techniques while remaining as similar as possible to an existing trusted platform such as Tor could provide a model for a next generation anonymous communication system that is less susceptible to common vulnerabilities, such as an adversarial Global Network Observer.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[212] **viXra:1712.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-05 14:10:05*

**Authors:** M. J. Dudziak, M. Tsepeleva

**Comments:** 6 Pages. submitted to CoDIT 2018 *Theassaloniki, Greece, April, 2018)

NeoPlexus is a newly established permanent program of international collaborative scientific research and application development. It is focused upon the design, construction and application of a new architecture and family of computing machines that are adept at solving problems of control involving extreme complex systems (XCS) for which conventional numerical computing methods and machines are fundamentally inadequate. The GCM involves a different foundation of computing from classical Turing Machines including qubit-based quantum computers and it incorporates geometrical and specifically topological dynamics. The target for implementation is to construct molecular-scale platform using protein-polymer conjugates and MEMS-type microfluidics.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[211] **viXra:1712.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-04 07:40:22*

**Authors:** Timothy W. Jones

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Using simple arithmetic of the prime numbers, a model of nutritional content of food need and content is created. This model allows for the dynamics of natural languages to be specified as a game theoretical construct. The goal of this model is to evolve human culture.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[210] **viXra:1711.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 14:57:59*

**Authors:** Sathish Kumar Vijayakumar

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Sorting is one of the most researched topics of Computer Science and it is one of the essential operations across computing devices. Given the ubiquitous presence of computers, sorting algorithms utilize significant percentage of computation times across the globe. In this paper we present a sorting algorithm with worst case time complexity of O(n).

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[209] **viXra:1710.0266 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-23 06:45:18*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 8 Pages. In english and portuguese. A better translation of the my article published at Transactions on Mathematics (TM) Vol. 3, No. 1, January 2017, pp. 34-37.

An original proof of P is not equal to NP.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[208] **viXra:1710.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-15 11:44:37*

**Authors:** Shivam Bansal

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

There are a lot of educational videos online which are in English and inaccessible to 80% population of the world. This paper presents a process to translate a video into another language by creating its transcript and using TTS to produce synthesized fragments of speech. It introduces an algorithm which synthesyses intelligent, synchronized, and easily understandable audio by combining those fragments of speech. This algorithm is also compared to an algorithm from another research paper on the basis of performance.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[207] **viXra:1710.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-09 12:57:09*

**Authors:** Yuly Shipilevsky

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

polynomial-time algorithm for integer factorization, wherein integer factorization
reduced to a polynomial-time integer minimization problem over the
integer points in a two-dimensional rational polyhedron with conclusion that
P = NP and a polynomial-time algorithm for integer factorization using enumeration
of vertices of integer hull of those two-dimensional rational polyhedron

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[206] **viXra:1710.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-09 16:11:25*

**Authors:** Eirini Molla, Theodoros Tzouramanis, Stefanos Gritzalis

**Comments:** 24 Pages. 37 figures, 2 tables, 60 references

Due to the increasing demand for cloud services and the threat of privacy invasion, the user is suggested to encrypt the data before it is outsourced to the remote server. The safe storage and efficient retrieval of d-dimensional data on an untrusted server has therefore crucial importance. The paper proposes a new encryption model which offers spatial order-preservation for d-dimensional data (SOPE model). The paper studies the operations for the construction of the encrypted database and suggests algorithms that exploit unique properties that this new model offers for the efficient execution of a whole range of well-known queries over the encrypted d-dimensional data. The new model utilizes wellknown database indices, such as the B+-tree and the R-tree, as backbone structures in their traditional form, as it suggests no modifications to them for loading the data and for the efficient execution of the supporting query algorithms. An extensive experimental study that is also presented in the paper indicates the effectiveness and practicability of the proposed encryption model for real-life d-dimensional data applications.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[205] **viXra:1709.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-01 10:34:42*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

A group of scientists from the Max Planck Institutes in Halle and Dresden have discovered a new kind of magnetic nano-object in a novel material that could serve as a magnetic bit with cloaking properties to make a magnetic disk drive with no moving parts - a Racetrack Memory - a reality in the near future. [19]
Jarvis Loh, Gan Chee Kwan and Khoo Khoong Hong from the Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR) Institute of High Performance Computing, Singapore, have modeled these minute spin spirals in nanoscopic crystal layers. [18]
Some of the world's leading technology companies are trying to build massive quantum computers that rely on materials super-cooled to near absolute zero, the theoretical temperature at which atoms would cease to move. [17]
While technologies that currently run on classical computers, such as Watson, can help find patterns and insights buried in vast amounts of existing data, quantum computers will deliver solutions to important problems where patterns cannot be seen because the data doesn't exist and the possibilities that you need to explore to get to the answer are too enormous to ever be processed by classical computers. [16]
Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometers using The City of Calgary's fiber optic cable infrastructure. [15]
Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14]
A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13]
A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11]
With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10]

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[204] **viXra:1708.0473 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-30 20:26:27*

**Authors:** Yuly Shipilevsky

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A polynomial-time algorithm for integer factorization, wherein integer factorization
reduced to a polynomial-time integer minimization problem over the
integer points in a two-dimensional rational polyhedron with conclusion that
P = NP

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[203] **viXra:1708.0373 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-26 08:20:39*

**Authors:** Wolfgang Fischl, Georg Gottlob, Reinhard Pichler

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The authors have recently shown that recognizing low fractional hypertree-width (fhw) is NP-complete
in the general case and that the problem becomes tractable if the hypergraphs under consideration have degree and intersection width bounded by a constant, i.e., every vertex is contained in only constantly many different edges and the intersection of two edges contains only constantly many vertices. In this article, we show that bounded degree alone suffices to ensure tractability.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[202] **viXra:1708.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-10 13:08:30*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

Concepts for information storage and logical processing based on magnetic domain walls have great potential for implementation in future information and communications technologies." [21] Research at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) suggests it also may be true in the microscopic world of computer memory, where a team of scientists may have found that subtlety solves some of the issues with a novel memory switch. [20] Los Alamos National Laboratory has produced the first known material capable of single-photon emission at room temperature and at telecommunications wavelengths. [19] In their paper published in Nature, the team demonstrates that photons can become an accessible and powerful quantum resource when generated in the form of colour-entangled quDits. [18] But in the latest issue of Physical Review Letters, MIT researchers describe a new technique for enabling photon-photon interactions at room temperature, using a silicon crystal with distinctive patterns etched into it. [17] Kater Murch's group at Washington University in St. Louis has been exploring these questions with an artificial atom called a qubit. [16] Researchers have studied how light can be used to observe the quantum nature of an electronic material. [15] An international team of researchers led by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the University of Bern has revealed a new way to tune the functionality of next-generation molecular electronic devices using graphene. [14] Researchers at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, have created a theory that predicts the properties of nanomagnets manipulated with electric currents. This theory is useful for future quantum technologies. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12]

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[201] **viXra:1708.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-04 01:51:06*

**Authors:** Nicholas R. Wright

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We use the whole order approach to solve the problem of P versus NP. The relation of the whole order within a beautiful order is imperative to understanding the total order. We also show several techniques observed by the minimum element, we call a logical minimum. The perfect zero-knowledge technique will deliver exactly the same. We conclude with a demonstration of the halting problem.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[200] **viXra:1707.0371 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-28 06:39:26*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 43 Pages.

Over millennia, nature has evolved an incredible information storage medium – DNA. It evolved to store genetic information, blueprints for building proteins, but DNA can be used for many more purposes than just that. [23] Based on early research involving the storage of movies and documents in DNA, Microsoft is developing an apparatus that uses biology to replace tape drives, researchers at the company say. [22] Our brains are often compared to computers, but in truth, the billions of cells in our bodies may be a better analogy. The squishy sacks of goop may seem a far cry from rigid chips and bundled wires, but cells are experts at taking inputs, running them through a complicated series of logic gates and producing the desired programmed output. [21] At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17]

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[199] **viXra:1707.0247 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-18 07:46:50*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, Mohamed Eisa, A. E. Fawzy

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, we propose a two-phase Content-Based Retrieval System for images embedded in the Neutrosophic domain. In this first phase, we extract a set of features to represent the content of each image in the training database. In the second phase, a similarity measurement is used to determine the distance between the image under consideration (query image), and each image in the training database, using their feature vectors constructed in the first phase. Hence, the N most similar images are retrieved.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[198] **viXra:1707.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-06 04:33:07*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 54 Pages.

Now, researchers at Stanford University and MIT have built a new chip to overcome this hurdle. [28]
In the quest to make computers faster and more efficient, researchers have been exploring the field of spintronics—shorthand for spin electronics—in hopes of controlling the natural spin of the electron to the benefit of electronic devices. [27]
When two researchers from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) announced in April that they had successfully simulated a 45-qubit quantum circuit, the science community took notice: it was the largest ever simulation of a quantum computer, and another step closer to simulating "quantum supremacy"—the point at which quantum computers become more powerful than ordinary computers. [26]
Researchers from the University of Pennsylvania, in collaboration with Johns Hopkins University and Goucher College, have discovered a new topological material which may enable fault-tolerant quantum computing. [25]
The central idea of TQC is to encode qubits into states of topological phases of matter (see Collection on Topological Phases). [24]
One promising approach to building them involves harnessing nanometer-scale atomic defects in diamond materials. [23]
Based on early research involving the storage of movies and documents in DNA, Microsoft is developing an apparatus that uses biology to replace tape drives, researchers at the company say. [22]
Our brains are often compared to computers, but in truth, the billions of cells in our bodies may be a better analogy. The squishy sacks of goop may seem a far cry from rigid chips and bundled wires, but cells are experts at taking inputs, running them through a complicated series of logic gates and producing the desired programmed output. [21]
At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20]
Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19]
Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18]

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[197] **viXra:1707.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-05 07:51:08*

**Authors:** Theophanes Raptis

**Comments:** 47 Pages.

We utilize a previously reported methodological framework [5], to find a general set of mappings for any satisfiability (SAT) problem to a set of arithmetized codes allowing a classification hierarchy enumerable via integer partition functions. This reveals a unique unsatisfiability criterion via the introduction of certain universal indicator functions associating the validity of any such problem with a mapping between Mersenne integers and their complements in an inclusive hierarchy of exponential intervals. Lastly, we present means to reduce the complexity of the original problem to that of a special set of binary sequences and their bit block analysis via a reduction of any expression to a type of a Sequential Dynamical System (SDS) using the technique of clause equalization. We specifically notice the apparent analogy of certain dynamical properties behind such problems with resonances and coherencies of multi-periodic systems leading to the possibility of certain fast analog or natural implementations of dedicated SAT-machines. A Matlab toolbox is also offered as additional aid in exploring certain simple examples.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[196] **viXra:1706.0493 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-27 04:29:36*

**Authors:** Ameet Sharma

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This article builds on ideas in [3]. We propose enhancing journal papers with XML to facilitate the creation of deductive networks[3]
(DNs).

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[195] **viXra:1706.0419 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-21 12:49:53*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Chemists at Case Western Reserve University have found a way to possibly store digital data in half the space current systems require. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[194] **viXra:1706.0294 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-16 05:46:25*

**Authors:** Yu Yunlong, Ru Le

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Aiming at the special circumstance in which UAVs swarm are used in the mode of battlefield extending, a message delivery scheme called AWJPMMD (ARIMA-WNN Joint Prediction Model based Message Delivery) is proposed. In this scheme, the LET (Link Expiration Time) of the center node and the proxy node is calculated by high precision GPS information, then the LET at next moment is predicted by ARIMA-WNN (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model - Wavelet Neural Network) Joint Prediction Model. Finally, the process of message delivery is affected by the predicted value of LET and other parameters. The target information is sent to the UAVs ground station in form of store-and-forward by the message delivery process. Simulation shows that this scheme can provide higher message delivery ratio and this scheme is more stable.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[193] **viXra:1704.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-13 07:02:31*

**Authors:** Q.P.Wimblik

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Vertex Coloring can be reduced to a set of 2 color vertex coloring problems.
This is achieved by utilizing an ability to account for every positive integer with a unique pair of smaller integers.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[192] **viXra:1703.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-12 04:14:12*

**Authors:** Dhara Joshi1, Krishna Dalsaniya2, Chintan Patel3

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

With the fast advancement in the field of network security everything gets the chance to be possible on web. Remote user authentication is an imperative system in the networks framework to check the exactitude of remote user over the public channel. In this authentication procedure, server checks accreditation of the user that user is authentic and legal one or not. For that Server and user commonly confirm each other and make a same session key for encryption of upcoming conversations. There are two types of authentication: Single server and Multi server. To overcome the drawback of single server authentication (remembering id and pswd for accessing each of the server), the concept of Multi server comes, in which user first register with RC, and whatever servers are registerd under RC can be accessed by user by providing single id and pswd for all. Here We review US patent [US 9264425 B1] scheme which is based on Multi server authentication, we provide mathematical analysis of the same with some attacks found on it.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[191] **viXra:1702.0321 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-26 11:24:32*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The challenge of this paper is to relate quantum-inspired dynamics represented by a self- supervised system, to solutions of noncomputable problems. In the self-supervised systems, the role of actuators is played by the probability produced by the corresponding Liouville equation. Following the Madelung equation that belongs to this class, non- Newtonian properties such as randomness, entanglement, and probability interference typical for quantum systems have been described in [1]. It has been demonstrated there, that such systems exist in the mathematical world: they are presented by ODE coupled with their Liouville equation, but they belong neither to Newtonian nor to quantum physics. The central point of this paper is the application of the self-supervised systems to solve traveling salesman problem.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[190] **viXra:1702.0261 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-20 21:15:53*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The challenge of this paper is to relate quantum-inspired dynamics represented by a self-supervised system, to solutions of noncomputable problems. In the self-supervised systems, the role of actuators is played by the probability produced by the corresponding Liouville equation. Following the Madelung equation that belongs to this class, non-Newtonian properties such as randomness, entanglement, and probability interference typical for quantum systems have been described in [1]. It has been demonstrated there, that such systems exist in the mathematical world: they are presented by ODE coupled with their Liouville equation, but they belong neither to Newtonian nor to quantum physics. The central point of this paper is the application of the self-supervised systems to finding global maximum of functions that is no-where differential, but everywhere continuous (such as Weierstrass functions)

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[189] **viXra:1702.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-04 06:12:29*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

The researchers, in their paper published in Science Advances, say this freedom allows quantum computers to store many different states of the system being simulated in different superpositions, using less memory overall than in a classical computer. [26] The advancement of quantum computing faces a tremendous challenge in improving the reproducibility and robustness of quantum circuits. One of the biggest problems in this field is the presence of noise intrinsic to all these devices, the origin of which has puzzled scientists for many decades. [25] Characterising quantum channels with non-separable states of classical light the researchers demonstrate the startling result that sometimes Nature cannot tell the difference between particular types of laser beams and quantum entangled photons. [24] Physicists at Princeton University have revealed a device they've created that will allow a single electron to transfer its quantum information to a photon. [23] A strong, short light pulse can record data on a magnetic layer of yttrium iron garnet doped with Co-ions. This was discovered by researchers from Radboud University in the Netherlands and Bialystok University in Poland. The novel mechanism outperforms existing alternatives, allowing the fastest read-write magnetic recording accompanied by unprecedentedly low heat load. [22] It goes by the unwieldy acronym STT-MRAM, which stands for spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory. [21] Memory chips are among the most basic components in computers. The random access memory is where processors temporarily store their data, which is a crucial function. Researchers from Dresden and Basel have now managed to lay the foundation for a new memory chip concept. [20] Researchers have built a record energy-efficient switch, which uses the interplay of electricity and a liquid form of light, in semiconductor microchips. The device could form the foundation of future signal processing and information technologies, making electronics even more efficient. [19] The magnetic structure of a skyrmion is symmetrical around its core; arrows indicate the direction of spin. [18]

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[188] **viXra:1701.0668 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-30 09:22:38*

**Authors:** Ameet Sharma

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

We propose developing an XML-based system to enhance scientific papers and articles. A system whereby the premises of arguments are made explicit in XML tags. These tags provide a link between papers to more clearly exhibit deductive knowledge dependencies. The tags allow us to construct deductive networks which are a visual representation of deductive knowledge dependencies. A deductive network (DN) is a kind of bayesian network, but without probabilities.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[187] **viXra:1701.0573 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-22 21:38:03*

**Authors:** Mildred Bennet, Timothy Sato, Frank West

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Many end-users would agree that, had it
not been for systems, the improvement of
fiber-optic cables might never have occurred.
Given the current status of self-learning symmetries,
physicists clearly desire the deployment
of courseware, which embodies the compelling
principles of unstable operating systems.
We construct a novel methodology for
the evaluation of hash tables, which we call
MOP.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[186] **viXra:1701.0572 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-22 21:57:46*

**Authors:** R. Salvato, G. Casey

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Many experts would agree that, had it not
been for the study of context-free grammar,
the understanding of the UNIVAC computer
might never have occurred. This is crucial
to the success of our work. In fact, few analysts
would disagree with the visualization of
spreadsheets, which embodies the important
principles of software engineering. In order
to realize this intent, we describe new robust
modalities (Destrer), which we use to validate
that architecture and wide-area networks can
collude to realize this intent

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[185] **viXra:1701.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-03 10:03:01*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Memory chips are among the most basic components in computers. The random access memory is where processors temporarily store their data, which is a crucial function. Researchers from Dresden and Basel have now managed to lay the foundation for a new memory chip concept. [20] Researchers have built a record energy-efficient switch, which uses the interplay of electricity and a liquid form of light, in semiconductor microchips. The device could form the foundation of future signal processing and information technologies, making electronics even more efficient. [19] The magnetic structure of a skyrmion is symmetrical around its core; arrows indicate the direction of spin. [18] According to current estimates, dozens of zettabytes of information will be stored electronically by 2020, which will rely on physical principles that facilitate the use of single atoms or molecules as basic memory cells. [17] EPFL scientists have developed a new perovskite material with unique properties that can be used to build next-generation hard drives. [16] Scientists have fabricated a superlattice of single-atom magnets on graphene with a density of 115 terabits per square inch, suggesting that the configuration could lead to next-generation storage media. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[184] **viXra:1612.0368 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-29 05:24:47*

**Authors:** Domenico Oricchio

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A server can distribute signed files using the pretty good privacy program, using a universal standard client that have known public key and known private key.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[183] **viXra:1612.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-09 20:47:27*

**Authors:** Taha Sochi

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Area detectors are used in many scientific and technological applications such as particle and radiation physics. Thanks to the recent technological developments, the radiation sources are becoming increasingly brighter and the detectors become faster and more efficient. The result is a sharp increase in the size of data collected in a typical experiment. This situation imposes a bottleneck on data processing capabilities, and could pose a real challenge to scientific research in certain areas. This article proposes a number of simple techniques to facilitate rapid and efficient extraction of data obtained from these detectors. These techniques are successfully implemented and tested in a computer program to deal with the extraction of X-ray diffraction patterns from EDF image files obtained from CCD detectors.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[182] **viXra:1612.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-09 21:07:59*

**Authors:** Taha Sochi

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

In this article we discuss general strategies and computer algorithms to test the connectivity of unstructured networks which consist of a number of segments connected through randomly distributed nodes.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[181] **viXra:1612.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-06 17:35:29*

**Authors:** Yuly Shipilevsky

**Comments:** 9 Pages. This is a new paper and I changed the title. Thanks.

A polynomial-time algorithm for integer factorization, wherein integer factorization reduced to a polynomial-time integer minimization problem over the integer points in a two-dimensional polyhedron.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[180] **viXra:1611.0352 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-26 05:11:34*

**Authors:** Robert Deloin

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Collatz' conjecture (stated in 1937 by Collatz and also named Thwaites conjecture, or Syracuse, 3n+1 or oneness problem) can be described as follows:
Take any positive whole number N. If N is even, divide it by 2. If it is odd, multiply it by 3 and add 1. Repeat this process to the result over
and over again. Collatz' conjecture is the supposition that for any positive integer N, the sequence will invariably reach the value 1.
The main contribution of this paper is to present a new approach to Collatz' conjecture. The key idea of this new approach is to clearly differentiate
the role of the division by two and the role of what we will name here the jump: a = 3n + 1.
With this approach, the proof of the conjecture is given as well as generalizations for jumps of the form qn + r and for jumps being polynomials
of degree m >1.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[179] **viXra:1611.0328 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-24 06:35:11*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

EPFL scientists have developed a new perovskite material with unique properties that can be used to build next-generation hard drives. [16] Scientists have fabricated a superlattice of single-atom magnets on graphene with a density of 115 terabits per square inch, suggesting that the configuration could lead to next-generation storage media. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[178] **viXra:1611.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-07 07:25:12*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

Dynamic programming is a technique that can yield relatively efficient solutions to computational problems in economics, genomic analysis, and other fields. But adapting it to computer chips with multiple "cores," or processing units, requires a level of programming expertise that few economists and biologists have. [16] Researchers at Lancaster University's Data Science Institute have developed a software system that can for the first time rapidly self-assemble into the most efficient form without needing humans to tell it what to do. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of " quantum artificial intelligence ". Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries-how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms-has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[177] **viXra:1610.0351 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-29 09:23:20*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

A revolutionary and emerging class of energy-harvesting computer systems require neither a battery nor a power outlet to operate, instead operating by harvesting energy from their environment. [18]
In 1959 renowned physicist Richard Feynman, in his talk "Plenty of Room at the Bottom," spoke of a future in which tiny machines could perform huge feats. Like many forward-looking concepts, his molecule and atom-sized world remained for years in the realm of science fiction. [17]
The race towards quantum computing is heating up. Faster, brighter, more exacting – these are all terms that could be applied as much to the actual science as to the research effort going on in labs around the globe. [16]
For the first time, scientists now have succeeded in placing a complete quantum optical structure on a chip, as outlined Nature Photonics. This fulfills one condition for the use of photonic circuits in optical quantum computers. [15]
The intricately sculpted device made by Paul Barclay and his team of physicists is so tiny it can only be seen under a microscope. But their diamond microdisk could lead to huge advances in computing, telecommunications, and other fields. [14]
Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13]
One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12]
Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11]

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[176] **viXra:1610.0326 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-27 07:48:22*

**Authors:** Miaomiaomiao

**Comments:** 47 Pages. I AM NOT THE AUTHOR

Note of matrix multiplication

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[175] **viXra:1609.0421 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-29 08:00:08*

**Authors:** Emshanov Dima

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

This article contains a description representing the logical formula 3-SAT as a conjunction of two polynomial logical formulas.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[174] **viXra:1609.0370 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-26 06:59:01*

**Authors:** Trung Kien Vu, Sungoh Kwon

**Comments:** Preprint submitted to Computer Networks, 10 pages, 15 figures

In this paper, we propose an ad-hoc on-demand distance vector routing algorithm for mobile ad-hoc networks taking
into account node mobility. Changeable topology of such mobile ad-hoc networks provokes overhead messages in
order to search available routes and maintain found routes. The overheadmessages impede data delivery from sources
to destination and deteriorate network performance. To overcome such a challenge, our proposed algorithm estimates
link duration based neighboring node mobility and chooses the most reliable route. The proposed algorithm also
applies the estimate for route maintenance to lessen the number of overhead messages. Via simulations, the proposed
algorithmis verified in variousmobile environments. In the low mobility environment, by reducing routemaintenance
messages, the proposed algorithm significantly improves network performance such as packet data rate and end-toend
delay. In the high mobility environment, the reduction of route discovery message enhances network performance
since the proposed algorithm provides more reliable routes.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[173] **viXra:1609.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-11 15:00:52*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, Ibrahim El-Henawy, M.S.Bondok

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In business scenarios, where some of the data or the business attributes are neutrosophic, it may be useful to construct a warehouse that can support the analysis of neutrosophic data. In this paper, a neutrosophic data warehouse modelling approach is presented to support the neutrosophic analysis of the publishing house for books which allows integration of neutrosophic concept in dimensions and facts without affecting the core of a classical data warehouse. Also we describe a method is presented which includes guidelines that can be used to convert a classical data warehouse into a neutrosophic domain.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[172] **viXra:1609.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-03 16:15:57*

**Authors:** Brian Beckman

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This paper fills in some blanks left between part 1 of this series, Kalman Folding (http://vixra.org/abs/1606.0328), and the rest of the papers in the series. In part 1, we present basic Kalman filtering as a functional fold, highlighting the advantages of this form for hardening code in a test environment. In that paper, we motivated the Kalman filter as a natural extension of the running average and variance, writing both as functional folds computed in constant memory. We expressed the running statistics as recurrence relations, where the new statistic is the old statistic plus a correction. We write the correction as a gain factor times some transform of a residual. The residual is the difference between the current (old) statistic and the incoming (new) observation. In both expressions, for brevity, we left derivations to the reader. Here, we present those derivations in full “school-level” detail, along with some basic explanation of the programming language that mechanizes the computations.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[171] **viXra:1608.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-21 11:20:24*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Based on creating generalized and hybrid set and library with neutrosophy and quad-stage method, this paper presents the concept of "computer information library clusters" (CILC). There are various ways and means to form CILC. For example, CILC can be considered as the "total-library", and consists of several "sub-libraries". As another example, in CILC, a "total-library" can be set up, and a number of "sub-libraries" are side by side with the "total-library". Specially, for CILC, the operation functions can be added; for example, according to "natural science computer information library clusters" (natural science CILC), and applying "variation principle of library (or sub-library)", “partial and temporary unified theory of natural science so far” with different degrees can be established. Referring to the concept of “natural science CILC”, the concepts of “social science CILC”, “natural science and social science CILC”, and the like, can be presented. While, referreing to the concept of “computer information library clusters”, the concepts of “computer and non-computer information library clusters”, “earth information library clusters”, “solar system information library clusters”, “Milky Way galaxy information library clusters”, “universe information library clusters”, and the like, can be presented.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[170] **viXra:1608.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-09 15:04:41*

**Authors:** Leorge Takeuchi

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Quicksort, invented by Tony Hoare in 1959, is one of the fastest sorting algorithms. However, conventional
implementations have some weak points, including the following: swaps to exchange two elements are redundant,
deep recursive calls may encounter stack overflow, and the case of repeated many elements in input data is a well-
known issue. This paper improves quicksort to make it more secure and faster using new or known ideas in C
language.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[169] **viXra:1608.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-04 22:35:27*

**Authors:** Sidharth Ghoshal

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Documented is an algorithm,
It is intimately related to a question about piecewise linear cobordisms. IF the conjecture is true then this algorithm is polynomial time. IF it is not, the this algorithm "might be" but probably won't be. Contact a local topologist for updates in this computational crisis.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[168] **viXra:1607.0457 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-24 21:42:26*

**Authors:** Martin Dudziak

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

We address the topic of internet and communications integrity and continuity during times of social unrest and disturbance where a variety of actions can lead to short-term or long-term disruption of conventional, public and private internet and wireless networks. The internet disruptions connected with WikiLeaks in 2010, those in Egypt and Libya during protests and revolution commencing in January of 2011, and long-standing controls upon internet access and content imposed within China and other nations, are considered as specific and contemporary examples. We examine alternatives that have been proposed by which large numbers of individuals can maintain “connectivity without borders.” We review the strengths and weaknesses of such alternatives, the countermeasures that can be employed against such connectivity, and a number of innovative measures that can be used to overcome such countermeasures.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[167] **viXra:1607.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-10 15:52:42*

**Authors:** Brian Beckman

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In Kalman Folding, Part 1, we present basic, static Kalman filtering
as a functional fold, highlighting the unique advantages of this form for
deploying test-hardened code verbatim in harsh, mission-critical environments.
In that paper, all examples folded over arrays in memory for convenience and
repeatability. That is an example of developing filters in a friendly
environment.
Here, we prototype a couple of less friendly environments and demonstrate
exactly the same Kalman accumulator function at work. These less friendly
environments are
- lazy streams, where new observations are computed on demand but never fully
realized in memory, thus not available for inspection in a debugger
- asynchronous observables, where new observations are delivered at arbitrary
times from an external source, thus not available for replay once consumed by
the filter

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[166] **viXra:1607.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-09 08:03:25*

**Authors:** Z. Vosika, G. Lazović

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper we develop the new physicalmathematical time scale kinetic approach-model applied
on organic and non-organic particles motion. Concretely,
here, at first, this new research approach is based on
enzyme particles dynamics results. At the beginning, a
time scale is defined to be an arbitrary closed subset of the
real numbers R, with the standard inherited topology.
Mathematical examples of time scales include real
numbers R, natural numbers N, integers Z, the Cantor set
(i.e. fractals), and any finite union of closed intervals of R.
Calculus on time scales (TSC) was established in 1988 by
Stefan Hilger. TSC, by construction, is used to describe the
complex process. This method may utilized for description
of physical (classical mechanics), material (crystal growth
kinetics, physical chemistry kinetics - for example,
kinetics of barium-titanate synthesis), (bio)chemical or
similar systems and represents major challenge for
contemporary scientists. In this sense, the MichaelisMenten (MM) mechanism is the one of the best known and
simplest nonlinear biochemical network which deserves
appropriate attention. Generally speaking, such processes
may be described of discrete time scale. Reasonably it
could be assumed that such a scenario is possible for MM
mechanism. In this work, discrete time MM kinetics
(dtMM) with time various step h, is investigated. Instead of
the first derivative by time used first backward difference
h. Physical basics for new time scale approach is a new
statistical thermodynamics, natural generalization of
Tsallis non-extensive or similar thermodynamics. A
reliable new algorithm of novel difference transformation
method, namely multi-step difference transformation
method (MSDETM) for solving system of nonlinear
ordinary difference equations is proposed. If h tends to
zero, MSDETM transformed into multi-step differential
transformation method (MSDTM). In the spirit of TSC,
MSDETM describes analogously MSDTM.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[165] **viXra:1607.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-07 09:50:50*

**Authors:** Brian Beckman

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

We exhibit a foldable Extended Kalman Filter that internally integrates
non-linear equations of motion with a nested fold of generic
integrators over lazy streams in constant memory.
Functional form allows us to switch integrators easily and to diagnose filter
divergence accurately, achieving orders of magnitude better speed than
the source example from the literature. As with all Kalman folds, we can move
the vetted code verbatim, without even recompilation, from the lab to the field.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[164] **viXra:1607.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-07 09:52:55*

**Authors:** Brian Beckman

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In Kalman Folding 5: Non-Linear Models and the EKF, we present an
Extended Kalman Filter as a fold over a lazy stream of observations that uses a
nested fold over a lazy stream of states to integrate non-linear equations of
motion. In Kalman Folding 4: Streams and Observables, we present a
handful of stream operators, just enough to demonstrate Kalman folding over
observables.
In this paper, we enrich the collection of operators, adding takeUntil,
last, and map. We then show how to use them to integrate differential
equations in state-space form in two different ways and to generate test cases
for the non-linear EKF from paper 5.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[163] **viXra:1607.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-07-05 23:28:11*

**Authors:** Brian Beckman

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In Kalman Folding, Part 1, we present basic, static Kalman filtering
as a functional fold, highlighting the unique advantages of this form for
deploying test-hardened code verbatim in harsh, mission-critical environments.
The examples in that paper are all static, meaning that the states of the model
do not depend on the independent variable, often physical time.
Here, we present mathematical derivations of the basic, static filter. These are
semi-formal sketches that leave many details to the reader, but highlight all
important points that must be rigorously proved. These derivations have several
novel arguments and we strive for much higher clarity and simplicity than is
found in most treatments of the topic.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[162] **viXra:1606.0348 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-30 20:27:15*

**Authors:** Brian Beckman

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In Kalman Folding, Part 1, we present basic, static Kalman filtering
as a functional fold, highlighting the unique advantages of this form for
deploying test-hardened code verbatim in harsh, mission-critical environments.
The examples in that paper are all static, meaning that the states of the model
do not depend on the independent variable, often physical time.
Here, we present a dynamic Kalman filter in the same, functional form. This
filter can handle many dynamic, time-evolving applications including some
tracking and navigation problems, and is easilly extended to nonlinear and
non-Gaussian forms, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and Unscented Kalman Filter
(UKF) respectively. Those are subjects of other papers in this Kalman-folding
series. Here, we reproduce a tracking example from a well known reference, but
in functional form, highlighting the advantages of that form.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[161] **viXra:1606.0328 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-29 14:21:33*

**Authors:** Brian Beckman

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Kalman filtering is commonplace in engineering, but less familiar to software
developers. It is the central tool for estimating states of a model, one
observation at a time. It runs fast in constant memory. It is the mainstay of
tracking and navigation, but it is equally applicable to econometrics,
recommendations, control: any application where we update models over time.
By writing a Kalman filter as a functional fold, we can test code in friendly
environments and then deploy identical code with confidence in unfriendly
environments. In friendly environments, data are deterministic, static, and
present in memory. In unfriendly, real-world environments,
data are unpredictable, dynamic, and arrive asynchronously.
The flexibility to deploy exactly the code that was tested is especially
important for numerical code like filters. Detecting, diagnosing and correcting
numerical issues without repeatable data sequences is impractical. Once code is
hardened, it can be critical to deploy exactly the same code, to the binary
level, in production, because of numerical brittleness. Functional form makes it
easy to test and deploy exactly the same code because it minimizes the coupling
between code and environment.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[160] **viXra:1606.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-17 22:40:41*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a theory of ‘Universal
Relative Metric That Generates A Field Super-Set To The Fields Generated By
Various Distinct Relative Metrics’.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[159] **viXra:1606.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-15 07:29:20*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a theory of ‘The Universal
Irreducible Any Field Generating Metric’.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[158] **viXra:1606.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-15 07:30:06*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a theory of ‘The Universal
Irreducible Any Field Generating Metric’.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[157] **viXra:1606.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-15 00:16:12*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a theory of ‘Universal Natural Memory Embedding’.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[156] **viXra:1605.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-22 18:39:09*

**Authors:** Edwin Eugene Klingman

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Embedded Systems Programming

FPGAs and microprocessors are more similar than you may think. Here's a primer on how to program an FPGA and some reasons why you'd want to.
Small processors are, by far, the largest selling class of computers and form the basis of many embedded systems. The first single-chip microprocessors contained approximately 10,000 gates of logic and 10,000 bits of memory. Today, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) provide single chips approaching 10 million gates of logic and 10 million bits of memory...

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[155] **viXra:1605.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-22 18:44:43*

**Authors:** Edwin Eugene Klingman

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Embedded Systems Programming

FPGAs enable everyone to be a chip designer. This installment shows how to design the bus interface for a generic peripheral chip.
When designing with an embedded microprocessor, you always have to take into account, if not begin with, the actual pinout of the device. Each pin on a given microprocessor is uniquely defined by the manufacturer and must be used in a specific manner to achieve a specific function. Part of learning to design with embedded processors is learning the pin definitions. In contrast, field programmable gate array (FPGA) devices come to the design with pins completely undefined (except for power and ground). You have to define the FPGA's pins yourself. This gives you incredible flexibility but also forces you to think through the use of each pin...

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[154] **viXra:1605.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-14 06:12:52*

**Authors:** Hossein Vahabi, Paul Lagree, Claire Vernade, Olivier Cappe

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

In many web applications, a recommendation is not a single item sug- gested to a user but a list of possibly interesting contents that may be ranked in some contexts. The combinatorial bandit problem has been studied quite extensively these last two years and many theoretical re- sults now exist : lower bounds on the regret or asymptotically optimal algorithms. However, because of the variety of situations that can be considered, results are designed to solve the problem for a specific reward structure such as the Cascade Model. The present work focuses on the problem of ranking items when the user is allowed to click on several items while scanning the list from top to bottom.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[153] **viXra:1605.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-11 02:37:54*

**Authors:** Robert A. Martin

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

We discuss the problem of finding an optimum linear seating arrangement for a small social network, i.e. approaching the problem put forth in XKCD comic 173 – for a small social network, how can one determine the seating order in a row (e.g at the cinema) that corresponds to maximum enjoyment? We begin by improving the graphical notation of the network, and then propose a method through which the total enjoyment for a particular seating arrangement can be quantified. We then discuss genetic programming, and implement a first-principles genetic algorithm in python, in order to find an optimal arrangement. While the method did produce acceptable results, outputting an optimal arrangement for the XKCD network, it was noted that genetic algorithms may not be the best way to find such an arrangement. The results of this investigation may have tangible applications in the organising of social functions such as weddings.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[152] **viXra:1605.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 01:44:47*

**Authors:** Marian Dragoi, Ciprian Palaghianu

**Comments:** 8 pages, 4 figures, language: Romanian (abstract in English)

Group decision makers making process - an analytic hierarchy approach
The paper deals with a step-wise analytic hierarchy process (AHP) applied by a
group of decision makers wherein nobody has a dominant position and it is unlikely to
come to terms with respect to either the weights of different objectives or expected utilities
of different alternatives. One of the AHP outcomes, that is the consistency index is
computed for each decision maker, for all other decision makers but that one, and for the
whole group. Doing so, the group is able to assess to which extent each decision maker
alters the group consistency index and a better consistency index could be achieved if the
assessment procedure is being resumed by the most influential decision maker in terms of
consistency.
The main contribution of the new approach is the algorithm presented in as a flow
chart where the condition to stop the process might be either a threshold value for the
consistency index, or a given number of iterations for the group or decision maker,
depending on the degree to which the targeted goal has been decomposed into conflictual
objectives.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[151] **viXra:1605.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-02 12:46:50*

**Authors:** Slim hannachi

**Comments:** 133 Pages. Cloud Computer

IAAS

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[150] **viXra:1605.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-02 07:29:37*

**Authors:** A.A.Salama, Mohamed Eisa, Hewayda ElGhawalby, A.E.Fawzy

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to present texture features for images embedded in the neutrosophic domain with Hesitancy degree. Hesitancy degree is the fourth component of Neutrosophic set. The goal is to extract a set of features to represent the content of each image in the training database to be used for the purpose of retrieving images from the database similar to the image under consideration.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[149] **viXra:1605.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-02 04:38:44*

**Authors:** A.A.Salama, Mohamed Eisa, Hewayda ElGhawalby, A.E.Fawzy

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The goal of an Image Retrieval System is to retrieve images that are relevant to the user's request from a large image collection. In this paper we present texture features for images embedded in the neutrosophic domain. The aim is to extract a set of features to represent the content of each image in the training database to be used for the purpose of retrieving images from the database similar to the image under consideration.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[148] **viXra:1604.0366 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-28 09:08:34*

**Authors:** Mai Ben-Adar Bessos, Simon Birnbach, Amir Herzberg, Ivan Martinovic

**Comments:** 1 Page. Technichal Report of the original paper E-bots vs. P-bots Cooperative Eavesdropping in (partial) Silence

We study the trade-off between the benefits obtained by communication, vs. the exposure of the location of the transmitter.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[147] **viXra:1603.0386 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-28 13:36:36*

**Authors:** Carreño ED, Diener M, Cruz EHM, Navaux POA

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

One of the most important aspects that influences the performance of
parallel applications is the speed of communication between their tasks. To optimize communication, tasks that exchange lots of data should be mapped to processing units that have a high network performance. This technique is called communication-aware task mapping and requires detailed information about the underlying network topology for an accurate mapping. Previous work on task mapping focuses on network clusters or shared memory architectures, in which the topology can be determined directly from the hardware environment. Cloud computing adds significant challenges to task mapping, since information about network topologies is not available to end users. Furthermore, the communication performance might change due to external factors, such as different usage patterns of other users. In this paper, we present a novel solution to perform communication-
aware task mapping in the context of commercial cloud environments with multiple instances. Our proposal consists of a short profiling phase to discover the network topology and speed between cloud instances. The profiling can be executed before each application start as it causes only a negligible overhead. This information is then used together with the communication pattern of the parallel application to group tasks based on the amount of communication and to map groups with a lot of communication between them to cloud instances with a high network performance. In this way, application performance is increased, and data traffic between instances is reduced. We evaluated our proposal in a public cloud with a variety of MPI-based parallel benchmarks from the HPC domain, as well as a large scientific application. In the experiments, we observed substantial performance improvements (up to 11 times faster) compared to the default scheduling policies.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[146] **viXra:1603.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-07 05:49:11*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

An original proof of P is not equal to NP.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[145] **viXra:1603.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 18:18:57*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Article written around february-2011. The problems described here are examples of variable languages. See also viXra 1603.0107: "Languages Varying in Time and the P x NP Problem"

Prova-se que P ≠ NP, mostrando-se 2 problemas que são executados em tempo de complexidade constante O(1) em um algoritmo não determinístico, mas em tempo de complexidade exponencial em relação ao tamanho da entrada num algoritmo deterministístico. Os algoritmos são essencialmente simples para que tenham ainda alguma redução significativa em sua complexidade, o que poderia invalidar as provas aqui apresentadas.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[144] **viXra:1603.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 18:32:49*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Article written around 5 years ago. See also viXra 1603.0107: "Languages Varying in Time and the Problem P x NP".

Is proved that P ≠ NP, showing 2 problems that are executed in constant complexity time O(1) in a nondeterministic algorithm, but in exponential complexity time related to the length of the input (input size) in a deterministic algorithm. These algorithms are essentially simple, so they can not have a significant reduction in its complexity, what could cause the proofs shown here to become invalid.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[143] **viXra:1603.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 18:45:49*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Article written around 5 years ago. It is an enhancement over version 1. See also viXra 1603.0107: "Languages Varying in Time and the Problem P x NP".

Prova-se que P ≠ NP, mostrando-se 2 problemas que são executados em tempo de complexidade constante O(1) em um algoritmo não determinístico, mas em tempo de complexidade exponencial em relação ao tamanho da entrada num algoritmo deterministístico. Os algoritmos são essencialmente simples para que tenham ainda alguma redução significativa em sua complexidade, o que poderia invalidar as provas aqui apresentadas.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[142] **viXra:1603.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 18:59:21*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Article written about 5 years ago. Subject and formalism will be reviewed.

Prova-se que P ≠ NP, mostrando-se 2 problemas que são executados em tempo de complexidade polinomial em um algoritmo não determinístico, mas em tempo de complexidade exponencial em relação ao tamanho da entrada num algoritmo deterministístico. Os algoritmos são essencialmente simples para que tenham ainda alguma redução significativa em sua complexidade, o que poderia invalidar as provas aqui apresentadas.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[141] **viXra:1603.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 19:18:09*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Article written about 5 years ago. Subject and formalism will be re-examined. It is an enhancement over version 3.

Prova-se que P ≠ NP, mostrando-se 2 problemas que são executados em tempo de complexidade polinomial em um algoritmo não determinístico, mas em tempo de complexidade exponencial em relação ao tamanho da entrada num algoritmo deterministístico. Os algoritmos são essencialmente simples para que tenham ainda alguma redução significativa em sua complexidade, o que poderia invalidar as provas aqui apresentadas.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[140] **viXra:1602.0349 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-27 10:52:47*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, M.M.Eisa, S.A.EL-Hafeez, M.M. Lotfy

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

e-Learning has turned to be a necessity for everyone, as it enables continuous and life-long education.
Learners are social by nature. They want to connect to othersand share the same interests. Online
communities are important to help and encourage learners to continue education. Learners through social
capabilities can share different experiences.Social networks are cornerstone for e-Learning. However,
alternatives are many. Learners might get lost in the tremendous learning resources that are available. It is
the role of recommender systems to help learners find their own way through e-Learning. We present a
review of different recommender system algorithms that are utilized in social networks based e-Learning
systems. Future research will include our proposed our e-Learning system that utilizes Recommender
System and Social Network

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[139] **viXra:1602.0250 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-20 09:00:12*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Modular programming is a very efficient way of system creation. By reducing the number of relevant relations the method diminishes the complexity of configuring and supporting modular systems. The method uses the available resources in an optimal way.
The current way of software generation uses an object oriented way of system construction that does not encapsulate the objects, such that their internals are effectively hidden and guarded against obstructive access by external objects. This paper introduces a new way of notation that enforces this encapsulation. Many programming languages already implement part of the required methodology. An example is the razor language. This paper extends these ideas to a modular way of programming.
The approach makes from every relational database a modular database and from every file system a modular file system. It makes from every communication service a modular communication service and it standardizes programming such that reuse can be optimized in a global way. It will improve the robustness and reliability of software and enables to a large extent automated system configuration.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[138] **viXra:1602.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-02 18:19:36*

**Authors:** Funkenstein the Dwarf

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Published Oct. 2014

We outline here the design considerations and implementation of woodcoin, in particular those
which separate it from other cryptocurrencies. Woodcoin is a cryptocurrency very much like
bitcoin. However the design of bitcoin explicitly models a non-renewable resource: gold. For woodcoin we more closely model a sustainable resource. In particular woodcoin avoids the time asymmetries of the bitcoin release model, maximizing the incentive to participate and the longevity of the coin at the same time. Our solution is logarithmic growth of the money supply. In addition, we outline the design considerations behind two other changes to the core protocol: mining with the Skein hash function and securing digital ownership with the X9_prime256v1 curve using ECDSA.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[137] **viXra:1602.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-01 10:52:44*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

A new kind of dynamics for simulations based upon quantum-classical hybrid is discussed. The model is represented by a modified Madelung equation in which the quantum potential is replaced by different, specially chosen potentials. As a result, the dynamics attains both quantum and classical properties: it preserves superposition and entanglement of random solutions, while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods. Such an optimal combination of characteristics is a perfect match for quantum- inspired information processing. In this paper, the retrieval of stored items from an exponentially large unsorted database is performed by quantum-inspired resonance using polynomial resources due to quantum-like superposition effect.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[136] **viXra:1601.0264 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-24 10:49:06*

**Authors:** Pavlova Sobakevich

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We show that Albert Camus was right when depicting modern people work as a Sisypus work.
Data structures and algorithms can be used in different directions. One direciton is to create imitation of a "work" by this raising the suffer and noise of everyone. Another direction is to not imitate any work because no one can walk against the river too long but rather go straight to the point - lessening suffer and then raising the pleasure.
In ther words, the first thing should be always first: pamper yourself and then help others.
It was needed to pass several thousands years till it is now proved mathematically so that there is no one now who can create so much chaotical noise in the people's mind and vision of the reality that noone sees anything anymore.
This article is a cleaning instrument that helps to overcome this confuse happened due to a mischief.
Dr. Watson (recall computer project called Watson) can learn from Sherlock and do not seat in prostration anymore.
If any questions Dr. Watson the address of Sherlock: B 221.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[135] **viXra:1601.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-17 18:07:24*

**Authors:** Janis Belov

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Richard P. Feynman in His book "Six easy steps" was telling about energy supplies in the nature and finally He wrote “Therefore it is up to the physicists to figure out how to liberate us from the need for having energy. It can be done”.
This article suggests a way for such liberation.
The opposite is well-known - the delta of information is always a money that used only for one goal - create more money. "Those who own the delta of information own the World".

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[134] **viXra:1601.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-09 22:08:59*

**Authors:** Mrs. Prachi Karandikar, Sachin Deshpande

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Data mining, the extraction of hidden predictive information from large databases, is nothing but
discovering hidden value in the data warehouse. Because of the increasing ability to trace and collect large
amount of personal information, privacy preserving in data mining applications has become an important
concern. Data distortion is one of the well known techniques for privacy preserving data mining. The objective
of these data perturbation techniques is to distort the individual data values while preserving the underlying
statistical distribution properties. These techniques are usually assessed in terms of both their privacy
parameters as well as its associated utility measure. In this paper, we are studying the use of non-negative
matrix factorization (NMF) with sparseness constraints for data distortion.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[133] **viXra:1601.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-09 22:10:00*

**Authors:** F. Emily Manoz, Priya, P.s. Ramesh, B.shanthi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a new class of networking technology .When we use sensor
network in brutal environment, security is most important concern. The technology may face against various
attacks. These attacks produce vulnerability against authentication, confidentiality and trustworthiness. This
paper introduces an adaptive method for securing the transformation of messages in wireless sensor networks in
the harsh environment. The light weight protocols are highly suitable for achieving authentication. The efficient
matching algorithm will be used for performing packet matching and also it detects the malicious attack
efficiently within the transformation of data. Finally, the encryption/decryption algorithm secures our original
data.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[132] **viXra:1601.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-09 22:12:21*

**Authors:** Saida Ibnyaich, Raefat Jalila El Bakouchi, Samira Chabaa, Abdelilah Ghammaz, Moha M’rabet Hassani

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

With the current expansion and the anticipated further increase in the
use of cellular telephones and other wireless communication devices,
considerable research effort is devoted to investigations of interactions between
antennas on handsets and the human body. This interaction significantly
changes the antenna characteristics from that in free space or even on the device
(handset, laptop). In this paper and in order to study this problem, firstly a
planar inverted-F antenna (PIFA) was designed and simulated to operate over
the frequency 2,45 GHz , then the influence of the human head on the return
loss and on the radiation efficiency of the antenna has been studied.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[131] **viXra:1601.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-09 22:13:17*

**Authors:** Sharma Shelja, Kumar Suresh, Rathy R. K.

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Ad hoc networks are infrastructure-less collection of mobile nodes,
characterized by wireless links, dynamic topology and ease of deployment. Proactive
routing protocols maintain the network topology information in the form of routing
Tables, by periodically exchanging the routing information. Mobility of nodes leads to
frequent link breaks, resulting in loss of communication and thus the Information in the
Table may become stale after some time. DSDV routing protocol follows proactive
approach for routing and uses stale routes in case of link break, which is the major cause
of its low performance as mobility increases. We have focused on two variants of DSDV
namely Eff-DSDV and I-DSDV, which deals with the broken link reconstruction and
discussed in these protocols, the process of route reconstruction due to broken links. To
analyze this route reconstruction mechanism, we have used a terrain of size 700m × 800
m with 8 nodes placed randomly. Analysis shows that both Eff-DSDV & I-DSDV,
perform better than DSDV in Packet Delivery Ratio and Packet Loss with slight increase
in Routing Overheads.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[130] **viXra:1601.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-09 22:14:17*

**Authors:** Mohammed Bsiss, Amami Benaissa

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Currently, the achievements of security systems is becoming more and more ground in different areas
not only through the development of new technologies of programmable circuits, with the ability to achieve very
complex systems in a single chip but thanks also a common and coherent organization of the different safety
standard.This paper describes the implementation for a safety fuzzy logic controller (SFLC) on the basis of Safety
Norm 61508. The SFLC is programmed with the hardware description language VHDL and implemented in
FPGA.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[129] **viXra:1601.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-09 22:15:09*

**Authors:** Vasanth H, A.R.Aswath

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Interrupt controller is designed with the concept of priority based selection
of peripherals which requires immediate attention or service. Here AHB is optimized
to interface with VIC to initiate data transfer on the AHB. Both read and write cycles
are designed with AHB bus.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[128] **viXra:1601.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-09 22:15:59*

**Authors:** Sarita Rani, Sanju Saini, Sanjeeta Rani

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Temperature is a very important parameter in industrial production. Recently, lots of researches have been
investigated for the temperature control system based on various control strategies. This paper presents the comparison of
GA-PID, fuzzy and PID for temperature control of water bath system. Different control schemes namely PID, PID tuning
using Genetic Algorithms(GA-PID), and Fuzzy Logic Control, have been compared through experimental studies with respect
to set-points regulation, influence of impulse noise and sum of absolute error. The new algorithm based on GA-PID improve the
performance of the system. Also, it's fit for the complicated variable temperature control system. The simulation results show that
the validity of the proposed strategy is more effective to control temperature.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[127] **viXra:1601.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-09 22:17:06*

**Authors:** S. Anupama Kumar, Vijayalakshmi M.N

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Educational data mining is an emerging technology concerned with developing methods for exploring the various
unique data that exists in the educational settings and uses them to understand the students as well as the domain in which they
learn. Educational domain consists of a lot of data related to students, teachers and other learning strategies. Classification
algorithms can be used on various educational data to mine the academic records. It can be used to predict student‘s outcome
based on their previous academic performance. The various predictive algorithms like, C4.5, Random tree are applied on
student‘s previous academic results to predict the outcome of the students in the university examination. The prediction would
help the tutor in understanding the progress and attitude of the student towards the studies. It would also help them to identify the
students who are constantly improving in their studies and help them to achieve a higher percentage. It also helps them to identify
the underperformers so that extra effort can be taken to achieve a better result. The algorithms are analyzed based on their
accuracy of predicting the result, the recall and the precision values. The accuracy of the algorithm is predicted by comparing the
output generated by the algorithm with the original result obtained by the students in the university examination.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[126] **viXra:1601.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-09 22:17:56*

**Authors:** Affum Emmanuel, Edward Ansong

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Ultra wideband (UWB) technology is one of the promising solutions for future short-range
communication which has recently received a great attention by many researchers. However,
interest in UWB devices prior to 2001 was primarily limited to radar systems, mainly for
military applications due to bandwidth resources becoming increasingly scarce and also its
interference with other commutation networks. This research work provides performance
analysis of multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MB-OFDM) UWB MIMO
system in the presence of binary phase-shift keying time-hopping (BPSK-TH) UWB or BPSKDS
UWB interfering transmissions under Nakagami-m and Lognormal fading channels
employing various modulation schemes using MATLAB simulations. The research work
indicates that it is totally impossible to predict the performance of UWB system in
Lognormal channel.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[125] **viXra:1601.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-09 22:32:00*

**Authors:** Rajashree Sukla, Chinmaya Kumar Nayak

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper we introduce a new interconnection network Fault Tolerant Hierarchical Interconnection network for parallel Computers denoted by FTH(k, 1).This network has fault tolerant hierarchical structure which overcomes the fault tolerant properties of Extended hypercube(EH).This network has low diameter, constant degree connectivity and low message traffic density in comparisons with other hypercube type networks like extended hypercube and hypercube. In this network we proposed the fault tolerant algorithm for node fault and also we introduce the hamiltonian Circuit for the proposed network FTH(k,2).

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[124] **viXra:1511.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-21 13:52:54*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Computer Engineering requires you to know a vast array of programming languages, as well as utilizing different technologies in order to design hardware, or manage databases. It can often be identified as the cross between Information Technology and Electrical Engineering. What I learned is that you don’t have to only know C and C++, but you will also be required to learn more, especially working into the Hardware, Software, and Database side. Softwares you need to be familiar with include Visual Studio, and sometimes Open Source technologies. All in all I learned a great deal of knowledge from the people in which I talked to. I learned that Computer Engineering and related fields, have an impact on technological advancements, as well as making the world an easier place to live. I learned the overall power of different subjects in the fields such as utilizing UML language, Blockchain Technology, Javascript, Python, and the power of Linux. Some of these, I may present in throughout this paper. The purpose to this paper is to inform the average user about what is in the field, what Computer Engineers do, as well as the powerful research and impact of the field. By the end of this paper, I hope you have a beginner’s expertise on the implications of this widely known field.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[123] **viXra:1510.0487 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 20:24:58*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A Chaos based embedding process for textual data offering high capacity and high security simultaneously is designed and implemented. A chaotic image, obtained using a frequency dependant driven chaotic system is used as the data carrier in which textual data is embedded. The decryption and subsequent performance analyses reveal a high fidelity with a mean square error of around 0.0009 percent and a compression ratio increasing nonlinearly with text size, with ratio values more than 150:1 obtained for significantly large texts. Moreover, a very high level of security leading to up to 60 percent of mean square error values even for 1 percent misalignment in the decryption process is observed. The extreme simplicity of implementation coupled with the twin advantages of high compression ratios and high security forms the highlight of the present work.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[122] **viXra:1510.0478 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 20:36:00*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Efficient techniques of Genome Data handling and storage are the need of the hour in the present genetic engineering era. The present work purports to the design and implementation of a Genome Sequence Data Compression Technique without the use of references and lookup. This is achieved by first generating a digital chaotic bit stream, formed by performing XOR operations on three square waves with mismatched frequencies. The generated bit stream is XORed with the Genome Sequence bit stream after necessary data conditioning, and the result is stored as a 2D array (image). The png format is chosen, owing to its inherent lossless properties. It is seen that the perfectly reversible operations of compression and decompression result in compression ratios of around 2.6-3.5 being achieved with absolute zero error. The use of digital chaos provides an additional layer of security, since the frequencies of the input square wave signals form a secure key, which when mismatched during decompression even by 1 percent, can result in error rates of upto 60 percent.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[121] **viXra:1510.0473 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-29 03:15:36*

**Authors:** Kurt Mehlhorn, Sanjeev Saxena

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Also as arXiv:1510.03339 [cs.DS]

Linear programming is now included in algorithm undergraduate and postgraduate courses for computer science majors. We show that it is possible to teach interior-point methods directly to students with just minimal knowledge of linear algebra.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[120] **viXra:1510.0417 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 09:23:57*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

A Chaos based compression technique offering high capacity and high security simultaneously is designed and implemented. A chaotic image, obtained by reshaping the signal representing a frequency dependant driven chaotic system is used as the data carrier in which data from the file to be compressed is embedded. Implementation of the algorithm is carried out in MATLAB and Python platforms for various filetypes such as txt, png, pdf, mp3, 3gp and rar formats. A comparative performance analysis reveals a high fidelity with a mean square errors of less than 0.0009 percent as well as a relatively high compression ratio value of 5-6. A very high level of security leading to up to 60 percent of mean square error values even for 1 percent misalignment in the decryption process is observed. The execution times for the implementations are obtained reasonably at around 5 seconds. A new compression technique, termed ‘supercompression’ consisting of repeated application of the compression technique is proposed. A proof-of-concept implementation achieved extremely high compression ratios of around 40000. The extreme simplicity of implementation coupled with the twin advantages of high compression ratios and high security forms the highlight of the present work.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[119] **viXra:1510.0360 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-23 09:24:11*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, T. Venkata Subba Reddy, B. Madhava Reddy

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The current era of data explosion entails the necessity of high efficiency in terms of data capacity and data security. This scenario of Big Data inevitably leads to the technology of Internet of Things (IoT) in the future.
The present project purports to the effective harnessing of nonlinear signal processing principles leading to enhanced security of data without compromising on capacity. The advantage of using nonlinear signal processing lies in the fact that the nonlinearity of a single NMOS transistor is able to provide robust security by generation of chaotic signals. This results in low power dissipation and simplicity of circuitry. The enhanced secure communication techniques are then studied giving importance to the phase variations in the signal and are then applied to real world information systems. Also, the possibility of introducing such techniques in conventional big data systems such as RDBMS and Hadoop are considered.
After significantly demonstrating the capabilities of the nonlinear signal processing approach in terms of fidelity, capacity and robustness, the techniques are extended even further to include an Internet of Things (IoT) based environment. The implementation of nonlinear signal processing techniques to IoT based systems such as RFID are explored. At the final stage, the change in the managerial perspective required to handle the IoT dominated environment is discussed. The business level implications of such a technology shift are studied. This study of IoT is termed as “Management of Things” (MoT).
The principal aim of this project is to provide a feasible, efficient, innovative yet costeffective solution to the biggest problems of the telecommunication world today – data capacity and data security. This project thus follows from the motto “Transformation through Information” and leads us gently to become effective citizens of a smarter planet.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[118] **viXra:1510.0325 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 16:01:11*

**Authors:** J. Read, L. Martino, J. Hollmén

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

The number of methods available for classification of multi-label data has increased rapidly over recent years, yet relatively few links have been made with the related task of classification of sequential data. If labels indices are considered as time indices, the problems can often be seen as equivalent. In this paper we detect and elaborate on connections between multi-label methods and Markovian models, and study the suitability of multi-label methods for prediction in sequential data. From this study we draw upon the most suitable techniques from the area and develop two novel competitive approaches which can be applied to either kind of data. We carry out an empirical evaluation investigating performance on real-world
sequential-prediction tasks: electricity demand, and route prediction. As well as showing that several popular multi-label algorithms are in fact easily applicable to sequencing tasks, our novel approaches, which benefit from a unified view of these
areas, prove very competitive against established methods.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[117] **viXra:1509.0259 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-27 17:00:53*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-Goran Granqvist

**Comments:** 8 Pages. first version

We introduce two new Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key distribution schemes, which are the generalization of the original KLJN version. The first system, the Random-Resistor (RR-) KLJN scheme is using random resistors chosen from a quasi-continuum set of resistance values. It is well known since the creation of the KLJN concept that such system could work because Alice and Bob can calculate the unknown resistance value from measurements; however, it has not been addressed in publications as it was considered impractical. The reason for discussing it is the second scheme, the Random-Resistor-Random-Temperature (RRRT-) KLJN key exchanger inspired by a recent paper of Vadai-Mingesz-Gingl where security was maintained at non-zero power flow. In the RRRT-KLJN secure key exchanger scheme, both the resistances and their temperatures are continuum random variables. We prove that the security of the RRRT-KLJN system can be maintained at non-zero power flow thus the physical law guaranteeing the security is not the Second Law of Thermodynamics but the Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem. Knowing their own resistance and temperature values, Alice and Bob can calculate the resistance and temperature values at the other end from the measured voltage, current and power-flow data in the wire. Eve cannot determine these values because, for her, there are 4 unknown quantities, while she can set up only 3 equations. The RRRT-KLJN scheme has several advantages and makes all the existing former attacks invalid or incomplete.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[116] **viXra:1509.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-18 04:02:48*

**Authors:** Ms. K. Sathya Sundari

**Comments:** 09 Pages. Figures :4 Tables : 0, IJCAT.org, Volume 2, Issue 8, August 2015

Job shop scheduling using ACO(Ant Colony Optimization) approach. Different heuristic information is discussed and three different ant algorithms are presented. State transition rule and pheromone updating methods are given. The concept of the new strategy is highlighted and template for ACO approach is presented.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[115] **viXra:1509.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-18 03:45:27*

**Authors:** Akhila G.S, Prasanth R.S

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Using Personalized Web Search (PWS) we can improve the quality of search results in the Internet. The existing UPS based Personalized Web Searching has many drawbacks. First, there may be a chance of eavesdropping when generalized profile forwarded to the server. Second, web server is vulnerable to web attacks like URL manipulation attacks. The impact of these attacks will affect user’s personal information. So we introduce a new framework called UPES. Here, the data stored in the server-side and request from user will be in encrypted form. Fully Homomorphic Encryption over Integers (FHEI) is used for encrypting data. The experimental results show that this framework functioned in the best possible manner with the least waste of time and effort.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[114] **viXra:1509.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-18 03:56:22*

**Authors:** Rizal; Fadlisyah; Muhathir; Al Muammar Akfal

**Comments:** 08 Pages. Figures :10 Tables : 01; IJCAT.org, Volume 2, Issue 8, August 2015

Al Quran is the Muslim holy book written in Arabic. To read the Quran recitation necessary knowledge of the guidelines. In the context of everyday people find difficulty in recitation of the Quran. Therefore, the detection system tajwid needed to help users find the recitation of the Quran. In this study, the method of Bray Curtis Distance is used to detect the image of the Holy Qur'an recitation. The test results show that the accuracy of the system is 60% to 90%. The percentage of detection rate shows that the method can be used Bray curtis as one approach to detection at the image of the Holy Qur'an recitation. This system has several drawbacks that have a high false positive rate, or an error about a 40% chance. To improve the performance of this recitation detection system, can be done by providing further training with additional training data more and more varied. However, this recitation detection system does not deny the importance of teachers in learning how to read in accordance with the rules of recitation is right.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[113] **viXra:1509.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-10 08:53:01*

**Authors:** Arundale Ramanathan

**Comments:** 6 Pages. License: CC 4.0 Attribution

The Arithmetic Coding process involves re-calculation of intervals for each symbol that need to be encoded. This article discovers a formula based approach for calculating compressed codes and provides proof for deriving the formula from the usual approach. A spreadsheet is also provided for verification of the approach. Consequently, the similarities between Arithmetic Coding and Huffman coding are also visually illustrated.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[112] **viXra:1508.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-23 01:20:59*

**Authors:** Sparisoma Viridi, Tito Waluyo Purboyo

**Comments:** 18 pages, 2 figures, 5 tables, supported by RIK-ITB b-II 2015

Solving problem using C++ language requiring dynamic size variable can be easier performed using STL vector class. How to reproduces statuses from the article "An Improved Algorithm for Generation of Attack Graph Based on Virtual Performance Node" is traced back in this work by implementing the vector class. A random function in C++ rand() is also used in determining IP for attacker and also the target, imitating guessing from attacker.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[111] **viXra:1507.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-12 11:47:40*

**Authors:** S. Viridi, A. Suroso, F. T. Akbar, Novitrian, T. D. K. Wungu, S. Pramuditya, D. Irwanto, N. Asiah, A. Pramutadi, K. Basar, F. D. E. Latief, S. Permana, I. D. Aditya, H. Mahardika, A. H. Aimon, A. Waris, Khairurrijal

**Comments:** 8 pages, 1 figure, 2 tables, technical report

In preparing the 6th Asian Physics Symposium on 19-20 August 2015 in Bandung, Indonesia, a conference management system (CMS) known as SeminarPress is used. This CMS already has a lot of features but not in generating Book of Abstract (BoA) directly. In order to support the CMS a shell script named as mkboa.sh is developed and the results of executing it is discussed in this work. Some limitations due to LATEX restrictions in using some characters are also emphasized.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[96] **viXra:1802.0337 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-02 02:39:44*

**Authors:** Robert DiGregorio

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A problem exists that’s hard to solve but easy to verify a solution for.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[95] **viXra:1802.0337 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-27 13:36:30*

**Authors:** Robert DiGregorio

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A problem exists that’s hard to solve but easy to verify a solution for.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[94] **viXra:1802.0337 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-26 18:50:42*

**Authors:** Robert DiGregorio

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Using sorting keys, we prove that P ≠ NP.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[93] **viXra:1802.0337 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-25 18:57:08*

**Authors:** Robert DiGregorio

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Using a new tool called a “sorting key” it’s possible to imply that P ≠ NP.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[92] **viXra:1802.0337 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-25 05:21:23*

**Authors:** Robert DiGregorio

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Using a new tool called a “sorting key” it’s possible to imply that P ≠ NP.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[91] **viXra:1802.0337 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-24 14:08:46*

**Authors:** Robert DiGregorio

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Using a new tool called a “sorting key” it’s possible to imply that P ≠ NP.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[90] **viXra:1802.0288 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-23 01:14:55*

**Authors:** Stephen P. Smith, Karin Meyer, Bruce Tier

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

A QR algorithm was designed using sparse matrix techniques for likelihood evaluation in REML. The efficiency of the algorithm depends on how the order of columns in the mixed model array are arranged. Three heuristic orderings were considered. The QR algorithm was tested successfully in likelihood evaluation, but vector processing was needed to finish the procedure because of excess fill-ins. The improvements made for the QR algorithm also applied to the competing absorption approach, and hence absorption was found to be more competitive than the QR algorithm in terms of computing time and memory requirements. Absorption was made 52 times faster than a first generation absorption algorithm.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[89] **viXra:1712.0407 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-28 01:10:10*

**Authors:** Sanjeev Saxena

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Minor corrections

In this paper, ellipsoid method for linear programming is derived using only minimal knowledge of algebra and matrices.
Unfortunately, most authors first describe the algorithm, then later prove its correctness, which requires a good knowledge of linear algebra.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[88] **viXra:1711.0118 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-18 07:09:12*

**Authors:** Sathish Kumar Vijayakumar

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Sorting is one of the most researched topics of Computer Science and it is one of the essential operations across computing devices. Given the ubiquitous presence of computers, sorting algorithms utilize significant percentage of computation times across the globe. In this paper we present a non-comparison based sorting algorithm with average case time complexity of O(n) without any assumptions on the nature of the input data.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[87] **viXra:1711.0118 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-21 12:58:56*

**Authors:** Sathish Kumar Vijayakumar

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Hi though sorting is one of the vastly researched area, this paper brings out the best time complexity of them all. My linkedin profile is as follows http://linkedin.com/in/sathish-kumar-b7434579. Please feel free to post your queries.

Sorting is one of the most researched topics of Computer Science and it is one of the essential operations across computing devices. Given the ubiquitous presence of computers, sorting algorithms utilize significant percentage of computation times across the globe. In this paper we present a sorting algorithm with average case time complexity of O(n) without any assumptions on the nature of the input data.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[86] **viXra:1711.0118 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-03 10:00:49*

**Authors:** Sathish Kumar Vijayakumar

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Hi though sorting is one of the vastly researched area, this paper brings out the best time complexity of them all. My linkedin profile is as follows http://linkedin.com/in/sathish-kumar-b7434579. Please feel free to post your queries.

Sorting is one of the most researched topics of Computer Science and it is one of the essential operations across computing devices. Given the ubiquitous presence of computers, sorting algorithms utilize significant percentage of computation times across the globe. In this paper we present a sorting algorithm with worst case time complexity of O(n) without any assumptions on the nature of the input data.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[85] **viXra:1708.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-14 22:49:05*

**Authors:** Nicholas R. Wright

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Changed Moore's Law from "<" to ">".

We use the whole order approach to solve the problem of P versus NP. The relation of the whole order within a beautiful order is imperative to understanding the total order. We also show several techniques observed by the minimum element, we call a logical minimum. The perfect zero-knowledge technique will deliver exactly the same. We conclude with a demonstration of the halting problem.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[84] **viXra:1708.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-11 04:03:46*

**Authors:** Nicholas R. Wright

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Cambria Math font

We use the whole order approach to solve the problem of P versus NP. The relation of the whole order within a beautiful order is imperative to understanding the total order. We also show several techniques observed by the minimum element, we call a logical minimum. The perfect zero-knowledge technique will deliver exactly the same. We conclude with a demonstration of the halting problem.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[83] **viXra:1707.0356 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-27 17:15:18*

**Authors:** Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

In this paper, I investigate a prefix-free universal Turing machine (UTM) running multiple programs in parallel according to a scheduler. I found that if, over the course of the computation, the scheduler adjusts the work done on programs so as to maximize the entropy in the calculation of the halting probability Omega, the system will follow many laws analogous to the laws of physics. As the scheduler maximizes entropy, the result relies on algorithmic thermodynamics which connects the halting probability of a prefix-free UTM to the Gibb's ensemble of statistical physics (which also maximizes entropy). My goal with this paper is to show specifically, that special relativity and general relativity can be derived from algorithmic thermodynamics under a certain choice of thermodynamic observables applied to the halting probability.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[82] **viXra:1707.0239 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-13 18:09:20*

**Authors:** Stephen P. Smith

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

The bordering method of the Cholesky decomposition is backward differentiated to derive a method of calculating first derivatives. The result is backward differentiated again and an algorithm for calculating second derivatives results. Applying backward differentiation twice also generates an algorithm for conducting forward differentiation. The differentiation methods utilize three main modules: a generalization of forward substitution for calculating the forward derivatives; a generalization of backward substitution for calculating the backward derivatives; and an additional module involved with the calculation of second derivatives. Separating the methods into three modules lends itself to optimization where software can be developed for special cases that are suitable for sparse matrix manipulation, vector processing and/or blocking strategies that utilize matrix partitions. Surprisingly, the same derivative algorithms fashioned for the Cholesky decomposition of a positive definite matrix can be used again for matrices that are indefinite. The only differences are very minor adjustments involving an initialization step that leads into backward differentiation and a finalization step that follows forward differentiation.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[81] **viXra:1707.0074 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-11 13:15:48*

**Authors:** Theophanes Raptis

**Comments:** 47 Pages. Typo correction in eq. (29a-b) and (35a-b)

We utilize a previously reported methodological framework [5], to find a general set of mappings for any satisfiability (SAT) problem to a set of arithmetized codes allowing a classification hierarchy enumerable via integer partition functions. This reveals a unique unsatisfiability criterion via the introduction of certain universal indicator functions associating the validity of any such problem with a mapping between Mersenne integers and their complements in an inclusive hierarchy of exponential intervals. Lastly, we present means to reduce the complexity of the original problem to that of a special set of binary sequences and their bit block analysis via a reduction of any expression to a type of a Sequential Dynamical System (SDS) using the technique of clause equalization. We specifically notice the apparent analogy of certain dynamical properties behind such problems with resonances and coherencies of multi-periodic systems leading to the possibility of certain fast analog or natural implementations of dedicated SAT-machines. A Matlab toolbox is also offered as additional aid in exploring certain simple examples.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[80] **viXra:1706.0493 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-01 11:37:39*

**Authors:** Ameet Sharma

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This article builds on ideas in [3]. We propose enhancing journal papers with XML to facilitate the creation of deductive networks[3] (DNs).

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[79] **viXra:1706.0493 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-27 08:21:04*

**Authors:** Ameet Sharma

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This article builds on ideas in [3]. We propose enhancing journal papers with XML to facilitate the creation of deductive networks[3] (DNs).

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[78] **viXra:1702.0156 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-20 14:49:06*

**Authors:** Stephen P Smith

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper describes the backward differentiation of the Cholesky decomposition by the bordering method. The backward differentiation of the Cholesky decomposition by the inner product form and the outer product form have been described elsewhere. It is found that the resulting algorithm can be adapted to vector processing, as is also true of the algorithms developed from the inner product form and outer product form. The three approaches can also be fashioned to treat sparse matrices, but this is done by enforcing the same sparse structure found for the Cholesky decomposition on a secondary work space.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[77] **viXra:1701.0668 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-30 10:23:21*

**Authors:** Ameet Sharma

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

We propose developing an XML-based system to enhance scientific papers and articles. A system whereby the premises of arguments are made explicit in XML tags. These tags provide a link between papers to more clearly exhibit deductive knowledge dependencies. The tags allow us to construct deductive networks which are a visual representation of deductive knowledge dependencies. A deductive network (DN) is a kind of bayesian network, but without probabilities.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[76] **viXra:1608.0250 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-03 19:20:21*

**Authors:** Atul Mehta

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper, we explore the connections between graphs and Turing machines. A method to construct Turing machines from a general undirected graph is provided. Determining whether a Hamiltonian cycle does exist is now shown to be equivalent to solving the halting problem. A modified version of Turing machines is now developed to solve certain classes of computational problems.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[75] **viXra:1608.0098 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-15 10:49:02*

**Authors:** Leorge Takeuchi

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Some explanation was added.

Quicksort, invented by Tony Hoare in 1959, is one of the fastest sorting algorithms. However, conventional
implementations have some weak points, including the following: swaps to exchange two elements are redundant,
deep recursive calls may encounter stack overflow, and the case of repeated many elements in input data is a well-
known issue. This paper improves quicksort to make it more secure and faster using new or known ideas in C
language.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[74] **viXra:1608.0098 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-11 23:42:15*

**Authors:** Leorge Takeuchi

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Two link addresses (URI) were wrong.

Quicksort, invented by Tony Hoare in 1959, is one of the fastest sorting algorithms. However, conventional
implementations have some weak points, including the following: swaps to exchange two elements are redundant,
deep recursive calls may encounter stack overflow, and the case of repeated many elements in input data is a well-
known issue. This paper improves quicksort to make it more secure and faster using new or known ideas in C
language.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[73] **viXra:1607.0059 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-06 11:01:24*

**Authors:** Brian Beckman

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Minor corrections to original version

In Kalman Folding, Part 1, we present basic, static Kalman filtering
as a functional fold, highlighting the unique advantages of this form for
deploying test-hardened code verbatim in harsh, mission-critical environments.
The examples in that paper are all static, meaning that the states of the model
do not depend on the independent variable, often physical time.
Here, we present mathematical derivations of the basic, static filter. These are
semi-formal sketches that leave many details to the reader, but highlight all
important points that must be rigorously proved. These derivations have several
novel arguments and we strive for much higher clarity and simplicity than is
found in most treatments of the topic.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[72] **viXra:1606.0348 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-06 16:57:41*

**Authors:** Brian Beckman

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In Kalman Folding, Part 1, we present basic, static Kalman filtering as a functional fold, highlighting the unique advantages of this form for deploying test-hardened code verbatim in harsh, mission-critical environments. The examples in that paper are all static, meaning that the states of the model do not depend on the independent variable, often physical time. Here, we present a dynamic Kalman filter in the same, functional form. This filter can handle many dynamic, time-evolving applications including some tracking and navigation problems, and is easilly extended to nonlinear and non-Gaussian forms, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) respectively. Those are subjects of other papers in this Kalman-folding series. Here, we reproduce a tracking example from a well known reference, but in functional form, highlighting the advantages of that form.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[71] **viXra:1604.0366 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-15 21:49:27*

**Authors:** Mai Ben-Adar Bessos, Simon Birnbach, Amir Herzberg, Ivan Martinovic

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Technichal Report of the original paper E-bots vs. P-bots Cooperative Eavesdropping in (partial) Silence

We study the trade-off between the benefits obtained by communication, vs. the exposure of the location of the transmitter.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[70] **viXra:1604.0366 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-09 19:41:31*

**Authors:** Mai Ben-Adar Bessos, Simon Birnbach, Amir Herzberg, Ivan Martinovic

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Technichal Report of the original paper E-bots vs. P-bots Cooperative Eavesdropping in (partial) Silence

We study the trade-off between the benefits obtained by communication, vs. the exposure of the location of the transmitter.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[69] **viXra:1603.0107 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-21 11:08:07*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 8 Pages. In english and portuguese. A better translation of the article published at Transactions on Mathematics (TM) Vol. 3, No. 1, January 2017, pp. 34-37

An original proof of P is not equal to NP.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[68] **viXra:1603.0107 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-15 08:00:02*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 8 Pages. In english and portuguese. Published in Transactions on Mathematics (TM) Vol. 3, No. 1, January 2017, pp. 34-37

An original proof of P is not equal to NP.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[67] **viXra:1603.0107 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-09 10:07:13*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 6 Pages. An original proof of P <> NP. In english and portuguese.

An original proof of P is not equal to NP.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[66] **viXra:1603.0107 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-08 06:32:39*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 6 Pages. An original proof of P is not equal to NP.

An original proof of P is not equal to NP.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[65] **viXra:1603.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-18 09:30:41*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Article written around february-2011. The problems described here are examples of variable languages. See also viXra 1603.0107: "Languages Varying in Time and the P x NP Problem"

Is proved that P ≠ NP, showing 2 problems that are executed in constant complexity time O(1) in a nondeterministic algorithm, but in exponential complexity time related to the length of the input (input size) in a deterministic algorithm. These algorithms are essentially simple, so they can not have a significant reduction in its complexity, what could cause the proofs shown here to become invalid.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[64] **viXra:1603.0071 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-18 09:43:59*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Article written around february-2011. The problems described here are examples of variable languages. See also viXra 1603.0107: "Languages Varying in Time and the P x NP Problem"

Prova-se que P ≠ NP, mostrando-se 2 problemas que são executados em tempo de complexidade constante O(1) em um algoritmo não determinístico, mas em tempo de complexidade exponencial em relação ao tamanho da entrada num algoritmo deterministístico. Os algoritmos são essencialmente simples para que tenham ainda alguma redução significativa em sua complexidade, o que poderia invalidar as provas aqui apresentadas.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[63] **viXra:1603.0070 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-05 21:50:57*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Prova-se que P ≠ NP, mostrando-se 2 problemas que são executados em tempo de complexidade polinomial em um algoritmo não determinístico, mas em tempo de complexidade exponencial em relação ao tamanho da entrada num algoritmo deterministístico. Os algoritmos são essencialmente simples para que tenham ainda alguma redução significativa em sua complexidade, o que poderia invalidar as provas aqui apresentadas.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[62] **viXra:1603.0069 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-07 10:35:28*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[61] **viXra:1603.0069 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-05 23:49:34*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[60] **viXra:1511.0207 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-03 16:02:24*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Computer Engineering requires you to know a vast array of programming languages, as well as utilizing different technologies in order to design hardware, or manage databases. It can often be identified as the cross between Information Technology and Electrical Engineering. What I learned is that you don’t have to only know C and C++, but you will also be required to learn more, especially working into the Hardware, Software, and Database side. Softwares you need to be familiar with include Visual Studio, and sometimes Open Source technologies. All in all I learned a great deal of knowledge from the people in which I talked to. I learned that Computer Engineering and related fields, have an impact on technological advancements, as well as making the world an easier place to live. I learned the overall power of different subjects in the fields such as utilizing UML language, Blockchain Technology, Javascript, Python, and the power of Linux. Some of these, I may present in throughout this paper. The purpose to this paper is to inform the average user about what is in the field, what Computer Engineers do, as well as the powerful research and impact of the field. By the end of this paper, I hope you have a beginner’s expertise on the implications of this widely known field.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[59] **viXra:1511.0207 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-30 12:35:23*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Computer Engineering requires you to know a vast array of programming languages, as well as utilizing different technologies in order to design hardware, or manage databases. It can often be identified as the cross between Information Technology and Electrical Engineering. What I learned is that you don’t have to only know C and C++, but you will also be required to learn more, especially working into the Hardware, Software, and Database side. Softwares you need to be familiar with include Visual Studio, and sometimes Open Source technologies. All in all I learned a great deal of knowledge from the people in which I talked to. I learned that Computer Engineering and related fields, have an impact on technological advancements, as well as making the world an easier place to live. I learned the overall power of different subjects in the fields such as utilizing UML language, Blockchain Technology, Javascript, Python, and the power of Linux. Some of these, I may present in throughout this paper. The purpose to this paper is to inform the average user about what is in the field, what Computer Engineers do, as well as the powerful research and impact of the field. By the end of this paper, I hope you have a beginner’s expertise on the implications of this widely known field.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[58] **viXra:1510.0473 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-15 06:17:06*

**Authors:** Kurt Mehlhorn, Sanjeev Saxena

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Linear programming is now included in algorithm undergraduate
and postgraduate courses for computer science majors. We give
a self-contained treatment of an interior-point method which
is particularly tailored to the typical mathematical background
of CS students. In particular, only limited knowledge of linear
algebra and calculus is assumed.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[57] **viXra:1510.0325 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-26 07:00:37*

**Authors:** Jesse Read, Luca Martino Jaakko Hollmén

**Comments:** 29 Pages. (accepted: to appear) Pattern Recognition

The number of methods available for classification of multi-label data has increased rapidly over recent years, yet relatively few links have been made with the related task of classification of sequential data. If labels indices are considered as time indices, the problems can often be seen as equivalent. In this paper we detect and elaborate on connections between multi-label methods and Markovian models, and study the suitability of multi-label methods for prediction in sequential data. From this study we draw upon the most suitable techniques from the area and develop two novel competitive approaches which can be applied to either kind of data. We carry out an empirical evaluation investigating performance on real-world sequential-prediction tasks: electricity demand, and route prediction. As well as showing that several popular multi-label algorithms are in fact easily applicable to sequencing tasks, our novel approaches, which benefit from a unified view of these areas, prove very competitive against established methods.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[56] **viXra:1509.0259 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-01 16:55:57*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Claes G. Granqvist

**Comments:** 8 Pages. submitted for journal publication

We introduce two new Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key distribution schemes which are generalizations of the original KLJN scheme. The first of these, the Random-Resistor (RR–) KLJN scheme, uses random resistors with values chosen from a quasi-continuum set. It is well-known since the creation of the KLJN concept that such a system could work in cryptography, because Alice and Bob can calculate the unknown resistance value from measurements, but the RR–KLJN system has not been addressed in prior publications since it was considered impractical. The reason for discussing it now is the second scheme, the Random-Resistor–Random-Temperature (RRRT–) KLJN key exchange, inspired by a recent paper of Vadai, Mingesz and Gingl, wherein security was shown to be maintained at non-zero power flow. In the RRRT–KLJN secure key exchange scheme, both the resistances and their temperatures are continuum random variables. We prove that the security of the RRRT–KLJN scheme can prevail at non-zero power flow, and thus the physical law guaranteeing security is not the Second Law of Thermodynamics but the Fluctuation–Dissipation Theorem. Alice and Bob know their own resistances and temperatures and can calculate the resistance and temperature values at the other end of the communication channel from measured voltage, current and power-flow data in the wire. However, Eve cannot determine these values because, for her, there are four unknown quantities while she can set up only three equations. The RRRT–KLJN scheme has several advantages and makes all former attacks on the KLJN scheme invalid or incomplete.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms