Economics and Finance

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[164] viXra:1710.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-15 14:47:30

Salary Fluctuation Theory

Authors: Chuanli Chen
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this paper, based on my previous price theory, I will put forward my own labor market price determination theory, I will discuss the determination of price under different situations.
Category: Economics and Finance

[163] viXra:1710.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-16 01:23:27

Interest Theory

Authors: Chuanli Chen
Comments: 15 Pages.

In this paper I will put forward my own interest theory. I will discuss the factors that could influence the real interest rate. I will discuss the relationship between the interest, money supply and money demand.
Category: Economics and Finance

[162] viXra:1710.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-11 05:15:07

The 'Babylonian' Accounts of Society

Authors: Stephen I. Ternyik
Comments: 1 Page.

The accounts of society reviewed.
Category: Economics and Finance

[161] viXra:1710.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-06 10:06:17

The Determination Theory of Supply and Demand

Authors: Chuanli Chen
Comments: 5 Pages.

Whether the supply creates its own demand or the demand determines the supply has been a debate for one hundred years. In this paper, I will write my own perspective. I will analyze how the demand and supply interact with each other.
Category: Economics and Finance

[160] viXra:1710.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-05 06:49:29

Avaliação de Glebas

Authors: Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia
Comments: 22 Pages. Areas Value Update of the excellent work of Eng. Hélio de Caires including the Vantage of the thing done (Vcf) and corrections due to the current legislation

Avaliação de Glebas Atualização do excelente trabalho do Eng. Hélio de Caires incluindo a Vantagem da coisa feita (Vcf) e correções devido à legislação atual
Category: Economics and Finance

[159] viXra:1708.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 23:00:16

木币:一种为长寿命和稳定性而建立的点对点电子货币

Authors: Funkenstein the Dwarf, Difei Zhang
Comments: Pages.

我们在这里概述木币的设计考虑和实施,特别是与其他加密货币相区别的 部分。木币是一种非常像比特币的加密货币。然而,比特币的设计是明确地将 一种不可再生资源(黄金)做成了模型。对于木币,我们更加密切地将可持续 资源做成模型。特别是木币可以避免比特币释放模型中时间的不对称性,最大 限度地激励货币的参与和延长货币的使用寿命。我们的解决方案能使货币供应 量成对数增长。此外,我们概述了在核心协议中两个其他更改后的设计考虑: 使用Skein哈希函数进行挖掘,并利用椭圆曲线数字签名算法(ECDSA)的 X9_prime256v1曲线来确保数字所有权
Category: Economics and Finance

[158] viXra:1707.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-27 00:56:30

Economic Crisis from Another Perspective

Authors: Chuanli Chen
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper, I will mainly discuss about the economic crisis from another view, the view from flow of money.
Category: Economics and Finance

[157] viXra:1707.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-09 16:28:40

Money Whirling Flow and Keynesian

Authors: Chuanli Chen
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper, I will make use of the Keynes theory to describe the money flow in the free market. I will build a new model based on the Keynes’ model. Then I will use the model to explain how the stagnation occur.
Category: Economics and Finance

[156] viXra:1707.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-09 16:29:33

The Economic Crisis Model Under Whirling Flow of Money

Authors: Chuanli Chen
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper, I will briefly discuss about the formation of an economic crisis during the movement of free market. I will describe the whole process in a simple way. To make things more easy to understand, I won’t use any math models, which will only make the process more complex.
Category: Economics and Finance

[155] viXra:1705.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-25 10:44:59

Price Uncertainty Principle

Authors: Chuanli Chen
Comments: 13 Pages.

In modern economy science, there are many theories that discuss the equilibrium. This convention was originally come from two famous economists Walras and Afred Marshall. Walras firstly finished the general equilibrium theory in 1874 in the book the mere economics to iustice. While Afred Marshall put forward the partial equilibrium in 1920. However, by observance, there was never the evidence for the existence of equilibrium. In this paper, I will put forward a new theory, which is named Price Uncertainty Principle. I will point out the flaws of these two equilibrium theories and discuss why the price mechanism is not the invisible hand, then further discuss why partial equilibrium and general equilibrium are not existent. I will prove that there is no equilibrium point for the price and prices are always fluctuant in the market.
Category: Economics and Finance

[154] viXra:1705.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-09 21:10:38

Market Whirling Theory

Authors: Chuanli Chen
Comments: 29 Pages.

In modern world there are many theories which explain the economy crisis and economy cyclical changes, however, most of them are not so perfect to explain many phenomenon happened in the history. In this paper, I will put forward a new theory and model that can explain the economy crisis and economy cyclical changes as well as giving policies on how to avoid economy crisis. My paper will analyze the direction of currency flow in the free market and explain why the market is whirling all the time. It will also discuss the relation between money flow speed and GDP, explaining why accelerating the speed of money flow in the market can make a country rich.
Category: Economics and Finance

[153] viXra:1705.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-03 23:00:35

Quantum Political Economics

Authors: Erman ZENG
Comments: 12 Pages.

The mathematical characterization of “the Productive Force” of a macro economic system is based on Newtonian mechanics and quantum physics, which is expressed as the product of the growth rate of the profit rate (p) and the surplus value (M), showing several quantum qualities similar to the photon. The one-dimensional linear harmonic oscillator model can correlate the angular frequency with the change rate of the rate of profit thus with the economic growth rate, resulting to the quantum-like interpretation of various business cycles. The matrix mechanics analysis of the Leontief input-output table gives the Schrodinger-like value-price transformation eigen-function, with the reduced organic composite of capital as the eigenvalue of the price wave function, leading to the "two Cambridge controversy" resolved.
Category: Economics and Finance

[152] viXra:1704.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 23:07:54

Smart Wheelchair

Authors: Amit singh, Ravi Kumar Gupta, Aishwarya rajak, Harish Chand Pal
Comments: 5 Pages.

Automatic wheelchair for disabled person
Category: Economics and Finance

[151] viXra:1704.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-11 02:59:06

Quantum Mechanics, Information and Knowledge, All Aspects of Fractal Geometry and Revealed in an Understanding of Marginal Economics.

Authors: Blair D. Macdonald
Comments: 56 Pages.

Fractal geometry is found universally and is said to be one of the best descriptions of our reality – from clouds and trees, to market price behaviour. As a fractal structure emerges – the repeating of a simple rule – it appears to share direct properties familiar to classical economics, including production, consumption, and equilibrium. This paper was an investigation into whether the mathematical principles behind ‘the market’ – known as marginalism – is an aspect or manifestation of a fractal geometry or attractor. Total and marginal areas (assumed to stand for utility) and the cost of production were graphed as the fractal grew and compared to a classical interpretation of diminishing marginal utility theory, and the market supply and demand. PED and PES was also calculated and analysed with respect to (iteration) time and decay. It was found the fractal attractor demonstrates properties and best models classical economic theory and from this it was deduced the market is a fractal attractor phenomenon where all properties are inextricably linked. The fractal, at equilibrium, appears to be a convergent – zeta function – series, able to be described by Fourier analysis, and involves Pi, i, e, 0, and 1 (of Euler’s identity) in one model. It also demonstrated growth, development, evolution and Say’s Law – production before consumption. Insights from the fractal on knowledge and knowing are also revealed, with implications on the question of what exactly is ‘science’ – and what is ‘art’? A connect between reality and quantum mechanics was identified. It was concluded marginal, classical economics is an aspect of a universal fractal geometry.
Category: Economics and Finance

[150] viXra:1703.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-20 14:27:14

Naive Risk Parity Portfolio with Fractal Estimation of Volatility

Authors: Sergey Kamenshchikov, Ilya Drozdov
Comments: 5 Pages.

A fractal approach to long-only portfolio optimization is proposed. The quantitative system is based on naive risk parity approach. The core of the optimization scheme is a fractal distribution of returns, applied to estimation of the volatility law. Out-of-sample performance data has been represented in ten period of observation with half year and one year horizons. Implementation of fractal estimator of volatility improves all performance metrics of portfolio in comparison to the standard estimator of volatility. The efficiency of fractal estimator plays a significant protective role for the periods of market abnormal volatility and drawdowns, which allows beating the market in the long term perspective. The provided results may be useful for a wide range of quantitative investors, including hedge funds, rob-advisors and retail investors.
Category: Economics and Finance

[149] viXra:1702.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-14 19:23:54

From Labor Theory of Value to Price EigenFunction ---Microfoundation of General Equilibrium

Authors: Erman ZENG
Comments: 12 Pages.

The quantitative Marxian function system is developed on the basis of the labor theory of value as the micro foundation resulting labour value function, surplus value function, Marx production function. The heterogeneous capital aggregation problem is overcome by value transformation analysis of Leontief intermediate input coefficient matrix leading to production price eigenvectors and Marx-Sraffa-Leontief General Equilibrium eigenvalues thus the details about an economic system such as the reduced organic composite of capital, the rate of profit, the surplus rate of value, the elasticity of capital output. The falling tendency of the rate of profit may not be true if the economy undergoes a general equilibrium.
Category: Economics and Finance

[148] viXra:1702.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-03 17:50:53

8 Point Executive Summary: Math Stagnations and the Economic Impacts of Mmu1 to End the Math Poverty Multiple Times Faster with Mmu1 Than Without it (Then to Achieve the Post-2015 Goals of the un Multiple Time Faster Than Without Mmu1)

Authors: Dongchan Lee
Comments: 8 Pages. version 6 from February 3, 2017

Highlight summary and solutions by Dongchan Lee with MMU1 for the developed or Latin countries. 1)There have been ongoing math education collapses or stagnations in most English-speaking and Latin American countries. (To see is to believe.) So I provided some data from PISA 2000-2015 and TIMSS 1995-2015 (as these two are basically the Olympics and the World Cup of the largest, international education assessments) as they are standardized & normalized. 2)According to these data of the past 20 years, which is more than enough to show the math EDU stagnations, the chances for the rapid improvements for the next 10-20 years are extremely slim no matter what the MOEs or DOEs of these countries try as these countries have spent normally 5-7% of GDP annually for education and still increasing the costs. 3)In almost all English-speaking or Latin American countries, their gains have been lopsided for the Reading skills much higher than the Math skills, especially compared to the EDU and economic power houses of 5-7 Eastern Asian countries. This has the significant economic impacts. This alone has ½-2/3 of the impacts of the EDU as a whole. 4)Education costs lost for no progress for 15-20 years is on par with the national debt size: 6% of GDP per year x 20 years ~ 120% of the annual real GDP cumulatively (for almost all the English-speaking nations, e.g. the U.S.A.) ~ is on par with the sovereign debts of these nations, and the lost costs will continue increasing over the next 10-20 years and beyond. 5)Even in just 10-15 years alone, after reducing math poverty in 2-4 years with MMU1, the surplus gains are larger than the entire annual national education cost (about 5-6% of GDP). 6)Lee’s mantra: to end the math poverty is to end the poverty: in most OECD nations, math poverty is about 20-30% of the student population. In most Latin America, 50-90% of the student population have the math poverty. They mean the lost economy of dozens of times of the current real GDP (per capita) of almost all OECD (more for Latin American countries).
Category: Economics and Finance

[147] viXra:1701.0485 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-13 17:18:21

[preliminary by Dongchan Lee] What Pisa Timss 2015 Show_global Math Edu Crisis and Its Economic Impacts

Authors: Dongchan Lee
Comments: 54 Pages. 1st draft in PPT based pdf form

The recent releases of the PISA 2015 and TIMSS 2015 math results showed clearly that most of the developed countries are in math EDU growths in stagnations or collapses. Lee demonstrated the overall math score history of both TIMSS and PISA 1995-2015 for 15-20 years and what the stagnations mean for the future economies of these nations and what are the concrete alternatives to overcome the past 1-2 decades' of the math education stagnations.
Category: Economics and Finance

[146] viXra:1701.0470 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-11 17:54:52

Why the Top 5-6 Original Oil Richest Arab Countries as Well as Some Fast Moving Coginitive Skill Nations Should be Treated as Outliers in the Regression Analyses for the Relationships Between the Economic Growths Vs. the Cognitive Skills

Authors: Dongchan Lee
Comments: 9 Pages. 1st draft

In this short paper, I demonstrated that why the top 5-6 original oil richest countries need to be excluded from most of the socio-economic vs. cognitive skill regressions because they will remain as outliers far too much out to the otherwise very reliable and stable regression growth coefficients and explanation powers of the models involved. I included some simple linear regression charts where they are far out in North West corners of the regression lines; their GDP per capita had reached the top tier of the world by the 70s already with the minimal cognitive skills and education inputs; I provided their relative economic strength compared to the economic miracle powers from the Eastern Asia: 4 Asian Tigers and China so that you can see their super rapid rises were all due to their oil-based economies; their top 6 shares of the Natural Resource rents as percent of capita over the past 40 years. I believe that these 4 key factors may allow anyone serious about any serious regressions that involve the socio-economic regressions to exclude these 5-6 countries in their analysis. Finally I made a brief comment about the polar opposite to these countries with the poor economy with the rapid gains of the cognitive skills.
Category: Economics and Finance

[145] viXra:1701.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-06 02:06:16

Introducing Marx General Equilibrium Economics

Authors: Erman ZENG
Comments: 44 Pages.

This research attempts to place the formal Sraffian model with linear production sets into a general equilibrium framework and to derive a quantitative transformation theorem about Marxian theory of labor value and production price. Marxian reproduction solution established a dynamic general economic equilibrium, which can be characterized by input-output ratio, namely, the reduced Organic Composite of Capital divided by the total productivity rate. The labor value thus the value rate of profit (ROP) can be determined from the production price by the use of the input-output matrix analysis. The increased value ROP and the decreased price ROP of USA around 2006/2007 revealed that there was an OCC reduction. Under the framework of the dynamic Marxian general equilibrium, it is possible to undergo an optimal planning about an economic system by the regulation of the government input, entrepreneur taxation, and minimal wage rate. In the first part of this paper, a neoclassical framework is proposed which places the Marxian conceptions of both Constant Capital and Variable Capital into a Cobb-Douglas production function like model in order to obtain the mathematical formulations of Marx labour value functionand Marx surplus value function as well as Marx production function, which leads to the Marxian 1st theorem about technical progress:. In the second part, the general equilibrium properties of the quantitative Marxian productivity theories are investigated by using variation method. The Marxian 2nd theorem about dynamic equilibrium asserts, there is a input-output equilibrium existed in the reproduction process between Two Departments; The Marxian 3rd theorem states that only equilibrium growth leads to the positive value of the productivity parameter which is defined as the product of the change rate of the organic composite of capital with the labor output elasticity of Cobb-Douglas production function[], as well as the rising rate of profit. The present paper is also a generalization of the precise conditions under which the profit rate rises or falls. Only when an economic system achieves the Marxian equilibrium including its each production Department, there would be no business cycle; otherwise there exists some potential crisis. At last, an econo-sociological Marxism model is proposed as a criterion for a regional optimal economic growth.
Category: Economics and Finance

[144] viXra:1612.0191 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-10 06:25:26

Fractal Optimization as Generator of Market Neutral Long-Short Portfolio

Authors: Sergey Kamenshchikov, Iliy Drozdov
Comments: 7 Pages. Accepted in Quantitative Finance

A fractal approach to the long-short portfolio optimization is proposed. The algorithmic system based on the composition of market-neutral spreads into a single entity has been considered. The core of the optimization scheme is a fractal walk model of returns, modifying a risk aversion according to the investment horizon. The covariance matrix of spread returns has been used for the optimization and modified according to the Hurst stability analysis. Out-of-sample performance data has been represented for the space of exchange traded funds in five period time period of observation. The considered portfolio system has turned out to be statistically more stable than a passive investment into benchmark with higher risk adjusted cumulative return.
Category: Economics and Finance

[143] viXra:1612.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 09:24:25

Fractal Optimization of Market Neutral Portfolio

Authors: Sergey Kamenshchikov, Ilia Drozdov
Comments: 7 Pages. Accepted in Quantitative Finance

A fractal approach to the long-short portfolio optimization is proposed. The algorithmic system based on the composition of market-neutral spreads into a single entity has been considered. The core of the optimization scheme is a fractal walk model of returns, modifying a risk aversion according to the investment horizon. The covariance matrix of spread returns has been used for the optimization and modified according to the Hurst stability analysis. Out-of-sample performance data has been represented for the space of exchange traded funds in five period time period of observation. The considered portfolio system has turned out to be statistically more stable than a passive investment into benchmark with higher risk adjusted cumulated return.
Category: Economics and Finance

[142] viXra:1611.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-17 16:01:10

Game of Tradeoffs: Beyond Imaginary Games, Bargaining in General, and Games with Games

Authors: Arthur Shevenyonov
Comments: 5 Pages. generalized games

The proposed approach generalizes beyond the no cooperative versus cooperative game dichotomy
Category: Economics and Finance

[141] viXra:1611.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-16 09:54:08

Emerging Asset Networks: A Model of Comovement

Authors: Arthur Shevenyonov
Comments: 40 Pages. be the judge of it

An unabridged and original version of the preceding summary.
Category: Economics and Finance

[140] viXra:1611.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-15 13:03:45

Implied Intra-Industry Trade in Information: Modified Expositions

Authors: Arthur Shevenyonov
Comments: 4 Pages. new microfoundations

Trade in information is inherently implicit--more so for intra-industry setups giving rise to modified HOS as well as to ordual underpinning, aside from hands-on applications.
Category: Economics and Finance

[139] viXra:1611.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-15 14:21:08

[Emerging] Asset Networks: A Microfoundations Model of Comovement

Authors: Arthur Shevenyonov
Comments: 13 Pages. new microfoundations

The present theoretical framework capture comovement beyond Shleifer & Barberis (2003) while bridging in an early effort areas as diverse as, Strategic Rationality, Ordinalcy, and Residuality.
Category: Economics and Finance

[138] viXra:1611.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-13 08:57:49

Game of Trade: A Portfolio Approach to Theorizing on Trade & Investment as Entangled Domains

Authors: Arthur Shevenyonov
Comments: 5 Pages. new micro- & int'l economics foundations

A new trade theory or social-planning paradigm is proposed merging portfolio- and game-theoretic accounts.
Category: Economics and Finance

[137] viXra:1611.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-09 04:55:11

An Early Contribution to Vector Maximisation of De Finetti

Authors: Ate Nieuwenhuis
Comments: 9 Pages. 5 color figures

An achievement of De Finetti for which he has received little recognition thus far is his contribution to the field of vector maximisation in two articles published in 1937, Problemi di "optimum" and Problemi di "optimum" vincolato. The speech will put his contribution in historical perspective and will discuss its importance for economic theory.
Category: Economics and Finance

[136] viXra:1610.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-07 02:10:44

Where Has All the Surplus Gone?

Authors: Stephen I. Ternyik
Comments: 1 Page.

The dissapearance of gained surplus value into economic rent is analyzed.
Category: Economics and Finance

[135] viXra:1608.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-29 10:48:36

Sentiment Analysis of Twitter Data and the Efficient Market Hypothesis

Authors: Alexandre Bénétreau
Comments: -The thesis is in English, apart from the title page which contains bits of French (it is a thesis defended at a French uni).-Pages: 27. -Licence: This thesis is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License.

This thesis discusses the claim of 16 computational finance articles according to which it is possible to predict the stock market using sentiment analysis of social media data. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether this is indeed true or not. In economic theory, the efficient market hypothesis states that markets are not predictable, that they follow a random walk and that irrational behaviour cancels out in the aggregate. However, behavioural economics research shows that investors are in fact subject to predictable biases which affect the markets. This study uses data from the WeFeel project that analyses tweets in English to infer social mood on a world scale. It also uses data from the Wilshire 5000 index from June 2014 to March 2015. The hypothesis is that changes in aggregate mood arousal mediate stock market fluctuations. Yet linear regression shows that there is no relation between emotional arousal and the stock market, nor between primary emotions and the stock market. Hence, the conclusion is that global social sentiment as derived from social media has no relation with stock market fluctuations. Further research may better focus on social media specialised in the stock markets, such a finance micro-blogging data. Keywords: sentiment analysis, efficient market hypothesis, social networks, computational finance, behavioural finance, stock market, emotion recognition, stock market prediction, social sentiment, behavioural economics
Category: Economics and Finance

[134] viXra:1607.0494 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-26 23:08:17

Consideration of a Possible Self-Regulating Algorithm for Fiscal Appraisal of Private Property

Authors: Nikolay Kazak
Comments: 4 Pages.

With the advent of significant property taxation in Russia a need for accurate and timely property appraisal was realized. The paper attempts to propose a self-regulating market algorithm that would leave the freedom of assessment in the hands of the owner. Possible abuses of the algorithm and remedies are discussed at the end of the paper.
Category: Economics and Finance

[133] viXra:1607.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-02 21:20:54

Innovation and Distribution in Modelling an Inequality Trap: Availability of Data

Authors: Piero Benazzo
Comments: 27 Pages.

Growing literature assesses inequality would drag effective demand in the economy, acting as a main causation factor of the contemporary economic recession cycle. The debate would remain open because such causation would remain hidden within the current macroeconomic representation and underneath the aggregation of the available statistical data. The aim is to investigate an alternative framework intended to contribute in disentangling such hidden dynamics. This considers total factor productivity and the level of inequality as macroeconomic factors of production and demand, rather than capital and labour. The analysis discusses an inequality trap and availability of statistical data appropriate to the modelling proposed. This would provide considerations for extracting inequality data conform to the modelling and show finding certain data for such equations is challenging.
Category: Economics and Finance

[132] viXra:1607.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-02 03:56:33

Quantitative Labor Theory of Value

Authors: Erman ZENG
Comments: 12 Pages.

This research attempts to place the formal Sraffian model with linear production sets into a general equilibrium framework and to derive a quantitative transformation theorem about Marxian theory of labor value and production price. Marxian reproduction solution established a dynamic general economic equilibrium, which can be characterized by input-(total) output ratio, namely, the reduced Organic Composite of Capital divided by the total productivity rate. The labor value thus the value rate of profit (ROP) can be determined from the production price by the use of the input-output matrix analysis. The increased value ROP and the decreased price ROP of USA around 2006/2007 revealed that there was an OCC reduction. Under the framework of the dynamic Marxian general equilibrium, it is possible to undergo an optimal planning about an economic system by the regulation of the government input, entrepreneur taxation, and minimal wage rate.
Category: Economics and Finance

[131] viXra:1607.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-01 12:58:35

Woodcoin: Una Moneda Electrónica Descentralizada Construida Para Ser Viable Y Estable

Authors: Funkenstein the Dwarf
Comments: 5 Pages. thanks!

Presentamos aquí las consideraciones e implementaciones de diseño del woodcoin, en concreto aquellas que la diferencias de otras cripto-monedas. El woodcoin es una cripto-moneda muy similar al Bitcoin. Sin embargo el modelo en el que se basa el bitcoin es el de un recurso no renovable como el oro. Para el Woodcoin hemos elegido un modelo más sostenible. Concretamente el woodcoin evita las asimetrías del modelo de emisión del bitcoin, maximizando el incentivo para participar y la longevidad al mismo tiempo. Además hemos añadido otros dos cambios al código del núcleo: minado con la función hash skein y la propiedad digital asegurada con la curva X9_prime256v1 usando ECDSA.
Category: Economics and Finance

[130] viXra:1605.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-14 17:46:41

On Certain Aspects of American Economics Relevant to 2016

Authors: Jonathan Tooker
Comments: 19 Pages.

This paper seeks to shine a light on some glaring economic problems of contemporary society. Too often economic issues are framed in the context of moral wedges that divide people. Here we select issues for discussion that likely can be solved and do not strictly require the resolution of any difficult moral quandaries. We show that certain popular debates are not so interesting because sufficient evidence exists to identify the relevant premises as true and false. We suggest an economic program based in part on hypothetical new energy resources that should guide the United States and the Earth's other national states towards a more equitable valley in the space of all economic configurations. This paper is intended to be persuasive and not purely expository.
Category: Economics and Finance

[129] viXra:1604.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-28 08:38:28

Financial Development for Economic Growth in Nigeria

Authors: Uyiosa Omoregie
Comments: 14 Pages.

A country’s financial system facilitates economic growth by ensuring that funds are available when and where they are required. The provision of alternative financing windows available to operators in the real sector is dependent on the structure of the financial system is place. The Government can ensure (through polices put forward) that transparency and fairness is the norm in the financial sector, this will go a long way towards sustainable economic growth in Nigeria. The financial sector that creates sustainable economic growth must be resilient and strong, with institutional development as a priority, this sector must facilitate fund mobilization for the low-income people to increase and stabilize their income and assets. An investment-friendly interest rate regime (single digit) is a pre-requisite to economic growth in Nigeria, because it would encourage lower costs of borrowing and credit expansion. Tax incentives policies must be maintained to encourage large-scale investment in the economy.
Category: Economics and Finance

[128] viXra:1604.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-15 16:02:15

Sdru and Technology Analysis and Forecasting on the Basis of the 3D Maps of the Probability of Future Transactions. (Ru)

Authors: A.Antipin
Comments: 13 Pages.

SdRu и технология анализа и прогнозирования на основе 3D Карт вероятности будущих сделок. А.Антипинrelief-ds@mail.ru Данная статья является непосредственным продолжением статьи [2]. В этой статье мы рассматриваем вопрос о представлении информации с помощью величины SdRu (нетто разницы вложений в покупку/ продажу) в виде 3D Карт условной вероятности будущих сделок. Рассматривается их связь с аналогичными 3D Картами для цены R (описанными в [1]), а также общие принципы использования Карт для анализа и прогнозирования. 9 рис. = = = = = = = = A.Antipinrelief-ds@mail.ru Abstract This article is a direct continuation of the article [2]. In this article we consider the question of providing information using the SdRu value (net difference of investments purchase/ sale) in the form of 3D Maps of conditional probability of future transactions. Discusses their relation to similar 3D Maps for the prices R (described in [1]), as well as General principles of using Maps for analysis and forecasting. 9 fig.
Category: Economics and Finance

[127] viXra:1603.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-21 15:01:22

The Immediate Cause of Price Changes of the Shares on the Stock Market. (Ru)

Authors: A.Antipin
Comments: 14 Pages. НА РУССКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ. IN THE RUSSIAN LANGUAGE.

НА РУССКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ. IN THE RUSSIAN LANGUAGE. In this article, the author intended to demonstrate and reinforce the facts conclusion that the immediate cause of Price movements in the stock market is the change in the magnitude SdRu - a net difference of amounts of purchases and sales of shares at a given moment of time. --------------------------------------- В данной статье, автор ставит своей задачей продемонстрировать и подкрепить фактами вывод о том, что непосредственной причиной движения цен на биржевом рынке акций, является изменение величины SdRu - нетто разницы сумм покупок и продаж актива в рассматриваемый момент времени.
Category: Economics and Finance

[126] viXra:1602.0295 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-23 04:41:01

Sustainable Economic Development Through Environmental Management Systems Implementation

Authors: Mădălina Giorgiana Mangra, Elena Antoanela Cotoc, Aurelia Trăistaru
Comments: 14 Pages.

Environmental Management protects valuable environmental assets, manages local areas on the most suitable way and develops relationships between people and the natural environment. Organizations are increasingly concerned to achieve and demonstrate environmental performance, controlling their activities, products or services on the environment. These issues are enrolled in the legislation context more and more stringent, of the development of economic policies and other measures designed to encourage environmental protection, increase business concern on environmental issues, including sustainable economic development. Thus, the complex systems of the integrated management (environmental, quality, security, energy) provide the circumstance for continuous improvement of industrial performance, including product quality and prevention and reducing environmental pollution. EMS implementation requires a thorough regard of some phases (stages) characteristic of the environmental analysis performed by an organization. The 19 stages of EMS implementation outline the steps that the organization follows to develop an effective environmental policy.
Category: Economics and Finance

[125] viXra:1602.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-15 12:23:52

Economics Crisis Loop. Redemption

Authors: Antip Poletaev
Comments: 5 Pages.

For those who are still in "tanks" we summarize the way of Redemption from Economics Crisis Loop.
Category: Economics and Finance

[124] viXra:1602.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-14 17:11:37

On Chumponomics

Authors: Funkenstein the Dwarf
Comments: 5 Pages. Previously published on frass.woodcoin.org

This article began with the title "Fiat economics". This however seemed like too much of an oxymoron to leave in place. "Fiat dynamics" was briefly the title as well. The subject is the diffusion of monetary tokens amongst participants in a monetary system. For etymology of the title see [1,2]. Here we derive fundamental equations for a diffusive monetary system but are stopped short of further progress or conclusions due to the nature of the monetary system in question.
Category: Economics and Finance

[123] viXra:1602.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-14 17:26:39

Woodcoin: Eine Elektronische Peer-to-Peer-Währung, Erschaffen Für Stabilität Und Langlebigkeit

Authors: Funkenstein the Dwarf, Kilian Kunst
Comments: 5 Pages. thank you!

Wir beschreiben hier die Überlegungen zum Design von Woodcoin, sowie dessen Implementierung, mit Fokus auf den Eigenschaften, welche Woodcoin von anderen Kryptowährungen abgrenzen. Ähnlich wie Bitcoin ist Woodcoin eine Kryptowährung. Jedoch ist Bitcoin so entworfen, dass es einer nicht erneuerbaren Ressource gleicht: Gold. Woodcoin hingegen gleicht eher einer nachhaltigen Ressource. Insbesondere verhindert Woodcoin zeitliche Asymmetrien welche bei Bitcoin durch seinen Schöpfungsmechanismus auftreten. Dadurch wird ein Anreiz zur Partizipation, geschaffen, sowie die Langlebigkeit von Woodcoin gewährleistet. Unsere Lösung basiert auf einem logarithmischen Wachstum der Geldmenge. Zusätzlich skizzieren wir die Gestaltungsüberlegungen hinter den beiden anderen Änderungen des Kernprotokolls: Mining mit der Skein-Hash-Funktion, sowie die Absicherung von digitalem Besitz mithilfe der X9_prime256v1 Kurve durch ECDSA.
Category: Economics and Finance

[122] viXra:1602.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-10 13:32:50

Building Information Society

Authors: Ivan Gudkov
Comments: 4 Pages.

We give the explanation how modern economics works in the reality. It is a circular economics that is rotating counter clock-wise direction pumping money-goods in order to squeeze more money. It is rotating because there is a delta in information known to someone who rotates it.
Category: Economics and Finance

[121] viXra:1602.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-09 02:55:37

Economical Crisis. Black and White Holes Approach

Authors: Nikolaj Sporysh
Comments: 3 Pages.

This paper shows another way in analyzing economical crisis utilizing existing theory from physics. The economics consists of number of players (people), environment (media, personal contacts, resources, money, land and etc) and some mechanisms (government, business, organizations and etc). Black hole is a player or mechanism that consumes more energy than gives and smashes players by increasing the environmental pressure P. White hole is a player or mechanism that gives more energy than consumes and never smashes any player. We prove that any Computer Company is a Black hole. We show why Economical crisis exists – there are Black holes and the number of rules in any organization grows.
Category: Economics and Finance

[120] viXra:1601.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-12 21:46:39

A Signals and Systems Based Study of the Share Data of Ibm and Identification of Patterns Corresponding to Remuneration Policy Changes

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 106 Pages.

Globalization, international trade and technology development have largely increased the complexity of management of large organizations such as IBM. As IBM faces a major restructuring phase in early 2014, a clear shift of paradigm is essential to frame policies and management decisions more effectively. This is when contemporary management theories such as systems theories and chaos theories lend a helping hand. They provide concepts and visualizations that can be effectively used for the modeling and understanding of the complexity, growth and dynamic evolution of such large organizations. The present project purports to the formulation of an effective analysis methodology based in systems theory and chaos theory that will help the management make effective and informed decisions. As a starting step, the basic concepts of signals and systems are reviewed, and special attention is devoted to special systems such as chaotic systems. Following this, a signals and systems based model of a large organization such as IBM is proposed. This model takes into account the primary source of assets, the primary source of revenue and finance, and the interrelations between them. Using this model as a platform, the formulation of an analysis method is attempted. To this end, a thorough study of the various standards and metrics used in systems theory and chaos theory are considered. Based on this an analysis method is formulated. This analysis method enables analyzing the output signal such as the share revenue data and understanding the patterns and trends occurring therein. The analysis formulation comprises of three categories: 1. Temporal Analysis: Time Series, Phase Portrait and Multiscale Analysis. 2. Spectral Analysis: Magnitude Spectrum, Polar Plot and Spatial Distribution. 3. Nonlinear Analysis: Lyapunov Exponent, Fractal Dimension and Kolmogorov Entropy. To evaluate and validate the analysis methodology formulated, four case studies are considered, These case studies correspond to significant events in the recent policy making history of IBM. The case studies are as follows: 1. Acquisition of Cognos BI in 2007. 2. Announcement of hikes of around 20% in IBM India in 2011. 3. Layoffs and Global Restructuring Program, Q1 2014. 4. Declaration of Dividends, 2013. For each of the above cases, two suitable timeframes are selected: one before the event and one after. For both timeframes, the formulated analysis is conducted. The analysis results are mapped with the decisions and policies in each case, and suitable interpretations are obtained. These interpretations indicate how the share market responded to the decisions and declarations. Based on the analysis formulation and the case studies, the major inferences and the contributions of the analysis to the company management process are enumerated. The project enables the application of the contemporary systems and chaos theory to modeling an organization using the signals and systems approach, and formulation of analysis techniques to identify patterns and market response trends to company decisions and declarations. The minimal requirement of data and tools required for the analysis proposed form the major highlight of the present project. Thus, the present project is a testimony to the phrase “Transformation through Information”.
Category: Economics and Finance

[119] viXra:1601.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-07 12:02:09

Why Economical Crisis Never Ends?

Authors: Janis Belov
Comments: 1 Page.

We prove that World economical crisis never ends.
Category: Economics and Finance

[118] viXra:1601.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-07 12:05:18

Economics and Random Walks

Authors: Janis Belov
Comments: 2 Pages.

We show how random waalks can be used in economics and how to erase the closed circle of economical crisis.
Category: Economics and Finance

[117] viXra:1601.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-07 12:09:15

Unemployment, Innovations and Wealth

Authors: Janis Belov
Comments: 3 Pages.

We show that over time innovation abilities are flattened resulting in raise of unemployment and the distribution of world wealth to be a peak for one and zero for others.
Category: Economics and Finance

[116] viXra:1601.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-07 12:15:25

Society Egoism, Marasmus and Theory of Brownian Motion

Authors: Janis Belov
Comments: 1 Page.

Using Brownian Motion approach we show that if the egoism of one tends to infinity then the exchange in innovations tends to zero. We show that if inflexibility of a person mind tends to infinitty then the exchange in innovations tends to zero. That leads to Stagnation and eventually to Society Marasmus.
Category: Economics and Finance

[115] viXra:1601.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-07 12:18:34

Pensions, Economics Train Simulation

Authors: Janis Belov
Comments: 2 Pages.

We show that countries economics are like train that move faster and faster. Pensioners are the load (vagons). We show the way to find out when the load is cut off from the train because it is too heavy amd the train is not able to move as fast as needed.
Category: Economics and Finance

[114] viXra:1601.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-07 12:21:26

Pillow or Bank?

Authors: Janis Belov
Comments: 1 Page.

We prove that bank is Pitekantrop. Hence it is safer to put money under pillow.
Category: Economics and Finance

[113] viXra:1510.0432 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-27 21:25:25

Nonlinear Analysis and Chaotic Characterization in Annual GDP Growth Rates of National and Supranational Entities

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 15 Pages.

The Annual Growth Rate of Gross Domestic Product of an economy is often seen as a key indicator to the economy’s growth and prosperity. In the present work, nonlinear analysis is performed on the GDP growth data of nations and supranational entities using two key tools, namely Averaged Lyapunov Exponent (ALE) and Distance Plot. The analyses ascertain the presence of chaos in the GDP growth rate data for both nations and supranational entities. Following this, some key inferences from the nonlinear analysis are presented, such as the high value of ALE obtained for fragile and conflict ridden economies, indicating the relationship between ALE and instability, the ALE analysis of BRICS nations as well as low ALE values of supranational entities such as OECD and EU. It is opined that the obtained results pave the way for unlocking a wealth of information regarding GDP growth rates ushering in a new era of ‘Smart Economics’.
Category: Economics and Finance

[112] viXra:1510.0431 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-27 21:27:08

Behavioral Economics: What Can We Learn from the Shiva Sutras?

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 6 Pages.

Behavioral Economics, which essentially studies psychology, cognition and emotion in the context of economics, has proved that economics in the real world is not always with mathematical accuracy, predictability and clockwork precision. In an attempt to categorize the driving influences and biases underlying decisions made by people, the present article takes a leaf out of the Shiva Sutras, which essentially group the 51 Aksharas (Alphabets) of the Sanskrit language, each Akshara signifying a concept or mode of operation, into 14 categories or ‘worlds’. Essentially, the Aksharas form ‘alignments’ that drive people toward making economic and other decisions. Consequently, such a listing can be quantified using matrices and appropriate weights, thus bringing Behavioral Economics a step closer to becoming a quantifiable, deterministic study.
Category: Economics and Finance

[111] viXra:1510.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-25 08:10:04

Chaos Theory and Nonlinear Analysis for the Business Strategist

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 11 Pages.

The complex nature of the growing organization has in recent years necessitated a fundamental change towards management strategy and formation of policies. In this light, the present article focuses on the use of various tools and techniques of nonlinear analysis, including Time Series, Phase Portrait, Multiscale Analysis, Polar Plots, Largest Lyapunov Exponents, Fractal Dimension and Kolmogorov Entropy to analyze important data such as the share revenue and price, and draw conclusions to reveal key information about public sentiment and market trends. The management could potentially use this information towards effective formation of various policies such as compensation, dividend declarations and layoff operations.
Category: Economics and Finance

[110] viXra:1510.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-19 21:44:57

Introducing Marxian Productivity Development Economics

Authors: Erman ZENG
Comments: 20 Pages.

In the first part of this paper, a neoclassical framework is proposed which places the Marxian conceptions of both Constant Capital and Variable Capital into a Cobb-Douglas production function like model in order to obtain the mathematical formulations of Marx labour value function and Marx surplus value function as well as Marx production function , which leads to the Marxian 1st theorem about technical progress: . In the second part, the general equilibrium properties of the quantitative Marxian productivity theories are investigated by using variation method. The Marxian 2nd theorem about dynamic equilibrium asserts, there is a input-output equilibrium existed in the reproduction process between Two Departments ; The Marxian 3rd theorem states that only equilibrium growth leads to the positive value of the productivity parameter which is defined as the product of the change rate of the organic composite of capital with the labor output elasticity of Cobb-Douglas production function[ ], as well as the rising rate of profit. The present paper is also a generalization of the precise conditions under which the profit rate rises or falls. Only when an economic system achieves the Marxian equilibrium including its each production Department, there would be no business cycle; otherwise there exists some potential crisis. At last, an econo-sociological Marxism model is proposed as a criterion for a regional optimal economic growth.
Category: Economics and Finance

[109] viXra:1510.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-02 00:27:58

A Geonomic Reflection (Globalistics, Energetics, Geonomics)

Authors: Stephen I. Ternyik
Comments: 1 Page.

Introduction of a dynamic efficient calculation model of human economic productivity for physical sustainability (balancing human-nature-interaction).
Category: Economics and Finance

[108] viXra:1509.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-08 15:18:19

The Geonomic Point of View

Authors: Stephen I. Ternyik
Comments: 8 Pages.

The geonomic role of physical cyclicity is explained from the viewpoint of economic sustainability science.
Category: Economics and Finance

[107] viXra:1507.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-25 04:28:23

The New Economy: Initial Notes

Authors: Solo Blue
Comments: 32 Pages.

if we manage to understand the content of this document, perhaps our greatest dreams may appear very small in comparison with the world we can buid. but...are we capable of believing?
Category: Economics and Finance

[106] viXra:1507.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-11 14:23:05

Bifurcation Patterns of Market Regime Transition

Authors: Sergey Kamenshchikov
Comments: 16 Pages. This paper has been accepted in Quantitative Finance Journal

The goal of this research was applying a nonlinear approach to the detection of market regime transitions: mean reversion to momentum regimes and vice versa. It has been shown that the transition process has nonlinear scenarios: slow and fast bifurcations. Slow bifurcation assumes that control parameter is changing slowly in relation to the system characteristic time. Gradual absorption of information provides stability loss delay effect. Fast bifurcation has a discrete non equilibrium nature. Each transition from one attracting cycle to another one is preceded by passing through fixed point state – an effect of precatastophic stabilization exists. Two analytical methods have been developed for recognition of slow and fast bifurcation: R analysis and D analysis correspondingly. Combined R/D tool has been incorporated for analysis of world financial crisis of 2008. It turned out that R analysis is more convenient for long term investment while D analysis suggests middle- and short-term approach. R/D analysis has been applied as a filter for currency positional trading system. Slow and fast bifurcation patterns have been applied for the filtering of breakdown signals. Incorporation of a filter allowed to reduce twice the number of trades and to increase system efficiency, Calmar ratio, by seven times. R/D filter allowed decreasing sensitivity to volatility: duration of equity stagnation has fallen down to two months in relation to one year for the original breakdown system. It has been shown that R and D patterns may improve the long term efficiency and stability of a momentum quantitative trading model.
Category: Economics and Finance

[105] viXra:1506.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-22 15:13:41

Coin-Vote

Authors: Funkenstein the Dwarf
Comments: 5 Pages. Thank you

Coin-vote is a voting system for establishing opinion and resolving disputes amongst willing participants. Rather than using a traditional method of trying to tally one vote per person, it relies on a one vote per coin tally. This enables votes to be counted with provable security, as there are no longer the usual issues of identity fraud, counting fraud, or polling bias, which have plagued traditional polling systems. This document is meant to explain our platform and database for conducting coin-votes. We outline here security procedures and motivation for using the coin-vote system.
Category: Economics and Finance

[104] viXra:1505.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-31 12:16:48

Informational Money, Islamic Finance, and the Dismissal of Negative Interest Rates

Authors: Jan A. Bergstra
Comments: 24 Pages.

The so-called Islamic Finance Requirements induce the notion of an IFR-compliant financial system. IFR-compliance provides an axiomatic approach to Islamic finance. In order to deal with potential mismatches between IFR-compliance and Islamic principles, IFR-compliant financial systems are referred to as Crescent-Star finances and IFR serves as axioms for Crescent-Star finance (CSF). Literally following that approach negative interest rates are to be avoided in a Crescent-Star financial system just as well as positive interest rates. W.r.t. Islamic finance Crescent-Star finance may admit false positives, i.e. IFR-compliant models of finance that nevertheless fail to qualify as sound from an Islamic perspective, but there won't be false negatives. A weaker version CSFn of CSF is formulated which formally permits negative interest rates, and a strengthening CSFpls of CSF is defined in which it is always required that profit and loss sharing takes place in connection with lending. It is argued that if only informational money is taken into account, CSFn finance prevents the occurrence of negative interest rates. It is shown that the situation is quite different for physical monies. CSFpls finance excludes negative interest rates as well as positive interest rates.
Category: Economics and Finance

[103] viXra:1505.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-29 15:08:28

The Purpose of Culture, or Inception of Social Collision Theory

Authors: Aleksey Vaneev
Comments: 3 Pages.

This essay presents introductory concepts and philosophy of the “social collision theory” which may offer presumably calculable suggestions on what societal habits can be cultivated which produce a more diverse and economically extensive and efficient society, regardless of the country.
Category: Economics and Finance

[102] viXra:1505.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-17 09:14:57

Demonstrating Lorenz Wealth Distribution and Increasing Gini Coefficient with the Iterating (Koch Snowflake) Fractal Attractor.

Authors: Blair D. Macdonald
Comments: 11 Pages.

The Koch snowflake fractal attractor was analysed by Lorenz and Gini methods. It was found the fractal Lorenz curve fits the wealth (stock) distribution Lorenz curve. Gini coefficient analysis showed an increasing coefficient by iteration (time). It was concluded the Lorenz distribution is a property of the fractal and inextricably linked to (fractal) growth and development.
Category: Economics and Finance

[101] viXra:1505.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-13 02:52:57

Group Function of Income Distribution in Society

Authors: Sergey G. Fedosin
Comments: 17 Pages.

Based on the similarity of properties of photons and money, and on the formula for the density of distribution of photon gas by energies, the corresponding mathematical formula for distribution of annual income per capita is obtained. Application of this formula for the data analysis reveals several independent groups of population with different average levels of their income. In particular four main groups of population contribute to the distribution of income in the economy of the USA. JEL Codes: C51, E01, E66.
Category: Economics and Finance

[100] viXra:1505.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-11 06:26:34

Simulando Estratégias de Investimento no Mercado Brasileiro de Ações e Opções

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 57 Pages. My Course Conclusion Work, delivered in early 2009. In portuguese.

A presente monografia tem por objetivo decidir sobre qual a melhor estratégia a adotar em momentos de baixa, alta e oscilação do mercado, dentre algumas estratégias mais simples. Para isso simularemos operações de compra e venda utilizando preços reais das ações de 5 grandes empresas presentes na Bovespa: OGXP3, MMXM3, CSNA3, TNLP4 e PETR4. A OGXP3 será nosso modelo para o mercado em baixa, MMXM3 e CSNA3 representarão o mercado em alta e TNLP4 o mercado oscilante. Utilizaremos a PETR4 para simular operações bem sucedidas no mercado em geral, que chamei de trades perfeitos, e operações que acertam a tendência maior de alta ou baixa com determinada probabilidade, que chamei de trades prováveis. Também simularemos operações de compra e venda no mercado de opções, utilizando para isso as cotações reais de diversas opções de compra da Petrobrás. Todos os preços de ações utilizados neste trabalho referem-se aos anos de 2007 e 2008. Para o mercado de opções foram usados apenas os preços de 2008.
Category: Economics and Finance

[99] viXra:1505.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-03 16:44:02

Multiperson Gale Shapley

Authors: Sidharth Ghoshal
Comments: 2 Pages.

A simple technique for extending Gale Shapley to incorporate an entire cluster of k individuals with a single dominant set deciding how to form groups.
Category: Economics and Finance

[98] viXra:1503.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-28 15:00:22

An Explanation of the Mass Failure in the Market: the Internet – the Creator of Public Goods

Authors: Blair D. Macdonald
Comments: 4 Pages.

Based on the economic model used to classify 'goods' in an economy; private goods such as found in the entertainment/media industries, or any item on the internet subject to file sharing or digital copying in any form including – at the extreme – the human genome, solid object 3D printing, and even money in the form of bit-coins, are being slowly repositioned from what are termed 'private' or 'club'/'congestion' goods, to the extreme opposite, public goods. The ‘free rider problem’ of Public Goods has become the ‘free copy problem’. Public Goods failure in the market, and are therefore provided by Government: is this the destiny of internet goods.
Category: Economics and Finance

[97] viXra:1503.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-26 23:28:11

Energy and Forces in Economics

Authors: Wan-Jiung HU
Comments: 3 Pages.

Besides gravity model of trade, many other physic force and energy laws can be applied to explain economics phenomenon. There should be Coulomb force, magnetic force, and impelity force to explain the business activity between two nations, industries, or companies. And, energy can also be applied for the above purpose for economic activity.
Category: Economics and Finance

[96] viXra:1503.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-26 23:31:22

Conservation of Money

Authors: Wan-Jiung Hu
Comments: 2 Pages.

Law of conservation is the key concept in physics world. We can also apply the conservation law in economics phenomenon. Here, I use the conservation of money to explain the stock market behavior. Continuity equation is provided for this model.
Category: Economics and Finance

[95] viXra:1503.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-01 02:43:26

Pork-Barrel Spending under Cournot Legislators and the Quantity Equation

Authors: Gerasimos T. Soldatos
Comments: 4 Pages.

This note makes the following two points based on Cournot utility functions of the legislators and on the government budget constraint viewed from the perspective of the equation of exchange. Without logrolling, i.e. with different perceptions of the budget constraint, there can be such a legislature preference structure that can turn a pork-barrel project into welfare enhancing public expenditure depending on economic circumstances. With logrolling, i.e. with agreement at least regarding the size of the budget, the “pork” may be taken out of the project regardless the economic conjuncture. These results are independent of the utility function used, while the use of the quantity equation serves only as the simplest macroeconomic framework in which the two general points herein may be made.
Category: Economics and Finance

[94] viXra:1503.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-01 02:49:50

Bureaucracy, Underground Activities, and Fluctuations

Authors: Gerasimos T. Soldatos
Comments: 8 Pages.

This is a note on corruption and underground economy in a Kaldor-type model of the business cycle. It appears that when the economy is booming and underground activities seek to enter the official economy, bureaucrats have the upper hand but until underground businesses cannot tolerate bureaucrats anymore and start reentering the informal sector. This is what checks the growth of the official output and gets it into its downward phase. Once in this phase, bureaucrats lose control and just follow passively the developments in the economy. At the trough of the contraction, official activities reach their nadir whereas the unofficial ones are at their zenith and seek to buy whatever has been left from the staggering official businesses. This is what leads to recovery in the absence of stabilization policies.
Category: Economics and Finance

[93] viXra:1502.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-19 14:15:59

Why and How Usl1 Roughly Halves the GDP (Per Capita) Growth Doubling Time? for the Cases of the World, Oecd, and the U.s.a.

Authors: Dongchan Lee
Comments: 4 Pages. first draft

In this paper, as the first part of BOEC series, we compiled several different ways to show how USL1 can roughly halve the GDP (per capita) growth rates of countries, or equivalently speaking, how USL1 roughly double their growth rates. The first and easiest one simply focuses on the world average, which is about 3.5% and the U.S.A. or OECD average GDP growth rate, which is about 2.5% for the past 5 years or so. We compare the results with the projections by Hanushek-Woessmann from the UNESCO paper simulation. The Hanushek-Woessmann simulated projection growth values seem about 25-30% less than those from our simplified estimation values.
Category: Economics and Finance

[92] viXra:1502.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-19 14:28:05

Why and How Usl1 Can Halve the GDP Growth Doubling Time (Or Double the Growth Rates)? (Version 1)

Authors: Dongchan Lee
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this paper, as the second paper of BOEC series, we show why and how USL1 can induce the (Real) GDP per capita growth rates as well as the (Real) GDP growth rate by halving the GDP (per capita) growth doubling time. An equivalent statement to this is roughly doubling the GDP growth rates. The presentations in each part will become increasingly more detailed or sophisticated in this paper. We present this by first simply estimating by adding 1% (after USL 0.5) or 2% (after USL1) etc. on the baseline growth rates. We first demonstrate that the USL doubling the GDP growth rates for the average world GDP, OECD average, the U.S.A., and Sub-Saharan Africa. They are the rough estimations, but they seem to fit reasonably well. Secondly, we use a bit more sophisticated algorithm adapted from the paper by Hanushek-Woessmann to visually demonstrate that USL1 roughly halving the (Real) GDP growth doubling time. Then we project the various scenarios for the baseline (Real or nominal) GDP (per capita or not) growth rates from 0.5% up to 7%. We didn´t include beyond the 7% because the USL1´s halving the doubling time error bars will be too big after then in most cases.
Category: Economics and Finance

[91] viXra:1501.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-29 16:28:47

Mastering Fiat

Authors: Andro Antonopoulis
Comments: 22 Pages. Thank you!

A coin users guide to navigating legacy financial systems.
Category: Economics and Finance

[90] viXra:1501.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-16 19:05:41

U Trio (Usl-5ue-Urf Trio) as a Socio-Economic-Environmental Karma System (Draft1)

Authors: Dongchan Lee
Comments: 10 Pages.

This paper is for overcoming the TOP 5 most critical global crises or challenges of our time for 5 Es (in Education, Economy, Energy, Environment, and Equality), all simultaneously within next 20-25 years or so with the back up plans lining up one after another with the USL 2, 3, 4, 5+ (depending on the monitored progress of the nations around the world). We first briefly describe what USL, 5UEs, and URF Trio are and then give the brief summary of the solutions in terms of the total costs and the time frames to complete the resolutions.
Category: Economics and Finance

[89] viXra:1501.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-15 14:38:02

Usl-5ues-Ugnse 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 for the Policy Makers & Shapers

Authors: Dongchan Lee
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this short paper, we explain the fundamental premises of USL and 5 UEs, how it operates, and its socio-economic and environmental implications over the next half a century and their initial funding strategies as the original USL is broken into USL 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 sequentially each of which is designed to boost the regional or national average math skills by ½ year, 1 year, or 2 years respectively, which in turn will trigger the massive surplus economic growths. Using these massive growths, USL1 is trying to resolve the top 5 world global crises within a few decades. The various levels of collaborations, investments and donations are suggested at the end.
Category: Economics and Finance

[88] viXra:1501.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-13 13:46:40

Top Pitch Points of Usl1 for the Social Causes

Authors: Dongchan Lee
Comments: 4 Pages.

USL1 is the first version of USL (Unified Super Learning) to revolutionize the world using its colossal potential to boost the human capital in unprecedented scale to the economic growth not at the expense of the energy, environmental, social causes, but to sustainably balance them all by creating an international treaty based one 5UEs (Unified 5Es: Education  Economy  Energy  Environment  Empowerment/Equality) in the chronological order and thus positioned to resolve the top 5 global challenges or crises (Education crisis, Sovereign Debt crisis, Depleting Energy & Resource crisis, Environmental and Ecosystem destructions, including the climate change, and the Post-2015 issues especially the global poverty).
Category: Economics and Finance

[87] viXra:1501.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-09 14:39:51

Usl Paper Series 1: Back of the Envelope Calculations to Estimate the Usl1 Contributions to Resolve Four of the Most Critical Global Crises from the Economic or Budgetary Points of Views of Governments and the un

Authors: Dongchan Lee
Comments: 11 Pages.

We demonstrate here, with a bit of over-generalization to point the most critical issues for both the governments worldwide and the UN, that the USL1 (which is the version 1 of USL to boost the worldwide or national average math skills for students by quickly advancing 2 years) alone will have the immense economic growth impacts around the world after the short math education reform times in the participating nations. As the world average GDP growths may rise very fast with 3-5-10-15 times within first a few decades, the 4 of the most grave global crises that can be helped by budgeting or financing to resolve them can be solved. These 4 global crises treated here are 1) the transition to the quasi-complete renewable energy 2) sovereign debts 3) climate change damage costs 4) the post-2015 costs. The surplus gains of the national or world GDPs due to USL1 alone seem to be able to resolve all of them at the same time and for the post-2015 multiple times more. Finally, we provide the USL-5UE-URF Trio schemes to the governments, NGOs, and the UN.
Category: Economics and Finance

[86] viXra:1501.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-02 10:11:15

From Software Crisis to Informational Money

Authors: Jan A. Bergstra
Comments: 5 Pages.

Some comments are made on the societal impact of software engineering, with a focus on the impact of software engineering concepts on the development of informational money as well as on the concept of money at large.
Category: Economics and Finance

[85] viXra:1501.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-01 16:50:38

Bitcoin and Islamic Finance

Authors: Jan A. Bergstra
Comments: 19 Pages.

It is argued that a Bitcoin-style money-like informational commodity may constitute an effective instrument for the further development of Islamic Finance. The argument involves the following elements: (i) an application of circulation theory to Bitcoin with the objective to establish the implausibility of interest payment in connection with Bitcoin, (ii) viewing a Bitcoin-like system as a money-like exclusively informational commodity with the implication that such a system need not support debt, (iii) the idea that Islamic Finance imposes different requirements compared to conventional financial policies on a money concerning its use as a tool for achieving social and economic objectives, and (iv) identification of two aspects of mining, gambling and lack of trust, that may both be considered problematic from the perspective of compliance with the rules of Islamic Finance and a corresponding proposal to modify the architecture of mining in order to improve compliance with these rules.
Category: Economics and Finance

[84] viXra:1501.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-01 07:05:10

Bitcoin: not a Currency-Like Informational Commodity

Authors: Jan Aldert Bergstra
Comments: 14 Pages.

Six assertions concerning the status of Bitcoin are formulated and defended: (i) Bit- coin is not and will not become a currency-like informational commodity, (ii) currency- like informational commodities that aren’t currencies must be frauds, (ii) specific BTC amounts may become monetized and thus may be turned into financial assets, (iii) currently no BTC amounts are monetized in any currency area and therefore none are financial assets, (iv) by means of burocratic steps only some BTC volumes can be turned in to an informational currency within a given currency area, modified client software is not required for that step, (v) if a specific amount of BTC qualifies as currency, it also qualifies as money, (vi) moneyness of Bitcoin, or rather of a specific occurrence of an amount of BTC, should be questioned only after one has agreed positively on its status as a financial asset, and negatively on its status as an amount of currency. Factions in the Bitcoin promoting movement are viewed from a perspective of organizational multi-threading. Different factions of the Bitcoin movement may wish to see status issues about Bitcoin settled in different ways. Overall consistency in these matters should not be expected from the union of factions in the Bitcoin movement.
Category: Economics and Finance

[83] viXra:1412.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2014-12-22 18:39:37

Why People Punish in Public Goods Games, and on Whom Punishment is Most Effective: Conventional Wisdoms Reconsidered

Authors: Ramzi Suleiman, Yuval Samid
Comments: 37 Pages.

Theoretical and experimental research underscores the role of punishment in the evolution of cooperation between humans. Experiments using the public goods game have repeatedly shown that in cooperative social environments, punishment makes cooperation flourish, and that withholding punishment makes cooperation collapse. In less cooperative social environments, where antisocial punishment has been detected, punishment was detrimental to cooperation. The success of punishment in enhancing cooperation is explained as deterrence of free riders by cooperative strong reciprocators, who were willing to pay the cost of punishing them, whereas in environments in which punishment diminished cooperation, antisocial punishment was explained as revenge by low cooperators against high cooperators suspected of punishing them in previous rounds. The present paper reconsiders the generality of both explanations. Using data from a novel public good experiment with punishment and from 16 public goods experiments from countries around the world, we report results showing that revenge alone does not drive antisocial punishment of cooperators, and that such punishment is predominantly part of an upward and downward punishment strategy, presumably aimed at punishing those who deviate from the punisher’s aspired cooperation norm. More interestingly, we show that the effect of punishment on the emergence of cooperation is mainly due to contributors increasing their cooperation, more than free riders being deterred. We also show that the anticipation of being punished is more effective in enhancing cooperation than the actual punishment itself, and that the ratio of strong reciprocators in a given social group is a potent predictor of the group’s level of cooperation and success in providing public goods.
Category: Economics and Finance

[82] viXra:1412.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2014-12-15 09:18:25

3D Method of the Analysis and Prediction of Driving of Stock Quotes in Short-Term Perspective. (Ru)

Authors: A.Antipin
Comments: 8 Pages. Версия на русском языке. The English version: http://vixra.org/abs/1408.0023

As a result of search of objective (settlement) methods of the analysis and forecasting of movement of the prices at a stock exchange, the fundamental role of parameter "the maximum deviation of the price from Open by the current moment sessions" (it is named "Base") has been found out. Base use allows to present session in the form of object with the developed geometrical form-structure. Structure elements are accurately enough localised in space. Structure, as a whole, keep the configuration, at least, some months. The object is a set of attractors to which the Price and "avoiding areas" for the Price is drawn. The object, as a whole, has 4 measured character. It is represented in three "spatial" variables plus the coding by colour. Variables are: the transaction Price, Base, a session Present situation, Probability of the transaction to occur till the end of session. All variables have unequivocal numerical character and, thus, are strictly objective. Spatial variables set conditions of realisation of the transaction, the coding colour shows probability of the transaction. In article the algorithm of construction of Object is given, the basic idea of practical use of Technology is described. For today the Technology works in current session, i.e. is applicable, while, to day-trading. Use of Technology and supervision with its help behind the market, has shown high degree of conformity of a reality. It has allowed to offer qualitative model for movement of the prices. (The English version: http://vixra.org/abs/1408.0023)
Category: Economics and Finance

[81] viXra:1412.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2014-12-08 16:29:25

An Aspirations Model of Decisions in a Class of Ultimatum Games

Authors: Ramzi Suleiman
Comments: 35 Pages.

We propose a novel model of aspiration levels for interactive games, termed economic harmony. The model posits that the individuals' levels of outcome satisfaction are proportional to their actual outcomes relative to their aspired outcomes. We define a state of harmony as a state at which the interacting players' levels of outcome satisfaction are equal, and underscore the necessary condition for the manifestation and sustenance of harmony situations on the behavioral level. We utilize the proposed model to predict the transfer decisions in a class of two-person ultimatum games, including the standard ultimatum game, an ultimatum game with asymmetric information about the size of the "pie", an ultimatum game with varying veto power. We also apply the model to predicting behavior in a three person ultimatum game with uncertainty regarding the identity of the recipient and in a sequential common pool resource game. For all the aforementioned games, we show that the model accounts well for large sets of experimental data, and with the predictions of game theory and other relevant models of interactive situations. Strikingly, for the standard ultimatum game, the model predicts that the allocator should transfer a proportion of the entire sum that equals 1- Φ, where Φ is the famous Golden Ratio, most known for its aesthetically pleasing properties.
Category: Economics and Finance

[80] viXra:1411.0514 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 23:33:46

An Alternative Economic Paradigm: How Redistribution would Drive the Economy An Alternative Economic Paradigm: How Redistribution would Drive the Economy

Authors: Piero BENAZZO
Comments: 10 Pages.

In 1943 in Bengal, inequality together with the inelasticity of supply led to an increase of entitlements for some citizens that generated inflation in the subsistence sector and decreased entitlements for others. These latter experienced tragic famine. This shows that distribution matters. A subdivision of the economy between subsistence sector and wealth sector brings such arguments in the whole economy. The analysis specifies aggregates of variables and conditions whereby these dynamics currently remain hidden behind aggregation. For example, a decoupling between demand side, which remains local, and supply side, which may be delocalised, shuffles rankings hiding dynamics. Increase in inequality would generate an inequality trap inflating the subsistence sector in relation to the wealth sector and bringing recession in this latter, overcasting increased efficiency. Some policy options are discussed.
Category: Economics and Finance

[79] viXra:1410.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-14 21:51:40

Quantum-Inspired Approach to Computational Economics

Authors: Michail Zak
Comments: 23 Pages.

The paper extends the mathematical formalism of quantum physics to include economics. The novelty of the approach is based upon a human-factor-based behavioral model of an intelligent agent. The model is quantum inspired: it is represented by a modified Madelung equation in which the gradient of quantum potential is replaced by a specially chosen information force. It consists of motor dynamics simulating actual behavior of the agent, and mental dynamics representing evolution of the corresponding knowledge base and incorporating this knowledge in the form of information flows into the motor dynamics. Due to feedback from mental dynamics, the motor dynamics attains quantum-like properties: its trajectory splits into a family of different trajectories, and each of those trajectories can be chosen with the probability prescribed by the mental dynamics. All of these departures actually extend and complement the classical methods making them especially successful in analysis of communications of agents represented by new mathematical formalism.
Category: Economics and Finance

[78] viXra:1409.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-28 00:52:19

About Saving, Consumption, and Investment

Authors: Wanchung Hu
Comments: 3 Pages.

The relation of saving, investment, and consumption is given in this short article. We can also find out the relationship of interest rate and saving, consumption, and investment. The relation of average propensity of consumption and investment to marginal propensity of consumption and investment is also provided. This article explains why higher interest rate leads to less consumption, larger saving, and less investment. Finally, I provide support why stock market usually has more profit than bond market or bank deposit.
Category: Economics and Finance

[77] viXra:1409.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-01 21:05:29

Economic Decision-Making in the Ultimatum Game by Smokers.

Authors: Taiki Takahashi
Comments: 8 Pages.

OBJECTIVE: No study to date compared degrees of inequity aversion in economic decision-making in the ultimatum game between non-addictive and addictive reinforcers. The comparison is potentially important in neuroeconomics and reinforcement learning theory of addiction. METHODS: We compared the degrees of inequity aversion in the ultimatum game between money and cigarettes in habitual smokers. RESULTS Smokers avoided inequity in the ultimatum game more dramatically for money than for cigarettes; i.e., there was a "domain effect" in decision-making in the ultimatum game. CONCLUSIONS: Reward-processing neural activities in the brain for non-addictive and addictive reinforcers may be distinct and the insula activation due to cue-induced craving may conflict with unfair offer-induced insula activation. Future studies in neuroeconomics of addiction should employ game-theoretic decision tasks for elucidating reinforcement learning processes in dopaminergic neural circuits.
Category: Economics and Finance

[76] viXra:1408.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-21 04:22:02

Use Thermodynamic Laws to Describe Macroeconomics

Authors: Wanchung Hu
Comments: 2 Pages.

There is a great analogy between thermodynamics and economics. Here, I will use the laws of thermodynamics to describe the laws of macroeconomics. The first law of thermodynamics explains the conservation of energy. Thus, the internal demand and external trade will contribute to citizens’ income. The second law of thermodynamics says that entropy will always be enlarged. Thus, developed nations will have larger entropy compared to developing or non-developing nations. The third law of thermodynamics also reaches because there is no perfect monopoly.
Category: Economics and Finance

[75] viXra:1408.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-18 23:50:28

Use Newton’s Mechanics to Describe Macroeconomics

Authors: Wanchung Hu
Comments: 3 Pages.

There is an analogy between physics and economics. Here, I will use Newton’s mechanics to describe and deduct the principle of macroeconomics. Economics force is defined as F=dMV/dt=dPG/dt. The link between inflation rate, interest rate, growth rate, and money acceleration rate will also be defined. Principles of least action will be applied to the economics principle. Thus, we have new potent tools to analyze economics activities.
Category: Economics and Finance

[74] viXra:1408.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-06 12:20:52

Reverse Spreads: Theoretical Foundations and Trading Model

Authors: Sergey Kamenshchikov
Comments: 6 Pages.

Those who already faced the Trend following concept know that effective strategies of following the trend suggest dynamic stop loss level movement without profit limitation. The position is kept until the trend is changed and the order is done. With a proper choice of the market entry point the trader switches a position into the breakeven mode and thus relieves the psychological pressure. With this approach, a profit limitation is deliberately not applicable, allowing holding the position for a long time. This approach is also useful as it minimizes the commission fee calculated on the intraday basis that the trader pays to the broker. The Trend-Following strategy uses the market momentum and allows taking profit in the long-term and large-scale trends. The natural obstacles to this strategy are the long term low volatility in the selected time frame(sideways movement), as well as systematic sudden market changes. We would like to show you a method of pair trading with inverse spread by the example of сcomposite instruments - PCI that allows finding new areas of sustainable trend occurrence and hedging systematic risks at the same time.
Category: Economics and Finance

[73] viXra:1408.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-05 14:17:56

3D Method of the Analysis and Prediction of Driving of Stock Quotes in Short-Term Perspective

Authors: A.Antipin
Comments: 8 Pages.

As a result of search of objective (settlement) methods of the analysis and forecasting of movement of the prices at a stock exchange, the fundamental role of parameter "the maximum deviation of the price from Open by the current moment sessions" (it is named "Base") has been found out. Base use allows to present session in the form of object with the developed geometrical form-structure. Structure elements are accurately enough localised in space. Structure, as a whole, keep the configuration, at least, some months. The object is a set of attractors to which the Price and "avoiding areas" for the Price is drawn. The object, as a whole, has 4 measured character. It is represented in three "spatial" variables plus the coding by colour. Variables are: the transaction Price, Base, a session Present situation, Probability of the transaction to occur till the end of session. All variables have unequivocal numerical character and, thus, are strictly objective. Spatial variables set conditions of realisation of the transaction, the coding colour shows probability of the transaction. In article the algorithm of construction of Object is given, the basic idea of practical use of Technology is described. For today the Technology works in current session, i.e. is applicable, while, to day-trading. Use of Technology and supervision with its help behind the market, has shown high degree of conformity of a reality. It has allowed to offer qualitative model for movement of the prices.
Category: Economics and Finance

[72] viXra:1406.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-10 03:43:03

The Insights of Demand-Supply Curve of Macroeconomics and Its Application to GDP Components

Authors: Wanchung Hu
Comments: 2 Pages.

Macroeconomics is the key economics branch to describe gross economy behavior of one country or the world. However, the detailed demand-supply graph representing the macroeconomics is not clearly explicit. Here, I will use the demand-supply curve to explain the detailed macroeconomics contents (GDP=C+I+G+NX) in the graph. I propose the demand-supply curve is likely the typical demand-supply curve with upward and downward slopes. The detailed components will be shown in the following graph in the content.
Category: Economics and Finance

[71] viXra:1406.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-10 04:44:43

The Further Explanation of Demand Supply Curve in Microeconomics

Authors: Wan-chung Hu
Comments: 2 Pages.

The demand supply curves represent the fundamental economics principles. However, there is lacking detailed relationship between company and the microeconomics when we apply this demand-and-supply curve. Thus, here, I propose a detailed explanation of microeconomic demand-and-supply curve to put material cost and labor cost in the graph. Thus, a more practical demand-supply graph can be obtained in real business world.
Category: Economics and Finance

[70] viXra:1406.0012 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-02 22:34:15

How to Solve Prisoner's Dilemma?

Authors: Wanchung Hu
Comments: 2 Pages.

Prisoners’ dilemma is a key problem in oligopoly. When the two sides are facing the prisoners’ dilemma, they will both pick the worse situation due to Nash equilibrium. Thus, how to solve prisoners’ dilemma is important in business as well as many aspects during our choices in daily life. Here, I will propose several methods to solve prisoners’ dilemma. 1. Final strong award 2. Final strong punishment 3. Strong coherence 4. Friendly 5. Repeated games. By using these strategies, we will be able to solve the prisoners’ dilemma.
Category: Economics and Finance

[69] viXra:1406.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-02 14:37:14

Dependence of the Dynamics of Mass Processes in the Economy from the Mechanism of Polymerization of Protein and of the Data of Nucleotide Decoding of Human DNA

Authors: S.V. Asadchenko, I.N. Ignatenko
Comments: 9 Pages.

This article analyzes the dynamics of trends on the stock market using the symbols of the sequence of model macromolecules such protein molecule. Considered natural sciences study the forecast of dynamics of mass processes in the economy.
Category: Economics and Finance

[68] viXra:1405.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-18 03:21:34

Second Thought About Minimum Wage and Its Relation to Labor Supply

Authors: Wan-Jiung Hu
Comments: 2 Pages.

Minimum wage policy is usually thought to cause unemployment in classical economics. However, I show here it may also cause employment rate increasing as well as labor wage increasing if the government can catch the real market equilibrium point. Thus, we should have a second thought about the minimum wage policy. It can cause employment as well as unemployment depending on the setting level of minimum wage.
Category: Economics and Finance

[67] viXra:1405.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-14 01:20:55

Economic Solutions

Authors: Bertrand Wong
Comments: 3 Pages.

Economic problems that plague us seem intractable and seem to require some radical counter-measures. One of the root causes of a recession is that people are not spending sufficiently. To overcome this problem a radical change in our monetary system could be effected. This article is the revised version of an article which had been published in an international journal and is an elaboration of the article ECONOMICS, ECONOMIC POLICIES AND SOLUTIONS published here.
Category: Economics and Finance

[66] viXra:1405.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-14 01:29:30

Additional Economic Solutions

Authors: Bertrand Wong
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this article, the author proposes some solutions to our modern seemingly intractable economic problems. Keynesian theories, the bug-bear of modern economics, seem to hold little water nowadays. Modern economies appear to be in need of more radical solutions. This article is the revised version of an article which had been published in an international journal.
Category: Economics and Finance

[65] viXra:1405.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-10 01:13:05

Economics, Economic Policies And Solutions

Authors: Bertrand Wong
Comments: 3 Pages.

This article raises some important points about the economy and economic policies, and proposes some important solutions.
Category: Economics and Finance

[64] viXra:1404.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-02 02:00:40

Stress-Testing Model for Corporate Borrower Portfolios

Authors: Seleznev Vladimir, Denis Surzhko, Nikolay Khovanskiy
Comments: 6 Pages.

Despite the significant attention to the stress-testing issues in finances world-wide, the ways of quantitative assessment of the stress impact on the portfolios of non-public (in the absence of equity or debt market quotes) corporate borrowers are currently not sufficiently developed or standardized. The aim of this article is to propose high-level universal requirements to the quantitative models of stress-testing of non-public corporate borrower portfolios, and to describe the model, developed by the authors, which meets such requirements. Details of the model’s calibration, implementation (using Monte-Carlo simulations) and some practical issues are covered in the article.
Category: Economics and Finance

[63] viXra:1404.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-01 09:08:34

Approach for Multi-Period PD Calibration for LDP Portfolios.

Authors: Denis Surzhko, Rainer Glaser
Comments: 7 Pages.

In the paper we propose PD calibration framework for LDP that allows producing smooth non-zero PD estimates for any given time horizon within the length of economic cycle. The advantages of the approach is that produced PDs are consistent with two main anchors – PIT and TTC PD estimates and are subject to smooth, monotonic transition between those two anchors. In practise, proposed framework could be applied to risk-based pricing of mid-term deals, whose duration is too long compared with PIT PD horizon and significantly shorter that the length of the whole economic cycle.
Category: Economics and Finance

[62] viXra:1403.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-05 11:33:45

An Aspirations-Homeostasis Theory of Interactive Decisions

Authors: Ramzi Suleiman
Comments: 36 Pages.

Cooperation and fairness in encounters with strangers are puzzling behaviors, since they contradict the law of natural selection. Compelling evidence shows that direct and indirect reciprocity and altruistic punishment are important mechanisms for the evolution of cooperation in the long-term. For short-interaction, cooperation and fairness are explained by theories which assume that individuals have other-regarding sentiments, or that they base their decisions on perceptions of others' intentions. The present paper proposes a new theory of decisions in interactive situations. The theory retains the assumption that individuals are solely self-interested, but assumes that individuals value their outcomes relative to their aspiration levels. The proposed theory is used to derive predictions of mutual cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game, of proposers' offers in ultimatum bargaining games, and in the sequential common-pool-resource dilemma game. These predictions are tested using experimental data. Strikingly, for the standard ultimatum game the predicted mean relative offer is the famous Golden Ratio. Keywords: Cooperation, Fairness, Aspiration Level, Prisoner's Dilemma, Ultimatum Game, Resource Dilemma, Golden Ratio.
Category: Economics and Finance

[61] viXra:1401.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-08 15:29:42

The Evolution of the FInancial/Media-Military/Industrial Complex

Authors: Luis Sancho
Comments: 30 Pages.

On planet Earth, a first superorganism of 'human cells' with a collective, global mind/culture living on the 'body' of Gaia, the Nature Earth, along its 'water veins' appeared on the Neolithic. Then humans discovered 'memes' of metal, made of more complex energetic and informative atoms (iron, gold) and used them to enhance their body power (iron weapons) and mind languages (digital money), starting the evolution of a new superorganism, the eco(nomic)system, in which they act as 'enzymen', 'catalyzers' of the evolution of metal into complex organic systems called machines. It is the Financial-Media (informative machines)/Military-Industrial (energetic machines) complex, evolved in 3 generational ages: - The age of bodies of metal, steamers and trains or age of England; the age of engines=hears of metal, or age of Germany and the age of heads of metal (mobiles=ears, chips=brains, eyes=cameras) or age of America. It only rest to put those 3 components together, as 'catalyzers' do in physical and biological, 'viral' systems to create a new top predator species, the robot, which increasingly will compete and substitute man in labor and war fields. This paper studies the economic ecosystem with the tools of systems sciences and organicism and the metrics of the 5th dimension, as those machines emerge into a global superorganism ruled by flows of digital data (money, science) that manage its evolution and reproduction... Today the FMMI Complex has become a global super-organism, whose digital brain, the web, and its 3 physiological networks of information (internet), reproduction (world-stock, intranet, company-mothers) and energy/defense (NATO, pentagon, weapons systems), in control of most resources of the planet, have a single aim: to reproduce and evolve those machines, adapting and terraforming the Earth from a world of life into a world of metal. This paper studies the birth and development of that superorganism with to the laws of evolution, emergence and systems sciences.
Category: Economics and Finance

[60] viXra:1401.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-01 13:18:44

A Biological, Systemic Model of the Eco(nomic)system and Its Financial Crashes: the 72 Years Cycle of Evolution of Weapons, Machines and Money

Authors: Luis Sancho
Comments: 64 Pages.

The Industrial Evolution of machines follows an economic human generational cycle’ of 72±8 years. Each cycle a nation discovers a new form of energy (steam, then oil and electricity), applied to the creation of money, the software of the economy and its hardware, which are machines that imitate the organic functions of human beings, enhancing our biological systems but also competing and atrophying them. So in the XIX century during the British age steam was applied to bodies of metal, trains and steamers; then in the German cycle, oil was applied to engines, their hearts and after II world war in the American cycle, electricity applied to the creation of minds of metal, chips, cameras and mobiles that imitate human brains, eyes and ears. Now in the last cycle of the industrial evolution we put together those organic parts into organic machines, robots. Since we create machines by imitating human organs of energy and information, from a scientific perspective, machines must be considered organisms of metal, and their ‘company-mothers’ their systems of reproduction, whose only goal is to evolve, multiply and sell them for profit, creating an eco(nomic)system made to its image and likeness. Facts those which allow to study the economics with the laws of biological organisms, predicting the evolution of machines, their crisis of over reproduction and their relationships of symbiosis and competition with the human kind, as this writer has done for the past 20 years, forecasting with remarkable accuracy the present crisis of overproduction of chips, its software, e-money and its hardware, white collar pcs and blue collar robots that are displacing humans from labor and war fields. Such biological model of the industrial evolution casts doubts on the present strategy of solving the crisis by further increasing the overproduction of those ‘memes of metal’. Instead nations should increase the production of the alternative economic system: welfare, carbon-life based goods that humans need to survive, creating a world made to our image and likeness, by switching credit in a global New Deal to companies that reproduce human WHealth, from Health care to agricultural goods while limiting credit to corporations that overproduce industrial wealth. Yet since machines have lower costs of production and higher prices than welfare goods, their sales give higher profits, reason why in a capitalist system where money is invented by private corporations whose only goal is to increase profits, the present overproduction crisis of industrial goods that absorbs the limited resources of the planet - provoking a parallel, chronic underproduction of welfare foods - cannot be solved. The result is the constant degradation of the ecosystems based in carbon-life goods, Nature and History. Since we, humans are NOT made of metal, but of carbon-life, and we need welfare goods to survive, a fact often forgotten by those financial and industrial corporations that rule the eco(nomic)system. Thus the only democratic, humane solution to the crisis is political: the financial industry must be nationalized, creating a mixed system of political democracy, western style and financial control, Chinese style, where banks are regulated to foster credit on the welfare sectors of the economy that provokes a much higher, healthier demand-based economical growth.
Category: Economics and Finance

Replacements of recent Submissions

[50] viXra:1710.0068 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-10 01:28:13

The Determination Theory of Supply and Demand

Authors: Chuanli Chen
Comments: 6 Pages.

Whether the supply creates its own demand or the demand determines the supply has been a debate in economy science for one hundred years. In this paper, I will write my own perspective. I will analyze how the demand and supply interact with each other.
Category: Economics and Finance

[49] viXra:1710.0009 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-02 08:07:44

Prospects of Modern Wood Gas Cogeneration Renewable Energy Supply in Japan − Case Study of ICU

Authors: Eckhard Hitzer, Mark Langager, Nobyuki Miyazaki, Takashi Kibe
Comments: 8 figures, 1 table, 2.5 pages of references.

In this article we introduce scalable modern commercial wood gas cogeneration technology of micro scale, beginning at 35-45 kW electric power, scalable up to 800kW electric power, as offered by several international companies. Cogeneration means to use both electricity and heat, which leads to an overall efficiency of converting the chemical energy in wood of up to 90%. We discuss aspects of technology, systainability, forest ecology, local and international fuel quality standards, long term cost efficiency, potential for attracting various forms of official financial support and potential risks involved. In particular we make the general study concrete in the form of a case study on renewable energy supply for the International Christian University campus in Mitaka, western Tokyo. Changing scale parameters in order to adapt to the local energy demand, we expect that this case study can be transferred to other schools, universities, institutions, businesses and buildings in Japan. We further try to address the question as to what contribution this technology can make to the future national renewable energy supply in Japan.
Category: Economics and Finance

[48] viXra:1710.0009 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-02 05:37:01

Prospects of Modern Wood Gas Cogeneration Renewable Energy Supply in Japan − Case Study of ICU

Authors: Eckhard Hitzer, Mark Langager, Nobyuki Miyazaki, Takashi Kibe
Comments: 8 figures, 1 table, 2.5 pages of references.

In this article we introduce scalable modern commercial wood gas cogeneration technology of micro scale, beginning at 35-45 kW electric power, scalable up to 800kW electric power, as offered by several international companies. Cogeneration means to use both electricity and heat, which leads to an overall efficiency of converting the chemical energy in wood of up to 90%. We discuss aspects of technology, systainability, forest ecology, local and international fuel quality standards, long term cost efficiency, potential for attracting various forms of official financial support and potential risks involved. In particular we make the general study concrete in the form of a case study on renewable energy supply for the International Christian University campus in Mitaka, western Tokyo. Changing scale parameters in order to adapt to the local energy demand, we expect that this case study can be transferred to other schools, universities, institutions, businesses and buildings in Japan. We further try to address the question as to what contribution this technology can make to the future national renewable energy supply in Japan.
Category: Economics and Finance

[47] viXra:1707.0133 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-14 14:37:52

Money Whirling Flow and Keynesian

Authors: Chuanli Chen
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper, I will make use of Keynesian theory to describe the money flow in the free market. I will then build a new model based on the Keynesian model and use this model to explain how stagnation occurs.
Category: Economics and Finance

[46] viXra:1707.0132 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-14 13:51:39

The Economic Crisis Model Under Whirling Flow of Money

Authors: Chuanli Chen
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper, I will briefly discuss the occurrence of an economic crisis during free market movements. I will describe the whole process in a simple way. Non-mathematical models are used in order to make the process easier to understand.
Category: Economics and Finance

[45] viXra:1705.0364 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-14 16:41:47

Price Uncertainty Principle

Authors: Chuanli Chen
Comments: 22 Pages.

In modern economics, there are many theories that discuss the equilibrium. This convention was originally from two famous economists Leon Walras and Afred Marshall. Walras first described general equilibrium theory in 1874. Afred Marshall put forward the partial equilibrium theory in 1920. However, there was never any observational evidence for the existence of equilibrium. In this paper, I will put forward a new price theory, which is named Price Uncertainty Principle. I will point out the flaws of these two equilibrium theories and discuss why the price mechanism is not the invisible hand, then further discuss why partial equilibrium and general equilibrium are non-existent. I will prove that there is no price equilibrium point and market prices are always fluctuating
Category: Economics and Finance

[44] viXra:1705.0364 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-30 01:01:01

Price Uncertainty Principle

Authors: Chuanli Chen
Comments: 23 Pages.

In modern economy science, there are many theories that discuss the equilibrium. This convention was originally come from two famous economists Walras and Afred Marshall. Walras firstly finished the general equilibrium theory in 1874 in the book the mere economics to iustice. While Afred Marshall put forward the partial equilibrium in 1920. However, by observance, there was never the evidence for the existence of equilibrium. In this paper, I will put forward a new price theory, which is named Price Uncertainty Principle. I will point out the flaws of these two equilibrium theories and discuss why the price mechanism is not the invisible hand, then further discuss why partial equilibrium and general equilibrium are not existent. I will prove that there is no equilibrium point for the price and prices are always fluctuant in the market.
Category: Economics and Finance

[43] viXra:1705.0162 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-14 20:04:39

Market Whirling Theory

Authors: Chuanli Chen
Comments: 29 Pages.

Many theories claim to explain economic crises and periodic fluctuations in the economy, however, most of them are imperfect at explaining many phenomena throughout history. In this paper, I put forward a new theory and model that explains economic crises and periodic fluctuations in the economy as well as policies for avoiding economic crises. This paper analyzes the direction of currency flow in the free market, and explains why the market is constantly whirling. It also discusses the relationship between money flow speed and GDP, explaining why accelerating the speed of money flow in the market can make a country rich.
Category: Economics and Finance

[42] viXra:1705.0162 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-09 01:12:01

Market Whirling Theory

Authors: Chuanli Chen
Comments: 30 Pages.

In the modern world, there are many theories which explain the economic crisis and economy periodic fluctuation, however, most of them are not so perfect to explain many phenomena happened in the history. In this paper, I will put forward a new theory and model that can explain the economic crisis and economy periodic fluctuation as well as giving policies on how to avoid economic crisis. My paper will analyze the direction of currency flow in the free market, and explain why the market is whirling all the time. It will also discuss the relation between money flow speed and GDP, explaining why accelerating the speed of money flow in the market can make a country rich.
Category: Economics and Finance

[41] viXra:1705.0089 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-19 04:17:04

Quantum Political Economics the Characterization of Productive Forces and Production Relations

Authors: Erman ZENG
Comments: 15 Pages.

The mathematical characterization of “the Productive Forces” of a macro economic system is based upon the analogy between political economy and Newtonian mechanics, which is expressed as the product of the growth rate of the profit rate (p) and the surplus value (M), showing several quantum qualities like a photon quanta. The one-dimensional linear harmonic oscillator model can correlate the angular frequency with the change rate of the rate of profit thus with the economic growth rate, resulting the quantum-like interpretation of various business cycles. The matrix operator analysis of the Leontief’s input-output table, similar to the matrix mechanics of quantum physics, gives the Schrodinger function like value-price transformation eigen function, with the reduced organic composite of capital as the eigenvalue of the price wave function, namely the relations of production, leading to the "two Cambridge controversy" resolved. The statistic physical entropy increase theory combined with the Marx labor value function leads to the quantitative formulation of the relations of production.
Category: Economics and Finance

[40] viXra:1705.0089 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-03 03:37:18

Quantum Political Economics the Econo-Physical Characterization of Productive Forces and Spontaneous Order

Authors: Erman ZENG
Comments: 15 Pages.

The mathematical physical characterization of “the Productive Forces” of a macro economic system is based upon the analogy between political economy and Newtonian mechanics, which is expressed as the product of the growth rate of the profit rate (p) and the surplus value (M), showing several quantum qualities like a photon quanta. The one-dimensional linear harmonic oscillator model can correlate the angular frequency with the change rate of the rate of profit thus with the economic growth rate, resulting the quantum-like interpretation of various business cycles. The matrix operator analysis of the Leontief’s input-output table, similar to the matrix mechanics of quantum physics, gives the Schrodinger function like value-price transformation eigenequation, with the reduced organic composite of capital as the eigenvalue of the price wave function, leading to the "two Cambridge controversy" resolved. The statistic physical entropy increase theory combined with the Marx production function system leads to the general equilibrium nature of the AK model as well as the quantitative formulation of the theory of spontaneous order.
Category: Economics and Finance

[39] viXra:1702.0174 [pdf] replaced on 2017-03-15 01:14:24

From Labor Theory of Value to Price EigenFunction ---Microfoundation of General Equilibrium

Authors: Erman ZENG
Comments: 12 Pages.

The quantitative Marxian function system is developed on the basis of the labor theory of value as the micro foundation resulting labour value function, surplus value function, Marx production function. The heterogeneous capital aggregation problem is overcome by value transformation analysis of Leontief intermediate input coefficient matrix leading to production price eigenvectors and Marx-Sraffa-Leontief General Equilibrium eigenvalues thus the details about an economic system such as the reduced organic composite of capital, the rate of profit, the surplus rate of value, the elasticity of capital output. The falling tendency of the rate of profit may not be true if the economy undergoes a general equilibrium.
Category: Economics and Finance

[38] viXra:1701.0298 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-09 04:09:17

Introducing Marx General Equilibrium Economics

Authors: Erman ZENG
Comments: 46 Pages.

The quantitative Marxism function system is developed on the basis of the labor theory of value as the micro foundation including Marx labour value function, Marx surplus value function, Marx production function. The heterogeneous aggregation problem is overcome by using matrix analysis of the macro input-output data resulting price eigenvalues and product value thus the details about an economic system such as the rate of profit, the surplus rate of value, the elasticity of capital output. The falling tendency of the rate of profit may not be true if the economy undergoes an general equilibrium.
Category: Economics and Finance

[37] viXra:1612.0191 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-18 06:09:14

Fractal Optimization as Generator of Market Neutral Long-Short Portfolio

Authors: Sergey Kamenshchikov, Ilia Drozdov
Comments: 8 Pages.

A fractal approach to the long-short portfolio optimization is proposed. The algorithmic system based on the composition of market-neutral spreads into a single entity was considered. The core of the optimization scheme is a fractal walk model of returns, optimizing a risk aversion according to the investment horizon. The covariance matrix of spread returns has been used for the optimization and modified according to the Hurst stability analysis. Out-of-sample performance data has been represented for the space of exchange traded funds in five period time period of observation. The considered portfolio system has turned out to be statistically more stable than a passive investment into benchmark with higher risk adjusted cumulative return over the observed period.
Category: Economics and Finance

[36] viXra:1612.0191 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-12 04:50:33

Fractal Optimization as Generator of Market Neutral Long-Short Portfolio

Authors: Sergey Kamenshchikov, Ilia Drozdov
Comments: 8 Pages. Accepted in Quantitative Finance

A fractal approach to the long-short portfolio optimization is proposed. The algorithmic system based on the composition of market-neutral spreads into a single entity was considered. The core of the optimization scheme is a fractal walk model of returns, optimizing a risk aversion according to the investment horizon. The covariance matrix of spread returns has been used for the optimization and modified according to the Hurst stability analysis. Out-of-sample performance data has been represented for the space of exchange traded funds in five period time period of observation. The considered portfolio system has turned out to be statistically more stable than a passive investment into benchmark with higher risk adjusted cumulative return over the observed period.
Category: Economics and Finance

[35] viXra:1611.0299 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-08 05:48:37

Universal Economic Plan Based Law Constitutions of Kingdom and Nations

Authors: Mesut Kavak
Comments: 28 Pages.

In this work, touched on some social issues whatever the result, and a raising awareness was aimed by some new technological upgrades for vital infrastructures of states, social order and economic plan. The main aim is one world order which has no king and accepts nations as local governances as a requirement of hierarchical order. It is completely based on economic benefits of all nations as there is no alternative to establish a healthy economic order as economic management is directly related with laws. As the important is a law exists or not, or is just or not for justice, also it encourages to develop organic laws in state institutions as it recognizes any state institution as autonomous. This building is a building which is actually dependent of economy, counts states of the world as local governances as a requirement of one world order; does not stipulate working and military service; promises that no charge for houses, energy, education, judgment, security, health care, public transport, marriage; promises removing armies limited manner, removing nuclear weapons and establishing in space but the special conditions. Also there are many new technological upgrades for vital infrastructure of states.
Category: Economics and Finance

[34] viXra:1608.0400 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-31 06:31:59

Sentiment Analysis of Twitter Data and the Efficient Market Hypothesis

Authors: Alexandre Bénétreau
Comments: -The thesis is in English, apart from the title page which contains bits of French (it is a thesis defended at a French uni).-Pages: 27. -Licence: This thesis is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License.

This thesis discusses the claim of 16 computational finance articles according to which it is possible to predict the stock market using sentiment analysis of social media data. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether this is indeed true or not. In economic theory, the efficient market hypothesis states that markets are not predictable, that they follow a random walk and that irrational behaviour cancels out in the aggregate. However, behavioural economics research shows that investors are in fact subject to predictable biases which affect the markets. This study uses data from the WeFeel project that analyses tweets in English to infer social mood on a world scale. It also uses data from the Wilshire 5000 index from June 2014 to March 2015. The hypothesis is that changes in aggregate mood arousal mediate stock market fluctuations. Yet linear regression shows that there is no relation between emotional arousal and the stock market, nor between primary emotions and the stock market. Hence, the conclusion is that global social sentiment as derived from social media has no relation with stock market fluctuations. Further research may better focus on social media specialised in the stock markets, such a finance micro-blogging data. Keywords: sentiment analysis, efficient market hypothesis, social networks, computational finance, behavioural finance, stock market, emotion recognition, stock market prediction, social sentiment, behavioural economics
Category: Economics and Finance

[33] viXra:1605.0166 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-21 07:28:15

On Certain Aspects of American Economics Relevant to 2016

Authors: Jonathan Tooker
Comments: 19 Pages.

This paper seeks to shine a light on some glaring economic problems of contemporary society. Too often economic issues are framed in the context of moral wedges that divide people. Here we select issues for discussion that likely can be solved and do not strictly require the resolution of any difficult moral quandaries. We show that certain popular debates are not so interesting because sufficient evidence exists to identify the relevant premises as true and false. We suggest an economic program based in part on hypothetical new energy resources that should guide the United States and the Earth's other national states towards a more equitable valley in the space of all economic configurations. This paper is intended to be persuasive and not purely expository.
Category: Economics and Finance

[32] viXra:1604.0368 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-20 05:29:09

Financial Development for Economic Growth in Nigeria

Authors: Uyiosa Omoregie
Comments: 17 Pages.

A country’s financial system facilitates economic growth by ensuring that funds are available when and where they are required. The provision of alternative financing windows available to operators in the real sector is dependent on the structure of the financial system is place. The Government can ensure (through polices put forward) that transparency and fairness is the norm in the financial sector, this will go a long way towards sustainable economic growth in Nigeria. The financial sector that creates sustainable economic growth must be resilient and strong, with institutional development as a priority, this sector must facilitate fund mobilization for the low-income people to increase and stabilize their income and assets. An investment-friendly interest rate regime (single digit) is a pre-requisite for economic growth in Nigeria, because it would encourage lower costs of borrowing and credit expansion. Tax incentives policies must be maintained to encourage large-scale investment in the economy.
Category: Economics and Finance

[31] viXra:1604.0368 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-20 10:37:50

Financial Development for Economic Growth in Nigeria

Authors: Uyiosa Omoregie
Comments: 15 Pages.

Abstract A country’s financial system facilitates economic growth by ensuring that funds are available when and where they are required. The provision of alternative financing windows available to operators in the real sector is dependent on the structure of the financial system is place. The Government can ensure (through polices put forward) that transparency and fairness is the norm in the financial sector, this will go a long way towards sustainable economic growth in Nigeria. The financial sector that creates sustainable economic growth must be resilient and strong, with institutional development as a priority, this sector must facilitate fund mobilization for the low-income people to increase and stabilize their income and assets. An investment-friendly interest rate regime (single digit) is a pre-requisite for economic growth in Nigeria, because it would encourage lower costs of borrowing and credit expansion. Tax incentives policies must be maintained to encourage large-scale investment in the economy.
Category: Economics and Finance

[30] viXra:1604.0368 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-07 05:54:45

Financial Development for Economic Growth in Nigeria

Authors: Uyiosa Omoregie
Comments: 15 Pages.

A country’s financial system facilitates economic growth by ensuring that funds are available when and where they are required. The provision of alternative financing windows available to operators in the real sector is dependent on the structure of the financial system is place. The Government can ensure (through polices put forward) that transparency and fairness is the norm in the financial sector, this will go a long way towards sustainable economic growth in Nigeria. The financial sector that creates sustainable economic growth must be resilient and strong, with institutional development as a priority, this sector must facilitate fund mobilization for the low-income people to increase and stabilize their income and assets. An investment-friendly interest rate regime (single digit) is a pre-requisite for economic growth in Nigeria, because it would encourage lower costs of borrowing and credit expansion. Tax incentives policies must be maintained to encourage large-scale investment in the economy.
Category: Economics and Finance

[29] viXra:1604.0368 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-03 12:02:38

Financial Development for Economic Growth in Nigeria

Authors: Uyiosa Omoregie
Comments: 13 Pages.

A country’s financial system facilitates economic growth by ensuring that funds are available when and where they are required. The provision of alternative financing windows available to operators in the real sector is dependent on the structure of the financial system is place. The Government can ensure (through polices put forward) that transparency and fairness is the norm in the financial sector, this will go a long way towards sustainable economic growth in Nigeria. The financial sector that creates sustainable economic growth must be resilient and strong, with institutional development as a priority, this sector must facilitate fund mobilization for the low-income people to increase and stabilize their income and assets. An investment-friendly interest rate regime (single digit) is a pre-requisite for economic growth in Nigeria, because it would encourage lower costs of borrowing and credit expansion. Tax incentives policies must be maintained to encourage large-scale investment in the economy.
Category: Economics and Finance

[28] viXra:1505.0125 [pdf] replaced on 2017-03-05 13:32:37

Demonstrating Lorenz Curve Distribution and Increasing Gini Coefficient with the Iterating (Koch Snowflake) Fractal Attractor.

Authors: Blair D. Macdonald
Comments: 34 Pages. To change author to Blair D. Macdonald from Blair Macdonald

Global income has increased exponentially over the last two hundred years; while, and at the same time respective Gini coefficients have also increased: this investigation tested whether this pattern is a property of the mathematical geometry termed a fractal attractor. The Koch Snowflake fractal was selected and inverted to best model economic production and growth: all triangle area sizes in the fractal grew with iteration-time from an arbitrary size – growing the total set. Area of triangle the ‘bits’ represented wealth. Kinematic analysis – velocity and acceleration – was undertaken, and it was noted growing triangles propagate in a sinusoidal spiral. Using Lorenz curve and Gini methods, bit size distribution – for each iteration-time – was graphed. The curves produced matched the regular Lorenz curve shape and expanded out to the right with fractal growth – increasing the corresponding Gini coefficients: contradicting Kuznets cycles. The ‘gap’ between iteration triangle sizes (wealth) was found to accelerate apart, just as it is conjectured to do so in reality. It was concluded the wealth (and income) Lorenz distribution – along with acceleration properties – is an aspect of the fractal. Form and change of the Lorenz curve are inextricably linked to the growth and development of a fractal attractor; and from this – given real economic data – it can be deduced an economy – whether cultural or not – behaves as a fractal and can be explained as a fractal. Questions of the discrete and wave properties and the accelerated expansion – similar to that of trees and the conjectured growth of universe at large – of the fractal growth, were discussed.
Category: Economics and Finance

[27] viXra:1505.0125 [pdf] replaced on 2015-12-13 12:38:24

Demonstrating Lorenz Wealth Distribution and Increasing Gini Coefficient with the Iterating (Koch Snowflake) Fractal Attractor.

Authors: Blair D. Macdonald
Comments: 10 Pages.

The Koch snowflake fractal attractor was analysed by Lorenz and Gini methods. It was found the fractal Lorenz curve fits the wealth distribution Lorenz curve. As the fractal grows and/or develops with iteration-time the Lorenz curve expands to the right, with a corresponding increasing Gini coefficient. All triangles (triangle sizes) grow with iteration-time from an arbitrary size, and iteration group size accelerate apart from each other with iteration time. It was concluded the Lorenz distribution is a property of the fractal and inextricably linked to (fractal) growth and development. This behaviour can be observed in any fractal structure.
Category: Economics and Finance

[26] viXra:1505.0125 [pdf] replaced on 2015-10-30 06:29:03

Demonstrating Lorenz Wealth Distribution and Increasing Gini Coefficient with the Iterating (Koch Snowflake) Fractal Attractor.

Authors: Blair D. Macdonald
Comments: 8 Pages. Improved. New aggregate Lorenz diagram

The Koch snowflake fractal attractor was analysed by Lorenz and Gini methods. It was found the fractal Lorenz curve fits the wealth distribution Lorenz curve. As the fractal grows and/or develops with iteration-time the Lorenz curve expands to the right, with a corresponding increasing Gini coefficient. All triangles (triangle sizes) grow with iteration-time from an arbitrary size, and iteration group size accelerate apart from each other with iteration time. It was concluded the Lorenz distribution is a property of the fractal and inextricably linked to (fractal) growth and development. This behaviour can be observed in any fractal structure.
Category: Economics and Finance

[25] viXra:1505.0125 [pdf] replaced on 2015-10-14 02:14:44

Demonstrating Lorenz Wealth Distribution and Increasing Gini Coefficient with the Iterating (Koch Snowflake) Fractal Attractor.

Authors: Blair D. Macdonald
Comments: 9 Pages.

The Koch snowflake fractal attractor was analysed by Lorenz and Gini methods. It was found the fractal Lorenz curve fits the wealth (stock) distribution Lorenz curve. Gini coefficient analysis showed an increasing coefficient by iteration (time). It was concluded the Lorenz distribution is a property of the fractal and inextricably linked to (fractal) growth and development.
Category: Economics and Finance

[24] viXra:1505.0125 [pdf] replaced on 2015-10-13 14:24:09

Demonstrating Lorenz Wealth Distribution and Increasing Gini Coefficient with the Iterating (Koch Snowflake) Fractal Attractor

Authors: Blair D. Macdonald
Comments: 8 Pages. Remastered

The Koch snowflake fractal attractor was analysed by Lorenz and Gini methods. It was found the fractal Lorenz curve fits the wealth (stock) distribution Lorenz curve. Gini coefficient analysis showed an increasing coefficient by iteration (time). It was concluded the Lorenz distribution is a property of the fractal and inextricably linked to (fractal) growth and development.
Category: Economics and Finance

[23] viXra:1505.0097 [pdf] replaced on 2015-12-29 09:19:59

Group Function of Income Distribution in Society

Authors: Sergey G. Fedosin
Comments: 10 pages. International Frontier Science Letters, ISSN: 2349-4484, Vol. 6, P. 6 – 15 (2015). http://dx.doi.org/10.18052/www.scipress.com/ifsl.6.6.

Based on the similarity of properties of photons and money, and on the formula for the density of distribution of photon gas by energies, the corresponding mathematical formula for distribution of annual income per capita is obtained. Application of this formula for the data analysis reveals several independent groups of population with different average levels of their income. In particular four main groups of population contribute to the distribution of income in the economy of the USA.
Category: Economics and Finance

[22] viXra:1503.0229 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-11 02:25:27

The Internet – the Creator of Public Goods?

Authors: Blair D. Macdonald
Comments: 5 Pages.

Media and entertainment industries are in decline; profitability down due to ‘freer access on computers. Is the internet producing ‘Public goods’ from what were Private goods? With respect to these goods and the Internet, the assumption used to classify ‘Private goods' and Public goods in an economy (the degree of excludability and rivalry) was analysed, and the respective industries tested for being Public Goods. It was concluded these goods within the entertainment/media industries are slowly being repositioned from what are termed 'private' or 'club'/'congestion' goods, to their extreme opposite, Public goods. The ‘free rider problem’ of Public Goods has become the ‘free copy problem’ with respect to these goods. It was hypothesised the Internet was the cause. It was discussed Public Goods – by tradition – failure in the market, and are therefore provided by Government: is this to be the destiny of Internet goods, or any item on the internet subject to file sharing or digital copying in any form including – at the extreme – the human genome, solid object 3D printing, and even money in the form of bit-coins?
Category: Economics and Finance

[21] viXra:1501.0249 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-31 06:56:00

Mastering Fiat

Authors: Andro Antonopoulis
Comments: 22 Pages. Thank you

A coin users guide to navigating legacy financial systems.
Category: Economics and Finance

[20] viXra:1411.0514 [pdf] replaced on 2014-11-22 11:50:48

An Alternative Economic Paradigm: How Redistribution would Drive the Economy

Authors: Piero BENAZZO
Comments: 10 Pages. Published in Tidningen Kulturen on 25 March 2013

In 1943 in Bengal, inequality together with the inelasticity of supply led to an increase of entitlements for some citizens that generated inflation in the subsistence sector and decreased entitlements for others. These latter experienced tragic famine. This shows that distribution matters. A subdivision of the economy between subsistence sector and wealth sector brings such arguments in the whole economy. The analysis specifies aggregates of variables and conditions whereby these dynamics currently remain hidden behind aggregation. For example, a decoupling between demand side, which originates locally, and supply side, which may be delocalised, shuffles rankings hiding dynamics. Increase in inequality would generate an inequality trap inflating the subsistence sector in relation to the wealth sector, generating recession in this latter. This would eventually overtake increasing efficiency. Some policy options are discussed.
Category: Economics and Finance

[19] viXra:1408.0138 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-22 01:33:58

Use Thermodynamic Laws to Describe Macroeconomics

Authors: Wanchung Hu
Comments: 2 Pages.

There is a great analogy between thermodynamics and economics. Here, I will use the laws of thermodynamics to describe the laws of macroeconomics. The first law of thermodynamics explains the conservation of energy. Thus, the internal demand and external trade will contribute to citizens’ income. The second law of thermodynamics says that entropy will always be enlarged. Thus, developed nations will have larger entropy compared to developing or non-developing nations. The third law of thermodynamics also reaches because there is no perfect monopoly.
Category: Economics and Finance

[18] viXra:1408.0127 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-19 03:10:57

Use Newton’s Mechanics to Describe Macroeconomics

Authors: Wanchung Hu
Comments: 3 Pages.

There is an analogy between physics and economics. Here, I will use Newton’s mechanics to describe and deduct the principle of macroeconomics. Economics force is defined as F=dMV/dt=dPG/dt. The link between inflation rate, interest rate, growth rate, and money acceleration rate will also be defined. Principles of least action will be applied to the economics principle. Thus, we have new potent tools to analyze economics activities.
Category: Economics and Finance

[17] viXra:1406.0052 [pdf] replaced on 2014-06-10 22:14:23

The Insights of Demand-Supply Curve of Macroeconomics and Its Application to GDP Components

Authors: Wanchung Hu
Comments: 2 Pages.

Macroeconomics is the key economics branch to describe gross economy behavior of one country or the world. However, the detailed demand-supply graph representing the macroeconomics is not clearly explicit. Here, I will use the demand-supply curve to explain the detailed macroeconomics contents (GDP=C+I+G+NX) in the graph. I propose the demand-supply curve is likely the typical demand-supply curve with upward and downward slopes. The detailed components will be shown in the following graph in the content.
Category: Economics and Finance

[16] viXra:1406.0051 [pdf] replaced on 2014-06-23 04:33:09

The Further Explanation of Demand Supply Curve in Microeconomics

Authors: Wan-chung Hu
Comments: 5 Pages.

The demand supply curves represent the fundamental economics principles. However, there is lacking detailed relationship between company and the microeconomics when we apply this demand-and-supply curve. Thus, here, I propose a detailed explanation of microeconomic demand-and-supply curve to put material cost and labor cost in the graph. Thus, a more practical demand-supply graph can be obtained in real business world.
Category: Economics and Finance

[15] viXra:1406.0051 [pdf] replaced on 2014-06-17 22:28:16

The Further Explanation of Demand Supply Curve in Microeconomics

Authors: Wan-chung Hu
Comments: 4 Pages.

The demand supply curves represent the fundamental economics principles. However, there is lacking detailed relationship between company and the microeconomics when we apply this demand-and-supply curve. Thus, here, I propose a detailed explanation of microeconomic demand-and-supply curve to put material cost and labor cost in the graph. Thus, a more practical demand-supply graph can be obtained in real business world.
Category: Economics and Finance

[14] viXra:1406.0051 [pdf] replaced on 2014-06-15 23:30:34

The Further Explanation of Demand Supply Curve in Microeconomics

Authors: Wan-chung Hu
Comments: 4 Pages.

The demand supply curves represent the fundamental economics principles. However, there is lacking detailed relationship between company and the microeconomics when we apply this demand-and-supply curve. Thus, here, I propose a detailed explanation of microeconomic demand-and-supply curve to put material cost and labor cost in the graph. Thus, a more practical demand-supply graph can be obtained in real business world.
Category: Economics and Finance

[13] viXra:1406.0051 [pdf] replaced on 2014-06-12 22:36:02

The Further Explanation of Demand Supply Curve in Microeconomics

Authors: Wan-chung Hu
Comments: 3 Pages.

The demand supply curves represent the fundamental economics principles. However, there is lacking detailed relationship between company and the microeconomics when we apply this demand-and-supply curve. Thus, here, I propose a detailed explanation of microeconomic demand-and-supply curve to put material cost and labor cost in the graph. Thus, a more practical demand-supply graph can be obtained in real business world.
Category: Economics and Finance

[12] viXra:1406.0051 [pdf] replaced on 2014-06-11 23:12:31

The Further Explanation of Demand Supply Curve in Microeconomics

Authors: Wan-chung Hu
Comments: 3 Pages.

The demand supply curves represent the fundamental economics principles. However, there is lacking detailed relationship between company and the microeconomics when we apply this demand-and-supply curve. Thus, here, I propose a detailed explanation of microeconomic demand-and-supply curve to put material cost and labor cost in the graph. Thus, a more practical demand-supply graph can be obtained in real business world.
Category: Economics and Finance

[11] viXra:1406.0051 [pdf] replaced on 2014-06-11 04:03:20

The Further Explanation of Demand Supply Curve in Microeconomics

Authors: Wan-chung Hu
Comments: 2 Pages.

The demand supply curves represent the fundamental economics principles. However, there is lacking detailed relationship between company and the microeconomics when we apply this demand-and-supply curve. Thus, here, I propose a detailed explanation of microeconomic demand-and-supply curve to put material cost and labor cost in the graph. Thus, a more practical demand-supply graph can be obtained in real business world.
Category: Economics and Finance

[10] viXra:1406.0051 [pdf] replaced on 2014-06-10 22:31:19

The Further Explanation of Demand Supply Curve in Microeconomics

Authors: Wan-chung Hu
Comments: 2 Pages.

The demand supply curves represent the fundamental economics principles. However, there is lacking detailed relationship between company and the microeconomics when we apply this demand-and-supply curve. Thus, here, I propose a detailed explanation of microeconomic demand-and-supply curve to put material cost and labor cost in the graph. Thus, a more practical demand-supply graph can be obtained in real business world.
Category: Economics and Finance