Nuclear and Atomic Physics

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[373] viXra:1703.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-20 16:41:46

Preon Interaction Theory and Model of Universe

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 102 Pages.

Book contains researches five new ideas: new preon interaction theory of the micro World; relations between time, mass, space, charge and energy; possibility of creating the super-strong (in millions times) matter, having suprice properties; super-strong nuclear AB-needles, which allows to penetrate deep into the Earth and planets; the nuclear geterator that is converting of any matter into energy. 1. In Chapter 1 the author offers some initial ideas about a cognitive construct of the Micro-World with allows to design a preon based Universe matching many qualities of the observable Universe. The main idea is that - the initial base must be very simple: two energy massless virtual particles (eners) and two reciprocity relations (interactions) between them. Author postulates: Two energy massless virtual particles can explain the main features of much of what we see including: mass, electrical charges and the main interactions between particles such as: gravitation, centrifugal and inertial masses, repulsion and attraction of electric charges, weak and strong nuclear forces, design of quarks and baryonic matter. 2. In Chapter 2 author has developed a theory which allows derivation of the unknown relations between the main parameters (energy, time, volume, matter) in the Universe. In given part 3 he added charge as main parameter in this theory. He finds also the quantum (minimal values) of energy, time, volume and matter and he applied these quantum for estimations of quantum volatility and the estimation of some values of our Universe and received both well-known and new unknown relations. Author offers possibly valid relations between charge, time, matter, volume, distance, and energy. The net picture derived is that in the Universe exists ONLY one substance – ENERGY. Charge, time, matter, volume, fields are evidence of this energy and they can be transformed one to other. Author gives the equations which allow to calculate these transformation like the famous formula E = mc2. Some assumptions about the structure of the Universe follow from these relations. Most offered equations give results close to approximately known data of Universe, the others allow checking up by experiment. 3. In Chapter 3 the author researches the design the super-strong matter. This matter is stronger than convetional mathriales in millions times. It is can withstand temperatures in millions degree. Aerospace, aviation particularly need, in any era, the strongest and most thermostable materials available, often at nearly any price. The Space Elevator, space ships (especially during atmospheric reentry), rocket combustion chambers, thermally challenged engine surfaces, hypersonic aircraft materials better than any now available, with undreamed of performance as the reward if obtained. As it is shown in this research, the offered new material allows greatly to improve the all characteristics of space ships, rockets, engines and aircraft and design new types space, propulsion, aviation systems. At present the term ‘nanotechnology’ is well known – in its’ ideal form, the flawless and completely controlled design of conventional molecular matter from molecules or atoms. But even this yet unachieved goal is not the end of material science possibilities. The author herein offers the idea of design of new forms of nuclear matter from nucleons (neutrons, protons), electrons, and other nuclear particles. He shows this new nuclear matter has extraordinary properties (for example, tensile strength, stiffness, hardness, critical temperature, superconductivity, supertransparency, zero friction, etc.), which are up to millions of times better than corresponding properties of conventional molecular matter. He shows concepts of design for space ships, rockets, aircraft, sea ships, transportation, thermonuclear reactors, constructions, and so on from nuclear matter. These vehicles will have unbelievable possibilities (e.g., invisibility, ghost-like penetration through any walls and armour, protection from nuclear bomb explosions and any radiation flux, etc. Nanotechnology, in near term prospect, operates with objects (molecules and atoms) having the size in nanometer (10-9 m). The author here outlines perhaps more distant operations with objects (nuclei) having size in the femtometer range, (10-15 m, millions of times less small than the nanometer scale). The name of this new technology is femtotechnology. 4. In Chapter 4 author offered and considered possible super strong nuclear matter. In given work he continues to study the problem of a stability and production this matter. He shows the special artificial forms of nuclear AB-matter which make its stability and give the fantastic properties. For example, by the offered AB-needle you can pierce any body without any damage, support motionless satellite, reach the other planet, and research Earth’s interior. These forms of nuclear matter are not in nature now, and nanotubes are also not in nature. The AB-matter is also not natural now, but researching and investigating their possibility, properties, stability and production are necessary for creating them. 5. In Chapter 5 Author offers a new nuclear generator which allows to convert any matter to nuclear energy in accordance with the Einstein equation E=mc2. The method is based upon tapping the energy potential of a Micro Black Hole (MBH) and the Hawking radiation created by this MBH. As is well-known, the vacuum continuously produces virtual pairs of particles and antiparticles, in particular, the photons and anti-photons. The MBH event horizon allows separating them. Anti-photons can be moved to the MBH and be annihilated; decreasing the mass of the MBH, the resulting photons leave the MBH neighborhood as Hawking radiation. The offered nuclear generator (named by author as AB-Generator) utilizes the Hawking radiation and injects the matter into MBH and keeps MBH in a stable state with near-constant mass. The AB-Generator can not only produce gigantic energy outputs but should be hundreds of times cheaper than a conventional electric generation processes. The AB-Generator can be used in aerospace as a photon rocket or as a power source for numerous space vehicles. Many scientists expect the Large Hadron Collider at CERN will produce one MBH every second and the technology to capture them may be used for the AB-Generator.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[372] viXra:1703.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-20 19:13:23

Small Non-Expensive Electric Cumulative Thermonuclear Reactors

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 143 Pages.

Small Non-Expensive Electric Cumulative Thermonuclear Reactors Alexander Bolonkin ISBN 978-1-365-79783-5 The author offers the new, small cheap electric impulse and cumulative thermonuclear reactors, which increases the temperature and pressure of its nuclear fuel by millions of times, reaches the required ignition stage and, ultimately, constant contained thermonuclear reaction. Electric Impulse and Cumulative AB Reactors contain several innovations to achieve its product. Chief among them in version one the electric thermonuclear reactors are using electric field voltage 50 ÷ 1000 kV (an electric condenser discharge), which allows to heat the primary compressed fuel in special pellet by electric impulse up hundreds millions degrees of temperature. In electric impulse and cumulative versions of AB thermonuclear reactors the fuel nucleus are heated by high electric voltage (50 ÷ 1000 kV) up the hundreds millions degree and cumulative compressed into center of the special cylindrical or spherical fuel cartridge. The additional compressing and combustion time the fuel nucleus may have from electric pinch-effect and heavy nucleus of the fuel cartridge cover. The main advantages of the offered method are very small electric fuel cartridge (11-18 mm) and small of the full reactor installation (reactor has the spherical diameter 0.3 - 3 m), using the many thermonuclear fuels at room temperature and possibility of using the offered thermonuclear reactor for transportation (ships, trains, aircrafts, rockets, etc.). Author gives theory and estimations of the suggested reactors. Author also is discussing the problems of converting the received thermonuclear energy into mechanical (electrical) energy and into rocket thrust. Offered small micro-reactors may be used as heaves (ignition, fuse) for small artillery nuclear projectiles and bombs. Copyright @ author – Luly. Publisher: USA, LULU, www.lulu.com, 2017
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[371] viXra:1703.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-16 06:40:58

Microworld_35. Theory of Nonlinear Oscillations on External Influence on Photon Behavior

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 13 Pages. English and russian texts.

article describes a mechanism of external influence on behavior of photons.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[370] viXra:1703.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-08 02:00:55

Can a Vortex Cool Down Fukushima?

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 6 Pages.

A modification of nuclear physics model of Mathis has been proposed. Solution for Fukushima can come outside of mainstream pseudoscience only.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[369] viXra:1703.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-03 00:07:50

Calculating the Parameters of the Tetraneutron

Authors: Anatoly V. Belyakov
Comments: 3 Pages.

A large international group of theorists, using the high precision nucleon-nucleon interaction between neutrons, issued the theoretical estimates of the four-neutron (4n) system resonance state energy and its lifetime. For this purpose numerous calculations using supercomputers have been made and obtained the values of 0.84 MeV and 5×10-22 seconds. The same results were obtained with much less efforts based on the mechanistic interpretation of John Wheeler’s geometrodynamic idea.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[368] viXra:1702.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-15 14:15:29

Cost of Tritium Fusion Energy

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin, Zarek Newman
Comments: 14 Pages.

For the past sixty years, scientists have spent approximately one hundred billion dollars in an attempt to develop tritium thermonuclear energy. They were unsuccessful. No stable thermonuclear reactions were achieved. Current plans are to design an expensive, but workable industrial installation. It will cost tens of billions of US dollars and will possibly only begin to produce electric energy 15 – 20 years from now. Even if the new designs were viable, they are economically unfeasible. Currently, Tritium is used for fusion ignition because the tritium-deuterium thermonuclear reaction (T+D) has the lowest ignition temperature (≈100 million degree) in contrast to deuterium thermonuclear reaction (D+D) which has a fusion ignition temperature 50 - 100 times hotter. This paper demonstrates that because tritium fuel is very expensive ($30,000/gram and more), the electricity generated by the tritium thermonuclear reactor will cost (≈ $1/kwh), at least 10 times more than conventional sources of energy (≈ $0.1/kwh, 2015). Even using Li-6, Li-7 blankets to breed tritium from fusion reactions cannot be a full solution, because, as we will show, they can only restore a maximum of 30% of the expensive tritium fuel. Hundreds of billions of dollars were spent in vain over the past sixty years for R&D of tritium fusion. It is the costliest mistake in the history of science! Research and Development (R&D) of huge, very expensive tritium fusion installations should be abandoned and in its stead, develop viable and economically feasible, inexpensive, small reactors that use deuterium fuel and high temperatures. That decreases the fuel cost by 30,000 times. Viable designs of small thermonuclear reactors have been offered by senior author in [8,9] where an analysis of the problems with the various configurations of the new small and cheap fusion reactors are detailed therein.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[367] viXra:1702.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-14 16:11:56

Gödelizng Fine Structure Gateway to Comprehending the Penultimate Nature of Reality

Authors: Richard L Amoroso
Comments: 12 Pages.

We have questioned the value of the Planck constant in other work, such that its value is likely different for a physical reality with parameters for dimensionality (LSXD) beyond the 4D Standard Model. Now the fundamental basis of the fine structure constant (FSC) itself also comes under scrutiny. The FSC is generally determined in terms of other constants; therefore, its origin yet remains a profound mystery. One must go ‘out of bounds’ to obtain a holistic picture. Our understanding of the physical world has progressed from Classical to Quantum; and now to the brink of the 3rd regime of Unified Field Mechanics (UFM). We review the 2nd regime origin and development of the FSC, then propose new insights gleaned from 3rd regime UFM parameters and also review importance of the FSC in developing empirical protocols for gaining access to the 3rd regime.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[366] viXra:1702.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-14 11:32:08

Transparent Fuel Capsule for Fusion Reactor

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 15 Pages.

For more 60 years scientists havewanted to reach confined, stable thermonuclear reaction state. They are using two main methods: ICF – Inertial Confinement Fusion and MCF – Magnetic Confinement Fusion. In ICF they have tried to heat a frozen thermonuclear fuel by highly compressing the reactive force of the fuel’s vaporized cover and tohold (confine) it by inertial forces of the fuel used. In MCF they heatrarefied plasma by electric current and hold it a relative long time by enshrouding magnetic field. In ICF, only 10-20% the laser energy is used for compression and significantly less for further fuel heating. The author is offering a significantly new design the fuel pellet (capsule) for laser ICF reactor which allows using about 90% the laser energy for pellet heating and compression work. The second advantage of the author’s innovative suggested method is significantly increasing (by a hundred-fold) the time of nuclear reaction (reactivity) as well as the possibility to use the compressed gas fuel at room temperature,instead of the frozen fuel held at absolute Kelvin zero. The suggested pellet (capsule) design requires few collimated light beams (maximum 6, not 192 as with NIF) because it is using offered multi-reflect capsule(pellet). That greatly simplifies the design laser system.Possible of getting conditions will be enough for using the D-D nuclear fuel, which is monetarily less costly by 30,000 times than T-D fuel.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[365] viXra:1701.0684 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-31 07:15:20

Gravity as the Cause for Nuclear Force and Cosmological Acceleration

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 6 Pages.

The origin of the force holding protons and neutrons together in the nucleus is one of the daunting puzzles of physics, regardless of the Standard Model explanation. One possible consideration is the force of gravity as responsible for the stability of the nucleus. However, this idea will be immediately dismissed because gravitational force as we know it is weaker than electromagnetic force by a factor of about 8 x 10-37 . We know gravitation as was introduced by Newton and have been stuck with that for centuries. This paper reveals a drastically different law of gravitation that ultimately resolves the mystery of nuclear force. This theory is also promising to explain the phenomenon of cosmological redshift.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[364] viXra:1701.0681 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-30 20:26:31

MC Physics – Force Unification Using Mono-Charges- Supplemental

Authors: Kenneth D. Oglesby
Comments: 3 Pages. Related to www.mcphysics.org website and viXra papers #1701.0002, #1611.0080 and #1609.0359

MC Physics previously proposed unifying all fundamental forces as being derived from electro-static charge force. Force strength was caused by and only interacted with and between quantized mono-charges of a charge type and set charge strength. In a separate paper mono-charges and the F*SCoTt process to build all particles, atoms and matter were described. A modified Coulomb’s Law equation ( Charge Force, F = C1 * C2/ R^z ) for that unification was proposed, which also replaced Newton’s Law of Gravitation, and utilized a z relativistic impacted space exponent. For each individual mono-charge and from the measured experimental data, z = 1.0 (est. range 0.5 to 1.5) for fully relativistic compressed (down to 2 dimensional, circular dilution) space of the lowest known charged mono-charges (e.g. photons of light) moving at the relativistic speed of light; z = 2 for normal space that is mostly static of mixed low and high charged mono-charges (e.g. in typical binary mass bodies) as for gravity; and z > 3+ for stretched/ expanded space for static mono-charges of the highest strength, ie.quarks. The total force transaction z exponent between 2 mono-charges (MC1 and MC2) is proposed to be: z = ( z1 * z2 ) ^ 0.5
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[363] viXra:1701.0657 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-29 02:27:53

A Simple Method of Determining the Mass of Hadrons

Authors: Nikola Perkovic
Comments: 6 Pages.

Determining the mass of hadrons was a predicament in Quantum Chromodynamics, suggestions and attempts of using a theory of lattice QCD for such determination has not provided satisfying results. This paper will suggest a new method that offers 99% accuracy therefore much higher than lattice QCD, as well as simplicity. The methodology provided in this paper is relatively simple which makes it easier to do the calculus without unnecessarily losing time on extremely complex equations that serve not practical purpose since the accuracy of lattice QCD in determining hadrionic mass is approximately 10% which is underwhelming. The aforementioned new method will be applied for protons, neutrons and pions.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[362] viXra:1701.0488 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-14 09:15:15

“A Real Picture” of Formation of Primary, Composing Elements of the Matter and the Results of Their Interaction

Authors: Viktor S.Dolgikh
Comments: 16 Pages. In english and in russian

I present this article as a part of my work “HE”: the beginning. A real picture of creation of primary, composing elements of matter and the results of their interaction are described. Introductory and advertising part of it is omitted because of the expected "sarcasm", which will disappear at the end of the article. Many years of practical approach to thinking is the main item in the content of the presented work. It is given in a very condensed form without "tiring" description of the presented picture. Its final statement is given on page 12. The following extended explanation, and main description of basic directions: - the variety of particles due to the result of their division, disintegration and their unnatural creation; - the structure of atoms and molecules of matter in the classification of their states; - the frame structure of the "live" part of this kind of matter with its diversity; - the evolution of matter development, which are constantly being in the process of work, will depend on the interest to this article and are presented in the following publications. To clarify the text I am sending the original.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[361] viXra:1701.0486 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-14 06:34:49

Key Properties of Hot Nuclei

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

In accordance with the rules of quantum mechanics, the atomic nucleus has discrete energy levels. [13] Research conducted at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University has shed new light on the structure of the nucleus, that tiny congregation of protons and neutrons found at the core of every atom. [12] The work elucidates the interplay between collective and single-particle excitations in nuclei and proposes a quantitative theoretical explanation. It has as such great potential to advance our understanding of nuclear structure. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[360] viXra:1701.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-01 14:43:43

MC Physics - Fundamental Force Unification using Mono-Charges

Authors: Kenneth D. Oglesby
Comments: Pages.

MC Physics- Fundamental Force Unification using Mono-Charges Quantization of basic elemental electrostatic charge occurred in the earliest Universe which created an uneven distribution of mono-charges (MCs) by charge type and charge strength. Mono-charges form all matter and cause all force in the Universe. Charge strength provides the inertial mass of all MCs and, therefore, of all matter. All force (electro-static, magnetic, strong nuclear, weak nuclear and gravity) is electro-static in nature and is instantly and continuously applied only between mono-charges. All force (as well as MC/ matter / mass and Space) is modified by movement in Space (dS/dT), especially at high relativistic velocities. Magnetic poles and force are caused by moving mono-charges, indicating a link between magnetism, inertia and relativity- all resistances to spatial or velocity change. Magnetic force acts only on magnetic poles, i.e. moving MCs. Following the F-SCoTt matter formation processes, modified Coulomb’s Law and modified Newton’s Laws, cooling of the ultra-high kinetic energy early Universe allowed progressively weaker force bondings of quantized MCs to stably form particles- starting with quarks> protons> nuclei> electrons> neutrinos> and lastly forming photons of light. From their joining processes, all particles have internal movements (rotation, vibrations, wobble) that cause variations (oscillations, vibrations) in their projected forces, causing temporary charge imbalances and excess weaker MC joinings. Such movements cause stronger MCs to have a more focused force projection source vectors than weaker MCs which have a collective fuzzy collective force projection source from (mostly) neutralized matter. This is the most likely cause of attraction force to be slightly stronger than repel forces for masses, i.e. causing gravitational force.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[359] viXra:1612.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 11:01:18

Flow Reversal of Negative Ions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Science (NIFS) has succeeded in revealing the flow of negative hydrogen ions using a combination of infrared lasers and electrostatic probes in the ion-source plasma, which generates a negative-hydrogen-ion beam. [12] Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) and Princeton University have proposed a groundbreaking solution to a mystery that has puzzled physicists for decades. At issue is how magnetic reconnection, a universal process that sets off solar flares, northern lights and cosmic gamma-ray bursts, occurs so much faster than theory says should be possible. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[358] viXra:1612.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-06 04:33:31

Microworld_ 34. Nuclear Fusion

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 23 Pages. English and russian texts.

“Hot” nuclear fusion. “Cold” nuclear fusion.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[357] viXra:1611.0391 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-29 04:23:49

PAN-Theory

Authors: Carmine D'Errico
Comments: 11 Pages.

A unified theory of fundamental interactions represents today one of the most advanced research sectors. To it are linked the expectations about new worldviews and new implications on the technological and industrial processes for the evolution of the human species. At this unification process, it is assigned a general understanding of phenomena. In this article, we present an alternative theory we call PAN-Theory. The PAN-Theory provides a simple mechanical-algebraic model that proves to be exactly the Coulomb's interaction; therefore we demonstrate the elementary charge e and Planck's constant h to be expression of other constants with negligible errors. By the definition of a mass–time relation the presented Theory obtains and interprets in a new way the fine-structure constant \alpha and estimates the proton radius in an agreed extent with the most complex and current models. By the use of PAN-Theory a relativistic mass-energy relation is demonstrate and the wave-particle duality is presented in a new aesthetic. The final product of the presented theory is the expression of Newtonian gravity model as isomorphism of Coulomb model with negligible errors. In appendix a short demonstration for Doppler effect and for quantum entanglement is gave.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[356] viXra:1611.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-19 09:05:32

Small, Non-Expensive Electric Impulse Thermonuclear Reactor with Collising Jets

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 23 Pages.

In last sixty years, the scientists spent the tens billion dollars attempting to develop useful thermonuclear energy. However, they cannot yet reach a stable thermonuclear reaction. They still are promising publically, after another 15 – 20 years, and more tens of billions of US dollars to finally design the expensive workable industrial installation, which possibly will produce electric energy more expensive than current heat, wind and hydroelectric stations can in 2015. The author offers the new, small cheap electric cumulative thermonuclear reactors, which increases the temperature and pressure of its nuclear fuel by millions of times, reaches the required ignition stage and, ultimately, constant contained thermonuclear reaction. Electric Cumulative AB Reactors contain several innovations to achieve its product. Chief among them in electric thermonuclear reactors are using electric voltage 50 ÷ 1000 kV (an electric condenser discharge), which allows to heat the compressed fuel in special pellet by electric impulse up hundreds millions degrees of temperature. In electric cumulative vertion of AB thermonuclear reactors the fuel nucleus are heated by high electric voltage (50 ÷ 1000 kV) up the hundreds millions degree and cumulative compressed into center of the special cylindrical fuel cartridge. The additional compressing and combustion time the fuel nucleus may have from electric pinch-effect and heavy nucleus of the fuel cartridge cover. The main advantages of the offered method are very small electric fuel cartridge (11-18 mm) and small of the full reactor installation (reactor has the spherical diameter 0.3 - 3 m), using the many thermonuclear fuels at room temperature and possibility of using the offered thermonuclear reactor for transportation (ships, trains, aircrafts, rockets, etc.). Author gives theory and estimations of the suggested reactors. Author also is discussing the problems of converting the received thermonuclear energy into mechanical (electrical) energy and into rocket thrust. Offered small micro-reactors may be used as heaves (ignition, fusee) for small artillery nuclear projectiles and bombs.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[355] viXra:1611.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-13 08:30:32

Fusion Reactors – a Dream that Can Never Come True

Authors: Jose P Koshy
Comments: 5 Pages.

Nuclear fusion is primarily a process of 'system becoming dense', rather than 'fusion of two nuclei'. It is spontaneous in stars, which are light and are moving at high speeds. Earth is dense and moves at a comparatively slow speed. So on Earth, nuclear fusion is non-spontaneous – the energy input required to maintain the reaction will be greater than energy released. So it is practically impossible to produce energy from nuclear fusion reactions.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[354] viXra:1611.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-09 05:42:07

Muon Rings and Frequecy

Authors: Norman Graves
Comments: 2 Pages.

One of the more convincing experiments in support of Einstein’s special theory of relativity was conducted at CERN in 1977. The experiment involved injecting particles called Muons into a 14 metre diameter ring at speeds approaching that of light and observing their behaviour. The experiment shows conclusively that time is dilated and distances are compressed for the orbiting Muon. There is one other aspect of the experiment which however is often overlooked and that is the effect of relativity on frequency. Here it is shown that the orbital frequency experienced by the Muon is multiplied by a factor Gamma compared to that seen by a stationary observer.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[353] viXra:1611.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-06 15:17:38

MC Physics Model of Sub-Atomic Particles using Mono-Charges

Authors: Kenneth D. Oglesby
Comments: 11 Pages. Follow up to viXra paper 1609.0359v1.pdf by the same author

A new model of sub-atomic particles is proposed based on mono-charges. It is theorized that mono-charges form all matter and cause all force. Mono-charges are quantized electro-static charges by type (positive or negative) and strength / potential. Distribution of those mono-charges in the early Universe by their quantized properties is described. The process to form the elemental particles of quarks, electrons, neutrinos and photons is outlined. the process to then form composite particles of protons and neutrons, then leading up to atoms and molecules is also outlined.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[352] viXra:1610.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-31 08:12:45

Detection of Aortic Graft Infection Combined with a Pelvic Abscess Using 18F-FDG PET/CT in a Patient with FUO

Authors: Mohammed Shah Alam, Auradkar Manisha, Wei Guan, Hu-bing Wu, Quan-shi Wang, Wen-lan Zhou
Comments: 3 Pages.

Aortic graft infection (AGI) is an uncommon but severe late complication of associated with vascular surgery. Early detection is important because of high mortality. Clinical findings often are nonspecific. Some of AGI patients present with FUO. A 67-year-old female received an endovascular aneurysm repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm. After 2 years of surgery she suffered from recurrent fever for 8 months and sometimes body temperature peaked at 40°C. Laboratory examinations show all are increased. Multiple modalities of imagine has been performed including x-ray, USG and CT. To find out the cause of FUO he was referred to perform 18F-FDG PET/ CT for further evaluation. The PET/CT images revealed the extent of the inflammation around grafts and the pelvic abscess, which helped to confirm the cause of FUO and establish the diagnosis of AGI. That indicates 18F-FDG PET/CT is a reliable modality for the FUO patients who has undergone endovascular aneurysm repair
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[351] viXra:1610.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-25 02:30:20

Microworld_33. Electromagnetic Engines Without Moving Parts

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 11 Pages. English and russian texts.

There can be two kinds of electromagnetic engines developed that would be free of moving macroscopic parts. One of them is EmDrive wherein magnetron launches a vortex-like whirl that generates ethereal jet thrust. Another is a capacitor-type photon engine that utilizes “motive force” of photon.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[350] viXra:1610.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-23 01:59:12

Microworld_32. Nature of the “Impossible” EmDrive Jet Thrust

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 13 Pages. English and russian texts. Вас устраивает качество перевода на English?

Jet thrust of the “impossible” electromagnetic engine called ЕmDrive is created by the magnetic whirl that is constantly pumping through flows of ambient ether which in their turn are keeping the magnetic whirl stable.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[349] viXra:1610.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-22 04:41:37

Microworld 31. Arrow of Time

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 11 Pages. English and russian texts

Refusal of the “arrow of time” in physics is a result of the academic insufficiency of the quantum physics and relativity theory
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[348] viXra:1610.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 18:00:52

Electric Cumulative Thermonuclear Reactors

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 22 Pages.

During past sixty years, scientists spent tens of billion US dollars attempting to develop useful thermonuclear energy. However, they cannot yet reach a sustained stable thermonuclear reaction. They still are promising publically, after another 15 – 20 years, and more tens of billions of US dollars to finally design the expensive workable industrial installation, which possibly will produce electric energy more expensive than current heat, wind and hydro-electric power generation stations can in 2016. The author offers the new, small and cheap electric cumulative thermonuclear reactors, which increases the temperature and pressure of its nuclear fuel by millions of times, reaches the required ignition stage and, ultimately, a constant well-contained thermonuclear reaction. Electric Cumulative AB Reactors contain several innovations to achieve its power output product. Chief among them in electric thermonuclear reactors are using moving cumulative explosives and an electric discharge, which allows to accelerate the fuel and special nucleus to very high speed which (as shown by integral computations) compresses the fuel thousands times and heats the fuel by electric impulse to hundreds of millions degrees of temperature. In electric cumulative version of AB thermonuclear reactors, the fuel nucleus are accelerated by high electric voltage (15 ÷ 60 kV) up the hundreds millions degree and cumulative compressed into center of the spherical fuel cartridge. The additional compressing and combustion time the fuel nucleus may have from heavy nucleus of the fuel cartridge. The main advantages of the offered method are very small fuel cartridge (11-18 mm) of the full reactor installation (reactor having spherical diameter (0.3 - 3 m), using the thermonuclear fuel at room-temperature and achieves the possibility of using the offered thermonuclear reactor for transportation (ships, trains, aircrafts, rockets, etc.). Author gives theory and estimations of the suggested reactors. Author also is discussing the problems of converting the received thermonuclear energy into mechanical (electrical) energy and into rocket thrust. Offered small micro-reactors may be used as heaves (propellant after ignition, fusee) for small artillery nuclear projectiles and bombs.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[347] viXra:1610.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 12:07:57

Emissivity: A Program for Atomic Emissivity Calculations

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 20 Pages.

In this article we report the release of a new program for calculating the emissivity of atomic transitions. The program, which can be obtained with its documentation from our website www.scienceware.net, passed various rigorous tests and was used by the author to generate theoretical data and analyze observational data. It is particularly useful for investigating atomic transition lines in astronomical context as the program is capable of generating a huge amount of theoretical data and comparing it to observational list of lines. A number of atomic transition algorithms and analytical techniques are implemented within the program and can be very useful in various situations. The program can be described as fast and efficient. Moreover, it requires modest computational resources.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[346] viXra:1610.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-14 05:34:03

Atomic and Molecular Aspects of Astronomical Spectra

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 238 Pages.

In the first section we present the atomic part where a C2+ atomic target was prepared and used to generate theoretical data to investigate recombination lines arising from electron-ion collisions in thin plasma. R-matrix method was used to describe the C2+ plus electron system. Theoretical data concerning bound and autoionizing states were generated in the intermediate-coupling approximation. The data were used to generate dielectronic recombination data for C+ which include transition lines, oscillator strengths, radiative transition probabilities, emissivities and dielectronic recombination coefficients. The data were cast in a line list containing 6187 optically-allowed transitions which include many C II lines observed in astronomical spectra. This line list was used to analyze the spectra from a number of astronomical objects, mainly planetary nebulae, and identify their electron temperature. The electron temperature investigation was also extended to include free electron energy analysis to investigate the long-standing problem of discrepancy between the results of recombination and forbidden lines analysis and its possible connection to the electron distribution. In the second section we present the results of our molecular investigation; the generation of a comprehensive, calculated line list of frequencies and transition probabilities for H2D+. The line list contains over 22 million rotational-vibrational transitions occurring between more than 33 thousand energy levels and covers frequencies up to 18500 cm-1. About 15% of these levels are fully assigned with approximate rotational and vibrational quantum numbers. A temperature-dependent partition function and cooling function are presented. Temperature-dependent synthetic spectra for the temperatures T=100, 500, 1000 and 2000 K in the frequency range 0-10000 cm-1 were also generated and presented graphically.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[345] viXra:1610.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-03 19:37:13

Nuclear Binding Energy Curve

Authors: Ranganath G Kulkarni
Comments: 3 Pages.

An empirical formula is found for nuclear binding energy per nucleon that agree well with observations from atomic number Z=14.The interpretation indicates that we need to explore physical variables involved in the nuclear force or nuclear binding energy.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[344] viXra:1609.0388 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-27 06:51:59

Appearance of Magic Numbers in the Unified Approach for the Nuclear Structure

Authors: Ranjeet Dalal
Comments: 6 Pages.

Taking the clues from the recently observed phenomena like correlated neutron-proton ejection from nuclei by energetic e-/protons, EMC effect and inconsistent assumptions of liquid drop and shell models for the same set of nuclei (for explanation of different nuclear properties), a unified approach for the nuclear structure was suggested by the author [1]. In the proposed approach, instead of freely moving individual neutrons/protons, nucleons exist in the form of tightly bound np and npn (and pnp also for proton rich nuclei) quasi-particles, which move in overall Coulomb well due to all other quasi-particles. The proposed approach was found to be very useful in understanding many unexplained phenomena [1]. Now, the existence of np and npn quasi-particles is found to be strongly confirmed by the presence of magic numbers across the periodic table where many stable nuclei with different atomic number are found to be have same number of np and npn. For example, there are 30 different stable (or most stable isotope of nuclei with no stable isotope) nuclei with different Z having the magic number of 38 np, 20 nuclei with the magic number of 32 np and 16 with magic number of 40 np.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[343] viXra:1609.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-23 01:52:00

Microworld_30. the Hidden Matter Problem

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 8 Pages. English and russian texts

A Reason for Stagnation in the Problem of Hidden Mass - Academic Insufficiency of the Quantum Theory and of the Relativity Theory
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[342] viXra:1609.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-22 06:58:49

Microworld_29. Magnetism and Matter

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 12 Pages. English and russian texts

Which structures of the material world are formed through magnetism?
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[341] viXra:1609.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-09 15:51:09

Could the Electrostatic Force Play a Role in Holding the Atomic Nucleus Together?

Authors: Peter Horst Rehm
Comments: 9 Pages.

An unheralded property of the electrostatic force is that as the distance between charges approaches zero the force increases exponentially without bound. Applied to the nucleus, if a positive fractional charge in one nucleon can get close enough to a negative fractional charge in a neighboring nucleon, the attractive force between them can overcome the repulsive force among protons. An effective distance of about 5% of the radius of a nucleon corresponds to an attractive force of -25 kN, which is consistent with the nuclear force as previously measured. As positive and negative fractional charges occur in both protons and neutrons, this charge-based attraction can potentially occur in a manner that is independent of the net charge of each nucleon. This form of electrostatic bonding may therefore be a significant factor in the nuclear force and may shed light upon the structure of the nucleons and the atomic nucleus.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[340] viXra:1609.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-07 05:13:22

Hydrogen Atom Exotic State. Part One

Authors: Arayik Emilevich Danghyan
Comments: 14 Pages. The article is a translation from the Russian language previously published work.

In the scientific community dominates the conviction that the hydrogen atom is the simplest, and existing theories based on equations of Schrodinger and Dirac fully describe all the subtleties of behavior of an electron in a hydrogen atom. In this paper and in the following articles will be shown that in addition to the known state-based solutions of the Schrödinger and Dirac equations, there are states which were not studied and they were not known, or often simply were discarded with the phrase "have no physical meaning." Further it will be shown that the existing equations of quantum mechanics, namely the Dirac equation, Klein-Gordon equation and especially the Schrödinger equation, can not accurately describe all the subtleties of behavior of an electron in a hydrogen atom. As a result there will be given a reasonable basis for the feasibility of an experimental search or targeted synthesis of new unknown states of the hydrogen atom.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[339] viXra:1609.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-07 05:22:00

Hydrogen Atom Exotic State. Part Two

Authors: Arayik Emilevich Danghyan
Comments: 13 Pages. The article is a translation from the Russian language previously published work.

In the study of the hydrogen atom, in order to reveal all the details of the behavior of an electron, one of the main conditions is the use of the correct, appropriate equations. Until recently, this applied Schrödinger equation, Klein-Gordon and Dirac. Schrödinger equation will not analyze because it is not relativistic, and therefore can not qualify for a full and accurate description of the range of high energies and velocities. It will be shown as the Klein-Gordon equation is also unacceptable, because the assumption is deeply disguised errors in the derivation of this equation. Since, in connection with the intended purpose, we will analyze the behavior of an electron in the states with energy below the ground state, it will be shown that the same should be treated with some suspicion in this regard to the results of the Dirac equation. As a result, the only acceptable equation is the equation М2 [1].
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[338] viXra:1609.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-03 06:48:26

Physicochemical and Spectral Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated 4-Methylbenzoic Acid

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

The present study was aimed to analyse the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical and spectral properties of 4-MBA. The compound was divided into two parts which are referred as the control and treated sample. The treated sample was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment and analysed with respect to the control sample. The various analytical techniques used were X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and UV-visible spectroscopy. The XRD data revealed the alteration in the relative intensities of the peaks as well as reduction in the average crystallite size (24.62%) of the treated sample as compared to the control. The surface area analysis revealed a slight reduction in the surface area of the treated sample. The differential scanning calorimetry analysis reported a slight increase in the melting point while significant reduction in the latent heat of fusion of the treated sample (39.96 J/g) as compared to the control (133.72 J/g). Moreover, the TGA thermogram of the treated sample revealed the reduction in the onset temperature and maximum thermal degradation temperature as compared to the control. However, the FT-IR and UV-Vis spectra of treated sample did not show any significant alteration as compared to their respective control spectra. The overall data indicated the improved physical and thermal properties of the biofield treated 4-MBA sample that might be helpful in increasing the reaction kinetics, where it will be used as a reaction intermediate.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[337] viXra:1609.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-02 01:28:22

Physicochemical Evaluation of Biofield Treated Peptone and Malmgren Modified Terrestrial Orchid Medium

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 9 Pages.

Peptone and Malmgren modified terrestrial orchid (MMTO) has been used as a growth medium for tissue culture applications. This research study was conducted to explore the influence of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on physicochemical properties of peptone and MMTO. The study was performed in two groups i.e. control and treated. The control group was kept aside as untreated, and the treated group was received the biofield energy treatment. The control and treated samples were further subjected to characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, particle size analyzer and surface area analyzer. The XRD analysis revealed the amorphous nature of the control and treated peptone samples. The DSC analysis showed an increase in thermal denaturation temperature of the treated peptone (196.22°C) as compared to the control sample (141.20°C). Additionally, the exothermic peak of treated sample (280°C) was increased as compared to the control (270°C). The DSC of control and treated MMTO showed the absence of the melting temperature in their respective DSC thermograms. The TGA analysis of the treated peptone showed an increase in onset of thermal degradation (172°C) with respect to the control (170°C). Nevertheless, the TGA thermogram of the treated MMTO (293.96°C) showed an increase in maximum thermal degradation temperature (Tmax) as compared with the control (281.41°C). It indicated the good thermal stability of the treated peptone and MMTO samples. The FT-IR result of the treated peptone showed an upward shift in C-H (2817→2833 cm-1), and amide I (1635→1641 cm-1), stretching in the treated sample with respect to the control sample. Whereas, the FT-IR spectrum of the treated MMTO showed an increase in the frequency of the C-H (2817→2833 cm-1) and amide I (1596→1606 cm-1) bands as compared to the control. Particle size analysis of the treated peptone showed an increase in d50 (average particle size) and d99 (size exhibited by 99% of particles) by 9.3 and 41.4%, respectively with respect to the control. Surface area analysis showed increase in surface area by 4.3% in the treated peptone. Altogether, the results corroborated that the biofield energy treatment had altered the physical, thermal and spectral properties of peptone and MMTO. It is assumed that biofield treated peptone and MMTO could be utilized as potential candidates for cell culture applications.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[336] viXra:1608.0407 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-30 04:09:42

Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Isotopic Abundance of 13C, 2H, or 15N in Biofield Energy Treated Aminopyridine Derivatives

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

2-Aminopyridine (2-AP) and 2,6-diaminopyridine (2,6-DAP) are two derivatives of aminopyridines that act as an important organic intermediates, mostly used in medicines, dyes and organic sensors. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on isotopic abundance ratios of 2H/1H, 13C/12C, or 15N/14N, in aminopyridine derivatives using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The 2-AP and 2,6-DAP samples were divided into two parts: control and treated. The control sample remained as untreated, while the treated sample was further divided into four groups as T1, T2, T3, and T4. The treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The GC-MS spectra of 2-AP and 2,6- DAP showed five and six m/z peaks respectively due to the molecular ion peak and fragmented peaks of aminopyridine derivatives. The isotopic abundance ratio of 2H/1H, 13C/12C, or 15N/14N were calculated for both the derivatives and significant alteration was found in the treated samples as compared to the respective control. The isotopic abundance ratio of 2H/1H, 13C/12C, or 15N/14N in treated samples of 2-AP was decreased by 55.83% in T1 and significantly increased by 202.26% in T4. However, in case of 2,6-DAP, the isotopic abundance ratio of 2H/1H, 13C/12C, and 15N/14N, in the treated sample showed a significant increase (up to 370.54% in T3) with respect to the control. GC-MS data suggested that the biofield energy treatment on aminopyridine derivatives had significantly altered the isotopic abundance of 2H, 13C, or 15N in the treated 2-AP and 2,6- DAP as compared to the control.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[335] viXra:1608.0388 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-29 00:35:01

Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characterization of Yeast Extract Powder After the Biofield Energy Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Yeast extract powder (YE powder) is particularly used in culture media for the cultivation of microorganisms found in milk or other dairy products. The present study was intended to explore the influence of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical and spectral properties of YE powder. The study was accomplished in two groups; first group was remained as control, while another was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment and termed as the treated group. Afterward, both the samples were evaluated using several analytical techniques. The X-ray diffractometry (XRD) study showed the halo patterns of XRD peaks in both the samples. This indicated the amorphous nature of the samples. The particle size study revealed the 4.77% and 26.28% increase d50 (in the average particle size) and d99 (particle size below that 99% particles are present), respectively of treated YE powder with respect to the control. The surface area analysis showed the 14.06% increase in the specific surface area of treated sample with respect to the control. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis exhibited the 41.64% increase in the melting temperature of treated YE powder sample as compared to the control. The TGA/DTG analysis exhibited the increase in Tonset (onset temperature of thermal degradation) by 7.51% and 12.45% in first and second step of thermal degradation, respectively in the treated sample as compared to the control. Furthermore, the Tmax (maximum thermal degradation temperature) was increased by 4.16% and 24.79% in first and second step of thermal degradation, respectively in the treated sample with respect to the control. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) study revealed the changes in the wavenumber of functional groups such as C-H (stretching) from 2895→2883 cm-1 and 2815→2831 cm-1, respectively; C-N from 1230→1242 cm-1; and C-O stretching from 1062-1147 cm-1→1072-1149 cm-1 of treated YE powder sample as compared to the control. The UV-vis spectroscopy showed the similar patterns of absorbance maxima (λmax) in both the control and treated samples. Therefore, the analytical results suggested the considerable impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on physicochemical and spectral properties of YE powder. The increase in Tonset and Tmax after the biofield treatment suggests that the treated YE powder might be more effective in culture medium than the control YE powder.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[334] viXra:1608.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-29 00:37:37

Physicochemical Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated Hi VegTM Acid Hydrolysate

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

The hydrolysed vegetable proteins are acidic or enzymatic hydrolytic product of proteins derived from various sources such as milk, meat or vegetables. The current study was designed to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the various physicochemical and spectra properties of Hi vegTM acid hydrolysate i.e. a hydrolysed vegetable protein. The Hi vegTM acid hydrolysate sample was divided into two parts that served as control and treated sample. The treated sample was subjected to the biofield energy treatment and its properties were analysed using particle size analyser, X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyser, UV-visible and infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The results of various parameters were compared with the control (untreated) part. The XRD data showed the decrease in crystallite size of treated sample from 110.27 nm (control) to 79.26 nm. The particle size was also reduced in treated sample as 162.13 μm as compared to the control sample (168.27 μm). Moreover, the surface area analysis revealed the 63.79% increase in the surface area of the biofield treated sample as compared to the control. The UV-Vis spectra of both samples i.e. control and treated showed the absorbance at same wavelength. However, the FT-IR spectroscopy revealed the shifting in peaks corresponding to N-H, C-H, C=O, C-N, and C-S functional groups in the treated sample with respect to the control. The thermal analysis also revealed the alteration in degradation pattern along with increase in onset temperature of degradation and maximum degradation temperature in the treated sample as compared to the control. The overall data showed the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of the treated sample of Hi vegTM acid hydrolysate. The biofield treated sample might show the improved solubility, wettability and thermal stability profile as compared to the control sample.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[333] viXra:1608.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-29 01:39:46

The Moment of Momentum and the Proton Radius

Authors: Sergey G. Fedosin, A. S. Kim
Comments: 5 pages. Russian Physics Journal. Vol. 45, No. 5, pp. 534-538 (2002). https://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1021001025666

The theory of nuclear gravitation is used to calculate the moment of momentum of the gravitational field of a proton, which is compared to the corresponding moment of momentum of the electromagnetic field. As a result, the proton radius is estimated and a relation for the moment of momentum of the field is established, which coincides in form with the expression of the virial theorem for energy.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[332] viXra:1608.0355 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 23:29:39

Evaluation of Vegetative Growth Parameters in Biofield Treated Bottle Gourd (Lagenaria Siceraria) and Okra (Abelmoschus Esculentus)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

The objective of the study was to assess the growth contributing characters of biofield treated bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) seeds. The seeds of both crops were divided into two groups, one was kept aside and denoted as untreated, while the other group was subjected biofield energy treatment. The variabilities in growth contributing parameters were studied and compared with their control. Further the level of glutathione (GSH) in okra leaves, along with DNA fingerprinting in bottle gourd were analyzed using RAPD method. After germination, the plants of bottle gourd were reported to be strong and erect with better canopy as compared with the control. The vegetative growth of okra plants after biofield energy treatment was found to be stout with small canopy, strong steam, and more fruits per nodes, that contributed high yield as compared with the control. However, endogenous level of GSH in the leaves of okra was increased by 47.65% as compared to the untreated group, which may suggest an improved immunity of okra crops. Besides, the DNA fingerprinting data, showed polymorphism (42%) between treated and untreated samples of bottle gourd. The overall results suggest that the biofield energy treatment on bottle gourd and okra seeds, results an improved overall growth of plant and yield, which may enhance flowering and fruiting per plant. Study results conclude that the biofield energy treatment could be an alternate method to improve the crop yield in agricultural science.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[331] viXra:1608.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 23:09:08

The Potential Impact of Biofield Energy Treatment on the Atomic and Physical Properties of Antimony Tin Oxide Nanopowder

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Antimony tin oxide (ATO) is known for its high thermal conductivity, optical transmittance, and wide energy band gap, which makes it a promising material for the display devices, solar cells, and chemical sensor industries. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the atomic and physical properties of ATO nanopowder. The ATO nanopowder was divided into two parts: control and treated. The treated part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The control and treated samples were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The XRD data revealed that the crystallite size on the plane (110) was significantly reduced to 53.1 nm as compared to the control (212.6 nm). In addition, the lattice parameter, unit cell volume, density, and molecular weight were also altered as compared to the control. The FT-IR spectra showed that the stretching vibration corresponding to Sn-OH was shifted to higher wavenumber (512 cm-1) in the treated sample as compared to the control (496 cm-1). Besides, ESR spectral analysis exhibited that the g-factor was reduced in the treated ATO sample by 21.1% as compared to the control. Also, the ESR signal width and height were reduced by 70.4% and 93.7%, respectively as compared to the control. Hence, the XRD, FT-IR, and ESR data revealed that the biofield energy treatment has a significant impact on the atomic and physical properties of ATO nanopowder. Therefore, the biofield energy treatment could be more useful in display devices and solar cell industries.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[330] viXra:1608.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 04:01:08

About the Life Time of the Neutron

Authors: Valery B. Smolensky
Comments: 10 Pages.

Based on the comparison of the experimental data obtained in determining the lifetime of neutrons using two fundamentally different measurement methods offered a reasonable explanation of the reasons for the discrepancy of experimental results. Theoretical calculations determine the lifetime of the neutron and the final results of these calculations. The comparison of the results of theoretical calculations with experimental data. On the basis of experimental confirmation of the existence of the neutron from different times of life, theoretical confirmation of the existence of the neutron that is two times life and justice and the CPT theorem, proved the hypothesis of the existence in nature of stable bound States of matter – antineutron long-lived and short-lived neutron.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[329] viXra:1608.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-23 23:24:14

Physical, Spectroscopic and Thermal Characterization of Biofield Treated Fish Peptone

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

The by-products of industrially processed fish are enzymatically converted into fish protein isolates and hydrolysates having a wide biological activity and nutritional properties. However, the heat processing may cause their thermal denaturation thereby causing the conformational changes in them. The present study utilized the strategy of biofield energy treatment and analysed its impact on various properties of the fish peptone as compared to the untreated (control) sample. The fish peptone sample was divided into two parts; one part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment, coded as the treated sample and another part was coded as the control. The impact of biofield treatment was analysed through various analytical techniques and results were compared with the control sample. The particle size data revealed 4.61% increase in the average particle size (d50) along with 2.66% reduction in the surface area of the treated sample as compared to the control. The X-ray diffraction studies revealed the amorphous nature of the fish peptone sample; however no alteration was found in the diffractogram of the treated sample with respect to the control. The Fourier transform infrared studies showed the alterations in the frequency of peaks corresponding to N-H, C-H, C=O, C-N, and C-OH, functional groups in the treated sample as compared to the control. The differential scanning calorimetry data revealed the increase in transition enthalpy (ΔH) from -71.14 J/g (control) to -105.32 J/g in the treated sample. The thermal gravimetric analysis data showed the increase in maximum thermal degradation temperature (Tmax) from 213.31°C (control) to 221.38°C along with a reduction in the percent weight loss of the treated sample during the thermal degradation event. These data revealed the increase in thermal stability of the treated fish peptone and suggested that the biofield energy treatment may be used to improve the thermal stability of the heat sensitive compounds.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[328] viXra:1608.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-22 23:30:28

Evaluation of Atomic, Physical, and Thermal Properties of Bismuth Oxide Powder: An Impact of Biofield Energy Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) is known for its application in several industries such as solid oxide fuel cells, optoelectronics, gas sensors and optical coatings. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the atomic, physical, and thermal properties of Bi2O3. The Bi2O3 powder was equally divided into two parts: control and treated. The treated part was subjected to biofield energy treatment. After that, both control and treated samples were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The XRD data exhibited that the biofield treatment has altered the lattice parameter (-0.19%), unit cell volume (-0.58%), density (0.59%), and molecular weight (-0.57%) of the treated sample as compared to the control. The crystallite size was significantly increased by 25% in treated sample as compared to the control. Furthermore, TGA analysis showed that control and treated samples were thermally stable upto tested temperature of 831°C. Besides, the FT-IR analysis did not show any significant change in absorption wavenumber in the treated sample as compared to the control. The ESR study revealed that g-factor was increased by 13.86% in the treated sample as compared to the control. Thus, above data suggested that biofield energy treatment has altered the atomic and physical properties of Bi2O3. Therefore, the biofield treated Bi2O3 could be more useful in solid oxide fuel cell industries.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[327] viXra:1608.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-21 23:36:41

Characterization of Physical, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Biofield Treated 2-Aminopyridine

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

2-Aminopyridine is an important compound, which is used as intermediate for the synthesis of pharmaceutical compounds. The present work was aimed to assess the effect of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal and spectral characteristics of 2-AP. The work was accomplished by dividing the sample in two parts i.e. one part was remained untreated, and another part had received biofield energy treatment. Subsequently, the samples were analyzed using various characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, ultra violet-visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The XRD analysis revealed a decrease in crystallite size of the treated sample (91.80 nm) as compared to the control sample (97.99 nm). Additionally, the result showed an increase in Bragg’s angle (2θ) of the treated sample as compared to the control. The DSC and Differential thermal analysis analysis showed an increase in melting temperature of the treated 2-AP with respect to the control. Moreover, the latent heat of fusion of the treated sample was increased by 3.08%. The TGA analysis showed an increase in onset of thermal degradation (Tonset), and maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of the treated 2-AP as compared to the control sample. Additionally, the treated sample showed a reduction in weight loss as compared with the control indicating higher thermal stability of the sample. UV-visible analysis showed no changes in the absorption peak of the treated sample as compared to the control. The FT-IR spectroscopic results showed downward shifting of C-H stretching vibration 2991→2955 cm-1 in treated sample with respect to the control.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[326] viXra:1608.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-20 04:31:53

Analysis of Physical, Thermal, and Structural Properties of Biofield Energy Treated Molybdenum Dioxide

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Molybdenum dioxide (MoO2) is known for its catalytic activity toward reforming hydrocarbons. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on physical, thermal, and structural properties in MoO2. The MoO2 powder sample was divided into two parts, one part was remained as untreated, called as control, while the other part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment and called as treated. Both control and treated samples were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The XRD data exhibited that the biofield treatment has altered the lattice parameters, unit cell volume, density and molecular weight of the treated sample as compared to the control. The TGA study revealed that the onset temperature of thermal degradation of MoO2 was reduced from 702.87°C to 691.92°C. Besides, the FT-IR spectra exhibited that the absorption band corresponding to Mo=O stretching vibration was shifted to lower wavenumber i.e. 975 cm-1 (control) to 970 cm-1 in treated sample. Hence, above results suggested that biofield energy treatment has altered the physical, thermal, and structural properties in MoO2 powder. Therefore, the biofield treatment could be applied to modify the catalytic properties of MoO2 in pharmaceutical industries.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[325] viXra:1608.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-20 04:33:56

Characterization of Physical, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Biofield Treated Date Palm Callus Initiation Medium

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 9 Pages.

The date palm is mainly cultivated for the production of sweet fruit. Date palm callus initiation medium (DPCIM) is used for plant tissue culture applications. The present work is intended to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on physical, thermal and spectral properties of the DPCIM. The control and treated DPCIM were evaluated by various analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, particle size analyzer (PSA), surface area analyzer and ultra violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) analysis. The XRD analysis revealed a decrease in intensity of XRD peaks of the treated sample as compared to the control. The crystallite size of the treated DPCIM (81.02 nm) was decreased with respect to the control sample (84.99 nm). The DSC analysis showed a slight decrease in melting temperature of the treated sample. Additionally, the latent heat of fusion of treated sample was changed by 45.66% as compared to the control sample. The TGA analysis showed an increase in onset degradation temperature of the treated sample (182ºC) as compared to the control sample (142ºC). This indicated the increase in thermal stability of the treated DPCIM. PSA results demonstrated an increase in average particle size (d50) and size showed by 99% of particles (d99) by 19.2 and 40.4%, respectively as compared to the control sample. The surface area analyzer showed a decrease in surface area of treated DPCIM by 13.4%, which was well supported by the particle size results. UV spectra of the treated sample showed the disappearance of absorption peak 261 nm in treated sample as compared to the control. Overall, the result showed that biofield energy treatment has a paramount influence on physical, thermal and spectral properties of DPCIM. Therefore, it is assumed that biofield treated DPCIM could be used as a better medium for plant tissue culture applications.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[324] viXra:1608.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-20 04:37:07

Evaluation of Physical and Structural Properties of Biofield Energy Treated Barium Calcium Tungsten Oxide

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Barium calcium tungsten oxide (Ba2CaWO6) is known for its double perovskite-type crystal structure. The present study was designed to see the effect of biofield energy treatment on physical, atomic, and structural properties of Ba2CaWO6. In this study, Ba2CaWO6 powder sample was divided into two parts, one part was remained as untreated, denoted as control, while the other part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment and coded as treated. After that, the control and treated samples were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyzer, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The XRD data revealed that the crystallite size was decreased by 20% in the treated Ba2CaWO6 sample as compared to the control. The surface area of treated Ba2CaWO6 was increased by 9.68% as compared to the control sample. The FT-IR spectroscopic analysis exhibited that the absorbance band corresponding to stretching vibration of W-O bond was shifted to higher wavenumber from 665 cm-1 (control) to 673 cm-1 after biofield energy treatment. The ESR spectra showed that the signal width and height were decreased by 88.9 and 90.7% in treated Ba2CaWO6 sample as compared to the control. Therefore, above result revealed that biofield energy treatment has a significant impact on the physical and structural properties of Ba2CaWO6.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[323] viXra:1608.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-20 04:38:52

Analysis of Genetic Diversity Using Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) Markers and Growth Regulator Response in Biofield Treated Cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L.)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Cotton is the most important crop for the production of fiber that plays a key role in economic and social affairs. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on cotton seeds regarding its growth, germination of seedling, glutathione (GSH) concentration, indole acetic acid (IAA) content and DNA fingerprinting using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for polymorphism analysis. The seeds of cotton cv. Stoneville-2 (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was obtained from DNA Land Marks Inc., Canada and divided into two groups. One group was remained as untreated, while the other was subjected to Mr. Trivedi biofield energy and referred as treated sample. The growth-germination of cotton seedling data showed higher germination (82%) in biofield treated seeds as compared to the control (68%). The alterations in length of shoot and root of cotton seedling was reported in the treated sample with respect to untreated seeds. However, the endogenous level of GSH in the leaves of treated cotton was increased by 27.68% as compared to the untreated sample, which may suggest an improved immunity of cotton plant. Further, the plant growth regulatory constituent i.e. IAA concentration was increased by 7.39%, as compared with the control. Besides, the DNA fingerprinting data, showed polymorphism (4%) between treated and untreated samples of cotton. The overall results suggest that the biofield energy treatment on cotton seeds, results in improved overall growth of plant, increase germination rate, GSH and IAA concentration were increased. The study assumed that biofield energy treatment on cotton seeds would be more useful for the production of cotton fiber.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[322] viXra:1608.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 00:28:46

Studies on Physicochemical Properties of Biofield Treated 2,4-Dichlorophenol

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

The chlorinated phenols are widely used in chemical industries for the manufacturing of herbicides, insecticides, etc. However, due to consistent use they create hazards to the environment. This study was designed to use an alternative method i.e. biofield energy treatment and analyse its impact on the physicochemical properties of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4- DCP), which are the important factors related to its degradation. The 2,4-DCP sample was treated with Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy and analyzed as compared to the untreated 2,4-DCP sample (control) using various analytical techniques. The X-ray diffraction studies revealed up to 19.4% alteration in the lattice parameters along with approximately 1.8% alteration in the molecular weight, unit cell volume and density of the treated sample. The crystallite size of treated sample was increased and found as 215.24 nm as compared to 84.08 nm in the control sample. Besides, the thermal study results showed an alteration in the thermal stability profile of the treated sample as compared to the control. The differential scanning calorimetry studies revealed the decrease in the thermal decomposition temperature from 137.9°C (control) to 131.94°C in the treated sample along with 92.19% alteration in the quantity of heat absorbed during the process. Moreover, the thermogravimetric analysis showed that onset temperature of degradation was decreased, while the percent weight loss of the sample was increased from 59.12% to 71.74% in the treated sample as compared to the control. However, the Fourier transform infrared and UV-visible spectroscopic studies did not show any significant alteration in the spectra of the treated sample as compared to the control. Hence, the overall studies revealed the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physical and thermal properties of the 2,4- DCP sample.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[321] viXra:1608.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-17 04:39:19

The Potential Impact of Biofield Energy Treatment on the Physical and Thermal Properties of Silver Oxide Powder

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Silver oxide has gained significant attention due to its antimicrobial activities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physical and thermal properties of silver oxide (Ag2O). The silver oxide powder was divided into two parts, one part was kept as control and another part was received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The control and treated samples were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The XRD diffractogram showed that the crystallite size of treated sample was significantly altered on the planes (200), (311), and (220) by 100, 150 and -25% respectively, with respect to control. The DSC result exhibited that the thermal energy required to decompose the silver oxide to silver and oxygen was altered from -12.47 to 71.58% in treated samples as compared to the control. TGA showed that the onset temperature of thermal degradation was reduced from 335°C (control) to 322.4°C. In addition, the rate of weight loss in treated sample was increased by 4.14% as compared to the control. Besides, the FT-IR did not show any alteration in absorption wavenumber of treated sample as compared to the control. Hence, the XRD, DSC and TGA data revealed that the biofield energy treatment has a significant impact on the physical and thermal properties of silver oxide powder. Therefore, the biofield energy treatment might improve the dissolution rate in formulation and bioavailability of treated silver oxide as compared to control.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[320] viXra:1608.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-17 04:41:13

Spectral and Thermal Properties of Biofield Energy Treated Cotton

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Cotton has widespread applications in textile industries due its interesting physicochemical properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of biofield energy treatment on the spectral, and thermal properties of the cotton. The study was executed in two groups namely control and treated. The control group persisted as untreated, and the treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The control and treated cotton were characterized by different analytical techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and CHNSO analysis. DSC analysis showed a substantial increase in exothermic temperature peak of the treated cotton (450 ºC) as compared to the control sample (382ºC). Additionally, the enthalpy of fusion (ΔH) was significantly increased by 86.47% in treated cotton. The differential thermal analysis (DTA) analysis showed an increase in thermal decomposition temperature of treated cotton (361ºC) as compared to the control sample (358ºC). The result indicated the increase in thermal stability of the treated cotton in comparison with the control. FT-IR analysis showed an alterations in –OH stretching (3408→3430 cm-1), carbonyl stretching peak (1713-1662 cm-1), C-H bending (1460-1431 cm-1), -OH bending (580-529 cm-1) and –OH out of plane bending (580-529 cm-1) of treated cotton with respect to the control sample. CHNSO elemental analysis showed a substantial increase in the nitrogen percentage by 19.16% and 2.27% increase in oxygen in treated cotton as compared to the control. Overall, the result showed significant changes in spectral and thermal properties of biofield energy treated cotton. It is assumed that biofield energy treated cotton might be interesting for textile applications.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[319] viXra:1608.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-01 15:12:38

Atom Properties and Structure Researche

Authors: Verin O.G.
Comments: 3 Pages.

Striking and strange is not that electrons in atom form a Bose-condensate, but that we till now for some reason «did not guess» about it and accordingly did not consider this factor as fundamental in the atom theory conception! Where else if not in atom, there is the most suitable place for electrons «condensation»? In fact under «normal conditions» around us, energy of thermal movement is very small (about 0,03 eV) in comparison with that deep potential well (several units, tens and even hundreds of eV) in which atom electrons exist. Many tens of electrons are «squeezed» in few cubic angstroms of atom volume!
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[318] viXra:1608.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-01 15:23:41

Atomic Electron Shells Formation Laws

Authors: Verin O.G.
Comments: 16 Pages.

The analysis based on experimental characteristics of atoms shows, that the theory of electron "movement" in atom in its modern state is essentially erroneous. It is impossible to consider electrons in atoms as separate particles because in each electron shell they form a Bose-condensate. Therefore real electron "collectives" absolutely not resemble drawn by the theory stochastic orbital "spread" in space. In the article physical characteristics data of atoms repeatedly confirmed by experiments are used. Therefore disclosed laws, undoubtedly, have objective character and will be a reliable basis for further researches.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[317] viXra:1608.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-01 10:22:19

Matter-Antimatter Symmetry Test in Liquid Helium

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Why is so much more matter than antimatter present in the universe? A clue to this mystery may be provided by a sensitive search for a separation of positive and negative charges inside the neutron, which is referred to as the neutron's "electric dipole moment" (EDM). [15] A multi-institutional team of researchers has discovered novel magnetic behavior on the surface of a specialized material that holds promise for smaller, more efficient devices and other advanced technology. [14] When light interacts with matter, it may be deflected or absorbed, resulting in the excitation of atoms and molecules; but the interaction can also produce composite states of light and matter which are neither one thing nor the other, and therefore have a name of their own – polaritons. These hybrid particles, named in allusion to the particles of light, photons, have now been prepared and accurately measured for the first time in the field of hard X-rays by researchers of DESY, ESRF in Grenoble, Helmholtz Institute in Jena and University of Jena. In the journal Nature Photonics, they describe the surprising discoveries they made in the process. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[316] viXra:1607.0539 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-29 02:03:09

Microworld_28. Electron ‒ Window to the Universe

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 14 Pages. English and russian texts

The electron structure contains the key to understanding of the whole material World structure.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[315] viXra:1607.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 11:37:32

Nuclear Forces, Gravity, Electromagnetic Force of Unity.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 8 Pages.

Chapter 8: Nuclear forces, gravity,electromagnetic force of unity. [1]... to the goal of modern physics and the Super grand unified theory hypothesis. [2]. elementary pulsation principle announced in 1980, with the physical society of Japan. [3]... article published in 1980, has been kept on the cinii National Institute of Informatics, Japan physical society. [4]... on the Internet Encyclopaedia Wikipedia articles. [5]... Nuclear forces, gravity, electromagnetic force of unity. [6]... unity based on elementary pulsation principle forces, gravity, electromagnetic force. [7]. structure of pulsating principle model for finite nuclei. [8]. it front and back of the same photon-photon and quantum gravity.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[314] viXra:1607.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-20 11:30:27

Magnetized Target Fusion Using High Speed Pellets

Authors: Colin Bruce Jack
Comments: 12 Pages.

There is a way to perform inertial confinement fusion which avoids the usual need for either a sacrificial assembly of significant cost, or control of complex plasma behaviour.

Ultraspeed charged pellets have been fired at 100 km/s from modified particle accelerators for decades, and Winterberg suggested their use for inertial confinement fusion, also decades ago. The show-stopper has been the impossibility of bringing charged pellets to a true focus using predetermined electric or magnetic fields, a consequence of Earnshaw’s theorem. I have invented a technique for achieving such focusing, by measuring and adjusting the trajectories of individual pellets. Precise focus can then be achieved at any range. A series of pellets fired at successively increasing speeds from a linear accelerator some distance from a target can catch up en route to arrive together. Thus an accelerator of relatively modest power can deliver an intense input to a compact volume.

Slutz et al. have shown that high gain magneto-inertial fusion can be performed using implosion speed as low as 130 km/s. They propose Z-pinch with a magnetized liner, plus a laser pulse to preheat a central portion of the fuel. However disadvantages of this method include:

•Peak input power ~1 PW: high capital cost

•Sacrificial capsule with low impedance wires for ~60 MA input current pulse is difficult and costly to recycle: high ‘kopeck’ cost

Identical fusion conditions can be created using instead pellets fired in at high speed. This method has the advantages:

•Peak input power ~20 GW at a few MHz, provided by commercially available RF MOSFETs

•No central sacrificial capsule or wires needed; the pellets are cheap to make

This paper describes an appropriate design. The detonation can take place completely surrounded by lithium. Most of the energy produced can be directly converted to electricity by MHD.


Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[313] viXra:1607.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-15 11:28:57

The Elementary Particle Pulsation Principle Leads a Hadron Super String Theory. (Amendments)

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 8 Pages.

The elementary particle pulsation principle leads a hadron super string theory. (Amendments) A string theory of the elementary particle size. A proton and the neutron are the same elementary particles. The defect of the early string theory. A hadron of mass zero. The quark which came close. The theory was not able to explain the state. Quark A and quark B. The vibration of the same thing. Both are not separate existence. A matter wave holds a quark. A matter wave lets a quark vibrate. A matter wave is elastic body. One quark turns into quark A, quark B, quark C. The trip (the horizon) of the wave is three-dimensional space. The trip (the horizon) of the wave is film space. The mass of the hadron is zero in that. All the mass becomes the light in that.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[312] viXra:1607.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-10 14:27:38

Protons and Neutrons.

Authors: Terubumi Honjo
Comments: 5 Pages.

Protons and neutrons. By Elementary pulsation principle to explain it. When an electron is in the orbit of the proton, a proton turns into a neutron. When an electron goes out of the orbit of the neutron, a neutron becomes the proton. The interpretation of the pulsation hypothesis, Of the atomic nucleus, A proton and the neutron are the same elementary particles. The valley of the ripple of the material wave due to the neutron pulsation, The electron goes around the valley. Proton (+ electric charge), an electron (- electric charge). The proton (+ electric charge )+ electron (- electric charge) = neutrality. Valley of the ripples of the nuclei to form electron orbitals. The electron goes around an orbit. When an electron is released from the orbit, the atom becomes the positive electric charge. As for both the atomic nucleus and the atom, the change of the electric charge depends on electronic movement. An electric charge will undergo a change. It is discontinuous (at the unit of electronic electric charge).
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[311] viXra:1607.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-07 02:04:24

About Theoretical Determination of Values of Fundamental Physical Constants

Authors: Valery B. Smolensky
Comments: Pages.

This paper presents an original method of theoretical precision determination of values of fundamental physical constants. Among them, the fine structure constant, the anomaly of the magnetic moment of the electron, the mass ratio of the electron-proton and neutron-proton, the wavelength of Compton, Rydberg constant, electron mass, Planck length, Planck mass, the speed of light in vacuum, Planck constant, gravitational constant, the life time of a neutron. The analytical insights, the end of the calculation formula and the results of theoretical calculations of precision values of these constants.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[310] viXra:1606.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-28 09:16:12

On a Hypothesis Regarding the Physical Nature of the Weak Interaction

Authors: Peter Bissonnet
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper attempts, in a non-quantum mechanical way, to determine a plausible scenario for the true physical nature of the weak interaction. Examination of dimensions and calculated values for seemingly unrelated numbers results in values which are surprisingly close and seemingly beyond the confines of coincidence. Equating these numbers and inserting the results into a simplistic model for the weak interaction results in a value close to the experimental Fermi weak interaction constant. The question is asked if there really is a relationship between the weak interaction and the gravitational ‘constant’. It is noted that energy levels, whether nuclear or orbital, are inherent to the atom as a whole and not necessarily to its separate parts. Subsequently, nuclear energy levels can affect orbital electrons, but, alternatively and more specifically, does there exist a reverse process of electron energy levels sending information to the weak interaction for the purpose of exposing a macroscopic variable gravitational constant?
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[309] viXra:1606.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-18 12:45:26

The Hadron is a Wave of the Darkness Energy to Pulsate.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 8 Pages.

De Broglie wave discovered a De Broglie wave . De Broglie wave is a wave to lead a particle. He interpreted it like that. The wave to lead was called a pilot wave. The pilot wave has phase velocity and group of series of waves speed. I regarded group speed as the movement speed of the free particle. The wave packet collapses immediately. The pilot waves exceed velocity of light. The material wave was finally interpreted as a wave of the probability to discover a particle. The people who had quantum mechanics such as de Broglie, Einstein, Schrodinger did not accept probability interpretation for life. It is super-high-speed, and the elementary particle pulsation principle interprets the wave packet of the material wave as one pulsating wave. I deny probability interpretation and correct quantum mechanics in the existence. The material wave pulsates in existing four-dimensional space. A material wave is a wave of the dark energy.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[308] viXra:1606.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-14 17:55:46

"Rethinking the Atom" Book Now Released as 22MB Pdf

Authors: Joel M WIlliams
Comments: 1 Page.

"Rethinking the Atom" was published in Oct, 2014. Abstract info was presented in viXra:1511.0008. The author is now making the book available as a 22MB pdf
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[307] viXra:1606.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-13 13:00:19

Hadron Superstring Theory (3)

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 19 Pages.

The Elementary Particle Pulsation Principle Leads a Hadron Super String Theory. Atom size, a superstring theory. The size of "the string" in the super string theory is 10-33cm now. "The string" of the hadron super string theory is an atom, 10-8cm size. I assume the average energy density of dark energy the horizon and do it. I supposed the horizon to be energy zero. A place of the dark energy is a general place. The energy of the negative wave offsets it plus every pulsation 1 cycle, and it becomes zero. (supersymmetry) The energy grand total of a pulsating place becomes zero. The physics of the material wave to express by Schrodinger equation explains a nuclear force, gravity, electromagnetism power.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[306] viXra:1606.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-11 13:34:35

Hadron Superstring Theory (2)

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 5 Pages.

The Elementary Particle Pulsation Principle Leads a Hadron Super String Theory. Three dimensions of lines expressing a wave pattern belong to a part (four-dimensional space) above the horizon of the space. However, the line itself of the wave pattern expresses mass zero. The energy that a wave pattern surrounds is equivalent to a quark.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[305] viXra:1606.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-09 19:57:28

On the Unification of the Constants of Nature

Authors: Brent Jarvis
Comments: 5 Pages.

A short essay that unifies electromagnetism and gravity with a 5−D system of natural units.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[304] viXra:1606.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-09 13:20:38

The Elementary Particle Pulsation Principle Leads a Hadron Super String Theory.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 9 Pages.

The defect of the early string theory. A hadron of mass zero. The quark which came close. The theory was not able to explain the state. Quark A and quark B. The vibration of the same thing. Both are not separate existence. A matter wave holds a quark. A matter wave lets a quark vibrate. A matter wave is elastic body. One quark turns into quark A, quark B, quark C. The trip (the horizon) of the wave is three-dimensional space. The trip (the horizon) of the wave is film space. The mass of the hadron is zero in that. All the mass becomes the light in that.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[303] viXra:1606.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-09 03:22:49

A Figure of Atomic Nucleus Structure and the Nuclear Force

Authors: Terubumi Honjo
Comments: 9 Pages.

The proton releases an electron and turns into a neutron. The neutron absorbs an electron and turns into a proton. Both are the same elementary particles varying in a pulsatile timing. * A neutron is combined with a pulsating proton by nuclear force. * A proton and the neutron pulsate.  The crest and the valley of wave.  The valley and the valley. * When both came into contact, nuclear force acts. * The nuclear force is a compression power from dark energy. * A proton and the neutron look different in a pulsatile timing in the same elementary particle. * When both the proton and the neutron are even number units, it is boson. * When both the proton and the neutron are an odd number unit, it is fermion. * A proton and neutrons pulsate in 4-dimensions space. The mass is zero. By a wave trip. * The valley of the ripple due to the pulsation of the nucleon is an orbit, and the electron goes around the orbit. A proton and a neutron, the electron are existing particles. * The elementary particle pulsation principle describes a nuclear force, gravity, electromagnetism power integrally.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[302] viXra:1606.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-01 09:57:13

On the Relationship Between Proton-Mass and Electron-Mass

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper, I analysis the relationship between proton-mass and electron-mass. I point out that the mass difference is origin from the energy-mass relationship among difference spaces. I give the comprehensive formula to show this.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[301] viXra:1605.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-31 12:04:49

Impulse Mini Thermonuclear Reactors

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 25 Pages.

In last sixty years, the scientists spent the tens billion dollars attempting to develop useful thermonuclear energy. However, they cannot yet reach a stable thermonuclear reaction. They still are promising publically, after another 15 – 20 years, and more tens of billions of US dollars to finally design the expensive workable industrial installation, which possibly will produce electric energy more expensive than current heat, wind and hydroelectric stations can in 2015. The author offers two types (cumulative and impulse) the new, small cheap inertial thermonuclear reactors, which increases the pressure and temperature of its nuclear fuel by thousands of times, reaches the required ignition stage and, ultimately, full constant contained thermonuclear reaction. Cumulative and impulse AB Reactors contain several innovations to achieve its product. Chief among them in cumulative reactor is using moving explosives (rocket thrust) and an electric descharge, which allows to accelerate the special piston to very high speed (more 20 km/s) which (as shown by integral computations) compresses the fuel capsule a million times and additional heating fuel by electric impulse up hundreds millions degrees of temperature. In impulse vertion of AB therbonucler reactor the gas fuel, praimery high compressed into a pellet heationg by an electric impulse up the needed temperature in hundred of millions degrees, produces the thermonucler reaction. Author gives theory and estimations of the suggested reactors. Author also is descussing the problems of converting the received thermonucler energy into mechanical (electrical) energy and into rocket thrust. Offered small micro-reactors may be used as heaves (ignition) for small artillery atomic projectiles and bomb.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[300] viXra:1605.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-15 07:19:58

Neutrinos Are not Particles and “SPIN” is Misleading

Authors: Glenn A. Baxter
Comments: Five pages

Beta decay and neutrino theory was introduced in 1934 by Dr. Enrico Fermi and accepted by the main stream physics community because of his enormous personal influence after receiving the Nobel. This started the nonsense boson parade, leading all the way to the Higgs and the recent Nobel. This paper suggests that neutrinos are really not particles at all but rather fictitious constructions now tainting all of current physics.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[299] viXra:1605.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-14 03:51:56

Laser Pulses Direct Protons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Using ultrashort laser pulses an international team at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics has managed to manipulate the positions of atoms in hydrocarbon molecules in a targeted fashion. [14] Experiment suggests it might be possible to control atoms entangled with the light they emit by manipulating detection. [13] Now, researchers have come up with a rather simple scheme for providing quantum error controls: entangle atoms from two different elements so that manipulating won't affect the second. Not only is this highly effective, the researchers show that they can construct quantum logic gates with the setup. And while they were at it, they demonstrate the quantum nature of entanglement with a precision that's 40 standard deviations away from classic physical behavior. [12] A team of quantum physicists from Harvard University measured a property called entanglement entropy, which quantifies the apparent randomness that comes with observing just a portion of an entangled whole. Markus Greiner and colleagues used lasers to create an optical cage with four compartments, each of which held a rubidium atom chilled to nearly absolute zero. The researchers could tweak the laser settings to adjust the height of the walls between compartments. If the walls were low enough, atoms could exploit their strange quantum ability to occupy multiple compartments at once. As the four atoms jumped around, they interacted and established a state of entanglement. [11] Physicists in the US and Serbia have created an entangled quantum state of nearly 3000 ultracold atoms using just one photon. This is the largest number of atoms ever to be entangled in the lab, and the researchers say that the technique could be used to boost the precision of atomic clocks. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[298] viXra:1605.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-06 03:08:04

The Reason of a Realistic View to Particles and Atomic Nuclei

Authors: Hans-G. Hildebrandt
Comments: 27 Pages.

Electrons and positrons are elementary particles in the original sense of this word. There is a possibility to explain the whole world of particles and atomic nuclei by using electron and positron as elementary components. This dual particles interact at high energies to light particles, e.g. light mesons, which are the sub-structural particles of heavier particles and atomic nuclei. The result of this view is a consistent structure of all particles and atomic nuclei and explantion of their manifold interactions. Particles e.g. quarks do not have to be proven for validating this description of this part of reality.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[297] viXra:1605.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-04 08:54:43

Fusion and Beta Decay Both Involve Electron Positron Annhilation and Pair Production

Authors: Glenn A. Baxter
Comments: Eight pages

Beta decay is involved in all radioactivity. Pair annihilation, pair production, fusion, and Beta decay, are shown to form all the elements on the periodic table as well as all particles and anti particles. Particles and anti particles reside, unseen, incorporated with neutrons in the nuclei of all elements.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[296] viXra:1604.0388 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-30 23:59:25

Light wave is a P-wave?

Authors: LI WeiGang
Comments: 2 Pages.

Traced in that linearly polarized light experiments require that the S-wave. That the only way to explain the phenomenon of linear polarization. However, if the above photon do that kind of understanding, then no single photon is linearly polarized! Coupled with appropriate phase two photons, the near-field vibration direction of the electric field was presented as some kind of linear polarization direction, can concerted direction by the analyzer polarizer.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[295] viXra:1604.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-18 14:55:04

Converting of Matter to Nuclear Energy by AB-Generator* and Photon Rocket

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 15 Pages.

Author offers a new nuclear generator which allows to convert any matter to nuclear energy in accordance with the Einstein equation E=mc2. The method is based upon tapping the energy potential of a Micro Black Hole (MBH) and the Hawking radiation created by this MBH. As is well-known, the vacuum continuously produces virtual pairs of particles and antiparticles, in particular, the photons and anti-photons. The MBH event horizon allows separating them. Anti-photons can be moved to the MBH and be annihilated; decreasing the mass of the MBH, the resulting photons leave the MBH neighborhood as Hawking radiation. The offered nuclear generator (named by author as AB-Generator) utilizes the Hawking radiation and injects the matter into MBH and keeps MBH in a stable state with near-constant mass. The AB-Generator can produce gigantic energy outputs and should be cheaper than a conventional electric station by a factor of hundreds of times. One also may be used in aerospace as a photon rocket or as a power source for many vehicles. Many scientists expect the Large Hadron Collider at CERN will produce one MBH every second. A technology to capture them may follow; than they may be used for the AB-Generator.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[294] viXra:1604.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-17 03:58:59

Neutron Decay Disagree

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

In fact, one of the biggest disagreements involves one of the most common particles in the Universe: the neutron. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[293] viXra:1603.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-30 01:48:26

With a Laser Redo Famous Photoemission Experiments, the Results Should be Different

Authors: LI WeiGang
Comments: 1 Page.

The famous photoemission experiments to natural light as the light source, can be drawn: photoemission or not, depending on the wavelength of the irradiated light (frequency), regardless of the intensity of the irradiation light - the conclusion; However, if the laser coherence excellent redo corresponding experiments, but also Is that right? My guess: a laser redo photoemission experiment, the low-frequency high-intensity laser irradiation, and they can play photoelectron.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[292] viXra:1603.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-26 02:28:50

New Theories of Gravitation and Particle Model

Authors: Chongxi Yu
Comments: Pages.

Every matter is moving in very high speed because the Milky Way’s speed relative to CMB rest frame is 552km/s, 0.18% of light speed. When matter moves, there may be the lag of gluons, photons, mesons, protons, and neutrons, in exact words, the lag of c-particles, A particle and their anti particles, which makes bonding of nucleons weaker and exposes more nuclear forces, and results in stronger residual forces of bonding forces between particles. Gravitation, then, may be the residual force of the bonding force between particles. Three color particles and a A particle and their antiparticles (total 8 particles) make all current “elementary particles”. Surprisingly, we can draw photons, gluons, electrons, quarks, mesons, bosons and any current “elementary particles” from these particles just like drawing chemical structures. These structures can show how an electron and a positron annihilate to photons, how proton absorb electron to form neutron, and how fission and fusion happen. It can explain almost every question around elementary particles. According to this model, there may be only one force which comes from c-particles orbit A particle and anti c-particles orbit anti A particle and a side product, the electromagnetic force, due to the asymmetry of c-particles and anti c-particles.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[291] viXra:1603.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-14 09:33:03

AB Preon Interaction Theory and Model of Universe

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 13 Pages.

Author offers some initial ideas about a cognitive construct of the Micro-World with allows to design a preon based Universe matching many qualities of the observable universe.. The main idea is that - the initial base must be very simple: two energy massless virtual particles (eners) and two reciprocity relations (interactions) between them. Author postulates: Two energy massless virtual particles can explain the main features of much of what we see including: mass, electrical charges and the main interactions between particles such as: gravitation, centrifugal and inertial masses, repulsion and attraction of electric charges, weak and strong nuclear forces, design of quarks and baryonic matter. Author gives only ideas of how these problems may be solved. Scientists who will be interested in the offered approach can make detailed mathematical descriptions and solutions. ------------------------------------------- Key words: microworld, preon, preon theory, virtual particles, fundamental interactions, Ener Model of Universe, Bolonkin.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[290] viXra:1603.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-11 11:25:49

Fermionic Microscope

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Researchers in the US have taken images of individual atoms in an ultracold fermionic gas as it makes the transition from a metallic phase to a band insulator and then to a Mott insulator. This is the first study of such a transition in a fermionic gas to be made with single-site and single-particle resolution. While such experiments are routinely done using ultracold bosonic atoms, doing the same with fermions is more challenging because they are difficult to cool. However, the rewards for physicists could be greater because fermionic atoms are a closer match to electrons in a solid, and therefore such experiments could shed light on poorly understood solid systems such as high-temperature superconductors. [11] A new scientific instrument at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory promises to capture some of nature's speediest processes. It uses a method known as ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) and can reveal motions of electrons and atomic nuclei within molecules that take place in less than a tenth of a trillionth of a second – information that will benefit groundbreaking research in materials science, chemistry and biology. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[289] viXra:1603.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-10 11:20:31

Higgs Force in Atomic Spectra

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

A new way of measuring how the Higgs boson couples to other fundamental particles has been proposed by physicists in France, Israel and the US. Their technique would involve comparing the spectra of several different isotopes of the same atom to see how the Higgs force between the atom's electrons and its nucleus affects the atomic energy levels. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[288] viXra:1603.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-03 07:53:59

Theoretical Method for Determining Precise Values of the Dimensionless Fundamental Physical Constants

Authors: Valery B. Smolensky
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this article the author presents an original theoretical method of determining accurate values of the dimensionless fundamental physical constants: fine structure constant, of constant of the strong interaction, the anomaly of the magnetic moment of the electron, the mass ratio of the electron and proton, the mass ratio of the electron and the neutron. Presents the final results of analytical calculations determining the of exact values of these constants.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[287] viXra:1602.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-24 06:27:42

Theoretical Determination of Fundamental Physical Constants

Authors: Valery B. Smolensky
Comments: 6 Pages.

The article presents a theoretical method of determination of fundamental physical constants. The results of analytical calculations, including: the fine structure constant, the wave length of Compton, the electron mass, elementary charge, Planck constant, Planck mass, length and time, Planck, Newton's gravitational constant, the lifetime of the neutron.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[286] viXra:1602.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-20 07:13:34

A Unified Approach for Nuclear Structure

Authors: Ranjeet Dalal
Comments: 14 Pages.

The nuclear physics area is plagued by variety of sophisticated models based upon initial ideas of liquid drop model or independent particle shell model. One set of models are used to understand binding energy and fission mechanism while the others are used to understand the nuclear shell structure and its implications. Further, some of the basic assumptions required for these models are apparently contradictory to each other. These models have their limited application area and can be used to account certain nuclear properties only. In present work, an unified approach for nuclear structure is proposed which can account the nuclear binding energy along with the nuclear shell structure for all ranges of nuclei. This model is based upon recent observations and do not use arbitrary assumptions like spin-orbit coupling term. It can be used to calculate various nuclear properties like binding energy, nuclear magnetic moments, quadrupole moments, similar excitation levels for mirror nuclei, emergence of new magic numbers for neutron rich nuclei or correlated two proton/neutron emission. Interestingly, it provides an straightforward explanation for asymmetric/symmetric fission fragment distribution in spontaneous/lowenergy fission events for heavy nuclei. Although, the proposed model is supported by many experimental evidences, further suggestions are given for verification of the approach.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[285] viXra:1602.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-16 06:54:59

A Technique for Making Nuclear Fusion in Solids

Authors: R. Wayte
Comments: 23 Pages. Accepted for publication in J. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science 18 (2016) p36

A technique is described for making nuclear fusion at room temperature by compressing a powder mixture comprising a deuteride and catalytic material. The result is explosive beyond known chemical reaction for the materials.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[284] viXra:1602.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-12 04:52:12

The Lifetime of the Neutron

Authors: Valery B. Smolensky
Comments: Pages.

В статье представлены теоретическое обоснование и экспериментальные подтверждения обнаруженного автором свойства нейтрона – наличие у него двух разных времён жизни. Приведено аналитическое выражение для определения времени жизни нейтрона находящегося в долгоживущем nL и короткоживущем nS состояниях. Приведено сравнение результатов теоретических расчётов с данными, представленными в открытом доступе во всемирной сети Интернет.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[283] viXra:1602.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-02 07:55:39

Determining the Optical and Radiation Characteristics of the Glass of Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) and the Capability to Produce Radiation Shielding Glass

Authors: Abdullah Shehada, Mohammad Hassan Kharita, Siraj Yousef
Comments: 8 Pages

A new method for recycling the glass of Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) is presented in this paper. The glass from CRTs is suggested to be used as row materials for producing radiation shielding glass. Cathode ray tubes glass contains considerable amounts of environmentally hazardous toxic waste namely heavy metal oxides such as lead oxide (PbO). This makes CRTs glass a favorable choice to be used as row material for Radiation shielding materials, as heavy metal oxides increases its density, which make the produced glass nearly equivalent to commercially available shielding glass. CRTs glasses have been characterized to determine the heavy oxides content, density, refractive index, and radiation shielding properties for different gamma rays energies empirically by using the source Co-60 and theoretically by using the code XCOM. The measured and the calculated values were in a good compatibility. The effect of irradiation on the transparency for each part of the CRTs glass has been studied. Results showed that some parts of CRTs glass are more resistant to radiation than others. The study has shown that the glass of cathode ray tubes can be recycled as a radiation shielding glass at least in some applications.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[282] viXra:1602.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-02 08:03:55

Studying The Physical Optical and Radiation Shielding Properties of Radiation Shielding Glass Made of Glass of Cathode Ray Tubes and Heavy Metal Oxides

Authors: Abdullah Shehada, Mohammad Hassan Kharita, Siraj Yousef
Comments: 21 Pages

The purpose of the research in this paper is to produce a radiation shielding glass by recycling glass of cathode ray tubes (CRTs) which come from used computers and TV sets and adding some heavy metal oxides as lead oxide (PbO) to increase the density, and using some other oxides such as potassium oxide (K2O) as a modifier for the resulted glass. Because of, the glass of cathode ray tubes (CRTs) contains some heavy oxides where the part Funnel contains about 20 % of lead oxide (PbO) while the part Panel contains about 10 % of barium oxide (BaO) and the same percent for strontium oxide (SrO). So, these glass can be used as a radiation shielding glass for nuclear and radiation applications. In this paper, the glass of cathode ray tubes (CRTs) have been used as powdered glass to make new samples with lead oxide (PbO) and potassium oxide (K2O). Then, the optical and radiation properties of these samples have been investigated. The effects of 1 % added of cerium oxide (CeO2) on the radiation resistant and optical spectra differences have been measured. In addition, this research has environmental benefits that appear in reducing the toxic heavy metals that included in CRT glass such as lead, barium, strontium and other metals. This paper discuses a new a approach to recycle the CRT glass. Many samples of glass have been prepared by using the powdered glass of CRT and lead oxide (PbO) as lead material in these mixtures to increase density. Also the potassium oxide (K2O) has been added to some mixtures as a modifier oxide for decreasing melting temperatures and improving optical and technical characteristics of these glass samples. As a result, same samples had high density about 5.38 g.cm3. The glass transition temperatures (Tg) and the structure of these samples have been investigated by using the differential temperature analysis (DTA) and X-Ray diffraction (XRD) respectively. The optical transmission spectra have been studied, and the transmission studied by using UV-Visible spectrometer and the optical transmission reached to about 85 % in the visible spectrum range. Then, attenuation coeffcients have been measured for photons emitted by Co60:After that, the optical transmission before and after irradiation have been investigated. The results appeared that these spectra varying by radiation doses and related to the type of used glass in these samples. Where the transmission decreased about 20 % to 50 % in the beginning of the spectrum range from 400 nm to 600 nm at exposure doses that reached to 5 kGy and high dose rate 1 kGy/h. These spectra were not varying in some samples that contain the glass panel. These results agree with similar studies where the density reached to 5.2 g.cm3 and the refractive index equal to 1.8, and the value of transmission closed to 85 %. In addition, the decreases of transmission spectra also the same when it exposure to radiation doses.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[281] viXra:1602.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-02 08:45:11

The Klein-Nishina Formula in Qed and Anti Compton Effect (2).

Authors: Abdullah Shehada
Comments: 6 Pages

When the photon beam is coming on the material , it's will be attenuation in this material ( the number of the photons will be decreased when it's go out the material ) this attenuation is related with the energy 's photon and also the kind of the material( density ). This attenuation is the result of many kinds of reactions between the photon and the material 's electrons ( mainly ) , one of this kinds is : Compton reaction. In Compton effect : the photon is loses part of it's energy in each reaction with the electrons , and this photon will disappear when it loses all of it's energy . But in this work the opposite is occurs , wherein the cross-section may takes negative values at some values of the ration between photon energy and electron mass energy. consequently , by using the exponential equation we will find the photons in the beam is increases ( exponential increases ) ( the number of photons is increases and maybe also the photon energy do ) , so we obtained the same effect as the laser effect , and we can use this effect in many applications
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[280] viXra:1602.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-02 08:52:04

Anti Compton Effect

Authors: Abdullah Shehada
Comments: 7 Pages

As a result of anticompton effect (inverscompton)effect, we can find in the plasma ( example ) the following two important phenomena : 1- if the plasma was not perfect ionizing ( including some neutral atoms ) we can find one of the atom's electron exist in energy band which not exist in the natural cases . 2- we can find some of the photons has large energy bigger than the another medium particle's energy and we can find some of the electrons has large energy bigger than the another medium particle's energy . But in the resultant ; the usual Compton effect will cancel most of anti Compton effect ( not all ) in the continuous scattering interactions , so this effect ( anti Compton ) is not noticed in the usual cases , because the usual Compton effect has ranges bigger than ( max 3 times ) anti Compton's ranges to occur ( from the figure (3)) .
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[279] viXra:1602.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-01 12:40:06

The Theory of Idealiscience

Authors: Zhang Yunfan
Comments: 36 Pages.

The theory of idealiscience is an accurate theoretical model, by the model we can deduce most important laws of Physics, explain a lot of physical mysteries, even a lot of basic and important philosophical questions. we can also get the theoretical values of a lot of physical constants, even some of the constants can not be deduced by traditional physical theories, such as neutron mass and magnetic moment,Avogadro constant and so on.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[278] viXra:1601.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-11 10:39:54

Classical Charge Mechanics of Deuterium

Authors: Robert Kardien Vanderhoek
Comments: 3 Pages.

A viable system of classical charge mechanics can be employed to describe to process of proton-neutron fusion to form deuterium.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[277] viXra:1601.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-06 02:41:47

Cеntrifugal Z-Pinch

Authors: Sevtsov Sergey Viktorovich
Comments: 7 Pages.

The author considers the reasons which cause the necessity of changing configuration of a discharge camera of plasma focus installation. The new construction with non-cylindrical Z-pinch installations is offered. The author forwards a proposal about the cardinal change of formation and gas discharge process in the offered working camera, expected growth of thermonuclear efficiency coefficient and reducing the neutron scaling saturation in mega-joule installations.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[276] viXra:1601.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-04 13:51:03

Cold Fermions Keep Distance

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Today, quantum optical experiments provide methods to prove the rules that have been thought of and pressed into elegant mathematical equations in those days. In this regard, scientists in the Quantum Many-Body Division of Professor Immanuel Bloch at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics have made a big step forward. [8] Particles can be classified as bosons or fermions. A defining characteristic of a boson is its ability to pile into a single quantum state with other bosons. Fermions are not allowed to do this. One broad impact of fermionic anti-social behavior is that it allows for carbon-based life forms, like us, to exist. If the universe were solely made from bosons, life would certainly not look like it does. Recently, JQI theorists have proposed an elegant method for achieving transmutation—that is, making bosons act like fermions. This work was published in the journal Physical Review Letters. [7] Quantum physics tell us that even massive particles can behave like waves, as if they could be in several places at once. This phenomenon is typically proven in the diffraction of a matter wave at a grating. Researchers have now carried this idea to the extreme and observed the delocalization of molecules at the thinnest possible grating, a mask milled into a single layer of atoms. [6] Researchers in Austria have made what they call the "fattest Schrödinger cats realized to date". They have demonstrated quantum superposition – in which an object exists in two or more states simultaneously – for molecules composed of up to 430 atoms each, several times larger than molecules used in previous such experiments1. [5] Patrick Coles, Jedrzej Kaniewski, and Stephanie Wehner made the breakthrough while at the Centre for Quantum Technologies at the National University of Singapore. They found that 'wave-particle duality' is simply the quantum 'uncertainty principle' in disguise, reducing two mysteries to one. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[275] viXra:1512.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-15 12:57:54

Why do All the Planets of Our Solar System, Electrons and Nucleons Etc. All Possess Spin Motion

Authors: Kunwar Jagdish Narain
Comments: 38 Pages.

All the planets of our solar system, electrons and nucleons etc. all possess spin motion. It cannot be a matter of coincidence or chance. There must positively be some purpose/reason behind it. Presently, that purpose/reason has been determined. It has also been determined how do these obtain spin motion and how does their spin motion persist. The account of the determined purpose/reason enables to give very clear and complete explanation of all the phenomena and properties related with spinning particles/bodies, including numerous such phenomena and properties etc. too which could not have been explained yet. For example: 1. Despite moving in spherically symmetric field, how do all the planets of our solar system and orbiting electrons acquire elliptical orbits? 2. What is source/cause that keeps these going on spinning and moving in their elliptical orbits continuously, where their paths are not happened to be equipotential because of being elliptical? 3. How do their energy, momentum, spin angular momentum etc. conserve because when these move along their elliptical orbital paths, their velocity varies?
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[274] viXra:1512.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-15 13:04:44

A New Neutron Model

Authors: Kunwar Jagdish Narain
Comments: 20 Pages. Figures: 2

Several neutron models, including standard quark model, have so far been proposed but yet we have no knowledge of, e.g.: 1. Why and how neutron happens to be unstable in its free state and what happens or situation is created such that it becomes stable in nuclei and systems, e.g. deuterons, alpha particles etc.; 2. Why and how neutron has unstable and stable both the states, while the rest of all the elementary particles have only one state, stable or unstable; 3. Why and how neutron survives for about 15 minutes (mean life time of neutron) and then decays, while the rest of all the unstable elementary particles decay within fraction of a second; 4. Why and how neutron has high penetrating power and distinguishable low and high-energy ranges. Present model gives very clear and complete explanation of all the above questions including explanation of several other neutron properties and phenomena performed by neutrons, e.g.: 1. Magnetic moment of neutrons; 2. Electric dipole moment of neutrons; 3. How beta particles, which are electrons, are emitted from nuclei during beta decay while it is believed that electrons do not reside inside the nuclei; 4. Why and how beta particles emitted from radioactive sources have continuous energy spectrum.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[273] viXra:1512.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-10 08:56:57

A Qualitative Analysis of Isotopic Changes Reported in LENR Experiments

Authors: Eric Walker
Comments: 17 Pages.

A few patterns are identified in the isotopic changes seen in LENR experiments. These patterns are shown to be consistent with the parallel operation of several related processes: α decay, α capture, fragmentation of heavier nuclides following upon α capture, and β decay/electron capture. The results of several researchers working in the field are examined in the light of these processes. The analysis developed here is then applied to the 2014 report by Levi et al. on the test of Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat in Lugano, Switzerland, whose fuel and ash assays are found to be broadly consistent with the isotope studies. The different processes are seen, then, to operate in systems making use of palladium, nickel, electrolysis, gas diffusion and glow discharge. A suggestion is made as to what might be inducing these decays and capture and fragmentation reactions.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[272] viXra:1512.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-08 10:02:19

Was an Alpha Emitter Present in the Fuel in the March 2014 Test of the e-Cat?

Authors: Eric Walker
Comments: 4 Pages.

Three figures in an appendix to the report by Levi et al. show spectra with mass peaks for ions with masses at m ≥ 100. Although some of the ions were no doubt cluster ions, heavier elements might also have been present. We examine two of the figures for possible elements and derive approximate upper bounds on the counts relative to the other peaks in the figures. Ranges of mass peaks are consistent with small amounts of samarium, rhenium, hafnium and other elements. Many of the elements are either α or β emitters.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[271] viXra:1512.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-03 04:05:47

Nuclear Fission by means of Terahertz Sonic Waves

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 3 Pages.

It is shown here that when terahertz sonic waves strike on an atomic nucleus they can produce the fission of the nucleus. This fact can be now checked in practice since recently it was developed an acoustic device called a SASER that is the first to emit sonic waves in the terahertz range.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[270] viXra:1511.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-29 18:02:29

Nuclear Waves (Strong Interaction Wave and Weak Interaction Wave) and Related Problems

Authors: Fu Yuhua
Comments: 32 Pages.

Based on fractal landscapes of various waves, and fifteen kinds of waves caused by four fundamental interactions (forces), this paper discusses nuclear (force) waves (strong interaction wave and weak interaction wave) and related problems; such as: application of fractal method, properties of nuclear waves, certainty-uncertainty principles, conservation of parity and nonconservation of parity, a revision toGödel's incompleteness theorem, partial and temporary unified theory of four fundamental interactions so far, partial and temporary unified theory of nuclear (force) waves so far, and partial and temporary unified theory of natural science so far. Key words: Nuclear force, strong interaction, weak interaction, nuclear (force) wave, strong interaction wave, weak interaction wave, fractal, certainty-uncertainty principles, conservation of parity and nonconservation of parity, Gödel's incompleteness theorem, partial and temporary unified theory so far
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[269] viXra:1511.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-29 01:59:59

Quantum Glue

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: 2 Pages.

Glue or stickiness is a large scale group process. Nothing like that could be happening at a quantum level. Whatever is going on has to be happening between only one or two fundamental particles.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[268] viXra:1511.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-19 20:22:09

To Understand the Elementary Nuclear Physics and Quantum Physics in the Light of Final Unification

Authors: U. V. S. Seshavatharam1, B. Ramanuja Srinivas2, T. Rajavardhanarao3, P. Kalyanai4
Comments: 9 Pages.

Boldly it is possible to show that, 1) There exists a strong interaction elementary charge of magnitude, es~4.720586603E-19 C and squared ratio of electromagnetic and strong interaction charges is equal to the strong coupling constant. 2) Like quarks, the strong interaction elementary charge is experimentally undetectable and can be called as ‘invisible elementary nuclear charge’. 3) There exists a gravitational constant associated with strong interaction, Gs~3.329561213E28 m3/kg/sec2; 4) There exists a gravitational constant associated with electromagnetic interaction, Ge~2.374335685E37 m3/kg/sec2; Considering the proposed strong interaction elementary charge, magnetic moments of proton and neutron can be understood. Considering the proposed electromagnetic and strong gravitational constants currently believed quantum constants can be quantified and can be shown to be secondary physical constants. Based on these points, in this paper, an attempt is made to understand the mystery of origin of elementary particle rest masses, magnetic moments and quantum nature of electron in hydrogen atom. Proceeding further, the authors developed simple procedure for understanding stable atomic nuclides’ mass number and their corresponding nuclear binding energy.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[267] viXra:1511.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-14 21:35:14

18 is the Determinant Number in Electron Shell Configuration.

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: 2 Pages.

Electrons are actually particles but they (the strings they are made from)form a mesh-like cage around the nucleus. They are also held in place by string connections to the protons.
An electron is actually not moving... only the vibrations that are traveling around the strings are moving... and that's what everyone mistakenly thinks an electron is.
Check the larger noble gases: Argon 18, Krypton 36, Xenon 54, Radon 86, the amount of electrons in outermost shells will always sum to 18, the first three even have atomic numbers that are multiples of eighteen.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[266] viXra:1511.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-14 10:43:20

Intermittent Photon Exchange

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: 1 Page.

If you were holding a rope and I was holding the other end... we are connected.
If you have a rope and so do I and we exchange ropes... nothing is connected and we will fly apart.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[265] viXra:1511.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-11 11:37:41

Classical Nuclear Model

Authors: Robert Kardien Vanderhoek
Comments: 3 Pages. A classical mechanics seem to be the underlying cause of many observed quantum phenomenon

The internal mechanics of the proton, neutron and their fusion to form deuterium, can be understood by employing several of the basic field mechanics properties that are used in understanding electromagnetic phenomenon.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[264] viXra:1511.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-11 06:32:56

Electrons Ejected Due of Laser Irradiation of Ultra-Dense Hydrogen Layer on Metals Surface - A New Source of Instant Electrical Energy (review)

Authors: Stefan Mehedinteanu
Comments: 18 Pages. a new idea

Some recent experiments signalize the high-energy particles detected from spontaneous processes in an ultra-dense Hydrogen/Deuterium D(0) layer (UDD) on metals surface due of laser irradiation. Based on the previously author works about models on nucleons structure and on the bias current inside valence nucleons during stimulation by a laser, in the present one is analyzed the feasibility of these experiments. Thus, by using QM&MD programmes: fhi96md and GAMESS is confirmed the apparition of Rydberg matter (UDD) on the surface of Pd lattice by H(0)/D(0) electron delocalization. Also is proved the author’s model of vortex assisted photon beta decay, when a laser photon makes this process much more probable by creating a spot (melt) in nucleon with suppressed order parameter that lowering the energy barrier for vortex crossing together with an heavy electron (bias current ) as resulting from the decay of the permanent rate of bosons pairs as produced inside nucleons by a Schwinger effect. Thus, the obtained electrical current have a power Pw=3.5x1012 w<<Plaser ~2Pw for a laser spot of size , that corresponds with ELI laser characteristics, that means not energy gain for this laser type. But if we use others lasers of much smaller power when we have per photons ~10-5w .1ns(T=109K)~10-14 J of duration ~1ns and, respectively ~10-14 J.1013 ~0.1J~108 [w] for a pulse composed of ~1013 ph/s, in this case can appears a net gain of 3.5x1012/108=3.5x104, which is near that obtained from U235 fission ~200MeV/0.025eV/235x2%=6x105.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[263] viXra:1510.0423 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-27 08:10:11

Isotopes and Nucleus Formations : Construction

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: 4 Pages.

Everything is made out of the same particle and every particle has 20 strings unless it is smashed up deformed matter.

If you understand the way this works... with a little thinking anyone can figure out isotopes.
For instance why 3 protons would not make lithium-3 ...
i.e. why there can be extra neutrons but not just a bunch of protons (or extra protons)
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[262] viXra:1510.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-20 08:25:12

Nuclear Physics in the Vedas

Authors: Basudeba Mishra, Kolkata
Comments: Nine page first dradt

THIS PAPER PRESENTS A THEORETICAL DERIVATION OF CHARGE OF QUARKS; and THE STRENGTH OF THE FINE STRUCTURE CONSTANT, Alpha
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[261] viXra:1509.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-28 03:10:14

Fundamental Symmetry in Nature

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

Scientists working with ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment), a heavy-ion detector on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring, have made precise measurements of particle mass and electric charge that confirm the existence of a fundamental symmetry in nature. The investigators include Brazilian researchers affiliated with the University of São Paulo (USP) and the University of Campinas (UNICAMP). [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[260] viXra:1509.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-07 18:41:43

Possible Sensibility of Nuclear Fragmentation to the Mass of W

Authors: Alejandro Rivero
Comments: 6 Pages. This is a draft note cointaining graphical updates.

Revisiting work of 2004, we look for the possibility of an enhancement of the yields of asymmetric fission when the mass of one of the fragments has the same size that the electroweak W mass, causing some kind of recoil resonance.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[259] viXra:1509.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-05 17:05:00

What is Gravitational Constant?

Authors: Shinsuke Hamaji
Comments: 1 Page.

Gravitational constant is the square ratio of proton and atomic radius.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[258] viXra:1509.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-03 03:52:57

Explanation of the Table of Nuclides: Qualitative Nuclear Mechanics from a NLHV Design (Part B) Nuclides from Hydrogen to Neon

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 1 Page.

Cordus nuclear theory, table showing proposed structures of the atomic nuclei for all nuclides from Hydrogen to Neon. Online supplement to: Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., & Pons, A. J. (2013). Explanation of the Table of Nuclides: Qualitative nuclear mechanics from a NLHV design. Applied Physics Research, 5(6), 145-174. http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v5n6p145
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[257] viXra:1508.0429 [pdf] submitted on 2015-08-31 13:52:22

Tetraquarks, Pentaquarks and the Oscillating Proton

Authors: Robert Kardien Vanderhoek
Comments: 2 Pages. An amplified four particle oscillating system?

The conformation of Four and five quark hadrons at the LHC would be expected if the fundamental components of a four particle oscillating proton model were amplified by high energy collisions.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[256] viXra:1508.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2015-08-30 17:03:50

Converting of Matter to Nuclear Energy by AB-generator and its Application

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 17 Pages.

Author offers a new nuclear generator which allows to convert any matter to nuclear energy in accordance with the Einstein equation E=mc2. The method is based upon tapping the energy potential of a Micro Black Hole (MBH) and the Hawking radiation created by this MBH. As is well-known, the vacuum continuously produces virtual pairs of particles and antiparticles, in particular, the photons and anti-photons. The MBH event horizon allows separating them. Anti-photons can be moved to the MBH and be annihilated; decreasing the mass of the MBH, the resulting photons leave the MBH neighborhood as Hawking radiation. The offered nuclear generator (named by author as AB-Generator) utilizes the Hawking radiation and injects the matter into MBH and keeps MBH in a stable state with near-constant mass. The AB-Generator can not only produce gigantic energy outputs but should be hundreds of times cheaper than a conventional electric generation processes. The AB-Generator can be used in aerospace as a photon rocket or as a power source for numerous space vehicles. Many scientists expect the Large Hadron Collider at CERN will produce one MBH every second and the technology to capture them may be used for the AB-Generator. Key words: Production of nuclear energy, Micro Black Hole, energy AB-Generator, photon rocket. * Presented as Paper AIAA-2009-5342 in 45 Joint Propulsion Conferences, 2–5 August, 2009, Denver, CO, USA.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[255] viXra:1508.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2015-08-30 17:31:47

Превращение материи в ядерную энергию АБ-генератором и фотонные ракеты (Russian)

Authors: A.A. Bolonkin
Comments: 8 Pages.

Автор выдвигает идею превращения любой матери в ядерную энергию путем использования микро-черной дыры и предлагает генератор для этого. Основная идея АБ-генератора состоит в том, что мы компенсируем потерю массы Микро Черной Дыры (МЧД) путем впрыска в нее любой материи (мусор, песок, камни) и реализуем ее излучение, превращая его в нужный нам вид энергии. При этом возникает много вопросов и проблем, требующих массы принципиально новых изобретений. Некоторые из них приводятся ниже. Например, как поддерживать Черную Дыру в пространстве? Очевидно, что ни один из существующих обычных методов не годиться, ибо любую жесткую или тросовую конструкцию МЧД тут же «съест». Обычная МЧД не реагирует ни на магнитные, ни на электрические поля, а создание электрических и магнитных МЧД пока - сильное усложнение проблемы. Гравитационные поля требуют огромных масс (что весьма опасно вблизи МЧД! В случае аварии МЧД может все «съесть» в мгновение ока!), а главное, гравитационные поля не поддаются управлению. Автор предлагает поддерживать положение (позицию) МЧД кинетической энергией поступающего топлива. Количество поступающего топлива также позволит регулировать размер МЧД и количество получаемой энергии.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[254] viXra:1508.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2015-08-30 17:56:02

АБ-материя и иглы. Потрясающие свойства (In Russian)

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 5 Pages.

В 2008г автором был предложен и исследован новый искусственный вид ядерной материи (АБ-материя), который не встречается в природе. Опираясь на хорошо известные законы ядерной физики, автор показал, что предлагаемый искусственный материал будет обладать потрясающими свойствами: Он будет в миллионы моллионов раз прочнее всех известных материалов (включая знаменитые искусственные нанотрубы), может выдерживать температуру в миллионы градусов, обладает почти нулевой теплопроводностью, сверхпроводимостью, в одной из форм способен быть невидимым и пропускать сквозь себя обычную материю, в другой форме защищать от любого излучения, включая ядерное оружие. Краткие результаты исследования были опубликованы в статье “Femtotechnology: Nuclear AB-Matter with Fantastic Properties” [1] American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 2 (2), 2009, p.501-514. (http://viXra.org/abs/1401.0173 ), и некоторые его применения развиты в статье “Femtotechnology: Design of the Strongest AB-Matter for Aerospace”,(2009), http://www.archive.org/details/FemtotechnologyDesignOfTheStrongestAb-matterForAerospace . Дальнейшие исследования устойчивости отдельных форм АБ-материи показало, что тончайшие нити из этой материи (АБ-иглы в миллион раз меньше атома водорода) обладают удивительным свойством: они находятся в натянутом состоянии и способны проникать безболезненно не только в человеческое тело, но доставлять микроприботы в любые укрытия из обычной материи на гиганские расстояния, в недра Земли, планет и Солнца. В частности, безракетные космические корабли на планеты солнечной системы. http://viXra.org/abs/1312.0017, http://vixra.org/abs/1111.0064. Некоторые результаты этих исследований в популярной форме излагаются ниже.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[253] viXra:1508.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2015-08-19 03:43:03

We Need to Return to Bohr's Orbit to Study Atomic Physics

Authors: LI WeiGang
Comments: 12 Pages.

Physicist Niels Bohr in 1913, according to Rutherford atomic model and a hydrogen atom spectrum, proposed a hydrogen atom theory, initially laid the foundation of atomic physics.Bohr's theory can be a good answer Rutherford atomic model can not explain - the stability of atoms, identity, regeneration and discrete line spectrum - question.Bohr theory consistent with experimental data very well.However, mainly due to the physics of long-term mistakenly believe that "uniform circular motion of electrons, but also electromagnetic radiation", the theory is abandoned by the physics community (including Bohr himself ). The author, using mathematical methods can prove:1. uniform circular motion of the electron, does not radiate electromagnetic waves; 2. the basic assumptions of Bohr theory, its equivalent is "Phase harmony principle";3. The fine structure constant physical meaning is - in the atomic environment, electrons are accelerated speed limit is the speed of light 1/137; 4.n and m, are hydrogen atomic energy-level changes, two different step.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[168] viXra:1701.0684 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-08 03:50:56

Gravity as the Cause for Nuclear Force and Cosmological Acceleration

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 9 Pages.

The origin of the force holding protons and neutrons together in the nucleus has been one of the daunting puzzles of physics, regardless of the Standard Model explanation. One possible consideration is the force of gravity as responsible for the stability of the nucleus. However, this idea will be immediately dismissed because gravitational force as we know it is weaker than electromagnetic force by a factor of about 8 x 10-37 . This is the very reason that gravity has eluded the attention of physicists as a possible explanation of nuclear force. Nature has hidden its mystery for almost a century by looking ridiculous. We know gravitation as introduced by Newton and have been stuck with that for centuries. This paper reveals a drastically different law of gravitation that ultimately resolves the mystery of nuclear force. This theory also has the potential to explain the phenomenon of cosmological acceleration and the Pioneer anomaly. Gravity is a force that behaves differently at vastly different distance scales: nuclear and atomic scale, macroscopic scale and astronomical scale.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[167] viXra:1701.0684 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-02 01:52:57

Gravity as the Cause for Nuclear Force and Cosmological Acceleration

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 10 Pages.

The origin of the force holding protons and neutrons together in the nucleus has been one of the daunting puzzles of physics, regardless of the Standard Model explanation. One possible consideration is the force of gravity as responsible for the stability of the nucleus. However, this idea will be immediately dismissed because gravitational force as we know it is weaker than electromagnetic force by a factor of about 8 x 10-37 . This is the very reason that gravity has eluded the attention of physicists as a possible explanation of nuclear force. Nature has hidden its mystery for almost a century by looking ridiculous. We know gravitation as introduced by Newton and have been stuck with that for centuries. This paper reveals a drastically different law of gravitation that ultimately resolves the mystery of nuclear force. This theory also successfully explains the phenomenon of cosmological acceleration and the Pioneer Anomaly.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[166] viXra:1701.0684 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-01 05:44:58

Gravity as the Cause for Nuclear Force and Cosmological Acceleration

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 7 Pages.

The origin of the force holding protons and neutrons together in the nucleus is one of the daunting puzzles of physics, regardless of the Standard Model explanation. One possible consideration is the force of gravity as responsible for the stability of the nucleus. However, this idea will be immediately dismissed because gravitational force as we know it is weaker than electromagnetic force by a factor of about 8 x 10-37 . This is the very reason that gravity has eluded the attention of physicists as a possible explanation of nuclear force. Nature has hidden its mystery for almost a century by looking ridiculous. We know gravitation as introduced by Newton and have been stuck with that for centuries. This paper reveals a drastically different law of gravitation that ultimately resolves the mystery of nuclear force. This theory is also promising to explain the phenomenon of cosmological redshift.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[165] viXra:1611.0391 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-29 08:19:39

PAN-Theory

Authors: Carmine D'Errico
Comments: 11 Pages.

A unified theory of fundamental interactions represents today one of the most advanced research sectors. To it are linked the expectations about new worldviews and new implications on the technological and industrial processes for the evolution of the human species. At this unification process, it is assigned a general understanding of phenomena. In this article, we present an alternative theory we call PAN-Theory. The PAN-Theory provides a simple mechanical-algebraic model that proves to be exactly the Coulomb's interaction; therefore we demonstrate the elementary charge e and Planck's constant h to be expression of other constants with negligible errors. By the definition of a mass–time relation the presented Theory obtains and interprets in a new way the fine-structure constant \alpha and predicts the proton radius in an agreed extent with the most complex and current models. By the use of PAN-Theory a relativistic mass–energy relation is demonstrate and the wave-particle duality is presented in a new aesthetic. The final product of the presented theory is the expression of Newtonian gravity model as isomorphism of Coulomb model with negligible errors. In appendix a short demonstration for Doppler effect and for quantum entanglement is given.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[164] viXra:1605.0054 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-11 10:14:37

Fusion and Beta Decay Both Involve Electron Positron Annhilation and Pair Production

Authors: Glenn A. Baxter
Comments: Eight pages

Beta decay is involved in all radioactivity. Pair annihilation, pair production, fusion, and Beta decay, are postulated to form all the elements on the periodic table as well as all particles and anti particles. Particles and anti particles reside, unseen, incorporated with neutrons in the nuclei of all elements.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[163] viXra:1605.0054 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-09 17:14:59

Fusion and Beta Decay Both Involve Electron Positron Annhilation and Pair Production

Authors: Glenn A. Baxter
Comments: Eight pages

Beta decay is involved in all radioactivity. Pair annihilation, pair production, fusion, and Beta decay, are shown to form all the elements on the periodic table as well as all particles and anti particles. Particles and anti particles reside, unseen, incorporated with neutrons in the nuclei of all elements.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[162] viXra:1605.0054 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-05 08:11:44

Fusion and Beta Decay Both Involve Electron Positron Annhilation and Pair Production

Authors: Glenn A. Baxter
Comments: 6 Pages. Glenn A. Baxter, P.E.

Beta decay is involved in all radioactivity. Pair annihilation, pair production, fusion, and Beta decay, are shown to form all the elements on the periodic table as well as all particles and anti particles. Particles and anti particles reside, unseen, incorporated with neutrons in the nuclei of all elements.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[161] viXra:1604.0131 [pdf] replaced on 2016-04-26 19:57:18

E = Mc^2 and Mass Energy Equivalence Wrong

Authors: Glenn A. Baxter
Comments: Twelve pages

The 9th edition, 2011, of Resnick and Halliday PHYSICS, states on page 1043 “..In 1905, (Dr.) Einstein showed that as a consequence of his theory of Special Relativity, mass can be considered to be another form of energy…An object’s mass m and the equivalent energy Eo are related by Eo = mc^2 which, without the subscript o, is the best known science equation of all time….If you continue your study of physics beyond this book, you will see more refined discussions of the relation between mass and energy. You might even encounter disagreements about just what that relation is and what it means…” The book’s current “author,” Dr. Jearl Walker, had been sent my paper disagreeing with E = mc^2 in 2008, three years before the 9th edition’s first 2011 publication. See www.k1man.com/b This current paper discusses that disagreement and shows newly organized experimental proof that E = mc^2 and mass – energy equivalence, the corner stone of 21st century Main Stream physics dogma, is wrong.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[160] viXra:1604.0131 [pdf] replaced on 2016-04-22 13:17:40

E = Mc^2 and Mass Energy Equivalence Wrong

Authors: Glenn A. Baxter
Comments: Twelve pages

The 9th edition, 2011, of Resnick and Halliday PHYSICS, states on page 1043 “..In 1905, (Dr.) Einstein showed that as a consequence of his theory of Special Relativity, mass can be considered to be another form of energy…An object’s mass m and the equivalent energy Eo are related by Eo = mc^2 which, without the subscript o, is the best known science equation of all time….If you continue your study of physics beyond this book, you will see more refined discussions of the relation between mass and energy. You might even encounter disagreements about just what that relation is and what it means…” The book’s current “author,” Dr. Jearl Walker, had been sent my paper disagreeing with E = mc^2 in 2008, three years before the 9th edition’s first 2011 publication. See www.k1man.com/b This current paper discusses that disagreement and shows newly organized experimental proof that E = mc^2 and mass – energy equivalence, the corner stone of 21st century Main Stream physics dogma, is wrong.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[159] viXra:1604.0131 [pdf] replaced on 2016-04-20 11:07:15

E = Mc^2 and Mass Energy Equivalence Wrong

Authors: Glenn A. Baxter
Comments: Twelve pages

The 9th edition, 2011, of Resnick and Halliday PHYSICS, states on page 1043 “..In 1905, (Dr.) Einstein showed that as a consequence of his theory of Special Relativity, mass can be considered to be another form of energy…An object’s mass m and the equivalent energy Eo are related by Eo = mc^2 which, without the subscript o, is the best known science equation of all time….If you continue your study of physics beyond this book, you will see more refined discussions of the relation between mass and energy. You might even encounter disagreements about just what that relation is and what it means…” The book’s current “author,” Dr. Jearl Walker, had been sent my paper disagreeing with E = mc^2 in 2008, three years before the 9th edition’s first 2011 publication. See www.k1man.com/b This current paper discusses that disagreement and shows newly organized experimental proof that E = mc^2 and mass – energy equivalence, the corner stone of 21st century Main Stream physics dogma, is wrong.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[158] viXra:1604.0131 [pdf] replaced on 2016-04-19 06:43:51

E = Mc^2 and Mass Energy Equivalence Wrong

Authors: Glenn A. Baxter
Comments: Twelve pages

The 9th edition, 2011, of Resnick and Halliday PHYSICS, states on page 1043 “..In 1905, (Dr.) Einstein showed that as a consequence of his theory of Special Relativity, mass can be considered to be another form of energy…An object’s mass m and the equivalent energy Eo are related by Eo = mc^2 which, without the subscript o, is the best known science equation of all time….If you continue your study of physics beyond this book, you will see more refined discussions of the relation between mass and energy. You might even encounter disagreements about just what that relation is and what it means…” The book’s current “author,” Dr. Jearl Walker, had been sent my paper disagreeing with E = mc^2 in 2008, three years before the 9th edition’s first 2011 publication. See www.k1man.com/b This current paper discusses that disagreement and shows newly organized experimental proof that E = mc^2 and mass – energy equivalence, the corner stone of 21st century Main Stream physics dogma, is wrong.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[157] viXra:1603.0361 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-17 02:28:06

New Theories of Gravitation and Particle Model

Authors: Chongxi Yu
Comments: 45 Pages.

Every matter is moving in very high speed because the Milky Way’s speed relative to CMB rest frame is 552km/s, 0.18% of light speed. When matter moves, there may be the lag of gluons, photons, mesons, protons, and neutrons, in exact words, the lag of c-particles, A particle and their anti particles, which makes bonding of nucleons weaker and exposes more nuclear forces, and results in stronger residual forces of bonding forces between particles. Gravitation, then, may be the residual force of the bonding force between particles. Three color particles and a A particle and their antiparticles (total 8 particles) make all current “elementary particles”. Surprisingly, we can draw photons, gluons, electrons, quarks, mesons, bosons and any current “elementary particles” from these particles just like drawing chemical structures. These structures can show how an electron and a positron annihilate to photons, how proton absorb electron to form neutron, and how fission and fusion happen. It can explain almost every question around elementary particles. According to this model, there may be only one force which comes from c-particles orbit A particle and anti c-particles orbit anti A particle and a side product, the electromagnetic force, due to the asymmetry of c-particles and anti c-particles.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[156] viXra:1603.0361 [pdf] replaced on 2016-04-10 22:00:18

New Theories of Gravitation and Particle Model

Authors: Chongxi Yu
Comments: 43 Pages.

Every matter is moving in very high speed because the Milky Way’s speed relative to CMB rest frame is 552km/s, 0.18% of light speed. When matter moves, there may be the lag of gluons, photons, mesons, protons, and neutrons, in exact words, the lag of c-particles, A particle and their anti particles, which makes bonding of nucleons weaker and exposes more nuclear forces, and results in stronger residual forces of bonding forces between particles. Gravitation, then, may be the residual force of the bonding force between particles. Three color particles and a A particle and their antiparticles (total 8 particles) make all current “elementary particles”. Surprisingly, we can draw photons, gluons, electrons, quarks, mesons, bosons and any current “elementary particles” from these particles just like drawing chemical structures. These structures can show how an electron and a positron annihilate to photons, how proton absorb electron to form neutron, and how fission and fusion happen. It can explain almost every question around elementary particles. According to this model, there may be only one force which comes from c-particles orbit A particle and anti c-particles orbit anti A particle and a side product, the electromagnetic force, due to the asymmetry of c-particles and anti c-particles.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[155] viXra:1603.0361 [pdf] replaced on 2016-03-28 22:23:05

New Theories of Gravitation and Particle Model

Authors: Chongxi Yu
Comments: 31 Pages.

Every matter is moving in very high speed because the Milky Way’s speed relative to CMB rest frame is 552km/s, 0.18% of light speed. When matter moves, there may be the lag of gluons, photons, mesons, protons, and neutrons, in exact words, the lag of c-particles, A particle and their anti particles, which makes bonding of nucleons weaker and exposes more nuclear forces, and results in stronger residual forces of bonding forces between particles. Gravitation, then, may be the residual force of the bonding force between particles. Three color particles and a A particle and their antiparticles (total 8 particles) make all current “elementary particles”. Surprisingly, we can draw photons, gluons, electrons, quarks, mesons, bosons and any current “elementary particles” from these particles just like drawing chemical structures. These structures can show how an electron and a positron annihilate to photons, how proton absorb electron to form neutron, and how fission and fusion happen. It can explain almost every question around elementary particles. According to this model, there may be only one force which comes from c-particles orbit A particle and anti c-particles orbit anti A particle and a side product, the electromagnetic force, due to the asymmetry of c-particles and anti c-particles.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[154] viXra:1602.0302 [pdf] replaced on 2016-03-21 22:48:15

Theoretical Determination of Fundamental Physical Constants

Authors: Valery B. Smolensky
Comments: 7 Pages.

The article presents a theoretical method of determination of fundamental physical constants. The results of analytical calculations, including: the fine structure constant, the wave length of Compton, the electron mass, elementary charge, Planck constant, Planck mass, length and time, Planck, Newton's gravitational constant, the lifetime of the neutron.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[153] viXra:1602.0302 [pdf] replaced on 2016-02-29 05:10:02

Theoretical Determination of Fundamental Physical Constants

Authors: Valery B. Smolensky
Comments: 7 Pages.

The article presents a theoretical method of determination of fundamental physical constants. The results of analytical calculations, including: the fine structure constant, the wave length of Compton, the electron mass, elementary charge, Planck constant, Planck mass, length and time, Planck, Newton's gravitational constant, the lifetime of the neutron.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[152] viXra:1601.0115 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-11 20:16:30

Classical Charge Mechanics of Deuterium

Authors: Robert Kardien Vanderhoek
Comments: 3 Pages.

A viable proton-neutron fusion model based on an oscillating proton and classical mechanics
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[151] viXra:1512.0331 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-19 09:47:56

Why and How do Electrons, Nucleons Etc. All the Particles Possess Persistent Spin Motion

Authors: Kunwar Jagdish Narain
Comments: 17 Pages. 1 Figure

As we know, in nature, nothing occurs unnecessarily, e.g., our hearts beat persistently without having any source of infinite energy, not unnecessarily; there is an important purpose as to why they beat persistently, and they have special structure, unlike simple balloons of blood, that keeps them beating persistently and provides all the properties our hearts possess. And therefore, as electrons, nucleons etc. all the particles possess persistent spin motion without having any source of infinite energy and several properties; there should positively be some important purpose as to why they possess persistent spin motion, and they should have special structure, unlike simple balloons of charge, that keeps them spinning persistently and provides all the properties they possess. Further, as we know, all the phenomena/activities related with our hearts, e.g., continuous blood circulation etc. taking place in our bodies are the effects of the purpose behind persistent beating of our hearts and their special structure, similarly, all the phenomena/activities related with electrons, nucleons etc. taking place should be the effects of the purpose behind their persistent spin motion and their special structure. Presently, that purpose, their special structure and how their special structure keeps them persistently spinning etc. all have been determined and their importance have also been described. Their accounts enable to give very clear and complete explanation of all the phenomena related with electrons, nucleons etc., structures and properties of their systems etc.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[150] viXra:1512.0331 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-10 09:24:54

Why do All the Planets of Our Solar System, Electrons and Nucleons Etc. All Possess Spin Motion

Authors: Kunwar Jagdish Narain
Comments: 36 Pages.

All the planets of our solar system, electrons and nucleons etc. all possess spin motion. It cannot be a matter of coincidence or chance. There must positively be some purpose/reason behind it. Presently, that purpose/reason has been determined, and taking account of that purpose/reason, the phenomena related with electrons and nucleons etc. have been tried to explain. Surprisingly, the account of the determined purpose/reason enables to give very clear and complete explanation of all the phenomena related with them, structures and properties of systems constituted by them, even of so far unexplained phenomena: 1. Despite moving in spherically symmetric field, how do the orbiting electrons acquire elliptical orbits? 2. What is source/cause that keeps them going on spinning and moving in their elliptical orbits persistently while their paths are not happened to be equipotential because of being elliptical? 3. How do their energy, momentum, spin angular momentum etc. conserve, because when they move along their elliptical orbital paths, their velocity varies? Presently, it has also been determined as to how electrons and nucleons etc. obtain spin motion and how their spin motion persists.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[149] viXra:1512.0331 [pdf] replaced on 2016-04-05 13:29:24

Why do All the Planets of Our Solar System, Electrons and Nucleons Etc. All Possess Spin Motion

Authors: Kunwar Jagdish Narain
Comments: 36 Pages.

All the planets of our solar system, electrons and nucleons etc. all possess spin motion. It cannot be a matter of coincidence or chance. There must positively be some purpose/reason behind it. Presently, that purpose/reason has been determined, and taking account of that purpose/reason, the phenomena related with electrons and nucleons etc. have been tried to explain. Surprisingly, the account of the determined purpose/reason enables to give very clear and complete explanation of all the phenomena related with them, structures and properties of systems constituted by them, even of so far unexplained phenomena: 1. Despite moving in spherically symmetric field, how do the orbiting electrons acquire elliptical orbits? 2. What is source/cause that keeps them going on spinning and moving in their elliptical orbits persistently while their paths are not happened to be equipotential because of being elliptical? 3. How do their energy, momentum, spin angular momentum etc. conserve, because when they move along their elliptical orbital paths, their velocity varies? Presently, it has also been determined as to how electrons and nucleons etc. obtain spin motion and how their spin motion persists.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[148] viXra:1512.0331 [pdf] replaced on 2016-02-21 07:57:06

Why do All the Planets of Our Solar System, Electrons and Nucleons Etc. All Possess Spin Motion

Authors: Kunwar Jagdish Narain
Comments: 38 Pages.

All the planets of our solar system, electrons and nucleons etc. all possess spin motion. It cannot be a matter of coincidence or chance. There must positively be some purpose/reason behind it. Presently, that purpose/reason has been determined. It has also been determined how do these obtain spin motion and how does their spin motion persist. The account of the determined purpose/reason enables to give very clear and complete explanation of all the phenomena and properties related with spinning particles/bodies, including phenomena and properties etc. those could not have been explained yet. For example: 1. Despite moving in spherically symmetric field, how do all the planets of our solar system and orbiting electrons acquire elliptical orbits? 2. What is source/cause that keeps these going on spinning and moving in their elliptical orbits persistently while their paths are not happened to be equipotential because of being elliptical? 3. How do their energy, momentum, spin angular momentum etc. conserve because when these move along their elliptical orbital paths, their velocity varies?
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[147] viXra:1512.0330 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-19 10:23:56

A New Neutron Model

Authors: Kunwar Jagdish Narain
Comments: 16 Pages. 1 Figure

As we know, in nature, nothing occurs unnecessarily, e.g., our hearts beat persistently without having any source of infinite energy, not unnecessarily; there is an important purpose as to why they beat persistently, and they have special structure, unlike simple balloons of blood, that keeps them beating persistently and provides all the properties our hearts possess. And therefore, as neutrons possess persistent spin motion without having any source of infinite energy and several properties; there should positively be some important purpose as to why they possess persistent spin motion, and they should have special structure, unlike simple balloons of zero net charge, that keeps them spinning persistently and provides all the properties they possess. Presently, that special structure of neutrons has been determined. It enables to give very clear and complete explanation of all the properties the neutrons possess, e.g.: 1. Persistent spin motion; 2. Magnetic moment; 3. Electric dipole moment; 4. High penetrating power; 5. Distinguishable low and high energy ranges; 6. Why and how neutron has both unstable (in its free state) and stable (in nuclei) states; 7. How and what situation is created in nuclei such that the neutron becomes stable; 8. Why and how neutron decays after about 15 minutes, while the rest of all the unstable elementary particles decay within fraction of a second; 9. How, during beta decay, the beta particles, which are electrons are emitted from the nuclei while it is believed that electrons do not reside inside the nuclei; 10. Why and how beta particles, emitted from radioactive sources, have continuous energy spectrum.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[146] viXra:1512.0278 [pdf] replaced on 2015-12-29 23:58:38

A Qualitative Analysis of Isotopic Changes Reported in LENR Experiments

Authors: Eric Walker
Comments: 17 Pages. Addition of earlier references and copy-editing for clarity

A few patterns are identified in the isotopic changes seen in LENR experiments. These patterns are shown to be consistent with the parallel operation of several related processes: α decay, α capture, fragmentation of heavier nuclides following upon α capture, and β decay/electron capture. The results of several researchers working in the field are examined in the light of these processes. The analysis developed here is then applied to the 2014 report by Levi et al. on the test of Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat in Lugano, Switzerland, whose fuel and ash assays are found to be broadly consistent with the isotope studies. The different processes are seen, then, to operate in systems making use of palladium, nickel, electrolysis, gas diffusion and glow discharge. A suggestion is made as to what might be inducing these decays and capture and fragmentation reactions.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[145] viXra:1511.0122 [pdf] replaced on 2015-11-15 17:53:15

18 is the Determinant Number in Electron Shell Configuration.

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: 2 Pages.

Electrons are actually particles but they (the strings they are made from)form a mesh-like cage around the nucleus. They are also held in place by string connections to the protons.
An electron is actually not moving... only the vibrations that are traveling around the strings are moving... and that's what everyone mistakenly thinks an electron is.
Check the larger noble gases: Argon 18, Krypton 36, Xenon 54, Radon 86, the amount of electrons in outermost shells will always sum to 18, the first three even have atomic numbers that are multiples of eighteen.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[144] viXra:1510.0423 [pdf] replaced on 2015-11-29 21:29:15

Isotopes and Nucleus Formations / Construction

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: 3 Pages.

Everything is made out of the same particle and every particle has 20 strings unless it is smashed up deformed matter.
If you understand the way this works... with a little thinking anyone can figure out isotopes.
For instance why 3 protons would not make lithium-3 ...
i.e. why there can be extra neutrons but not just a bunch of protons (or extra protons)
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[143] viXra:1510.0423 [pdf] replaced on 2015-11-15 16:46:37

Isotopes and Nucleus Formations / Construction

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: 3 Pages.

Everything is made out of the same particle and every particle has 20 strings unless it is smashed up deformed matter.
If you understand the way this works... with a little thinking anyone can figure out isotopes.
For instance why 3 protons would not make lithium-3 ...
i.e. why there can be extra neutrons but not just a bunch of protons (or extra protons)
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics