Quantum Gravity and String Theory

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[1361] viXra:1806.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-20 22:35:34

Unification of Gravity and Electromagnetism

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 174 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

Unification of Gravity and Electromagnetism “I unified Electromagnetism and Gravity with Ferent equation for the energy of a photon E = h × f + a × f ” Adrian Ferent “The perturbation done by a photon in a gravitational field is equal with one graviton” Adrian Ferent “Ferent wave equation of the graviton: Ψ – the wave function of the graviton” Adrian Ferent “The Photon – Graviton pair has the same speed and frequency, and the photon energy divided by the graviton energy is the electromagnetic energy divided by the gravitational energy, the electromagnetic force divided by the gravitational force” Adrian Ferent “Ferent equation for the energy of a photon E = h × f + a × f ” Adrian Ferent “Einstein in his theory of general relativity did not explain gravity, he calculated gravity” Adrian Ferent “The perturbation done by a photon in the gravitational field in Ferent quantum gravity theory means: the photon emits a graviton” Adrian Ferent “The graviton frequency emitted by a photon is f, the photon frequency” Adrian Ferent I replaced Planck equation E = h × f with the a new equation for the energy of a photon: E = h × f + a × f Theory of general relativity is the most successful theory of gravity. Einstein’s idea is that gravity is not an ordinary force, but rather a property of space-time geometry. In the last 100 years famous physicists including Einstein himself, have tried and failed to unify general relativity and quantum theory. Einstein’s theory of general relativity is wrong because Einstein's equivalence principle is wrong. Einstein's equivalence principle is wrong because the gravitational force experienced locally is caused by a negative energy, gravity energy and the force experienced by an observer in a non-inertial (accelerated) frame of reference is caused by a positive energy. When they tried to unify Einstein’s theory of general relativity, a wrong theory, with electromagnetism the scientists discovered wrong theories like String theory, LQG… In Ferent gravitation theory gravity is reformulated using quantum theory, using gravitons. “Einstein in his theory of general relativity did not explain gravity, he calculated gravity” Adrian Ferent ToE is the Theory of Everything, the ultimate theory, the final theory links together all physical aspects of the universe and is the major unsolved problem in physics. The four fundamental forces: the gravitational force, the electromagnetic force, the strong nuclear force and the weak nuclear force are the four fundamental forces. In my gravity theory the gravitational force is mediated by a massless particle called graviton. All quantum gravity theories like String theory, LQG… are wrong theories because are limited to speed of light. “The perturbation done by a photon in a gravitational field is equal with one graviton” Adrian Ferent How big is the perturbation done by a photon in a gravitational field? It is the electromagnetic force divided by gravitational force, it is the photon energy divided by graviton energy. I found the Ferent wall beyond the Planck wall, with a length smaller than Planck length. “The Photon – Graviton pair has the same speed and frequency, and the photon energy divided by the graviton energy is the electromagnetic energy divided by the gravitational energy, the electromagnetic force divided by the gravitational force” Adrian Ferent Planck discovered that physical action could not take on any indiscriminate value. Instead, the action must be some multiple of a very small quantity called Planck constant. The energy E contained in a photon, which represents the smallest possible 'packet' of energy in an electromagnetic wave, is Planck’s constant times the photon frequency: E = Planck’s constant × frequency. E = h × f Planck equation for the energy of a photon E = h × f is incorrect because does not contains the energy of the graviton, because light has gravitation! My equation for the energy of a photon: E = h × f + a × f The oscillation of an electron emits, radiates to space a photon and a coupled graviton, with the same speed, the speed of light and the same frequency. The magnetic force always acts at right angles to the motion of a charge, it can only turn the charge, it cannot do work on the charge. The strength s, of the electromagnetic force relative to gravity force: s = 4.166 × 1042 How big is the perturbation done by a photon in a gravitational field? It is the graviton energy: a × f We have s = h / a “The perturbation done by a photon in the gravitational field is a graviton with the energy: a × f” Adrian Ferent “Ferent wave equation of the graviton: Ψ – the wave function of the graviton” Adrian Ferent The energy of a photon: E = h × f + a × f This new equation of the photon represents the unification of Electromagnetism and Gravity. “Ferent equation for the energy of a photon E = h × f + a × f ” Adrian Ferent “I unified Electromagnetism and Gravity with Ferent equation for the energy of a photon E = h × f + a × f ” Adrian Ferent Graviton’s frequency emitted by a photon What means the perturbation done by a photon in the gravitational field? In my quantum gravity theory this means that photons emit gravitons! “The perturbation done by a photon in the gravitational field in Ferent quantum gravity theory means: the photon emits a graviton” Adrian Ferent Graviton’s energy emitted by a photon is a × f . This means the graviton frequency emitted by a photon is f, the photon frequency. “The graviton frequency emitted by a photon is f, the photon frequency” Adrian Ferent 83. I am the first who unified Electromagnetism and Gravity with Ferent equation for the energy of a photon E = h × f + a × f 84. I am the first who discovered that the perturbation done by a photon in a gravitational field is equal with one graviton 85. I am the first who explained that Einstein in his theory of general relativity did not explain gravity, he calculated gravity 86. I am the first who discovered that the Photon – Graviton pair has the same speed and frequency, and the photon energy divided by the graviton energy is the electromagnetic energy divided by the gravitational energy, the electromagnetic force divided by the gravitational force 87. I am the first who discovered that the perturbation done by a photon in the gravitational field in Ferent quantum gravity theory means: the photon emits a graviton 88. I am the first who discovered that the graviton frequency emitted by a photon is f, the photon frequency
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1360] viXra:1806.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-17 02:48:26

What is de Broglie's Wave-Particle?

Authors: Michael Tzoumpas
Comments: 11 Pages.

According to the theory of dynamic space the inductive-inertial phenomenon and its forces will be developed, which act on the electric units of the dynamic space, forming the grouping units (namely electric charges or forms of the electric field). So, the nature of the magnetic forces is explained, that are Coulomb's electric forces between these grouping units, created by the accelerated electron. Additionally, it is proved the so called de Broglie's wave-particle is a motion wave (wave-like form) as a result the dynamics of the extremely fine texture of the particle motion.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1359] viXra:1806.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-12 10:47:39

Physical Foundations of Mathematics in Theory of Emergent Space-Time-Matter (In Russian)

Authors: Andrey N. Smirnov
Comments: 2 Pages.

The physical foundations of mathematics in the theory of emergent space-time-matter were considered. It is shown that mathematics, including logic, is a consequence of equation which describes the fundamental field. If the most fundamental level were described not by mathematics, but something else, then instead of mathematics there would be consequences of this something else.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1358] viXra:1806.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-12 14:14:14

Proof that Space is Equivalent to Energy, and that Compactification Necessarily Leads to Changes in Volume, Energy and Entropy

Authors: Christopher Pilot
Comments: 10 Pages.

Using simple box quantization, we demonstrate explicitly that space is equivalent to energy, and that compactification releases latent heat with an attendant change in volume and entropy. Increasing spatial dimension costs energy while decreasing dimensions releases energy, which can be quantified, using a generalized version of the Clausius-Clapyeron relation. We show this for a massive particle trapped in a box. Compactification from N-dimensional space to (N-1) spatial dimensions is also simply demonstrated and the correct limit to achieve a lower energy result is to take the limit where Lw  0, where Lw is the compactification length parameter. Higher dimensional space has more energy and more entropy, all other things being equal, for a given cutoff in energy.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1357] viXra:1806.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-09 05:33:26

Theory of 4-Dimensional Matter Waves – a Vivid Summary

Authors: Randolf Rolff
Comments: 7 pages; German language; Deutsch: Theorie der 4-dimensionalen Materiewellen – Eine anschauliche Zusammenfassung

The theory of 4-dimensional matter waves describes a physical model which explains the effects of relativity and quantum theory in a unified theory. It explains and quantifies the observations in an intuitive manner. Since in the scientifically and mathematically exact explanations of this theory you can easy lose the whole picture, this is an attempt of a comprehensible summary. The mathematically and logically exact derivations can be found in the listed literature. I hope to hereby support the overall view of the model.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1356] viXra:1806.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-07 06:15:22

Gravitational Waves Will Propagate at 299800 km Pr. Second Inside Earth

Authors: Stein Sivertsen
Comments: 3 Pages.

Based upon my theory http://vixra.org/abs/1010.0035) I predict that gravitational waves will propagate at 299800,5 km/s through earth. This can be tested when two or more gravitational-wave detectors, located at different places on earth, observe the same gravitational wave and measure its speed when it propagate from detector A, through earth, to detector B. According to my theory, gravitational waves will still propagate with the speed 299792,458 km/s in vacuum outside earth. This is the same speed as we already have observed light and gravitational waves propagate with in vacuum outside earth. However, according to my theory, it will propagate with a slightly higher speed in the frame of reference inside earth.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1355] viXra:1806.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-05 08:31:06

Quantum Gravity Unification Model with Fundamental Conservation

Authors: Arthur E Pletcher
Comments: 7 Pages.

A fundamental conservation and symmetry is proposed, as a unification between General Relativity (GR) and Quantum Theory (QT). Unification is then demonstrated across multiple applications. First, as applied to cosmological redshift z and energy density ρ. Then, a local system galaxy rotational curve is examined. Next, as applied to Quantum Mechanics’ ”time problem”: Absolute and relative notions of time are shown to be reconcilable, as well as renormalization values between scales. Finally, as applied to the Cosmological Constant: The discrepancy that exists between the vacuum energy density in GR at critical density: ρcr = 3H^2/8πG = 1.88(H^2)x10−29g/cm^3, and the much greater zero-point energy delta value as calculated in quantum field theory (QFT) with a Planck scale ultraviolet cutoff: ρhep = M4c^3/h^3 = 2.44x1091g/cm^3 is resolved to null orders of magnitude.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1354] viXra:1806.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-03 09:20:32

Quantum Chaotic Motion Atoms of Space

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 3 Pages.

The quantum diffusion motion of space atoms has a similarity to Brownian motion. The measure of mobility of a quantum of space is proportional to the time of reference.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1353] viXra:1806.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-02 04:34:38

(DVTM Psij Short Research Article 30.05.2018 19 Pages) (Toy-Model) a Simple “Digital” Vacuum Composed of Space Voxels with Quantized Energetic States (Physical Science International Journal, Issn: 2348-0130,vol.: 18, Issue.: 1)

Authors: Andrei Lucian Dragoi
Comments: 19 Pages.

Based on a plausible electro-gravitational scaling factor of nature, this paper proposes a relatively simple “digital” vacuum toy model (DVTM) based on a quantized 3D space composed of space voxels with quantized energetic states. DVTM contains a relatively small set observations and statements (the assumptions of the model) that may generate a relatively large number of explanations (on the common origin of both gravitational and inertial masses and Einstein’s special/general relativity) and predictions “inside” and beyond the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics: a model of movement, a Big Bounce universe and a unification pattern for all known fundamental fields. DVTM can be considered a kind of “patch” for some Loop Quantum Gravity theories (LQGTs) and for M-Theory (MT). Keywords: Electro-gravitational scaling factor of nature; “digital” vacuum toy model (DVTM); quantized 3D space; space voxels with quantized energetic states; Standard Model (SM) of particle physics; model of movement; Big Bounce universe; unification pattern for all known fundamental fields; Loop Quantum Gravity theories (LQGTs); M-Theory (MT). OFFICIAL PUBLICATION SITE LINKS: http://www.sciencedomain.org/abstract/24892 http://www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/24892 http://www.journalrepository.org/media/journals/PSIJ_33/2018/Jun/Dragoi1812018PSIJ41391.pdf http://www.sciencedomain.org/issue/3559
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1352] viXra:1806.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-02 04:39:20

(PSIJ - Short Research Article - 19 pages - 29.07.2017) On a Plausible Triple Electro-gravito-informational Significance of the Fine Structure Constant (Physical Science International Journal, ISSN: 2348-0130,Vol.: 15, Issue.: 3)

Authors: Andrei Lucian Dragoi
Comments: 19 Pages.

In the last century, a small minority of physicists considered a hypothetical binary logarithmic connection between the large and the small constants of physics, which also implies a base-2 logarithm). This paper brings to attention a plausible triple electro-gravito-informational significance of the fine structure constant, with its implications in a plausible four fields unification pattern at Planck scales: this triple significance is based on the existence of a unifying global scaling factor of nature which appears in a hypothetical fine tuning of all the non-zero rest masses of the all the elementary particles in the Standard Model. Furthermore, this paper also proposes the dimensional relativity hypothesis (DRH) stating that the 3D appearance of space (or the 4D nature of spacetime) may be actually explained by the relative magnitude of the photon (angular) quantum momentum (and the hypothetical graviton quantum momentum respectively) and this global scaling factor (GSF): DRH also includes a generalized electrograviton model (EGM) for any hypothetical graviton. This paper also proposes a set of strong (and very strong) gravity constants and a gravitational field varying with the energy (and length) scale, all with potential importance in the unification of the four fundamental fields. Each of these hypotheses is a potential update for the Standard Model of particle physics. Keywords: Fine structure constant with triple electro-gravito-informational significance; unifying global scaling factor of nature; four fields unification; the standard model of particle physics; dimensional relativity hypothesis; electrograviton model. Short Research Article Drăgoi; PSIJ, 15(3): 1-19, 2017; Article no.PSIJ.34613 2 Physical Science International Journal, ISSN: 2348-0130,Vol.: 15, Issue.: 3 Short Research Article DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2017/34613 OFFICIAL LINKS OF THIS PUBLISHED (OPEN) PEER-REVIEWED ARTICLE: http://www.sciencedomain.org/abstract/20204 http://www.sciencedomain.org/metrics/20204 http://www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/20204 http://www.sciencedomain.org/post-comments/20204#disqus_thread http://www.sciencedomain.org/issue/2829 Crossref.org meta-data: https://search.crossref.org/?q=10.9734%2FPSIJ%2F2017%2F34613
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1351] viXra:1806.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-01 05:58:33

On Finsler Geometry, MOND and Diffeomorphic Metrics to the Schwarzschild Solution

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 18 Pages. Submitted to IJGMMP

We revisit the construction of diffeomorphic but $not$ isometric solutions to the Schwarzschild metric. The solutions relevant to Black Holes are those which require the introduction of non-trivial areal-radial functions that are characterized by the key property that the radial horizon's location is $displaced$ continuously towards the singularity ($ r = 0 $). In the limiting case scenario the location of the singularity and horizon $merges$ and any infalling observer hits a null singularity at the very moment he/she crosses the horizon. This fact may have important consequences for the resolution of the firewall problem and the complementarity controversy in black holes. Next we show how modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) can be obtained from solutions to Finsler gravity, and which in turn, can also be modeled by metrics which are diffeomorphic but not isometric to the Schwarzschild metric. The key point now is that one will have to dispense with the asymptotic flatness condition, by choosing an areal radial function which is $finite$ at $ r = \infty$. Consequently, changing the boundary condition at $ r = \infty$ leads to MONDian dynamics. We conclude with some discussions on the role of scale invariance and Born's Reciprocal Relativity Theory based on the existence of a maximal proper force.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1350] viXra:1805.0531 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-30 19:26:39

Quantum Gravity Field

Authors: Malik Matwi
Comments: 31 Pages.

We study the dynamics of the gravity field according to the quantum fields theory on arbitrary spacetime $x^{\mu}$. Therefore, we suggest a canonical momentum $\pi _I$ as a momentum conjugate to the canonical gravity field $\tilde e^I = ee_{\mu}^I n^{\mu}$. We derive both the canonical gravity field and its conjugate momentum from the holonomy $ U\left( {\gamma ,A} \right)$ of the complex selfdual connection $ A_{a}^i$. The canonical momentum $\pi _I$ is represented in the Lorentz group. We use it in deriving the path integral of the gravity field according to the quantum fields theory. Then, we discuss the situation of the free gravity field (like the electromagnetic field). We find that this situation takes place only in the background spacetime approximation, the situation of low matter density(weak gravity). Then, we derive the Lagrange of the Plebanski two form complex field $\Sigma ^{i}$, which is represented in selfdual representation $\left| {\Sigma ^i } \right\rangle$. We try to combine the two fields(gravity and Plebanski) in one field: $K_{\mu}^i$. Finally, we derive the static potential of exchanging gravitons in scalar and spinor fields, the Newtonian gravitational potential.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1349] viXra:1805.0530 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-30 20:54:09

Mathematical Relations of Natural Constants

Authors: BingZhuo Liu, DongZe Liu, XiangHua Liu, WeiDong
Comments: 23 Pages. Four basic forces; Dimensionless number; Neutrino; Dark matter; Cosmic quantization; Microwave background radiation

Through the study of the natural constants, mainly the fundamental physical constants. This paper found the mathematical relations between the universal gravitational constant, Fermi weak force constant and fine structure constant. The mathematical expressions of the mass of the dark matter and all elementary particles, such as neutron, proton, electron, neutrinos, quarks, W^±, Z^0 bosons and Higgs boson are also found. Besides that, we also noticed and applied a series of the cosmic quantization laws, worked out the temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation and the two mass limits of the compact star, namely Chandrasekhar Limit and Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff Limit. Thus, a breakthrough has been made for the completion of the ultimate grand unification theory. And unintentionally, also in order to solve Hilbert's sixth problem made a breakthrough.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1348] viXra:1805.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-21 15:40:17

About Much Physics: United Models and Specific Predictions (extract 1)

Authors: Thomas J. Buckholtz
Comments: 23 Pages.

We address four physics opportunities. First, suggest new elementary particles and forces. Second, explain phenomena such as dark matter. Third, augment and unite physics theories and models. Fourth, point to opportunities for further research.

We use models based on solutions to equations featuring isotropic pairs of isotropic quantum harmonic oscillators.

First, we show solutions that match the known elementary particles. We propose that other solutions correlate with elementary particles that people have yet to detect and with dark energy forces leading to three known eras - early acceleration, subsequent deceleration, and current acceleration - pertaining to the rate of expansion of the universe.

Second, we extend solutions to encompass known conservation-law symmetries. Extended solutions correlate with known kinematics. We suggest that extended solutions describe dark matter, explain ratios of density of dark matter to density of ordinary matter, correlate with dark energy density, and explain other phenomena.

Third, we propose that our work unites, suggests details regarding, extends, suggests complements to, and suggests limits regarding aspects of traditional physics theory. Those aspects include classical physics, special relativity, general relativity, quantum mechanics, the elementary particle Standard Model, the cosmology timeline, and galaxy evolution scenarios. The work provides possible insight regarding foundation of physics topics.

Fourth, we suggest opportunities for people. We suggest opportunities for observational, experimental, and theoretical physics research. We suggest quantum field theory that features few interaction vertices, sums of few terms as alternatives to conditionally convergent sums of infinite numbers of terms, and no needs to deal with some infinities. We point to possible opportunities to further develop and apply modeling and math we use.


Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1347] viXra:1805.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-22 12:59:23

Does Einstein's Field Equation(s) Provide an Exact Description of Classical Space-Time?

Authors: Satwik Choudhury
Comments: 26 Pages.

It will be showed based on the ground of pure reasoning, that classical space-time as derived from Einstein’s Field Equation(s) is not in conformity with an exact relativistic theory of Gravitation (surprisingly!), contrary to usual belief. Also it signs for a distance-scale, for which the exact nature of space-time, and as found from Field-Equations must have a significant discrepancy between them. And most importantly, this will be showed WITHOUT using any ad-hoc basis assumption or hypothesis or untested theories. Only known and unambiguous laws of Physics will be used in a coherent and consistent manner to arrive at this conclusion. The author strongly believes in the fact that all deep and beautiful things in nature must be simple enough! Therefore simplicity has been tried at best to preserve everywhere. First this conjecture will be proved for Schwarzschild space-time, one of the simplest solutions of Einstein’s Field Equation(s). Later same will be shown for other known space-times, pointing to the fact that the trouble is not inherent in solution(s), but in the key-equation (EFE) itself. Finally experimental support towards this proposition will also be presented; it will be showed that, the key-ingredient (of a relativistic-theory of gravity) which is proposed to be missing in General Relativity, if we include its effect correctly to the solutions of the field-equations, it can properly describe some gravitational anomaly quantitatively (not describable by GR), long been superseded from Scientific Community.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1346] viXra:1805.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-18 08:10:39

Mathematical Nature of Gravity

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 35 Pages. Cite: https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.6214049.v4

General Relativity says gravity is a push caused by space-time's curvature. Combining it with E=mc2 results in distances being totally deleted from space-time/gravity by future technology, and in expansion or contraction of the universe as a whole being eliminated. The road to these conclusions has branches shining light on supersymmetry and superconductivity. Advanced waves are usually discarded by most scientists because they're thought to be detectable before even being emitted, and thus to violate causality. Richard Feynman found that adding the contributions of advanced and retarded waves creates a consistent quantum theory called Quantum Electrodynamics in which the terms that might violate causality cancel precisely. Here, causality's violation is viewed through Isaac Newton's idea of gravity and the modern idea of entanglement. Just as advanced waves are usually discarded, few physicists or mathematicians will venture to ascribe a physical meaning to Wick rotation and "imaginary" time. Here, that maths (when joined with Mobius-strip and Klein-bottle topology) unifies space and time into one space-time, and allows construction of what may be called "imaginary computers". Starting with the previous version of this article (Matter, Antimatter, Dark Matter and Space-Time Travel in an Infinite and Eternal Universe with Extra Dimensions), this gained an Altmetric Score of 1: high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received as research output. From start to finish, this article consists of the best parts of my layman-style ORCID and paperback contributions over the last 12 years and includes a reference to those contributions.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1345] viXra:1805.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-19 00:02:59

An Acceptable Hybrid Framework

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 1 Page.

a summary essay about a hybrid unification framework
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1344] viXra:1805.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-15 09:02:16

Low-Energy Quantum Gravity and Cosmology Without Dark Energy

Authors: Michael A. Ivanov
Comments: 8 Pages. Contribution to the Third Zeldovich meeting, 23-27 April 2018, Minsk, Belarus

The model of low-energy quantum gravity leads to small additional effects having essential cosmological consequences: redshifts of remote objects and the additional dimming of them may be interpreted without any expansion of the Universe and without dark energy. The theoretical luminosity distance of the model fits the observational Hubble diagrams with high confidence levels. In the model, the ratio H(z)/(1+z) should be equal to the Hubble constant. The constancy of this ratio is confirmed with high probabilities by fitting the compilation of H(z) observations. A deceleration of massive bodies due to forehead and backhead collisions with gravitons is re-computed here.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1343] viXra:1805.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-15 12:37:42

Fulgurite Created by Lightning Bullet Also Known as Ball Lightning, According to Quantum FFF Theory.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 23 Pages.

FUNCTION FOLLOWS FORM in Quantum FFF THEORY. The FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Axion- Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a NEW splitting, accelerating and pairing MASSLESS BLACK HOLE, able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease, seems to be able to explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, down to Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprites and Elves, Sprite Fireballs, Ball Lightning and even sandy ground pipes called fulgurites, as the result of x-ray lightning bolt linear heating and splitting or evaporation, often found in large numbers at sandy beaches. Fulgurites according to Quantum FFF Theory, are assumed to be the result of the splitting and evaporation of smallest form of “electric dark matter black hole” or rigid string based quantum knots. nuclei.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1342] viXra:1805.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-14 14:57:54

Classical Physics Derived from the Space-Time Entropy of Quantum Fields

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 4 Pages.

We show that the statistical physics treatment of an arbitrary space-time entropy exactly reproduces most of the classical physics missing from quantum field theory; inertia, general relativity, dark energy and the arrow of time. The laws are recovered in the thermodynamic limit (as entropic laws) instead of in the usual classical limit (h → 0).
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1341] viXra:1805.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-14 02:46:24

Maxwell Equations in Theory of Emergent Space-Time-Matter (In Russian)

Authors: Andrey N. Smirnov
Comments: 3 Pages.

Maxwell's equations are obtained within the framework of the model of the theory of emergent space-time-matter.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1340] viXra:1805.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-09 13:38:18

Knots, Energy and Loop Gravity

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 2 Pages.

Loop quantum gravity, topological particle and knots
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1339] viXra:1805.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-09 16:04:13

Einstein’s wrong way: from STR to GTR

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 150 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

“Starting from STR, it is not possible to find a Quantum Gravity theory” Adrian Ferent “Einstein was on the wrong way: from STR to GTR” Adrian Ferent “Starting from STR, Einstein was not able to explain Gravitation” Adrian Ferent “Starting from STR, Einstein was not able to explain Gravitation, he calculated Gravitation” Adrian Ferent “Einstein's equivalence principle is wrong because the gravitational force experienced locally is caused by a negative energy, gravitons energy and the force experienced by an observer in a non-inertial (accelerated) frame of reference is caused by a positive energy.” Adrian Ferent “Because Einstein's equivalence principle is wrong, Einstein’s gravitation theory is wrong.” Adrian Ferent “Because Einstein’s gravitation theory is wrong, LQG, String theory…are wrong theories” Adrian Ferent “Einstein bent the space, Ferent unbent the space” Adrian Ferent “Einstein bent the time, Ferent unbent the time” Adrian Ferent “I am the first who Quantized the Gravitational Field!” Adrian Ferent “I quantized the gravitational field with gravitons” Adrian Ferent “Gravitational field is a discrete function” Adrian Ferent “Gravitational waves are carried by gravitons” Adrian Ferent In STR and GTR there are continuous functions. This is another proof that LIGO is a fraud. The 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics has been awarded for a project, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) not for a scientific discovery; they did not detect anything because Einstein’s gravitational waves do not exist. The same fraud was in 2013 with the Higgs Boson, the so-called “God particle”. They obtained Higgs bosons as a pairs of photons with a combined energy of 750 gigaelectronvolts. After they received the Nobel Prize there are not anymore gravitational waves in the universe. “Einstein’s gravitational waves do not exist, how they can detect them?” Adrian Ferent As a consequence of Einstein wrong gravitation theory, the physicists explained how they can travel trough a black hole, trough a wormhole. Alice and Bob thought experiments: Alice jumps into a very large black hole, leaving Bob outside the event horizon. Physicists have assumed that Alice won’t notice anything unusual as she crosses the event horizon. Gerard 't Hooft and Leonard Susskind are wrong regarding Alice and Bob thought experiments, because the Gravitons will break the atoms of Alice and Bob, before they get to the event horizon. You learned from your professors, from your books about the temperature of Black Holes! “Because Black Holes are Dark Matter, Black Holes do not have temperature” Adrian Ferent Gerard 't Hooft and Leonard Susskind are wrong because Information is lost in black holes. That is why: “The holographic principle is wrong” Adrian Ferent “My Quantum Gravity theory explains that the Event Horizon is made of Gravitons” Adrian Ferent That is why the informational content of all the objects that have fallen into the black hole is not contained in surface fluctuations of the event horizon. “Einstein started from Special Theory of Relativity to explain Gravitation and he discovered a wrong gravitation theory the General Theory of Relativity.” Adrian Ferent
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1338] viXra:1805.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-09 21:22:19

The Mind of God: An Observationally Verifiable Quantum Theory of Gravity that Defines Black Holes, Explains Dark Matter, Predicts Dark Energy, and Establishes the Big Bang

Authors: Andrew Cox
Comments: 13 Pages.

If space is quantized on a compactified fourth spatial dimension as outlined in Kaluza-Klein theory -- with the extreme curvature of the fourth spatial dimension causing the 'effect' of gravity -- but we experience three-dimensional (inverse-square) gravity, then the fourth spatial dimension must operate as one stand-alone spatial dimension. In one spatial dimension, quantum gravity is the same (effectively 100%) whether two objects are together or apart. This deductive quantum theory of relativity can then be projected to: (1) define black holes as wormholes into the fourth spatial dimension; (2) explain dark matter as photons which traveled through black holes and into the fourth spatial dimension; (3) predict dark energy to be the warping of the fourth spatial dimension in the presence of dark matter photons; and (4) establish the big bang as the beginning of three flat spatial dimensions in a cyclic universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1337] viXra:1805.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-06 12:43:33

Sunqm-3: Solving Schrodinger Equation for Solar Quantum Mechanics {N,n} Structure

Authors: Yi Cao
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this paper, Schrodinger equation is established for the non-spin Solar QM {N,n} structure model. Solving the Schrodinger equation gives the orbit energy En = -3.81E+11 *(m / n^2), where m is the orbital moving object's mass (in kg), and n is the total n of the orbit using Sun core {0,1} as r1. Combining r^2*|R(nl)|^2 to the deduced Sun's interior mass density formula D = 1.26E+23 / r^2.33, a plot of {N,n} QM calculated (that is close to the true) mass density vs. r (within Sun ball {0,2}) has been made.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1336] viXra:1805.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-07 17:14:10

Sunqm-2: Expanding QM from Micro-World to Macro-World: General Planck Constant, H-C Unit, H-Quasi-Constant, and the Meaning of QM

Authors: Yi Cao
Comments: 17 Pages.

A general form of Planck constant has been discovered as h(general) = h(m/m'), where m is the mass of object we are studying (like electron, Earth, etc.), and m' is part of the scaling factor that scales h up or down. Although it is suitable for both micro- and macro- world's QM, as well as the EM- and G-forced QM, h(general) is not constant at all. h(general) is a variable unit (named H-C unit), which make us able to use the same QM formula for hydrogen atom to calculate the orbit movement for all kinds of attractive central-force system. The orbital energy can be written as E(n-orbit) = -Hmf(n-orbit) , where H=h/m' is a quasi constant (for all objects on all different orbits with same r1, and for both G-force and EM-force simultaneously). A new concept of high-frequency multiplier quantum number n' has been proposed. A new concept of RF (rotation diffusion, or rotafusion) has been proposed. It is the complete randomization of unit vector L/|L| at n=1 ground state. A new concept of interior {N,n} QM analysis has been proposed.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1335] viXra:1805.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-06 00:02:56

Sunqm-1s3: Applying {N,n} QM Structure Analysis to Planets Using Exterior and Interior {N,n} QM

Authors: Yi Cao
Comments: 18 Pages.

The Solar QM {N,n//6} model is so successful in describing the QM of Sun-planet system, that inevitably it has to be able to describe the QM of planet-moon system. In this paper, I used {N,n} QM model to analyze all eight planets. The result revealed that Jupiter has a p{N,n//5} QM structure, Earth has a p{N,n//2} QM structure. Neptune possibly has a p{N,n//2} or p{N,n//4} QM structure, Saturn possibly has a mixture of p{N,n//2} and p{N,n//3} QM structure. The rest planets have no clear p{N,n} QM structure. Through a global data analysis, I discovered that all eight planets were originally formed in p{N,n//2} QM structure, with an atmosphere at p{1,1//2}, a Earth-sized core at p{0,1//2}, and a inner core at p{-1,1//2}. Then after the (hydrogen fusion generated) ice-evap-line expanded and passed {1,6}, all {1,n=3..6}o orbit planets' p{1,1//2} atmosphere mass was stripped off (like the current Earth), and even part of Earth-sized core was stripped off (like the current Mars). Jupiter captured most part of the stripped off mass (which grew its mass from originally 10% to today's 100%) and transformed its p{N,n} from p{N,1//2} to today's p{N,n//5}. Saturn captured small part of the stripped off mass (which grew its mass from originally 20% to today's 100%) and transformed its p{N,n} from p{N,1//2} to today's mixture of p{N,1//2} and p{N,n//3}. Among eight planets, only Uranus and Neptune still keep the original p{N,1//2} QM structure with almost intact p{1,1//2} atmosphere, p{0,1//2} Earth-sized core, and p{-1,1//2} inner core. The limitation of p{N,n} QM analysis for meter-sized objects has been discussed.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1334] viXra:1805.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-04 13:34:08

Sunqm-1s2: Comparing to Other Star-Planet Systems, Our Solar System Has a Nearly Perfect {N,n//6} QM Structure

Authors: Yi Cao
Comments: 12 Pages.

The Solar QM {N,n//6} structure has been successful not only for modeling the Solar system from Sun core to Oort cloud, but also in matching the size of white dwarf, neutron star and even black hole. In this paper, I have used this model to further scan down (and up) in our world. It is interesting to find that on the small end, the r(s) of hydrogen atom, proton and quark match {-12,1}, {-15,1} and {-17,1} respectively. On the large end, our Milky way galaxy, the Virgo super cluster have their r(s) match {8,1}, and {10,1} respectively. In a second estimation, some elementary particles like electron, up quark, down quark, … may have their {N,n} QM structures match {-17,1}, {-17,2}, {-17,3} … respectively. In a third estimation, the r(s) of super-massive black hole of Andromeda galaxy and Milky way galaxy match {2,1} and {1,1} respectively. However, so far the Solar QM {N,n} structure has not been re-produced in other exoplanetary systems (like TRAPPIST-1, HD 10180, Kepler-90, Kelper-11, 55-Cacri). So I propose that our Sun was formed from a single large seed (with size of Jupiter or even a red dwarf) and so that it has the almost perfect {N,n} QM structure. Therefore it reflects the true G-force (and F4-degenerated-force) formed QM in our universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1333] viXra:1805.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-04 14:27:15

Sunqm-1s1: the Dynamics of the Quantum Collapse (And Quantum Expansion) of Solar QM {N,n} Structure

Authors: Yi Cao
Comments: 21 Pages.

In this paper I study the evolution and dynamics of the Solar QM {N,n} structure. After discovered the Solar QM {N,n} structure, I immediately realized that the formation of our current Solar system was through a series of quantum collapse of pre-Sun ball's N super-shell from {6,1} to {0,1}. However, it took me quite a while to figure out what is the driving force for the quantized collapse: the collapse of {N,n=1..5}o super-shell increases the thermal pressure of {N-1,n=1..5}o super-shell and prevent it from immediate collapse. Then after some time the heat (and mass) losing in {N-1,n=1..5}o super-shell decreased its thermal pressure and trigged a new round of collapse. A switch from the cold-G r-track for N=4 and 3 super-shells to the hot-G r-track for N=1 and 0 super-shells caused a 26% of r length increase. This r-track change revealed that the Hydrogen fusion started right after {2,1}RF pre-Sun ball had formed. (The Hydrogen fusion's heat formed) ice-evap-line expended and passed Mars orbit {1,6}, and evaporated all ice mass within {1,6}RF ball and excited them to orbit {2,2}o and {2,3}o orbits. Therefore it formed the extraordinary large (ice) mass of Jupiter, and very large mass of Saturn. The original mass density as the function of r has been modeled out as D = 4.37E+28 / r^3.279 (kg/m^3). From it, I estimated that the original (ice) mass of Venus, Earth, Mars were 34x, 25x, 19x of the current Earth's mass. The original mass of Jupiter was only 10% of current one. So 90% of Jupiter's current (ice) mass was obtained from the original Venus, Earth, and Mars's orbit shells! The same model also predicted that the four undiscovered {3,n=2..5}o planets/belts will have mass around 12x, 7x, 5x, and 3x of Earth's mass. Asteroid belt is assigned to be at {1,8}o orbit. It is also interesting to see that the mass QM {N,n} structure collapse is accompanied by a heat QM {N,n} structure expansion in the Solar QM {N,n} structure dynamics.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1332] viXra:1805.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-03 17:55:50

Sunqm-1: Quantum Mechanics of the Solar System in a {N,n//6} QM Structure

Authors: Yi Cao
Comments: 16 Pages.

We all know that the QM is only for micro-world, not for macro-world. Not anymore! Finally, I find a way to extend Bohr's atom model (which was inspired by the Solar system structure) to our Solar system structure. In this paper, I present that how I decoded the quantum mechanics for our Solar system by introduce a {N,n//6} QM structure model. In the newly established Solar QM {N,n} structure, Sun core has a size of {0,1}, Sun surface has a size of {0,2}, Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars are at {1,n=3..6}o orbits. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Kuiper belt are at {2,n=2..6}o orbits. Oort cloud is at {4,n=1..5}o orbits. There are four undiscovered planets/belts at orbits of {3,n=2..5}o. More interestingly, white dwarf, neutron star, and black hole are assigned to {-1,1}, {-3,2} and {-3,1} in the same model. From these results, I constructed a Solar QM {N,n} structure periodic table (similar as the chemical element’s periodic table). A Solar QM {N,n} structure periodic plot is also presented here which shows some more detailed (and visualized) information.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1331] viXra:1805.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-02 17:53:23

Sunqm-3s1: Using 1st Order Spin-Perturbation to Solve Schrodinger Equation for NLL Effect and Pre-Sun Ball's Disk-Lyzation

Authors: Yi Cao
Comments: 26 Pages.

Schrodinger equation has been established and solved for the non-spin Solar QM {N,n} structure model in paper SunQM-3. In current paper, the 1st order spin-perturbation problem has been solved for the spinning Sun's {N,n} QM structure. The result shows that the spin-perturbation causes nLL orbit to have the lowest orbit energy (or highest probability density), and it is named as "nLL effect". This study suggests that the nLL effect is the driving force for the Sun's (and all other celestial bodies') flattening, disk-lyzation, ring formation. It is mass occupancy that determines whether the outer shell of a pre-Sun ball goes to flattening or disk-lyzation. The nL0 effect (which is the companion effect of nLL effect) is the driving force for the bipolar outflow and astronomic jet. Additionally, a central G-force caused spherical spin frame theory is established, and our Sun's reference-spin-frame model is expected to be ω(n-spin) = ω(1-spin) / n^x, with x≈3.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1330] viXra:1805.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-03 01:28:34

Developments of the Extended Relativity Theory in Clifford Spaces

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 85 Pages.

A brief tour of the developments of the Extended Relativity Theory in Clifford Spaces ($C$-space) is presented. These include : (i) Novel physical consequences like generalized dispersion relations, energy-dependent speed of light propagation, extended Lorentz transformations, relative locality, generalized Weyl-Heisenberg algebra and uncertainty relations, tensionless branes, superluminality, generalized velocities. (ii) Generalized areal, volume, $\cdots$ metrics and gravitational field equations in $C$-space. (iii) A unified description of particles, strings and branes. (iv) Clifford gravity based cosmology and dark energy. (v) Moyal deformations of Clifford gauge theories of gravity. (vi) N-ary algebras. We conclude with a brief discussion on symplectic Clifford algebras and generalized geometries.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1329] viXra:1805.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-01 17:20:29

Sunqm-3s3: Using QM Calculation to Explain the Atmosphere Band Pattern on Jupiter (And Earth, Saturn, Sun)'s Surface

Authors: Yi Cao
Comments: 16 Pages.

Using p{N,n} QM model with QM induced mass peaking/depleting effect, plus the spin frame of ω(n-spin) ≈ ω(1-spin) / n^3, plus the multiplier n', I successfully explained the origin of Jupiter surface cloud bands as the |544> zonal bands embedded in the background |400> belt bands. We can even calculate out how deep the convection starts below the atmosphere surface. The Earth's atmospheric circulation is also caused by the same QM peaking/depleting effect of |211> state on top (not embedded) of |100> state, which generates a major upwelling band at equator and two minor upwelling bands at ±60° latitude, and two down welling bands at ≈ ±35° latitude. The same QM theory is applicable to all other planets' atmosphere, even for the Sun's surface atmosphere.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1328] viXra:1804.0491 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-30 22:29:38

Sunqm-3s2: Using {N,n} QM Model to Calculate Out the Snapshot Pictures of a Gradually Disk-Lyzing Pre-Sun Ball

Authors: Yi Cao
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper, by using {N,n} QM structure model, combining with Schrodinger equation solution, and the first order spin-perturbation solution, and the multiplier n' theory, I calculated out the ring thickness vs. orbit-r curve for a gradually disk-lyzing pre-Sun ball. From it, I constructed a series of snapshot pictures of pre-Sun disks. I also developed a very useful new rule for {N,n} QM structure: all mass between r(n) and r(n+1) belong to orbit n.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1327] viXra:1804.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-26 07:11:44

Refutation of Heyting Logic© Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

As claimed in quantum physics papers, objects in the lattice-vectors of Heyting algebra are not idempotent. Consequently, Heyting logic is not bivalent, and hence refuted.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1326] viXra:1804.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-24 17:29:51

Idempotnts in Motivic Quantum Gravity

Authors: M. D. Sheppeard
Comments: 9 Pages.

The quantization of rest mass is governed by strictly discrete data, in principle coming from the combinatorics of a universal category of motives. We outline the essential ingredients from a categorical perspective, giving a context for the Koide mass operators.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1325] viXra:1804.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-21 14:40:18

Refutation of the Clausius-Clapeyron Equation for Spatial Dimension © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

The Clausius-Clapeyron equation as implemented is not confirmed as tautologous.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1324] viXra:1804.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-20 16:28:14

A New Type of Phase Transition Based on the Clausius-Clapeyron Relation Involving a Change in Spatial Dimension

Authors: Christopher Pilot
Comments: 19 Pages.

Using a space filled with radiation, we derive a generalization for the Clausius-Clapeyron relation to account for a phase transition, which involves a change in spatial dimension. We consider phase transitions from dimension of space, n, to dimension of space, (n-1), and vice versa, from (n-1) to n-dimensional space. For the former we can calculate a specific release of latent heat, a decrease in entropy and a change in volume; for the latter we derive an expression for the absorption of heat, the increase in entropy, and the difference in volume. Total energy is conserved in this transformation process. We apply this model to radiation in the early universe and find that for a transition from n = 4 to (n-1) = 3, there is an immense decrease in entropy accompanied by a tremendous change in volume, much like condensation. However, unlike condensation, this volume change is not three-dimensional. The volume changes from V4, a four-dimensional construct, to V3, a three-dimensional entity, which can be considered a subspace of V4. As a specific example of how the equation works, we assume a transition temperature of 3*1027 degrees Kelvin, and assume, furthermore, that the latent heat release in three-dimensional space is 1.8*1094 Joules. We find that for this transition, the energy densities, the entropy densities, and the volumes assume the following values (photons only). In four-dimensional space, we obtain u4 = 1.15*10125 J m-4, s4 = 4.81*1097 J m-4 K-1, and V4 = 2.14*10-31 m4. In three-dimensional space, we have u3 = 6.13*1094 J m-3, s3 = 2.72*1067 J m-3 K-1, and V3 = .267 m3. The subscripts 3 and 4 refer to three-dimensional and four-dimensional quantities, respectively. We speculate, based on the tremendous change in volume, the explosive release of latent heat, and the magnitudes of the other quantities calculated, that this type of transition might have a connection to inflation. With this work, we prove that space, in and of itself, has an energy content and vice versa, that energy is equivalent to space. This is so because giving up space releases latent heat, and buying space costs latent heat, which we can quantify. This is in addition to the energy contained within that space due to radiation. We can determine the specific amount of heat exchanged in transitioning between different spatial dimensions with our generalized Clausius-Clapeyron equation.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1323] viXra:1804.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-16 03:01:38

Black Holes are Dark Matter

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 133 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

Black Holes are Dark Matter. Information is lost in Black Holes. “Black Holes are Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Information is lost in black holes” Adrian Ferent “Our universe will die; Gravitons will change Matter in Dark Matter, inside the Black Holes” Adrian Ferent How Matter is change in Dark Matter by Gravitons: Ferent equation for photon – graviton interaction, photon absorption by a Black Hole: E = h × f + a × f + a × ν where a × ν is the negative energy of the graviton ν is the frequency of the interaction graviton. I calculated: the graviton’s energy emitted by black holes is higher than: E = 4.14559 × 105 GeV After n interactions the energy of the photon is: where f is the initial frequency of the photon. Because graviton’s frequency νk > fk the energy E of the photon is higher after each photon-graviton interaction, this means photon’s frequency is much higher and this is the process how Matter is change in Dark Matter inside a Black Hole. “Gravitons change Matter in Dark Matter, inside a Black Hole” Adrian Ferent That is why: “Information is lost in Black Holes” Adrian Ferent “Black holes are Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Black holes are Ferent Matter” Adrian Ferent This is another proof that my Gravitation theory is right. Wrong things what you learned about Black Holes, because Gravitons are not present in Einstein’s wrong Gravitation theory! That is why in my view Gerard 't Hooft, Leonard Susskind, Stephen Hawking, Jacob Bekenstein… are wrong regarding Black Holes: Bekenstein and Hawking conjectured that the black hole entropy is directly proportional to the area of the event horizon divided by the Planck area. From the entropy it is possible to use the usual thermodynamic relations to calculate the temperature of black holes. The entropy measures how many such squares, whose side is a Planck length, are there on the surface of a black hole. From here Gerard 't Hooft and Leonard Susskind suggested that the information is in fact preserved and is stored on the boundary of a system. After the “The Black Hole War” Gerard 't Hooft, Stephen Hawking and Leonard Susskind agreed that the information is not lost inside a black hole; Gerard 't Hooft and Leonard Susskind discovered the holographic principle, the informational content of all the objects that have fallen into the black hole is entirely contained in surface fluctuations of the event horizon. They considered a photon falling in a black hole, that will increase the black hole entropy and surface area; the black hole’s mass increases and the photon information is stored on the event horizon. Alice and Bob thought experiments: Alice jumps into a very large black hole, leaving Bob outside the event horizon. Physicists have assumed that Alice won’t notice anything unusual as she crosses the event horizon. Gerard 't Hooft and Leonard Susskind are wrong because Information is lost in black holes. That is why: “The holographic principle is wrong” Adrian Ferent “My Quantum Gravity theory explains that the Event Horizon is made of Gravitons” Adrian Ferent That is why the informational content of all the objects that have fallen into the black hole is not contained in surface fluctuations of the event horizon. What happens when we fall in a Black Hole? “When we fall in a Black Hole, the Gravitons will break our atoms before we get to the event horizon” Adrian Ferent That is why: Gerard 't Hooft and Leonard Susskind are wrong regarding Alice and Bob thought experiments, because the Gravitons will break the atoms of Alice and Bob, before they get to the event horizon. You learned from your professors, from your books about the temperature of Black Holes! “Because Black Holes are Dark Matter, Black Holes do not have temperature” Adrian Ferent “Black holes are Ferent Matter” Adrian Ferent “Ferent Matter is Dark Matter with the density greater than Planck density” Adrian Ferent I discovered that Black holes are Dark Matter, I discovered that the Information is lost in Black Holes, I discovered what is the Event Horizon, I explained that the holographic principle is wrong and I discovered what happens when we fall in a Black Hole. 51. I am the first who explained Gravitation 52. I am the first who discovered what happens when we fall in a Black Hole: the Gravitons will break our atoms before we get to the event horizon 53. I am the first who explained that the holographic principle is wrong 54. I am the first who discovered that Black holes are Dark Matter 55. I am the first who explained that Information is lost in black holes 56. I am the first who explained what is the event horizon: the Event Horizon is made of Gravitons 57. I am the first who explained that our universe will die; Gravitons will change Matter in Dark Matter, inside the Black Holes 58. I am the first who discovered that Gravitons change Matter in Dark Matter, inside a Black Hole 59. I am the first who discovered that Black Holes do not have temperature, because Black Holes are Dark Matter
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1322] viXra:1804.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-10 03:45:11

Extended Quantum Mechanic (Earth is Also the Quantum of Electromagnetic Field)

Authors: Mahesh Khati
Comments: 38 Pages.

Quantum mechanics can be applied to big masses also. This will solve many problems of modern physics like dark matter. This is the big problem of physics for so many years. This solves problem of dual nature of quantum like interference by single photon. This theory will start new relativity other than Einstein relativity which balances relativity of small particles & big masses by similar consideration. It is just found that some galaxies do not contain dark matter & some have abundant dark matter. Means, dark matter is real & different than known matter. This theory gives require explanation to this problem.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1321] viXra:1804.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-10 05:10:04

Emergent Pressure Gravity by Dipole Repeller Rigid String Pressure the Origin of Non Inertial Black Holes.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 29 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF Theory, stable Black Holes are growing by "eating" the gravitating ( Casimir) pressure vacuum without the standard gravity related inertial effects, the result is that 1: Small BHs seem to concentrate around the central giant Galaxy BH . 2: Galaxy cluster mergers like Abell 520 overshoot and leaving behind their own Dark Matter content. Mmass is the potency of rigid strings, to produce and radiate Gravitons to be produced by the collision process, between mass less ring shaped Axion Higgs vacuum field particles and Fermions or Bosons also called Dipole Repeller gravity or Emergent Gravity. More extended loops or "arms" of each rigid string particle is supposed to create more Axion transformation into Gravitons or other electromagnetic monopole photons per time unit. Secondly, gravitons are assumed to exert not an attraction force on fermions and bosons but only a reduced pressure force in opposition to the vacuum pressure of the Axion Higgs field.. So, Gravity can be described as the statistical difference between the collision pressure of “new” gravitons opposing the pressure of Axion Higgs field particles all around us. Emergent gravity as proposed by E.Verlinde and Dipole Rrepeller gravity by Yehuda Hoffman, are in line with this assumption. Non inertial black hole effects are the other side of the coin.. The ring shaped Axion Higgs field particles are supposed to oscillate in tandem (as the boxer engine pistons) along each vacuum lattice with the local Planck length and transfer information of monopole photons through the whole universe as long no fermion or boson comes too close. So if the new physics black hole nucleus is represented as a compact quantum knot then there is no graviton production supposed. As a consequence the incoming Axion Higgs field pressure is the only origin of the Gravity pressure effect around each black hole nucleus and the result of the Casimir absorption effect of the vacuum by the black hole nucleus. At the same time, gravitons are not leaving the black hole at all.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1320] viXra:1804.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-06 19:09:42

On a Quantum Theory of Relativity: Re-Defining the Fourth Spatial Dimension to Solve the Theory of Everything

Authors: Andrew Cox
Comments: 14 Pages.

If space is quantized on a compactified fourth spatial dimension as outlined in Kaluza-Klein theory -- with the extreme curvature of the fourth spatial dimension causing the 'effect' of gravity -- but we experience three-dimensional (inverse-square) gravity, then the fourth spatial dimension must operate as (4-3=) one stand-alone spatial dimension . In one spatial dimension, quantum gravity is the same (effectively 100%) whether two objects are together or apart. This quantum theory of relativity can then be projected to fully explain black hole mechanics, which solves dark matter, which predicts dark energy, which explains the big bang in a cyclic universe -- which completes the "theory of everything."
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1319] viXra:1804.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-06 21:37:22

The Structure of the String in Mathematical Principle of Nature Philosophy

Authors: D.h
Comments: 48 Pages.

If string theory unifies quantum mechanics and general relativity, the applicable objects of string theory should include microscopic particles and the macrocosm. The greater time span of the universe phenomenon, the more probability that phenomenon contains geometrical symbol that can show the string structure. By certain geometrical change rules of the space in nature philosophical theory, the article arise the solution to observe the string. In the article it build the structure mold in 2-D expression by projected high dimensions (three and above dimension). Compare the mold there is an obvious structure of B-mold polarization transfer and rotation in Cosmos Microwave Background radiation. It proofed the existence reality of the string in space geometry.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1318] viXra:1804.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-03 20:58:24

The Answer to the Universe, the Life and Everything is Still 42

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 7 Pages.

What is the Ultimate Answer to Life the Universe and Everything? According to the “Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy” an advanced race of beings invented a supercomputer called Deep Thought, which after 7.5 million years came up with the answer of 42. The real answer, to this question, could very well be related to 42. Sphere Theory is a theory where the universe is made of spheres, which are made of spheres etc. It is also a theory where perfection and imperfection are in competition, where perfect packing is cuboctahedron packing and imperfect packing is spheres packed around spheres. This imperfect packing always results in the imperfect amount of packing is nearly equal to the outer layer of spheres, which is likely related to the holographic principle. This paper shows that this spherical structure of nature is followed until the structure becomes a cuboctahedron with an outer layer of 42 spheres. The Hubble Sphere was found to have a surface area 1.0471*10^80 Planck spheres. The Planck Spheres were found to have a surface area of 6.57014*10^40 Kaluza spheres. This paper works to help explain where these quantities come from. We find that this Sphere Theory may be related to a Bremsstrahlung type of radiation and an Entangled Universe
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1317] viXra:1804.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-03 02:30:37

Proton Electron Universe

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 14 Pages.

I Abstract This paper shows that the force of charge and gravity can be modeled from a sphere, indicating granulated granular spacetime. Planck Spinning Spheres, (Planck) packed in a cuboctahedron structure, where many spheres are combined to produce the fabric of space. The Planck would be made of smaller Spheres called Kaluza Spinning Spheres (Kaluza). See images below for an example of a sphere made of spheres. The calculations, herein, imply spacetime to be discrete. Virtual Angular Momentum is transferred to the Continuous Discrete Spacetime that is activated by the appropriate environment. This discrete Virtual Angular Momentum is modeled by equations developed herein. The modeling equations between charge and gravity use the same spherical model. This model: proposes a new definition of the fine structure constant in section IV; proposes a proton charge radius in section V; gives meaning to some Planck dimensions in section VI; predictions can be made about approximate values for the age of the universe and or the size of the Hubble Sphere Universe (Hubble) in section VII; Proposes ideas that may be used to help prove the idea of “Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck and Kaluza and a cuboctahedron, vector equilibrium, sub-structure of the universe and relate to wrapped up dimensions in section VIII; The equations will explore the mystery of the constants of nature as did John D. Barrow.(5) Due to these predictions, that may be validated and/or refined in the future, this model may deserve further investigation. These calculations bring back the Dirac’s large number hypothesis (15) and relationships similar to the Koide formula. (16) Below are summarized the simplified equations modeling the Planck for charge and gravity constructed in section II and III. Charge appears to come from electron sized Charge. Gravity appears to come from Proton sized mass
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1316] viXra:1803.0743 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-31 10:12:39

The Quantum Bang Equations (part 2)

Authors: Patrick Tonin
Comments: 2 Pages.

Two more equations linking Temperature to Length and linking Charge to Mass and time.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1315] viXra:1803.0740 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-31 16:28:39

Planck Mass Measured Totally Independent of Big G Utilizing McCulloch-Heisenberg Newtonian Equivalent Gravity! Is Newton's Gravitational Constant a Composite Constant?

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 7 Pages.

In 2014, McCulloch showed, in a new and interesting way, how to derive a gravity theory from Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle that is equivalent to Newton gravity. McCulloch utilizes the Planck mass in his derivation and gets a gravitational constant of hc/m_p^2 . This is a composite constant, which is equivalent in value to Newton’s gravitational constant. However, McCulloch has pointed that his approach requires an assumption on the value of G, and that this involves some circular reasoning. This is in line with the view that the Planck mass is a derived constant from Newton’s gravitational constant, while big G is a universal fundamental constant. Here we will show that we can go straight from the McCulloch derivation to measuring the Planck mass without any knowledge of the gravitational constant. Therefore, from this perspective, there are no circular problems with his method. This means that we can measure the Planck mass totally independent of Newton’s gravitational constant, and shows that the McCulloch derivation is a theory of quantum gravity that stands on its own, with no need for input from Newton. This also strongly points towards the idea that Newton’s gravitational constant should be seen as a composite constant. Based on this perspective, for the first time since it was theoretically introduced 119 years ago, the Planck units can be measured completely independent of any knowledge of Newton’s gravitational constant. This could be an important step towards the development of a full theory of quantum gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1314] viXra:1803.0713 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-30 05:17:45

Holography and Twistor Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A team of researchers has now used the world's highest intensity neutron beamline facility, at J-PARC in central Japan, to push the limits of sensitivity for the study of gravitational force. [12] Two teams of researchers working independently of one another have come up with an experiment designed to prove that gravity and quantum mechanics can be reconciled. [11] Bose, Marletto and their colleagues believe their proposals constitute an improvement on Feynman's idea. They are based on testing whether the mass could be entangled with a second identical mass via the gravitational field. [10] THREE WEEKS AGO, upon sifting through the aftermath of their protonsmashing experiments, physicists working at the Large Hadron Collider reported an unusual bump in their signal: the signature of two photons simultaneously hitting a detector. Physicists identify particles by reading these signatures, which result from the decay of larger, unstable particles that form during high-energy collisions. It's how they discovered the Higgs boson back in 2012. But this time, they had no idea where the photons came from. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1313] viXra:1803.0692 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-28 05:51:24

Quantum Entanglement and Multi-Universe

Authors: Xin Jiang
Comments: 2 Pages.

Quantum entanglement in 2 dimensional world
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1312] viXra:1803.0674 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-26 09:03:48

Understanding Gravity on the Nanoscale

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

A team of researchers has now used the world's highest intensity neutron beamline facility, at J-PARC in central Japan, to push the limits of sensitivity for the study of gravitational force. [12] Two teams of researchers working independently of one another have come up with an experiment designed to prove that gravity and quantum mechanics can be reconciled. [11] Bose, Marletto and their colleagues believe their proposals constitute an improvement on Feynman's idea. They are based on testing whether the mass could be entangled with a second identical mass via the gravitational field. [10] THREE WEEKS AGO, upon sifting through the aftermath of their protonsmashing experiments, physicists working at the Large Hadron Collider reported an unusual bump in their signal: the signature of two photons simultaneously hitting a detector. Physicists identify particles by reading these signatures, which result from the decay of larger, unstable particles that form during high-energy collisions. It's how they discovered the Higgs boson back in 2012. But this time, they had no idea where the photons came from. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1311] viXra:1803.0660 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-27 07:35:36

A Short Note From Myself to Myself to Better Understand Hawking

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this short paper we look at the Hawking temperature from a Newtonian perspective as well as a General Relativity perspective. If we are considering the Hawking temperature, and simply replace the gravitational field input in his 1974 formula with that of Newton, we will get a Hawking temperature of half of that of the well-known Hawking temperature formula. This is very similar to the case where Newton’s theory predicts half the light bending that GR does. Based on recent theoretical research on Newton’s gravitational constant, we also rewrite the Hawking temperature to give a somewhat different perspective without changing the output of the formula, that makes some of the Hawking formulas more intuitive.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1310] viXra:1803.0642 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-24 17:48:58

Heisenberg Probabilistic Quantum Gravity that Holds at the Subatomic and the Macroscopic Scale

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 8 Pages.

Here we will present a probabilistic quantum gravity theory derived from Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. Surprisingly, this theory is fully deterministic when operating with masses that are exactly divisible by the Planck mass. For masses or mass parts less than one Planck mass, we find that probabilistic effects play an important role. Most macroscopic masses will have both a deterministic gravity part and a probabilistic gravity part. In 2014, McCulloch derived Newtonian gravity from Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. McCulloch himself pointed out that his theory only seems to hold as long as one operates with whole Planck masses. For those who have studied his interesting theory, there may seem to be a mystery around how a theory rooted in Heisenberg’s principle, which was developed to understand quantum uncertainty, can give rise to a Newtonian gravity theory that works at the cosmic scale (which is basically deterministic). However, the deeper investigation introduced here shows that the McCulloch method is very likely correct and can be extended to hold for masses that are not divisible by the Planck mass, a feature that we describe in more detail here. Our extended quantum gravity theory also points out, in general directions, how we can approach the set up of experiments to measure the gravitational constant more accurately.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1309] viXra:1803.0623 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-24 14:09:13

Symmetry Breaking Equivalence Principle

Authors: Thomas Neil Neubert
Comments: Pages.

The equivalence principle has been hypothesized as strong, weak , symmetric and so forth. Clear understanding of the equivalence principle is necessary to develop quantum gravity theory. This brief paper sheds light upon the conundrum of the equivalence principle and offers a Symmetry Breaking Equivalence Principle interpretation of the CERN AEGIS antihydrogen gravitational experiments.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1308] viXra:1803.0502 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 11:24:21

Demonstrating The Relationship Between Quantum Mechanics And Relativity

Authors: John R. Cipolla
Comments: 6 Pages.

This thought experiment is an attempt to unify Einstein's theory of general relativity, which governs gravitational fields around massive objects and quantum mechanics, or the wave nature of matter and energy. String theory postulates that electrons and quarks in atoms are one-dimensional oscillating line segments. The first elementary particle string models were called bosonic strings because only bosons or force carriers like photons; gluons and the Higgs particles were modeled. Later, superstring theory was developed that predicted a connection or "super-symmetry" between bosons and fermions where fermions are elementary particles like electrons, protons and quarks that compose all ordinary matter. This analysis assumes all massive objects can be modeled as heterotic or closed superstrings. Further, demonstrating the relationship between string theory and general relativity is simplified because general relativity approaches the Newtonian limit for small velocity. These results indicate string theory and general relativity are related.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1307] viXra:1803.0487 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 08:50:28

Dynamical Dark Energy and the Relativistic Bohm-Poisson Equation

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 17 Pages. Submitted to IJGMMP.

The $nonlinear$ Bohm-Poisson-Schroedinger equation is studied further. It has solutions leading to $repulsive$ gravitational behavior. An exact analytical expression for the observed vacuum energy density is obtained. Further results are provided which include two possible extensions of the Bohm-Poisson equation to the full relativistic regime. Two specific solutions to the novel Relativistic Bohm-Poisson equation (associated to a real scalar field) are provided encoding the repulsive nature of dark energy. One solution leads to an exact cancellation of the cosmological constant, but an expanding decelerating cosmos; while the other solution leads to a late-time exponential accelerated cosmos consistent with a late-time de Sitter phase, and whose extremely small cosmological constant is $ \Lambda = { 3 \over R_H^2}$, consistent with current observations. We conclude with some final remarks about Weyl's geometry.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1306] viXra:1803.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 10:57:03

The Quantum Bang Equation

Authors: Patrick Tonin
Comments: Pages.

It is hypothesised that the fundamental dimensions of Time, Length, Mass, Charge and Temperature are linked. To support this hypothesis, the Quantum Bang Equation is proposed. The equation is correct to 6 digits (which is the maximum given the relative uncertainty on the gravitational constant G)
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1305] viXra:1803.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 03:12:43

Discovery of an Interaction Constant, Variation of the Principal Constants, and Consequences for Cosmology

Authors: Terrence J. McMahon
Comments: 23 Pages. Note: This updates and extends 1701.0524, however both works contain sufficient differences to be separate articles. However, where there is conflict between the two papers, this research is to be preferred.

An ‘interaction constant’ with the irrational number phi is discovered, unifying Nature’s principal constants with gravity. This constant reveals an elegant symmetry permitting the universe to have change, while conserving principal parameter ratios. New relationships for principal constants are shown. Magnetic permeability and electric permittivity of free space, set by convention last century are found to have new values. This allows an exact value for the Planck constant, and a precise value for the elementary charge e to be obtained. Errors in current Planck units are discussed. A reevaluation of dimensional analysis introduces new dimensional units for G, ε, µ, gravity, the Coulomb constant and electric force. The fine-structure constant is found to have dimensions Hz. Pi and phi are found to have dimensions in some configurations. Energy variation causes most principal constants to run, while still adhering to this scale invariant, overall symmetry. Electromagnetic and gravitational forces also run, with gravity dominating at high energies as expected. Wavelength red-shifting occurs via dilation of space-time, attenuated by running of gravity and energy. Structural symmetry requires a new cosmic model where the universe has a constant form. Discussion of a toroidal cosmology introduces candidates for the Hubble and cosmological constants, and a mass-density parameter. These are found to have identical values to most recent Planck data. Standard Model anomalies become redundant. This study confirms and extends general relativity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1304] viXra:1803.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-17 07:05:12

Quantum Gravity Cannot Happen

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: 4 Pages.

There cannot be quantum gravity.
Although gravity and the other "forces" all work by the same means -- threads -- the situation and configurations are totally different.

Gravity: full length threads pulling atoms together...
~~~(●)~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~(●)~~~

Strong Force: protons ~~~●~~~ ~~~●~~~
with threads knotted together ~~~●●~~~
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1303] viXra:1803.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-12 08:20:46

Quantum Gravity Experiment

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Two teams of researchers working independently of one another have come up with an experiment designed to prove that gravity and quantum mechanics can be reconciled. [11] Bose, Marletto and their colleagues believe their proposals constitute an improvement on Feynman's idea. They are based on testing whether the mass could be entangled with a second identical mass via the gravitational field. [10] THREE WEEKS AGO, upon sifting through the aftermath of their protonsmashing experiments, physicists working at the Large Hadron Collider reported an unusual bump in their signal: the signature of two photons simultaneously hitting a detector. Physicists identify particles by reading these signatures, which result from the decay of larger, unstable particles that form during high-energy collisions. It's how they discovered the Higgs boson back in 2012. But this time, they had no idea where the photons came from. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1302] viXra:1803.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-09 07:21:36

Anthropic Principle as a Consequence of the Time Emergence

Authors: Andrey N. Smirnov
Comments: 7 Pages.

The paper considers the philosophical component of the approach to the time as an emergent phenomenon absent at the fundamental level. The anthropic principle is shown as arising from the time emergence. Consciousness is shown as an epiphenomenon in such a model, although it is more fundamental than matter in this case. An answer to the question about the prime cause is suggested.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1301] viXra:1803.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-09 07:25:16

Anthropic Principle as a Consequence of the Time Emergence (In Russian)

Authors: Andrey N. Smirnov
Comments: 7 Pages.

The paper considers the philosophical component of the approach to the time as an emergent phenomenon absent at the fundamental level. The anthropic principle is shown as arising from the time emergence. Consciousness is shown as an epiphenomenon in such a model, although it is more fundamental than matter in this case. An answer to the question about the prime cause is suggested.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1300] viXra:1803.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-09 08:29:16

Gravitation. My Discoveries

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 125 Pages. I discovered a new Gravitation theory which breaks the wall of Planck scale!

"The value of your brain is given by your discoveries" Adrian Ferent Couple of my discoveries: 1. I am the first who discovered a new quantum theory which breaks the wall of Planck 2. I am the first who Quantized the Gravitational Field 3. I am the first who explained what Black holes are: Black holes are Ferent matter 4. I am the first who discovered that the majority of dark matter is in the core of the supermassive black holes 5. I am the first who discovered another wall, the Ferent wall, beyond the Planck wall 6. I am the first who discovered Graviton energy: E = aν 7. I am the first who discovered that Gravitons are faster than light 8. I am the first who discovered that Gravitational waves are Gravitons 9. I am the first who explained that Einstein's equivalence principle is wrong 10. I am the first who explained in the last 100 years that Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity is wrong, because Einstein's equivalence principle is wrong 11. I am the first who explained that Gravitational field lines are gravitons 12. I am the first who replaced Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle with Ferent Uncertainty Principle 13. I am the first who discovered that String theory, LQG… are wrong theories, because it is wrong to Unify Einstein's Gravitation theory with Quantum Mechanics when Einstein's Gravitation theory is wrong 14. I am the first who discovered that Gravitational field is not continuous and differentiable function, how you learned from your professors in the last 200 years 15. I am the first who discovered that Dark Energy is Gravitons 16. I am the first who explained Gravitational Radiation 17. I am the first who discovered that Gravitons with highest energy are emitted by Black holes 18. I am the first who explained the lack of extraterrestrial civilizations 19. I am the first who calculated the Gravitons frequency emitted by a planet, by Earth: ν < 4.176×1056 Hz 20. I am the first who calculated the Gravitons energy emitted by a Black hole: E > 4.14559 × 105 GeV 21. I am the first who discovered that there are not extraterrestrial civilizations in the center of our galaxy 22. I am the first who explained that the Earth attracts with greater force the Moon, than the Moon attracts the Earth 23. I am the first who explained how to understand Gravity in the frame of quantum mechanics 24. I am the first who discovered that Gravitons kill people 25. I am the first who explained the Gravitational redshift with Gravitons 26. I am the first who explained the Gravitational lensing with Gravitons 27. I am the first who discovered the equation for photon – graviton interaction: E = h × f + a × f - a × ν 28. I am the first who explained that the momentum of the graviton is negative: p = - m × v 29. I am the first who explained that Mass does not bend space 30. I am the first who explained that Mass does not bend time 31. I am the first who explained that Gravitational time dilation is caused by negative momentum, negative energy 32. I am the first who calculated the speed of the Gravitons: va = 1.001762 ×1017 m/s 33. I am the first who discovered that it is not possible to have a Big Bounce from the Planck scale 34. I am the first who discovered that Gravitons kill aliens 35. I am the first who discovered that Gravitational field is Gravitons 36. I am the first who discovered that Gravitational force is mediated by gravitons faster than the speed of light, with negative momentum 37. I am the first in the last 100 years who explained that Einstein's Gravitation theory is wrong and Einstein's Gravitational waves do not exist 38. I am the first who explained the power density and the graviton flux 39. I am the first who discovered the force function for finite speed of the gravitons, the Ferent gravitational force function 40. I am the first who discovered that a black hole attracts with greater force a planet, than the planet attracts the black hole 41. I am the first who explained that Newton's third law is wrong 42. I am the first who discovered that the Gravitational waves have their energy contained in gravitons 43. I am the first who explained Gravitation with high speed gravitons v = 1.001762 × 1017 m/s, with Negative Momentum, Negative Relativistic Mass and Negative Energy 44. I am the first who discovered that Gravitons must be Faster than Light (FTL) 45. I am the first who discovered the Ferent length, much smaller than the Planck length 46. I am the first who discovered the Ferent frequency much higher than the Planck frequency 47. I am the first who discovered because Gravitational Radiation is the most penetrating radiation, cancer can start almost anywhere in the human body 48. I am the first who discovered the equation for an elementary particle which emits a graviton: 49. I am the first who discovered the Ferent wave equation of the graviton: 50. I am the first who discovered: Quantum Gravity Theory (QGT) “Nobody in lectures say ‘I discovered these things’, that is why nobody understands what the contributions to the lecture by the speaker are!” Adrian Ferent “Your quotations are the CV of your wisdom” Adrian Ferent “I discovered a new Gravitation theory, a new Evolution theory and Transdisciplinarity equations!” Adrian Ferent
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1299] viXra:1803.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-07 11:25:32

Skyrmion Interference Black Holes, Photonic Molecules, Ball Lightning, Micro Comets, Sprite-Fireballs and Sunspots According to Quantum FFF Theory.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 23 Pages.

FUNCTION FOLLOWS FORM in Quantum FFF THEORY. The FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Axion- Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a NEW splitting, accelerating and pairing MASSLESS BLACK HOLE, able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease, seems to be able to explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, down to Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprites and Elves, Sprite Fireballs and Skyrmion based Ball Lightning. I assume that the largest Skyrmion Interference black holes are produced at star surfaces by Solar Flares and other electric discharge phenomena around Stellar Anchor Black Holes. Recently the NASA-SOHO satellite photos showed clear evidence of multiple hotspots created at the solar surface. I assume that the majority of the hotspots can be compared with Micro Comet- or fireball phenomena related to Sprite interference micro black hole phenomena..
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1298] viXra:1803.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-05 17:28:31

A Modified Newtonian Quantum Gravity Theory Derived from Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle that Predicts the Same Bending of Light as GR

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 6 Pages.

Mike McCulloch has derived Newton's gravity from Heisenberg's uncertainty principle in a very interesting way that we think makes great sense. In our view, it also shows that gravity, even at the cosmic (macroscopic) scale, is related to the Planck scale. Inspired by McCulloch, in this paper we are using his approach to the derivation to take another step forward and show that the gravitational constant is not always the same, depending on whether we are dealing with light and matter, or matter against matter. Based on certain key concepts of the photon, combined with Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, we get a gravitational constant that is twice that of Newton's when we are working with gravity between matter and light, and we get the (normal) Newtonian gravitational constant when we are working with matter against matter. This leads to a very simple theory of quantum gravity that gives the correct prediction on bending of light, i.e. the same as the General Relativity theory does, which is a value twice that of Newton's prediction. One of the main reasons the theory of GR has surpassed Newton's theory of gravitation is because Newton's theory predicts a bending of light that is not consistent with experiments.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1297] viXra:1803.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-06 00:50:19

Einstein's Missing Steps in E=mc2 and His Missing Link to Quantum Gravity

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 24 Pages.

E=mc2, General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics are the major themes of this article. Throughout the article, a few equations show the missing steps in E=mc2. These steps could not be included in the original equation because that was developed before things like superconductivity and wave-particle duality were discovered. Of course, things would be different if Einstein knew how to access Quantum Gravity or the Unified Field Theory he spent his last 30 years working on. A complete unified theory that includes everything in space-time (time is emphasized here) has practical applications. It gives us some understanding of the laws that govern the universe* - including the unknown (when E=mc2 was published in 1905) laws of superconductivity and wave-particle duality. The article starts with John Bardeen's comment that "The idea of paired electrons, though not fully accurate, captures the sense of it." He's referring to the mechanism by which superconductivity works (he shared in the 1972 Nobel Prize for Physics for this). That topic goes beyond paired electrons with wave-particle duality (which includes electromagnetic waves but also the paired electrons). The subsection on superconductivity ends with explanation of planetary magnetism and accounting for the electric fields of the planets. *Mathematical and non-mathematical expression of that understanding can both contribute to knowledge. The progress of science does not depend on writing in a certain fashion, but on presenting insights clearly and in an extremely thorough and careful way. We might allow ourselves to think knowledge can only advance through the jargon and maths this tiny bit of history we live in calls scholarly writing. But then we merely validate what German physicist Max Planck (1858-1947) said: “A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it.” ― Max Planck, "Scientific Autobiography and Other Papers" From there, it goes on to quantum-macroscopic union and speaks of gravitational / electromagnetic waves sharing properties with water waves. This leads to new interpretation of the motions of photons and gravitons (this is a new interpretation of John Wheeler's geon or "gravitational electromagnetic entity", an electromagnetic or gravitational wave which is held together in a confined region by its own nature). Such new motion deletes the concepts of universal expansion, dark energy and dark matter. Then a paper published by Albert Einstein in 1919 is mentioned which is titled "Do gravitational fields play an essential role in the structure of elementary particles?" (Prof. Wheeler's speculation that there's a relationship between geons and elementary particles supports this). Soon after the final formulation of general relativity, Einstein pointed out the need for a quantum modification of the theory. In later years, Einstein hoped a unified theory of electromagnetic and gravitational fields would explain the quantization of matter and energy. Both approaches appear valid. This article proposes that (1) the Wheeler–Feynman absorber theory and the Transactional Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics (TIQM) modify electromagnetic and gravitational waves to produce quantum modification, and (2) that electromagnetic and gravitational fields would be unified in the sense that the waves composing each field would possess both "retarded" and "advanced" components. The forwards and backwards movement can cancel to produce a quantum entanglement, and thus quantization. The result of this modification might well be modification of understanding of the strong and weak nuclear forces, as well as of the Higgs field. And if the ideas of TIQM-advanced/retarded waves should lead to someone developing a viable, formal theory of quantum gravity; that theory could test the idea of a relationship between geons and elementary particles. Headings have been added which outline the basics of (a) the Higgs-gravity relation (even though such an idea is supposed to be completely wrong) and (b) how, using quantum spin of the photon and graviton, both the Higgs boson and matter particles can be produced (the basic ideas behind production of the photons and gravitons themselves in a lab is explained, too). I've read that it is very hard to write down logically sound theories. My literal mind interprets this to mean mathematics is almost always essential. My mind also interprets it as a challenge – write down the science of spin interaction using plain English, with maths no more complex than 1 divided by a half.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1296] viXra:1803.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-04 10:27:13

Interactions in Theory of Emergent Space-Time-Matter (In Russian)

Authors: Andrey N. Smirnov
Comments: 9 Pages.

The accelerated motion of particles is considered. It is shown that the accelerated motion of particles can lead to the emission of other particles. An explanation of the nature of the electric charge is proposed. It is shown that the functions of elementary particles form, with the accuracy specified in the article, the complete basis of the expansion for the scalar field of the Metauniverse. Based on the consideration of the interaction of two particles, it is found why virtual particles appear and what properties they possess. It is shown why and how renormalization works in quantum field theory. It is shown that in the ESTM theory there are no ultraviolet and infrared divergences. A division into the main particles that form matter and particles-carriers of interactions added for the completeness of the basis is introduced.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1295] viXra:1802.0440 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-28 12:25:33

Gravitational Interaction Between Photons

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 3 Pages.

Recently, it has been reported an experiment where a very weak laser beam passes through a dense cloud of ultracold rubidium atoms. Under these circumstances, it was observed that the photons bound together in pairs or triplets, suggesting an unexpected attractive interaction between them. Here, it is shown that mentioned interaction can be related to the gravitational interaction.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1294] viXra:1802.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-21 22:20:41

Using “Enhanced Quantization” to Bound the Cosmological Constant, (For a Bound-on Graviton Mass), by Comparing Two Action Integrals(one Being from General Relativity) at the Start of Inflation

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 10 Pages. For possible inclusion into FFP 15, pending acceptance by Jesus Cancier, of Alicante, Spain, and the FFP 15 committee

We are looking at comparison of two action integrals and we identify the Lagrangian multiplier as setting up a constraint equation (on cosmological expansion). This is a direct result of the fourth equation of our manuscript which unconventionally compares the action integral of General relativity with the second derived action integral, which then permits equation 5, which is a bound on the Cosmological constant. What we have done is to replace the Hamber Quantum gravity reference-based action integral with a result from John Klauder’s “Enhanced Quantization” . In doing so, with Padamabhan’s treatment of the inflaton, we then initiate an explicit bound upon the cosmological constant. The other approximation is to use the inflaton results and conflate them with John Klauder’s Action principle for a way to, if we have the idea of a potential well, generalized by Klauder, with a wall of space time in the Pre Planckian-regime to ask what bounds the Cosmological constant prior to inflation. And, get an upper bound on the mass of a graviton. We conclude with a redo of a multiverse version of the Penrose cyclic conformal cosmology to show how this mass of a heavy graviton is consistent from cycle to cycle. All this is possible due to equation 4. And we compare all this with results of reference [1] in the conclusion.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1293] viXra:1802.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-19 23:24:29

Using Klauder’s Enhanced Quantization for a Bound to the Cosmological Constant, to Obtain a Nonzero Graviton Mass, in the Early Universe, and Generation of (Heavy) Gravity Which is Consistent from Cycle to Cycle.

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 7 Pages. for possible submission to Marcel Grossman 15, as an entry

We are looking at comparison of two action integrals and we identify the Lagrangian multiplier as setting up a constraint equation (on cosmological expansion). What we have done is to replace the Hamber Quantum gravity reference-based action integral with a result from John Klauder’s “Enhanced Quantization” . In doing so, with Padamabhan’s treatment of the inflaton, we then initiate an explicit bound upon the cosmological constant. The other approximation is to use the inflaton results and conflate them with John Klauder’s Action principle for a way to, if we have the idea of a potential well, generalized by Klauder, with a wall of space time in the Pre Planckian-regime to ask what bounds the Cosmological constant prior to inflation. And, get an upper bound on the mass of a graviton. We conclude with a re do of a multiverse version of the Penrose cyclic conformal cosmology to ascertain how this mass of a heavy graviton is consistent from cycle to cycle.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1292] viXra:1802.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-14 07:35:29

A Simple Newtonian Quantum Gravity Theory That Predicts the Same Light Bending as GR

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 12 Pages.

In this paper we propose a new and simple theory of quantum gravity, inspired by Newton, that gives the same prediction of light bending as Einstein's theory of general relativity. This new quantum gravity theory also predicts that non-light beams, that is to say beams of particles with rest-mass, such as electron beams, will only have half the bending of light as GR. In other words, this theory is testable. Based on this theory, we will suggest that it is a property of light that makes it bend twice as much as that amount of bending that is predicted by the Newtonian theory. This quantum gravity theory may also predict that the gravity force should be equal to the strong force when we are working at distances within the nucleus. We are also suggesting a minor adjustment to the Newtonian gravitational acceleration field that renders that field always equal to the Planck acceleration at the Schwarzschild radius, and the same as predicted by Newton when we are dealing with weak gravitational fields. This stands in contrast to GR, which predicts an infinitely strong gravitational field at the Schwarzschild radius. It also stands in contrast to standard Newtonian theory, which predicts a very weak gravitational acceleration field at the Schwarzschild radius for super massive objects.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1291] viXra:1802.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-10 16:41:03

Using Klauder’s Enhanced Quantization to Set a Bound to the Cosmological Constant, in Pre Planckian Space to Obtain a Bound on the Graviton Mass , in the Early Universe, and Generation of (Heavy) Gravity

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 5 Pages. “Essay written for the Gravity Research Foundation 2018 Awards for Essays on Gravitation.”, February 10, 2018

We are looking at comparison of two action integrals and we identify the Lagrangian multiplier as setting up a constraint equation (on cosmological expansion).. What we have done is to replace the Hambler Quantum gravity reference based action integral with a result from John Klauder’s “Enhanced Quantization” tome. In doing so, with Thanu Padamabhan’s treatment of the inflaton, we then commence to initiate an explicit bound upon the cosmological constant. The further approximation is to use the inflaton results, and conflate them with John Klauder’s Action principle for a way to , if we have the idea of a potential well, generalized by Klauder, with a wall of space time in the Pre Planckian regime to ask what bounds the Cosmological constant prior to inflation.. And, get an upper bound on the mass of a graviton. “Essay written for the Gravity Research Foundation 2018 Awards for Essays on Gravitation.”, February 10, 2018
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1290] viXra:1802.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-09 01:51:43

A Groupoid for Commutative and Noncommutative Operations: a Step Towards Quantum/relativity Unification

Authors: Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters
Comments: 6 Pages.

The unexploited unification of general relativity and quantum physics is a painstaking issue that prevents physicists to properly understanding the whole of Nature. Here we propose a pure mathematical approach that introduces the problem in terms of group theory. Indeed, we build a cyclic groupoid (a nonemptyset with a binary operation defined on it) that encompasses both the theories as subsets, making it possible to join together two of their most dissimilar experimental results, i.e., the commutativity detectable in our macroscopic relativistic world and the non-commutativity detectable in the quantum, microscopic world. Further, we provide a feasible physical counterpart able to throw a bridge between relativity and quantum mechanics, namely, the gravitational force. The latter stands for an operator able to reduce the countless orthonormal bases required by quantum mechanics to just one, i.e., the relativistic basis of an observer located in a single cosmic area.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1289] viXra:1802.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-06 13:36:16

The Quantum Theory of a Closed String.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 7 Pages.

The Virasoro problem of string theory is solved.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1288] viXra:1802.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-06 19:34:58

The Cosmological Constant Problem as Transitioning Multi-Space

Authors: Arthur E Pletcher
Comments: 10 Pages. Quantum gravity, theory of everything

Resolution of the Cosmological Constant Λ must maintain the mathematics of wavefunction, as well as Einsteins field equations. However, a fundamental break from convention is justified, in order to cancel the mathematical discrepancy that exists between the vacuum energy density in General Relativity (GR) and the much greater zero-point energy value, as calculated in quantum field theory (QFT). This article does maintain conventional models. The paradigm shift is from the conventional idea of a constant R 4 spacetime at every scale (from microspace to macrospace). Instead, proposing that dimensions approaching quantum scales increase to a higher dimensional R 5 space, and that dimensions approaching the cosmic event horizon decrease to a lower dimensional R 3 space (R 4 spacetime is just one phase of this transitioning multispace). This is only suppositional, yet it explains so many mysteries of cosmology in the simplest and most parsimonious format (in fact in one single sentence). In wavefunction, superposition can be alternatively interpreted as a transition (or divergence) of R n , as observed from a R 4 spacetime onto a higher dimensional R 5 space at scales approaching QFT. Time, position, energy and momentum become plural, and a range of R 5 space is viewed as a single instant until " collapsed " (mapped) onto our familiar classic R 4 space. In GR, R 4 spacetime transitions (or converges) to a point at the cosmic event horizon, to a diminished R 3 space. This converging affect appears equivalent to acceleration, as units of time in velocity are decreasing with larger scales. Thus, Λ in GR is only illusional and therefore cancelled.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1287] viXra:1802.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-05 06:43:03

Is Dark Matter and Black-Hole Cosmology an Effect of Born's Reciprocal Relativity Theory ?

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 26 Pages. Submmited to European Journal of Physics C

Born's Reciprocal Relativity Theory (BRRT) based on a maximal proper-force, maximal speed of light velocity, inertial and non-inertial observers is re-examined in full detail. Relativity of locality and chronology are natural consequences of this theory, even in flat phase space. The advantage of BRRT is that Lorentz invariance is preserved and there is no need to introduce Hopf algebraic deformations of the Poincare algebra, de Sitter algebra, nor noncommutative spacetimes. After a detailed study of the notion of $generalized$ force, momentum and mass in phase space, we explain that what one may interpret as ``dark matter'' surrounding galaxies, for example, is just an effect of observing ordinary galactic matter in $different ~accelerating$ frames of reference than ours. Explicit calculations are provided that explain these novel relativistic effects due to the $accelerated$ expansion of the Universe, and which generate the present-day density parameter value $ \Omega_{DM} \sim 0.25 $ of dark matter. The physical origins behind the numerical coincidences in Black-Hole Cosmology are also explored. We finalize with a rigorous study of the curved geometry of (co) tangent bundles (phase space) within the formalism of Finsler geometry, and provide a short discussion on Hamilton spaces.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1286] viXra:1802.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-04 06:33:10

Time Runs Only in the Elementary Particles and in Black Holes

Authors: Janko Kokosar
Comments: 7 Pages.

The author shows examples where his opinion about fundamentality is different as opinion of the majority of physicists. He claims that special relativity alone gives that time runs only in rest matter. He claims that absolutely empty spacetime without rest matter cannot exist; one reason is also because time runs only in rest matter. Existence of dimensionless masses of the elementary particles also tells us about coupling between rest matter and spacetime. Dimensionless masses of the elementary particles are obtained when the masses of the elementary particles are combined with the gravitational constant, Planck's constant and the speed of light. The author insists that the principle of equivalence remains also in quantum physics, and that gravitational uncertainty principle is simple. Consciousness is still more fundamental than the elementary particles, but consciousness does not exist outside of elementary particles. The author advocates quantum consciousness, free-will, and suggests how to verify this experimentally.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1285] viXra:1801.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-26 15:43:35

Why Modern Physicists Do Not Understand Newtonian Gravity

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper we uncover the true power of Newton's theory of gravity. Did you know that hidden inside Newton's gravity theory is the speed of gravity, namely c? Physicists who claim that Newton's gravitational force is instantaneous have not yet understood Newton's gravity theory to its full extent. Did you know that the Newton's theory of gravity, at a deeper level, is actually a theory of quantum gravity? Did you know that what is central for gravity is the Planck length and not the gravitational constant? To truly understand Newtonian gravity, we have to understand that Newton's gravitational constant is actually a composite constant. Once we understand this, we will truly begin to understand what Newton's theory of universal gravitation is all about.5
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

Replacements of recent Submissions

[1156] viXra:1806.0066 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-07 15:31:04

Quantum Gravity Unification Model with Fundamental Conservation

Authors: Arthur E Pletcher
Comments: 7 Pages.

A fundamental conservation and symmetry is proposed, as a unification between General Relativity (GR) and Quantum Theory (QT). Unification is then demonstrated across multiple applications. First, as applied to cosmological redshift z and energy density ρ. Then, a local system galaxy rotational curve is examined. Next, as applied to Quantum Mechanics’ ”time problem”: Absolute and relative notions of time are shown to be reconcilable, as well as renormalization values between scales. Finally, as applied to the Cosmological Constant: The discrepancy that exists between the vacuum energy density in GR at critical density: ρcr = 3H^2/8πG=1.88(H^2)x10−29g/cm^3, and the much greater zero-point energy delta value as calculated in quantum field theory (QFT) with a Planck scale ultraviolet cutoff: ρhep = M4c^3/h^3 =2.44x1091g/cm^3 is resolved to null orders of magnitude.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1155] viXra:1806.0028 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-04 10:47:45

Quantum Chaotic Motion Atoms of Space

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 4 Pages.

The quantum diffusion motion of space atoms has a similarity to Brownian motion. The measure of mobility of a quantum of space is proportional to the time of reference.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1154] viXra:1805.0378 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-04 15:46:27

Using “Enhanced Quantization” to Bound the Cosmological Constant, and Computing Quantum Number N for Production of 100 Relic Mini Black Holes in a Spherical Region of Emergent Space-Time

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 19 Pages. Update for the purpose of being a physics source document for 2 articles in Marcel Grossman 15, and 2 articles in DICE 2018, plus a description of gravity to be cherry picked and used in experimental gravity, Marcel Grossman 15

We are looking at comparison of two action integrals and we identify the Lagrangian multiplier as setting up a constraint equation (on cosmological expansion). This is a direct result of the fourth equation of our manuscript which unconventionally compares the action integral of General relativity with the second derived action integral, which then permits equation 5, which is a bound on the Cosmological constant. What we have done is to replace the Hamber Quantum gravity reference-based action integral with a result from John Klauder’s “Enhanced Quantization”. In doing so, with Padamabhan’s treatment of the inflaton, we then initiate an explicit bound upon the cosmological constant. The other approximation is to use the inflaton results and conflate them with John Klauder’s Action principle for a way to, if we have the idea of a potential well, generalized by Klauder, with a wall of space time in the Pre Planckian-regime to ask what bounds the Cosmological constant prior to inflation. And, get an upper bound on the mass of a graviton. We conclude with a redo of a multiverse version of the Penrose cyclic conformal cosmology to show how this mass of a heavy graviton is consistent from cycle to cycle. All this is possible due to equation 4. And we compare all this with results of reference [1] in the conclusion. While showing its relevance to early universe production of black holes, and the volume of space producing 100 black holes of say 10^2 times Planck Mass. Initially in radii of 10^3 Planck length, of space-time for say entropy of about 1000 initially speaking. Key words: Inflaton, action integral, Cosmological Constant, Penrose cyclic cosmology, black holes, massive gravitons, enhanced quantization
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1153] viXra:1805.0298 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-16 08:54:46

On the Origins of Classical Physics from the Entropy of Quantum Fields

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 5 Pages.

We show that the classical laws of physics "missing" from quantum field theory (inertia, general relativity, dark energy and the arrow of time) are recovered in the thermodynamic limit (as entropic laws) instead of in the usual classical limit (h → 0) of quantum fields.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1152] viXra:1805.0298 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-15 07:49:19

Classical Physics Derived from the Space-Time Entropy of Quantum Fields

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 5 Pages.

We show that the statistical physics treatment of an arbitrary space-time entropy exactly reproduces most of the classical physics missing from quantum field theory; inertia, general relativity, dark energy and the arrow of time. We show that these laws are recovered in the thermodynamic limit (as entropic laws) instead of in the usual classical limit (h → 0) of quantum fields.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1151] viXra:1805.0102 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-23 14:54:43

Sunqm-1: Quantum Mechanics of the Solar System in a {N,n//6} QM Structure

Authors: Yi Cao
Comments: 16 Pages.

Finally, I find a way to extend Bohr's atom model (which was inspired by the Solar system structure) to our Solar system structure. In this paper, I present that how I decoded the quantum mechanics for our Solar system by introduce a {N,n//6} QM structure model. In the newly established Solar QM {N,n} structure, Sun core has a size of {0,1}, Sun surface has a size of {0,2}, Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars are at {1,n=3..6}o orbits. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Kuiper belt are at {2,n=2..6}o orbits. Oort cloud is at {4,n=1..5}o orbits. There are four undiscovered planets/belts at orbits of {3,n=2..5}o. More interestingly, white dwarf, neutron star, and black hole are assigned to {-1,1}, {-3,2} and {-3,1} in the same model. From these results, I constructed a Solar QM {N,n} structure periodic table (similar as the chemical element’s periodic table). A Solar QM {N,n} structure periodic plot is also presented here which shows some more detailed (and visualized) information.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1150] viXra:1804.0491 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-08 13:14:41

Sunqm-3s2: Using {N,n} QM Model to Calculate Out the Snapshot Pictures of a Gradually Disk-Lyzing Pre-Sun Ball

Authors: Yi Cao
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper, by using {N,n} QM structure model, combining with Schrodinger equation solution, and the first order spin-perturbation solution, and the multiplier n' theory, I calculated out the ring thickness vs. orbit-r curve for a gradually disk-lyzing pre-Sun ball. From it, I constructed a series of snapshot pictures of pre-Sun disks. I also developed a very useful new rule for {N,n} QM structure: all mass between r(n) and r(n+1) belong to orbit n.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1149] viXra:1804.0478 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-01 05:09:21

Supersymmetric Preons and the Standard Model

Authors: Risto Raitio
Comments: 10 Pages. Typo corrections. Journal ref. Nucl. Phys. B (2018), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysb.2018.04.021

The experimental fact that standard model superpartners have not been observed compels one to consider an alternative implementation for supersymmetry. The basic supermultiplet proposed here consists of a photon and a charged spin 1/2 preon field, and their superpartners. These fields are shown to yield the standard model fermions, Higgs fields and gauge symmetries. Supersymmetry is defined for unbound preons only. Quantum group SLq(2) representations are introduced to classify topologically scalars, preons, quarks and leptons.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1148] viXra:1804.0138 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-13 05:33:42

Dark Matter Black Hole Galaxy Hierarchy According to Quantum FFF Theory.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 30 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF Theory, stable Black Holes are growing by "eating" the gravitating ( Casimir) pressure vacuum without the standard gravity related inertial effects, the result is that 1: Small BHs seem to concentrate around the central giant Galaxy BH . 2: Galaxy cluster mergers like Abell 520 overshoot and leaving behind their own Dark Matter content. Mass is the potency of rigid strings, to produce and radiate Gravitons as a collision product, between mass less ring shaped oscillating Axion Higgs vacuum field particles and Fermions or Bosons also called Dipole Repeller gravity or dipole Emergent Gravity. More extended loops or "arms" of each rigid string particle is supposed to create more Axion transformation into Gravitons or other electromagnetic monopole photons per time unit. Secondly, gravitons are assumed to exert not an attraction force on fermions and bosons but only a reduced pressure force in opposition to the vacuum pressure of the Axion Higgs field.. So, Gravity can be described as the statistical difference between the collision pressure of “new” gravitons opposing the pressure of Axion Higgs field particles all around us. Emergent gravity as proposed by E.Verlinde and Dipole Rrepeller gravity by Yehuda Hoffman, are in line with this assumption. Non inertial black hole effects are the other side of the coin..
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1147] viXra:1803.0743 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-07 15:14:58

The Quantum Bang Equations (part 2)

Authors: Patrick Tonin
Comments: 2 Pages.

Two more equations linking Temperature to Length and linking Charge to Mass and time.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1146] viXra:1803.0740 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-02 02:20:07

Planck Mass Measured Totally Independent of Big G Utilising McCulloch-Heisenberg Newtonian Equivalent Gravity

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 6 Pages.

n 2014, McCulloch showed, in a new and interesting way, how to derive a gravity theory from Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle that is equivalent to Newton gravity. McCulloch utilizes the Planck mass in his derivation and gets a gravitational constant of hc/m_p^2 . This is a composite constant, which is equivalent in value to Newton’s gravitational constant. However, McCulloch has pointed that his approach requires an assumption on the value of G, and that this involves some circular reasoning. This is in line with the view that the Planck mass is a derived constant from Newton’s gravitational constant, while big G is a universal fundamental constant. Here we will show that we can go straight from the McCulloch derivation to measuring the Planck mass without any knowledge of the gravitational constant. Therefore, from this perspective, there are no circular problems with his method. This means that we can measure the Planck mass totally independent of Newton’s gravitational constant, and shows that the McCulloch derivation is a theory of quantum gravity that stands on its own, with no need for input from Newton. This also strongly points towards the idea that Newton’s gravitational constant should be seen as a composite constant. Based on this perspective, for the first time since it was theoretically introduced 119 years ago, the Planck units can be measured completely independent of any knowledge of Newton’s gravitational constant. This could be an important step towards the development of a full theory of quantum gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1145] viXra:1803.0655 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-15 15:25:45

Heisenberg Quantum Probabilities Leads to a Quantum Gravity Theory that Requires Much Less Mass to Explain Gravitational Phenomena

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 12 Pages.

In this paper we suggest that through working with the Planck mass and its link to other particles in a simple way, it possible to “convert” the Heisenberg uncertainty principle into a very simple quantum probabilistic model. We further combine this with key elements from special relativity theory and get an interesting quantum relativistic probability theory. Some of the key points presented here could help to eliminate negative and above unity (pseudo) probabilities that often are used in standard quantum mechanics. These fake probabilities may be rooted in a failure to understand the Heisenberg principle fully in relation to the Planck mass. When properly understood, the Heisenberg principle seems to give a probabilistic range of quantum probabilities that is sound. There are no instantaneous probabilities and the maximum probability is always unity. In our formulation, the Planck mass particle is always related to a probability of one. Thus, we have certainty at the Planck scale for the Planck mass particle, or for particles accelerated to reach Planck energy. We are also presenting a relativistic extension of the McCulloch Heisenberg-derived Newton equivalent gravity theory. Our relativistic version requires much less mass than the Newtonian theory to explain gravitational phenomena, and initial investigation indicates it is consistent with perihelion of Mercury.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1144] viXra:1803.0502 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-02 10:05:58

Demonstrating the Relationship Between Quantum Mechanics and Relativity

Authors: John R. Cipolla
Comments: 8 Pages.

This thought experiment is an attempt to unify Einstein's theory of general relativity, which governs gravitational fields around massive objects and quantum mechanics, or the wave nature of matter and energy. String theory postulates that electrons and quarks in atoms are one-dimensional oscillating line segments. The first elementary particle string models were called bosonic strings because only bosons or force carriers like photons; gluons and the Higgs particles were modeled. Later, superstring theory was developed that predicted a connection or "super-symmetry" between bosons and fermions where fermions are elementary particles like electrons, protons and quarks that compose all ordinary matter. This analysis assumes all massive objects can be modeled as heterotic or closed superstrings. Further, demonstrating the relationship between string theory and general relativity is simplified because general relativity approaches the Newtonian limit for small velocity. These results indicate string theory and general relativity are related.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1143] viXra:1803.0502 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-09 07:44:09

Demonstrating the Relationship Between Quantum Mechanics and Relativity

Authors: John R. Cipolla
Comments: 8 Pages.

This thought experiment is an attempt to unify Einstein's theory of general relativity, which governs gravitational fields around massive objects and quantum mechanics, or the wave nature of matter and energy. String theory postulates that electrons and quarks in atoms are one-dimensional oscillating line segments. The first elementary particle string models were called bosonic strings because only bosons or force carriers like photons; gluons and the Higgs particles were modeled. Later, superstring theory was developed that predicted a connection or "super-symmetry" between bosons and fermions where fermions are elementary particles like electrons, protons and quarks that compose all ordinary matter. This analysis assumes all massive objects can be modeled as heterotic or closed superstrings. Further, demonstrating the relationship between string theory and general relativity is simplified because general relativity approaches the Newtonian limit for small velocity. These results indicate string theory and general relativity are related.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1142] viXra:1803.0502 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-24 16:00:26

Demonstrating the Relationship Between Quantum Mechanics and Relativity

Authors: John R. Cipolla
Comments: 7 Pages.

This thought experiment is an attempt to unify Einstein's theory of general relativity, which governs gravitational fields around massive objects and quantum mechanics, or the wave nature of matter and energy. String theory postulates that electrons and quarks in atoms are one-dimensional oscillating line segments. The first elementary particle string models were called bosonic strings because only bosons or force carriers like photons; gluons and the Higgs particles were modeled. Later, superstring theory was developed that predicted a connection or "super-symmetry" between bosons and fermions where fermions are elementary particles like electrons, protons and quarks that compose all ordinary matter. This analysis assumes all massive objects can be modeled as heterotic or closed superstrings. Further, demonstrating the relationship between string theory and general relativity is simplified because general relativity approaches the Newtonian limit for small velocity. These results indicate string theory and general relativity are related.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1141] viXra:1803.0487 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-28 00:15:21

Dynamical Dark Energy and the Relativistic Bohm-Poisson Equation

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 19 Pages. Submitted to the Int. J. Geom. Meth. Mod. Phys

The $nonlinear$ Bohm-Poisson-Schroedinger equation is studied further. It has solutions leading to $repulsive$ gravitational behavior. An exact analytical expression for the observed vacuum energy density is obtained. Further results are provided which include two possible extensions of the Bohm-Poisson equation to the full relativistic regime. Two specific solutions to the novel Relativistic Bohm-Poisson equation (associated to a real scalar field) are provided encoding the repulsive nature of dark energy. One solution leads to an exact cancellation of the cosmological constant, but an expanding decelerating cosmos; while the other solution leads to an exponential accelerated cosmos consistent with a de Sitter phase, and whose extremely small cosmological constant is $ \Lambda = { 3 \over R_H^2}$, consistent with current observations. We conclude with some final remarks about Weyl's geometry.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1140] viXra:1803.0487 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-23 23:43:53

Dynamical Dark Energy and the Relativistic Bohm-Poisson Equation

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 18 Pages. Submitted to IJGMMP

The $nonlinear$ Bohm-Poisson-Schroedinger equation is studied further. It has solutions leading to $repulsive$ gravitational behavior. An exact analytical expression for the observed vacuum energy density is obtained. Further results are provided which include two possible extensions of the Bohm-Poisson equation to the full relativistic regime. Two specific solutions to the novel Relativistic Bohm-Poisson equation (associated to a real scalar field) are provided encoding the repulsive nature of dark energy. One solution leads to an exact cancellation of the cosmological constant, but an expanding decelerating cosmos; while the other solution leads to an exponential accelerated cosmos consistent with a de Sitter phase, and whose extremely small cosmological constant is $ \Lambda = { 3 \over R_H^2}$, consistent with current observations. We conclude with some final remarks about Weyl's geometry.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1139] viXra:1803.0256 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-25 22:23:55

Quantum Gravity: Reconciliation of Gravity and Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: Pages.

There cannot be quantum gravity.
Although gravity and the other "forces" all work by the same means -- threads -- the situation and configurations are totally different.

Gravitational Force:

This is an atom representation: ~~~~~(●)~~~~~
This is a thread network unit (Flux): ~~~~~╳~~~~~ It is made from 10 full length threads joined at their centers (or 20 radii emanating from a common center)

Gravity is full length threads pulling atoms together via simple thread tension.

~~~~~(●)~~~~~∙~~~~~╳~~~~~∙~~~~~╳~~~~~∙~~~~~(●)~~~~~

There must be individual yet connected threads pulling something together. The distance can be small -- for instance one thread separation -- but it cannot be inside of an atom. That is NOT the way it works -- gravity is one or more full length threads with tension on them. If stuff gets close enough to touch -- other "forces" take over.

Electro-magnetic Force:

Here are two electrons...

~~~~~∗~~~~~ ~~~~~∗~~~~~

When electrons are close enough to attach or bond together: there are two full length threads -- one from each electron -- completely twisted together (but still full length).

~~~~~∗≈≈≈≈≈∗~~~~~

The electrons are literally tied to one another, that is much stronger than a simple thread tension pull.

Strong Force:

A free proton would look like this ~~~~~●~~~~~(that's one free thread, 18 balled, one free thread)
A free neutron would look like this ●~~~~~ (19 balled, and one free thread)
A free neutrino would look like this (20 balled)
A free electron would look like this ~~~~~∗~~~~~ (one free thread, 18 free threads in a disc shape, one free thread)

When one proton thread ~~~~~●~~~~~
and the neutron thread ●~~~~~
ball up (knot) together ●●~~~~~ that is the strong force.
Add an electron to that package ●●≈≈≈≈≈∗~~~~~ and you also get the EM force (package aka deuterium)

neutron / knot / proton / twist / electron / thread

●●≈≈≈≈≈∗~~~~~

The "knot" is just threads (like everything else) and it is balled-up between the neutron and the proton so you cannot see it. A balled-up knot is much stronger than a twist.

Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1138] viXra:1803.0256 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-19 03:31:08

Quantum Gravity: Reconciliation of Gravity and Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: Pages.

There cannot be a quantum gravity.
Although gravity and the other "forces" all work by the same means -- threads -- the situation and configurations are totally different.

Gravitational Force: full length threads pulling atoms together via simple thread tension...

~~~(●)~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~(●)~~~

Electro-magnetic Force: Here are two electrons...

~~~~~∗~~~~~ ~~~~~∗~~~~~

When electrons are close enough to attach or bond together: there are two full length threads -- one from each electron -- completely twisted together (but still full length).

~~~~~∗≈≈≈≈≈∗~~~~~

The electrons are literally tied to one another, that is much stronger than a simple thread tension pull.

Strong Force:

A free proton would look like this ~~~~~●~~~~~ (that's one free thread, 18 balled, one free thread)
A free neutron would look like this ●~~~~~ (19 balled, and one free thread)
A free electron would look like this ~~~~~∗~~~~~ (one free thread, 18 free threads in a disc shape, one free thread)

When one proton thread ~~~~~●~~~~~
and the neutron thread ●~~~~~
ball up (knot) together ●●~~~~~ that is the strong force.
Add an electron to that package ●●≈≈≈≈≈∗~~~~~ and you also get the EM force (package aka deuterium)

neutron / knot / proton / twist / electron / thread

●●≈≈≈≈≈∗~~~~~

The "knot" is just threads (like everything else) and it is balled-up between the neutron and the proton so you cannot see it. A balled-up knot is much stronger than a twist.

All forces have the same mechanism -- threads -- but they work by totally different means.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1137] viXra:1803.0014 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-12 09:01:34

The World is an Autology Derived from All Tautologies

Authors: Alexandre Harvey Tremblay
Comments: 75 Pages.

We report a mathematical construction that is autological, universal and tautological. The autological property allows the derivation of the laws of physics from the construction, while the other two properties explain why the construction is universally and necessarily applicable to the world. The construction can explain the World at its most fundamental level up to and including the derivation of the familiar laws of physics. It is formulated as a statistical ensemble of feasible mathematics (an algorithmic information theory analog to statistical physics) and its domain is the set of all analytical statements of logic ---here they take the role of the permissible facts of the world. The familiar laws of physics are emergent from the ensemble as entropic laws; this includes special relativity, general relativity, dark energy, the Schrödinger equation, the Dirac equation, quantum field theory, the speed of light as a maximal speed, and the space-time background. Furthermore, the construction provides tentative solutions in regard to the quantum measurement problem, the unification of physics and the arrow of time. In this context, the laws of physics are interpreted as the limits applicable to the feasible verification of the elements of the set of all analytical facts (they limit the actual facts of the world). The scope is universal (applies to the whole world), it is constructed tautologically (is irrefutable) and it is autological (allows the derivation of the laws of physics) ---thus, it is a tentative final theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1136] viXra:1803.0014 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-08 10:35:45

The World is an Autology Derived from All Tautologies

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 73 Pages.

We report a mathematical construction that is autological, universal and tautological. The autological property allows the derivation of the laws of physics from the construction, while the other two properties explain why the construction is universally and necessarily applicable to the world. The construction can explain the World at its most fundamental level up to and including the derivation of the familiar laws of physics. It is formulated as a statistical ensemble of feasible mathematics (an algorithmic information theory analog to statistical physics) and its domain is the set of all analytical statements of logic ---here they take the role of the permissible facts of the world. The familiar laws of physics are emergent from the ensemble as entropic laws; this includes special relativity, general relativity, dark energy, the Schrödinger equation, the Dirac equation, quantum field theory, the speed of light as a maximal speed, and the space-time background. Furthermore, the construction provides tentative solutions in regard to the quantum measurement problem, the unification of physics and the arrow of time. In this context, the laws of physics are interpreted as the limits applicable to the feasible verification of the elements of the set of all analytical facts (they limit the actual facts of the world). The scope is universal (applies to the whole world), it is constructed tautologically (is irrefutable) and it is autological (allows the derivation of the laws of physics) ---thus, it is a tentative final theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1135] viXra:1803.0014 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-02 21:09:18

The World is an Autology Derived from All Tautologies

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 72 Pages.

We report a mathematical construction that is autological, universal and tautological. The autological property allows the derivation of the laws of physics from the construction, while the other two properties explain why the construction is universally and necessarily applicable to the world. The construction can explain the World at its most fundamental level up to and including the derivation of the familiar laws of physics. It is formulated as a statistical ensemble of feasible mathematics (an algorithmic information theory analog to statistical physics) and its domain is the set of all analytical statements of logic ---here they take the role of the permissible facts of the world. The familiar laws of physics are emergent from the ensemble as entropic laws; this includes special relativity, general relativity, dark energy, the Schrödinger equation, the Dirac equation, quantum field theory, the speed of light as a maximal speed, and the space-time background. Furthermore, the construction provides tentative solutions in regard to the quantum measurement problem, the unification of physics and the arrow of time. In this context, the laws of physics are interpreted as the limits applicable to the feasible verification of the elements of the set of all analytical facts (they limit the actual facts of the world). The scope is universal (applies to the whole world), it is constructed tautologically (is irrefutable) and it is autological (allows the derivation of the laws of physics) ---thus, it is a tentative final theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1134] viXra:1803.0014 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-30 21:18:12

The World is an Autology Derived from All Tautologies

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 69 Pages.

We report a mathematical construction that is autological, universal and tautological. The autological property allows the derivation of the laws of physics from the construction, while the other two properties explain why the construction is universally and necessarily applicable to the world. The construction can explain the World at its most fundamental level up to and including the derivation of the familiar laws of physics. It is formulated as a statistical ensemble of feasible mathematics (an algorithmic information theory analog to statistical physics) and its domain is the set of all analytical statements of logic ---here they take the role of the permissible facts of the world. The familiar laws of physics are emergent from the ensemble as entropic laws; this includes special relativity, general relativity, dark energy, the Schrödinger equation, the Dirac equation, quantum field theory, the speed of light as a maximal speed, and the space-time background. Furthermore, the construction provides tentative solutions in regard to the quantum measurement problem, the unification of physics and the arrow of time. In this context, the laws of physics are interpreted as the limits applicable to the feasible verification of the elements of the set of all analytical facts (they limit the actual facts of the world). The scope is universal (applies to the whole world), it is constructed tautologically (is irrefutable) and it is autological (allows the derivation of the laws of physics) ---thus, it is a tentative final theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1133] viXra:1802.0440 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-17 04:16:14

Gravitational Interaction Between Photons and Unification of All the Fundamental Interactions

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 7 Pages.

Recently, it has been reported an experiment where a very weak laser beam passes through a dense cloud of ultracold rubidium atoms. Under these circumstances, it was observed that the photons bound together in pairs or triplets, suggesting an unexpected attractive interaction between them. Here, it is shown that mentioned interaction can be related to the gravitational interaction, and that this possibility permits the formulation of a solid approach for the unification of all the fundamental forces of the Universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1132] viXra:1802.0440 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-14 11:53:49

Gravitational Interaction Between Photons and Unification of All the Fundamental Interactions

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 7 Pages.

Recently, it has been reported an experiment where a very weak laser beam passes through a dense cloud of ultracold rubidium atoms. Under these circumstances, it was observed that the photons bound together in pairs or triplets, suggesting an unexpected attractive interaction between them. Here, it is shown that mentioned interaction can be related to the gravitational interaction, and that this possibility permits the formulation of a solid approach for a unification of all the fundamental forces of the Universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1131] viXra:1802.0440 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-09 06:22:52

Gravitational Interaction Between Photons and Grand Unification

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 6 Pages.

Recently, it has been reported an experiment where a very weak laser beam passes through a dense cloud of ultracold rubidium atoms. Under these circumstances, it was observed that the photons bound together in pairs or triplets, suggesting an unexpected attractive interaction between them. Here, it is shown that mentioned interaction can be related to the gravitational interaction.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1130] viXra:1802.0440 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-18 07:18:53

Gravitational Interaction Between Photons and Grand Unification

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: Pages.

Recently, it has been reported an experiment where a very weak laser beam passes through a dense cloud of ultracold rubidium atoms. Under these circumstances, it was observed that the photons bound together in pairs or triplets, suggesting an unexpected attractive interaction between them. Here, it is shown that mentioned interaction can be related to the gravitational interaction.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1129] viXra:1802.0440 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-09 17:02:42

Gravitational Interaction Between Photons

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 5 Pages.

Recently, it has been reported an experiment where a very weak laser beam passes through a dense cloud of ultracold rubidium atoms. Under these circumstances, it was observed that the photons bound together in pairs or triplets, suggesting an unexpected attractive interaction between them. Here, it is shown that mentioned interaction can be related to the gravitational interaction.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1128] viXra:1802.0169 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-27 08:26:59

A Simple Newtonian Quantum Gravity Theory That Predicts the Same Light Bending as GR

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 15 Pages.

In this paper we propose a new and simple theory of quantum gravity, inspired by Newton, that gives the same prediction of light bending as Einstein’s theory of general relativity. This new quantum gravity theory also predicts that non-light beams, that is to say beams of particles with rest-mass such as electron and proton beams, will only have half the bending of light as GR. In other words, this theory is testable. Based on this theory, we will suggest that it is a property of light that makes it bend twice as much as the amount that is predicted by Newton’s theory. This quantum gravity theory also seems to predict that for masses below the Planck mass, we are dealing with quantum probabilities and gravity force expectations. This may explain the difference between the strong and weak force – the difference is simply related to a probability factor at the Planck time scale. We are also suggesting a minor adjustment to the Newtonian gravitational acceleration field, which renders that field equal to the Planck acceleration at the Schwarzschild radius, and gives the same results as predicted by Newton when we are dealing with weak gravitational fields. This stands in contrast to standard Newtonian theory, which predicts a very weak gravitational acceleration field at the Schwarzschild radius for super-massive ob jects.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1127] viXra:1802.0169 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-15 17:42:17

A Simple Newtonian Quantum Gravity Theory That Predicts the Same Light Bending as GR

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 15 Pages.

In this paper we propose a new and simple theory of quantum gravity, inspired by Newton, that gives the same prediction of light bending as Einstein's theory of general relativity. This new quantum gravity theory also predicts that non-light beams, that is to say beams of particles with rest-mass such as electron beams, will only have half the bending of light as GR. In other words, this theory is testable. Based on this theory, we will suggest that it is a property of light that makes it bend twice as much as the amount that is predicted by Newton's theory. This quantum gravity theory may also predict that the gravity force will be equal to the strong force when we are working at distances within the nucleus. We are also suggesting a minor adjustment to the Newtonian gravitational acceleration field, which renders that field equal to the Planck acceleration at the Schwarzschild radius, and gives the same results as predicted by Newton when we are dealing with weak gravitational fields. This stands in contrast to GR, which predicts an infinitely strong gravitational field at the Schwarzschild radius. It also stands in contrast to standard Newtonian theory, which predicts a very weak gravitational acceleration field at the Schwarzschild radius for super-massive objects.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1126] viXra:1802.0128 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-13 18:41:37

Measurement Quantization and a Quantum Model of Gravity with Quantum Expressions For Special and General Relativity

Authors: Jody A. Geiger
Comments: 7 Pages.

Unifying quantum and classical physics has proved difficult as their postulates are conflicting. Using the notion of counts of the fundamental measures—length, mass, and time—a unifying description is resolved. A theoretical framework is presented by which a conversion between expressions from quantum and classical physics can be made. Notably, Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle when quantized demonstrates the physical significance of fundamental measure. With this, a quantum model of gravitation and quantized dilation expressions for both special and general relativity are presented, each shown to be modified forms of the Pythagorean Theorem and applicable (i.e. defined for all values) to the entire measurement domain. The expressions provide a novel calculation for the gravitational constant and reveal new measurable characteristics regarding the perceived curvature of space.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1125] viXra:1802.0078 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-12 00:40:53

The Quantum Theory of a Closed String.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 13 Pages.

The Virasoro problem of string theory is solved.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1124] viXra:1802.0078 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-10 10:18:13

The Quantum Theory of a Closed String.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 11 Pages.

The Virasoro problem of string theory is solved.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1123] viXra:1802.0078 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-07 15:14:26

The Quantum Theory of a Closed String.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 9 Pages.

The Virasoro problem of string theory is solved.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1122] viXra:1802.0049 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-16 03:09:03

Is Dark Matter and Black-Hole Cosmology an Effect of Born's Reciprocal Relativity Theory ?

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 29 Pages. Many more references are added related to MOND and f(R) gravity.

Born's Reciprocal Relativity Theory (BRRT) based on a maximal proper-force, maximal speed of light velocity, inertial and non-inertial observers is re-examined in full detail. Relativity of locality and chronology are natural consequences of this theory, even in flat phase space. The advantage of BRRT is that Lorentz invariance is preserved and there is no need to introduce Hopf algebraic deformations of the Poincare algebra, de Sitter algebra, nor noncommutative spacetimes. After a detailed study of the notion of $generalized$ force, momentum and mass in phase space, we explain that what one may interpret as ``dark matter'' in galaxies, for example, is just an effect of observing ordinary galactic matter in $different ~accelerating$ frames of reference than ours. Explicit calculations are provided that explain these novel relativistic effects due to the $accelerated$ expansion of the Universe, and which may generate the present-day density parameter value $ \Omega_{DM} \sim 0.25 $ of dark matter. The physical origins behind the numerical coincidences in Black-Hole Cosmology are also explored. We finalize with a rigorous study of the curved geometry of (co) tangent bundles (phase space) within the formalism of Finsler geometry, and provide a short discussion on Hamilton spaces.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1121] viXra:1802.0049 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-08 22:55:15

Is Dark Matter and Black-Hole Cosmology an Effect of Born's Reciprocal Relativity Theory ?

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 27 Pages.

Born's Reciprocal Relativity Theory (BRRT) based on a maximal proper-force, maximal speed of light velocity, inertial and non-inertial observers is re-examined in full detail. Relativity of locality and chronology are natural consequences of this theory, even in flat phase space. The advantage of BRRT is that Lorentz invariance is preserved and there is no need to introduce Hopf algebraic deformations of the Poincare algebra, de Sitter algebra, nor noncommutative spacetimes. After a detailed study of the notion of $generalized$ force, momentum and mass in phase space, we explain that what one may interpret as ``dark matter'' surrounding galaxies, for example, is just an effect of observing ordinary galactic matter in $different ~accelerating$ frames of reference than ours. Explicit calculations are provided that explain these novel relativistic effects due to the $accelerated$ expansion of the Universe, and which may generate the present-day density parameter value $ \Omega_{DM} \sim 0.25 $ of dark matter. The physical origins behind the numerical coincidences in Black-Hole Cosmology are also explored. We finalize with a rigorous study of the curved geometry of (co) tangent bundles (phase space) within the formalism of Finsler geometry, and provide a short discussion on Hamilton spaces.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1120] viXra:1801.0371 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-30 12:29:01

Why Modern Physicists Do Not Understand Newtonian Gravity ?

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper we uncover the true power of Newton's theory of gravity. Did you know that hidden inside Newton's gravity theory is the speed of gravity, namely c? Physicists who claim that Newton's gravitational force is instantaneous have not yet understood Newton's gravity theory to its full extent. Did you know that the Newton's theory of gravity, at a deeper level, is actually a theory of quantum gravity? Did you know that what is central for gravity is the Planck length and not the gravitational constant? To truly understand Newtonian gravity, we have to understand that Newton's gravitational constant is actually a composite constant. Once we understand this, we will truly begin to understand what Newton's theory of universal gravitation is all about.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1119] viXra:1801.0371 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-28 14:07:48

Why Modern Physicists Do Not Understand Newtonian Gravity ?

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper we uncover the true power of Newton's theory of gravity. Did you know that hidden inside Newton's gravity theory is the speed of gravity, namely c? Physicists who claim that Newton's gravitational force is instantaneous have not yet understood Newton's gravity theory to its full extent. Did you know that the Newton's theory of gravity, at a deeper level, is actually a theory of quantum gravity? Did you know that what is central for gravity is the Planck length and not the gravitational constant? To truly understand Newtonian gravity, we have to understand that Newton's gravitational constant is actually a composite constant. Once we understand this, we will truly begin to understand what Newton's theory of universal gravitation is all about.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory