**Previous months:**

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2014 - 1401(34) - 1402(27) - 1403(32) - 1404(31) - 1405(38) - 1406(33) - 1407(45) - 1408(32) - 1409(25) - 1410(40) - 1411(30) - 1412(30)

2015 - 1501(39) - 1502(27) - 1503(24) - 1504(27) - 1505(32) - 1506(32) - 1507(24) - 1508(32) - 1509(38) - 1510(40) - 1511(51) - 1512(46)

2016 - 1601(32) - 1602(46) - 1603(39) - 1604(33) - 1605(30) - 1606(44) - 1607(21) - 1608(39) - 1609(45) - 1610(31) - 1611(46) - 1612(32)

2017 - 1701(28) - 1702(27) - 1703(43) - 1704(46) - 1705(32) - 1706(31) - 1707(28) - 1708(30) - 1709(42) - 1710(34) - 1711(41) - 1712(51)

2018 - 1801(35) - 1802(41) - 1803(32)

Any replacements are listed farther down

[2830] **viXra:1803.0396 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-22 02:13:09*

**Authors:** Eran sinbar, Yoav Weinstein, Gabriel Sinbar

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Based on Einstein’s field equations , mass curves space time and curvature of space-time dictates the gravitational field around the mass. This article tries to show a paradox that leads to the conclusion that if the gravitational field increases in a local region of the universe ,anti –gravity must increase throughout the universe to prevent a catastrophe that might lead to the end of space-time and information.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2829] **viXra:1803.0384 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-21 15:28:01*

**Authors:** Roger J Anderton

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Einstein’s Relativity is not well-defined; especially special relativity is not well-defined. I will deal with some examples of where it is not well-defined, but there are many other places it is not well-defined. Unfortunately, people seem predisposed that when they encounter a place in Einstein’s writings that is vague they then make different guesses as to what they think must have been meant; and so, come up with different interpretations of what they think Einstein’s relativity “is” instead of recognizing that it is not well-defined. Thus, when dealing with Einstein’s relativity what people engage in is mathematical modelling i.e. Einstein’s relativity is more a mathematical model than it is a theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2828] **viXra:1803.0313 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-20 07:50:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 43 Pages.

The theory of the Breit-Wheeler process says it should be possible to turn light into matter by smashing two particles of light (photons) together to create an electron and a positron. However, past attempts to do this have required the addition of other high-energy particles. [26] Dr. Pascal Del'Haye and his team at NPL have created an optical version of a diode that transmits light in one direction only, and can be integrated in microphotonic circuits. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16]

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2827] **viXra:1803.0287 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-21 03:42:58*

**Authors:** Mitali

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The difference between observed and expected values of velocity discrepancy in mid 1930s gave
rise to the problem of missing mass in galaxies. Further extra mass calculated from the
gravitational lensing effect also supported strongly in favor of missing mass, called dark matter.
However, this non-baryonic matter has not been detected directly. Meanwhile, effect of
gravitational waves energy from galaxy and result of its angular momentum on rotational curve
of spiral arms in outskirts of galaxy is not taken into consideration. Here, it is discussed how
gravity waves energy can eliminate the necessity of dark matter and can explain the
observational facts which are thought to be purely effect of dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2826] **viXra:1803.0273 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-18 15:25:25*

**Authors:** Jerzy Hanckowiak

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The possible conclusions resulting from the huge speed of massless
objects and certain remarks related to continuity in physics accompanying
revolutionary changes are presented. We also show the relationship of the
constant velocity of waves propagating in a vacuum with the principle of
relativity. We also mention abduction reasoning (retroduction) in science.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2825] **viXra:1803.0272 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-18 16:03:04*

**Authors:** Mohammed Abdelwhab

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

It is known that space expands at an increasing rate. In this paper we find that phenomenon of space expansion with accelerated rate can be well explained and understood if we postulate that "empty space have a velocity and its velocity is decreased or slowdown with time, this deceleration makes the meter in past is contracted with respect to the meter in present and second in past is dilated with respect to the second in present. The slowdown of space itself means that length contraction and time dilation are decreased with time, the decreasing in length contraction is observed as space expansion because the light travels from the more contracted space to the less contracted space, while decreasing in time dilation of the universe is observed as time speedup because the light travels from a space with more dilated time to another space with less dilated time. Motion of space itself with different velocities opens the door in front of a new branch of relativity called "empty space relativity" that is refer to change of scales of length and time of the empty space along the timeline of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2824] **viXra:1803.0261 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-18 01:45:55*

**Authors:** Ranganath G. Kulkarni

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is found that mass and time are absolute quantities. If the psuedo force is acting, then the mass of the body is constant at all instants of time. We can distinguish the type of force acting on the body. Therefore equivalence principle is not correct.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2823] **viXra:1803.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-16 10:32:34*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

No abstract needed for this elementary proof.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2822] **viXra:1803.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-15 13:42:56*

**Authors:** Sergio Garcia Chimeno

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Two previous "letters" in vixra joined in an article

Demonstration of how to do that the light velocity c be the same independently of the velocity of the observer and obtain the mass-energy equivalence E = mc^2 using the Galilean transformations and the 4 dimensions zoom-universe model characteristics.
Demonstration of how to interpret it the time dilation/length contraction typical of the special relativity using the Galilean transformations and the 4 dimensions zoom-universe model characteristics.
Demonstration of how to obtain the typical waves equation with transmission velocity c and how to obtain it through the medium for transmission of light given by the zoom-universe model.
Demonstration of how to obtain the Einstein Field Equations without using the Stress-Energy Tensor, without using the Bianchi Identities and without using the Energy Conservation to obtain it.
Demonstration of how to obtain the Einstein Field Equations only using the Gauss Curvature and the zoom universe model characteristics.
Gravity in zoom universe model.
Special relativity zoom.
General relativity zoom.
Sphere and Hypersphere example to understand it better.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2821] **viXra:1803.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-15 09:47:56*

**Authors:** Bruce Nappi

**Comments:** 244 pages, 30 figures

Space Lattice Theory is a study of the fundamental structure of the universe. The study asks what that structure might be like if, instead of being mostly an empty void, space is a densely packed, crystal-like Lattice, and the existence and interaction of what we call matter is due to movable defects or dislocations in the Lattice. This theoretical study found that a dislocation model could produce a comprehensive set of simple, visualizable explanations for most of the concepts of physics, including many that are currently unanswered. It explains matter, time, cause and effect, energy, and how energy converts to matter. It explains gravity and electric and magnetic fields; how they can be physical realities, and how they could work.

Space Lattice Theory supports a “big bang”-like beginning for a 3-D “visible” universe, explaining how it could easily emerge from what appears to be the nothingness of space, but without having to change any laws of physics. Puzzles like the particle-wave nature of photons are explained. Problems with current theories for subatomic particles, cosmology and Special Relativity are discussed. New models are suggested.

Most significantly, Space Lattice Theory presents a comprehensive model for the Grand Unification of all forces and matter in the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2820] **viXra:1803.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-15 12:26:45*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

Using four variables, we replicate the logic in and confirm the refutation of Stephen J. Crothers for the special theory of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2819] **viXra:1803.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-15 12:47:07*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Abstract: A more complete and improved forward-time, reverse-time energy cycle of the 9th cycle of an HCE8S universe for a full loop of the cycle shown.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2818] **viXra:1803.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-14 13:08:33*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Pythagorean Theorem, combined with the analytic geometry of a right circular cone, has been used by H. Minkowski and subsequent investigators to establish the 4-dimensional spacetime continuum associated with A. Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity. Although the mathematics appears sound, the incorporation of a hyper-cone into the analytic geometry of a right triangle in Euclidean 3-space is in conflict with
the rules of pure mathematics. A metric space of n dimensions is necessarily defined in terms of n independent coordinates, one for each dimension. Any coordinate that is a combination of the others for a given space is not independent so cannot be an independent dimension. Minkowski-Einstein spacetime contains a dimensional coordinate, via the speed of light, that is not independent. Consequently, Minkowski-Einstein spacetime does not exist.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2817] **viXra:1803.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-14 20:57:49*

**Authors:** douG Snell

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Keywords: Cosmological Redshift, Hubble Expansion, Relativity, Gravity, covariance.

Abstract- This paper is an analysis of three data sets modeled to represent the physical processes of single mass points in a well defined geometric space. The First data set represents gravitational contraction modeled as derivative of Einstein Field Equation(s), a well confirmed accepted equation with theory. The Second data set modeled is a reverse of the First data set. This is a model of the physical processes of expansion of single mass points in well defined space using the reverse of First data set’s modeled physical processes. The Third data set represents the Hubble Space Telescope Key Project cosmological redshift data set modeled as single mass points, representing the Hubble expansion. All three data sets are modeled with respective physical processes, represented by 3 dimensional cubes with vector arrows plotted, then analyzed by comparison of three individual single dimension slices of each of the three data set models. The three dimensional slices are analyzed, comparing one slice from each of the x, y z axis with each of the three data sets. The Second data set when compared to the Third data set provides significant findings. The Third data set indicates physical processes limited to a single dimension, the z axis, giving a appearance of a self-centered expansion. The First and Second data set Point of View analysis indicate no contradiction, the Third data set Point of View analysis indicates a contradiction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2816] **viXra:1803.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-14 10:31:10*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, we discover new vacuum solution by Einstein’s gravity field equation in general relativity theory. We investigate the new coordinate in general
relativity theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2815] **viXra:1803.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-14 12:54:14*

**Authors:** William JE Brown

**Comments:** 117 Pages.

Although mathematically basic, the geometrical principles enshrined within Edwin Abbott Abbott’s 1884 work, Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions are unyieldingly consistent, and although Albert Einstein did not directly credit EA Abbott in Part III of his 1916 popular work Relativity, he deployed the little Flatlanders to great effect assuring us that ‘the three-dimensional spherical space is quite analogous to the two-dimensional spherical surface’. In this series of 15 concise scientific essays we will follow through on the simplicity and consistency of Abbott’s approach. Deriving from Flatland a set of named principles [Appendix 1] which are held to be true of the geometrical relationships between (n-1)D, nD, and (n+1)D, these are brought to bear on the contemporary scientific paradigm with the aim of exploring the potential for a consistent dimensional structure for the whole of nature. Flatland extrapolation through 1/2/3/4D reveals the action of the temporal dimension to be a product of the dimensional viewpoint of the observer; time is therefore not intrinsic to the 4th Dimension. The dimensional structure thus derived exists as a fundamental framework for all of nature, of which combinations of length, width, height, and time merely exhibit properties. Within this structure the universe emerges at the level of the 3rd Dimension (observable) and 4th Dimension (global), adhering strictly to Flatland principles applied spherically throughout. The model described is the finite 3-sphere of Einstein, with the crucial difference that observer and origin are located at antipodean centres (poles) of the 3-hemispheres, rendering the whole ‘observer-centric’. Without altering constants, GR, or QM, the model solves the horizon problem of CMB uniformity, explains the 1998 distant SNe Ia light anomaly, shows the universe to have net zero gravity (explaining so-called dark energy), reveals the correct mechanism behind expansion, shows in terms of information transfer why both gravity and light exist at c, describes the mechanism by which the universe diminishes to a Big Bang singularity, and provides a theoretical basis for the Equivalence principle. In the process it dispenses with infinity, superluminality, Cosmic Inflation, the G/DE knife-edge, recent acceleration, and the cosmological constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2814] **viXra:1803.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-11 21:53:47*

**Authors:** Peter V. Raktoe

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The universe is enormous and it looks endless, but a clue tells us that it also has a shell. That clue is the speed properties of light, they are similar to the properties of a transfer speed of a medium. A transfer speed of a medium is an internal speed that can only be found in a medium with a shell, and that tells us that the light in the universe is contained within that shell.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2813] **viXra:1803.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-11 04:53:55*

**Authors:** Mamaev A.V.

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Transformation of the new relativistic space-time theory based only on the single Galileo’s
relativity principle is derived using the method of academician Logunov A.A.
Keywords: New relativistic space-time theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2812] **viXra:1803.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-10 03:12:47*

**Authors:** Franz Unterleitner

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The focus of this work is on an integration constant which appears when the geodesic equations for the Schwarzschild solution are solved directly.
The constant has a dimension of speed-squared and is interpreted as vacuum energy.
When it is set to zero, the solution is Newtonian in the far limit, otherwise it causes orbital velocities to be constant in the long range, explaining flat rotation curves.
The literature is rich of examples where the four geodesic equations are solved, but the constant was not produced.
This is because the direct solution one of the geodesic equations was avoided and an `equivalent` equation was solved instead.
In this work the direct solution is achieved by using an integrating factor which results in the hitherto unknown integration constant.
The existence of fossile disks in the velocity profiles of galaxies is interpreted as a consequence of the vacuum energy decreasing in time.
Again, in short: The geodesic equations in their geometric form are second order differential equations.
They deliver additional integration constants when they are integrated to first order.
Not all of the constants survive, but one of them does and when it is not deliberately set to zero it saturates velocities at far distances.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2811] **viXra:1803.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-09 03:21:20*

**Authors:** Theophile caby

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

We discuss the notion of perception, and describe a simple mechanism by which distortion
of observed distances occurs in a static universe, that is compatible with many cosmological
observations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2810] **viXra:1803.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-07 00:31:21*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A stellar system of two identical stars in orbital motion
is chosen to manifest a physics law, conservation of momentum, in Special Relativity.
Both stars move around each other in a non-circular orbit.
The single gravitational force between two stars demands that total momentum of
this stellar system remains constant in any inertial reference frame in which
the center of mass moves at a constant velocity.
The calculation of total momentum in two different inertial reference frames shows that
the momentum expression from Special
Relativity violates conservation of momentum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2809] **viXra:1803.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-06 11:51:29*

**Authors:** Walter Orlov

**Comments:** 7 Pages. In German

A proposal of an experiment to check the validity of the Lorentz transformations. Lorentz's interpretation of the experiment by Michelson and Morley is logical in the sense of geometric optics. But the light consists of the electromagnetic waves. This leads to conflict, if we recall that the electromagnetic fields can interact with charged particles. A vivid experiment can leave the validity of the Lorentz transformations regardless of the existence of the ether wind. Fourth figure shows the experimental setup.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2808] **viXra:1803.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-05 21:17:37*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

An aspect of the continuum paradox.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2807] **viXra:1803.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-05 08:02:12*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

its about the dual properties of matter

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2806] **viXra:1803.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-05 00:51:20*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A physical system of a mechanical spring
is chosen to manifest a physics law, conservation of momentum, in Special Relativity.
Two identical objects are attached to the ends of this mechanical spring.
The single force between two identical objects demands that total momentum of
this physical system remains constant in any inertial reference frame in which
the center of mass moves at a constant velocity.
The calculation of total momentum in two different inertial reference frames shows that
the momentum expression from Special
Relativity violates conservation of momentum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2805] **viXra:1803.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-03 12:03:58*

**Authors:** R. G. Chester

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Tensegrity structures exhibit several counterintuitive behaviors. Among these is expansion resulting solely from internal tension. Replacing the physical tendons of a six-strut tensegrity icosahedron with classical gravitational attraction suggests that universal accelerated expansion may be due to ordinary gravity acting solely as an inverse second-power attractive force. Speculation is included on the ultimate fate of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2804] **viXra:1803.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-01 08:43:28*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Attempt to discredit the GR.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2803] **viXra:1803.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-02 01:45:47*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Is perfectly known, that the Einstein has disapproved the Black Hole solutions. It was horrible to have an divergence, the infinities (BH, BB) in the equations? The Einstein has assumed Matter conservation during the derivation of GR, but it is violated in the consequences: BH, BB. Thus, the GR is wrong. Recall, the Nikola Tesla (who was blessed by his father, Eastern Orthodox Christian) that Nikola was in disagreement with Einstein.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2802] **viXra:1803.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-02 02:01:09*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In the history of physics, momentum has been represented by two expressions.
One from Issac Newton, the other from Special Relativity. Both expressions are expected
to describe a physical system that demands conservation of momentum. By examining
the gravitational force between two identical particles in two different inertial reference frames,
the momentum expression from Issac Newton
is found to obey conservation of momentum while the momentum expression from Special
Relativity is found to violate conservation of momentum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2801] **viXra:1803.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-02 04:35:36*

**Authors:** Ratikanta Das

**Comments:** 17 pages

Important features of our new four-dimensional model are - 1. Our universe is four dimensional filled with two kinds of four dimensional (4D) hyper spherical * particles. 2. Every object in universe moves as wave due to local transverse motion of these 4D particles 3. Fundamental particles are created from these 4D particles when our flat ** three-dimensional space deforms locally along fourth dimension. 4. Fundamental particles have special 4D structures with infinite extent which justifies action at a distance for electromagnetic and gravitational influences 5. Equal magnitude of charges (±e) of fundamental particles of different mass is due to their similar shape (shape and size determines the property of charge and mass respectively). 6. Schrödinger equation and de Broglie hypothesis can be obtained from 4D structure of fundamental particle. 6. The 4D wave pulse of a fundamental particle is more appropriate to resolve wave-particle duality of matter than that done by a wave packet of 3D model. 7. The net energy of the 4D structure of a fundamental particle that is formed satisfying some equilibrium conditions determines it’s mass). 8. The model also describes a four-dimensional classical technique (named as spiral transformation) for conversion of radiation into matter and vice versa. Standard model does not give us a classical picture of this phenomenon. 9. 4D Structures of fundamental particles are responsible for unifying Coulomb force and strong force. This explains why electron-positron pair annihilates but electron-proton pair forms a stable combination and why n-n or p-p combination is unstable in spite of strong attractive force but n-p combination (deuteron) is stable. 10. New model resolves the puzzle behind dual nature of radiation by assuming photon as a 4D hyper surface wave of finite length(There is no single classical picture in traditional physics to describe nature of light, we have to accept both photon model and wave model ).11. Existence of spin quantum number is consistent with extra space dimension. 12 New model also hints how neutron is created from electron and proton.-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.
* A circle of area πr2 is enclosed by a line of length 2πr and sphere of volume 4/3πr3 is enclosed by a spherical surface of area 4πr2. Similarly a 4D hyper sphere of hyper volume ½ π2r4 is enclosed by a 3D hyper spherical surface of volume 2π2 r3.
** Straight line, plane surface and flat space (volume) have analogous meanings in one, two and three dimensions respectively.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2800] **viXra:1802.0430 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-28 23:27:08*

**Authors:** Richard L Amoroso, Elizabeth A Rauscher

**Comments:** 8 Pages. https://doi.org/10.1142/9789812839312_0001

Critics of the Big Bang have said every time the Big bang fails an adjustment to the theory is made or a new parameter added to fix it. While a valid criticism it misses the mark in that this is the business of science, constant tinkering until truth is eventually found. Our complaint is in the quotes above. Others have said that there is no truth in science because a theory can never be proven true only falsified. However, there is another wrinkle in that respect; when a ‘best’ theory is finally found and later falsified what remains is Absolute Truth [3]. Absolute truth in science refers to a finite regime described by a theory that has been falsified. This somewhat rarefied condition is best said about Newton’s theories. They remain absolute truth in reference to the finite classical regimes they describe [4]. The aim of this work is to provide sufficient insight that Big Bang cosmology may finally be falsified.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2799] **viXra:1802.0410 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-27 19:12:45*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This article presents a reformulation of special relativity which is invariant under transformations between inertial and non-inertial frames and which can be applied in any frame without introducing fictitious forces. A simple solution to the twin paradox is presented and a new universal force is proposed too.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2798] **viXra:1802.0405 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-27 07:22:32*

**Authors:** Amit Kumar Jha

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Thevariantofthequintessencetheoryisproposedinordertogetanaccelerated
expansionoftheFriedmannianUniverseintheframeworksofrelativistictheoryof
gravitation.Thesubstanceofquintessenceisbuiltupthescalarfieldofdarkenergy.
Itisshown,thatfunctionV(Φ),whichfactorisingscalarfieldLagrangian(isa
scalarfield)hasnoinfluenceontheevolutionoftheUniverse.Somerelations,
allowingtofindexplicitdependenceΦontime,werefound,providedgiven
function.V(Φ

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2797] **viXra:1802.0399 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-27 10:40:08*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Abstract: An alternate forward-time, reverse-time energy cycle of the 9th cycle of an HCE8S universe for a full loop of the cycle is shown

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2796] **viXra:1802.0397 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-26 18:22:37*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Commemorating 110 years of Hermann Minkowski's lecture RAUM UND ZEIT, given at the 80th Meeting of the Natural Scientists in Cologne on 21 September 1908 and based on the crucial contributions to the theory of Special Relativity by Hendrik Lorentz, Albert Einstein and Henri Poincaré, I am happy to announce my video lecture, entitled: About Space and Time. It will be posted at my YouTube channel on Friday, 21 September 2018, at 10 GMT. Here is a brief introduction, which will be amended with the full text version of the lecture by the end of September 2018.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2795] **viXra:1802.0375 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-26 00:45:43*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In the history of physics, kinetic energy has been represented by two expressions.
One from Issac Newton, the other from Special Relativity. Both expressions are expected
to describe a physical system that demands conservation of momentum. By examining
the expression of momentum in a projectile motion, the kinetic energy from Issac Newton
is found to obey conservation of momentum while the kinetic energy from Special
Relativity is found to violate conservation of momentum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2794] **viXra:1802.0372 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-26 04:30:34*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In the unified theory of dynamic space the quantum time is identical to the elementary motion, traveled by electrically opposite elementary units (in short units) in the interval (click-shift) of the quantum dipole length at the speed of light. The quantum time in the units region is the Natural time, that replaced the conventional time, i.e. the second. Nature understands time, as a crowd of moving units, as a length traveled with click-shifts and as a volume occupied by the units. Therefore, time is reflected in the structures of space by the number of their units. However, motion is a form of space deformation, created by force that is reduced from the dynamic space
as motion force, which is accumulated on the spherical zone of the particle, due to the
difference of cohesive pressure in front of and behind it. This accumulation is made by force talantonion (oscillator) per quantum time in the formations region as quantum force, causing harmonic change to the difference of cohesive pressure in proximal space of the particle as a motion wave (wave-like form), the so-called, de Broglie's wave-particle. The Physical meaning of Planck's constant is interpreted as the product of three Nature's entities, namely the force talantonion (which is the foundation of
motion), the quantum dipole length and the quantum time in the formations region. The "relative" mass has now been proved and the proof is not based on the second postulate of relativity. So, the particle mass does not in fact increase, when it moves, but only the final force (of gravity and motion), which causes the new dynamics of particle motion, increases. This new dynamics appears as a tension of space, which is maintained in a different way for each uniform motion, resulting the change of the Physics Laws in different inertial systems.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2793] **viXra:1802.0368 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-26 06:12:02*

**Authors:** Arjun Dahal, Naresh Adhikari

**Comments:** 7 Pages. ©2017-2018 Journal of St. Xavier's Physics Council

Black holes are one of the fascinating objects in the universe with gravitational pull strong enough to capture light within them. Through this article we have attempted to provide an insight to the black holes, on their formation and theoretical developments that made them one of the unsolved mysteries of universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2792] **viXra:1802.0356 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-25 08:51:42*

**Authors:** Shant Khlghatyan

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Studying evolution of angular momentum in Kerr field and obtained some conditions on the parameters of motion for different types of orbits

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2791] **viXra:1802.0339 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-23 23:19:18*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 8 Pages. -

Expansion of the universe by Hubble, allows you to calculate the expansion at a minimum distance. What makes it possible to set a correction to the limiting speed of information transfer, which is used in the theory of relativity. At the same time, the corrections in different local regions differ from each other. The amendments, albeit insignificantly small, can unexpectedly give some results, as shown in the example. And the example itself and subsequent conclusions can be exactly the step to a great unification of interactions.
ул. Софьи Ковалевской дом 14, корпус 1, квартира 70

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2790] **viXra:1802.0327 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-22 14:35:33*

**Authors:** Michael R. Feyereisen

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

A model of a quantum cosmology motivated from fundamental physical principles is proposed, in which the intrinsic spin of both matter and the vacuum explains the existence of a cosmological scale factor a with a constant H0, the existence and magnitude of the cosmological constant Λ, the thermal history of the Universe, and the nature of the Dark Matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2789] **viXra:1802.0326 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-23 00:22:26*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

An isolated physical system of gravitational force between two identical
particles is chosen to manifest the physics law,
conservation of momentum, in a random inertial reference frame under Lorentz Transformation.
In this random reference frame, the center of mass
moves at a constant velocity. By applying
Lorentz transformation to the velocities of both particles, total momentum
in this random inertial reference frame can be calculated and
is expected to remain constant as gravitational force accelerate both particles toward each other.
The calculation
shows that conservation of momentum fails to hold under Lorentz Transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2788] **viXra:1802.0307 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-21 21:27:07*

**Authors:** Julian Williams

**Comments:** 66 Pages. Feedback is welcome, even where I am wrong it is usefull.

Einstein's Field Equations can be derived from a Lagrangian using Action Principles. This paper explores the possibility of gravity being the result of an Invariant Four Volume Action Density of Cosmic Wavelength Gravitons. Infinitesimal changes (at least locally) to the Energy Momentum Tensor are required, which can have profound effect at cosmic scale, such as exponentially increasing expansion with no need for Dark Energy. This may also relate with the present tension in the different ways of measuring the Hubble parameter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2787] **viXra:1802.0304 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-21 23:25:05*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The derivation of the Lorentz transformation normally rests on two a priori demands, namely that reversing the direction of the transformation's constant-velocity boost inverts the transformation, and that the transformation leaves light-speed invariant. It is notable, however, that the simple light-clock concept, which is rooted entirely in light-speed invariance, immediately gives rise to special-relativistic reciprocal time dilation, whose existence implies that of special-relativistic length contraction as a
corollary. Reciprocal time dilation and length contraction are key consequences of the Lorentz transformation, so it would seem that demanding only inertial transformation-invariance of light-speed already uniquely implies the Lorentz transformation. We find that to indeed be so, but it can't be shown by solving directly for the undetermined parameters of a general x-direction inertial space-time transformation; one necessarily must work with the corresponding velocity transformation (that has the same undetermined parameters), which is pared down to equalities that refer as predominantly as is feasible to speed. In those equalities both untransformed and transformed speed are replaced by the constant c, after which the undetermined parameters of the inertial transformation are solved for, which shows it to be the Lorentz transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2786] **viXra:1802.0300 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-21 08:20:25*

**Authors:** Jack Wenger

**Comments:** 126 Pages. The symbol for pi may not translate from pdf to this program.

Abstract: Try another way of looking at the universe. Consider spatial dimensions as measurements of interfaces. These interfaces can have two or more sides. We can see this if we think of thick oil spreading on water. We have three 3D substances, water, oil, and air. There is a water/oil 2D interface, an oil/air 2D interface and ahead of the oil intrusion a water/air 2D interface. Furthermore there is a linear or 1D interface at the front where the oil is advancing and all 3D substances touch. This interface
has three sides. This relationship could also be described this way: Where two 3D substances meet they form a (3-1)D interface and where three or more 3D substances meet they form a (3-2)D interface. This allows the speculation that all higher dimensional systems may form interfaces in this fashion when substances within those systems interact in a manner similar to that described above.
The pattern suggested is:
When N (as in ND) is a whole number greater than 1, two adjacent ND substances can form an (N-1)D interface between them and three or more ND substances can meet at a (N-2)D interface. This
interface has three or more sides.
This in turn allows the suggestion that there could be an infinite 5D sphere made up of infinitely small 5D units that have settled into concentric fluidic layers according to some analogs to gravity and density, and that a higher (or lower) layer, having undergone a change in density, is in the process of
reestablishing itself in the layer hierarchy. This could entail its intrusion between two layers having only slightly different densities.
If this were the case and the 5D substances followed the pattern described above, it would have two 4D (5-1) interfaces where it contacted the fluids on either side and a 3D (5-2) interface where all three fluids met, at the front of intrusion.
Infinitely small 5D substance units (5D molecules, 5D atoms) would allow the layers to be extremely thin, thinner than any observable 3D object at the 3D interface but still the size of these units
could have ratios to the layer's thickness similar to the ratio of a water molecule's size to the depth of the deepest ocean. Much would be allowed under these conditions.
When considering a great circle along the 3D interface, the speed of its expansion would be 2pi
times the rate of intrusion. That is the change in the radius will always equal 1/2pi the change in
circumference size.
If the circumferential expansion of the 3D interface was equal to the expansion rate of our cosmic horizon, the intrusion rate would be 1.007 times our light speed. If its circumference was greater, maybe many times the size of our cosmic horizon, the rate of intrusion would be many times light speed. We suggests that the speed of intrusion within the Shear Dependant Universe (SDU) would probably be many times light speed. These speeds would not need to be constant. They would be affected by the rate of fluid entry at the source.
The high speed of intrusion and perhaps other characteristic of the fluids could create shear. This shear could be expressed as vortices at all interfaces, if all fluids were similar in "density". If the 5D sphere were rotating, vortices at the upper 4D interface would rotate opposite those at the lower, when moving in the same direction along the 3D interface, therefore the 3D interface would contact vortices of
both rotations. The picture here is of dense chaotic vortex fields on all sides of all interfaces. In addition, vortices can merge or concentrate to form structures at the 3D interface as described below.
Vortices create wakes by applying torque to the 3D interface as they move over it. Those at the upper 4D interface create torque wakes that are opposite those at the lower. Vortices tend to draw closer
together or concentrate with others having similar torque wakes and move way from those with incompatible wakes when traveling in the same 3D direction. However vortices having opposite rotation can concentrate if they are traveling in opposite 3D directions. Vortices with incompatible wakes move away from each other.
Combined torque wakes of sufficient intensity can capture "swarms of vortices" on any or all sides of the 3D interface. These swarms can result in fields with various shapes. The shape of some of these fields is cyclonic with tubular centers or eyes, their bases attached to the 3D interface via compatible torque. Others have an anti cyclonic form with oppositely rotating eyes that are also attached to the 3D interface through appropriate torque contours. A single torque pattern at the 3D interface can accommodate several cyclonic or anti cyclonic swarms on any of its sides, these swarms will simply rotate in appropriate directions. Opposite rotation is allowed because these swarms are on opposing sides of the 3D interface and cannot conflict with each other.
These are diffuse columnar swarms with highly concentrated centers where there is maximum torque or deformation of the 3D interface. If a swarm conglomerate is set in motion, torque is increased on the side of motion direction by an increased encountering and accumulation of background shear. This increased vortex concentration and torque, ahead of the eye causes the whole swarm to shift in this direction which in turn reestablishes the higher vortex concentration and maintains the off center torque, constantly reinforcing the direction of travel. This feedback loop with background shear becomes the basis for inertial mass.
Those solo swarms that occupy only the outside of one the 4D interfaces (one quark) are swept
away by the backflow immediately. Swarm pairs that occupy both sides of a single 4D interface (two
quarks) and have some attachment with the 3D interface remain in contact a little longer but are also swept away. Swarm trios or quartets, that occupy all sides of the 3D interface (three quarks) and are anchored by a common torque pattern at the 3D interface, remain attached. They are still occupying only three fluid sectors so they could appear as only three objects (three quarks) from the 3D point of view.
These would be matter and anti matter.
Torque energy is never gained or lost. It is always recaptured by background shear forming
photonic structures, other transient swarms or it transforms complex swarms or alters their motion.
Vortices also cause indentations to form on the 3D interface via drag. Large swarms of vortices have considerable drag and tend to allow collections within the indentations. The indentations do not
need to be very deep to be highly "attractive" because the 3D interface at the indentations is no longer perpendicular to the direction of intrusion, so they acquire a tiny fraction of the intense back flow from the interface advancement, forming "virtual wells" which when present in accumulations are the foundation of SDU gravity. These shear vortices contribute both to mass and "virtual wells" (gravity and become the grounds for an SDU Equivalence principle
Photonic structures follow the same rules stated above but form perpendicular sheets in response
to waves of passing torque (which are a winding and then unwinding of the 3D interface). Shear
vortices become oriented in one direction as the interface winds up. They also tend to coalesce to a point in response to their tendency to merge. As the wave meets its maximum and begins to unwind, vortices in the first orientation escape up the connecting 4D interface and shear immediately provides a second generation of vortices in the new orientation which again coalesce and so the action is continuously repeated until all cycles of torque have passed. Thus the wave is maintained and confined to the 3D interface by background shear. This involvement with the background shear also limits the speed of passing torque waves.
The action of coalescing is never completed in any of these structures. In light, background shear
continues to move in the direction of the highest torque during the whole cycle, so there is a field of vortex motion extending for quite a distance on either side of the coalescing point. In matter there are also merging fields of vortex motion all around the cylindrical swarms. All of these structures can interfere with themselves under the right conditions.
In this setting, vortex swarms become the currency between matter and energy.
If each fluid is viewed as a 5D compartment around the 3D interface, the system is compatible with
either 16D or 18D spacetime scenarios depending on whether time is the extra dimension of the whole or of each compartment.
5D+5D+5D+1D of time=16D
5D+1D of time+5D+1D of time+5D+1D of time=18D
However the collision debris characteristics of each compartment could seem to come from different 5D (or 6D spacetime) systems if compartmentalization is not considered.
Thus the properties of the least dense fluid in the upper compartment are consistent with those of a "bottom quark" in that the collision debris would contain many more "particles" and therefore have greater mass than the other two quarks. These particles would also have shorter life spans then those of the intruder compartment because of the upper fluid's backwash. The lower compartment debris would also have shorter life spans because of the lower fluid's backwash but fewer particles because of its greater density and be viewed as a "top quark".
The intruder compartment would have properties of "strange quarks" in that its collision debris would be comprised of varying percentages of "positive and negative" charged particles depending on the nature of the colliding matter.
It is relatively easy to describe many physical phenomena in these terms such as the four known
forces (gravitational, strong, weak, and electromagnetic) and the many quantum phenomena. Light speed is dependent upon the rate of shear creation. The universal expansion rate varies with fluid input at the source. Dark matter simply becomes a variant swarm configuration. Faster than light, waveforms are allowed within the fluids between the interfaces.
The above description becomes the scenario for a universe very similar to ours.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2785] **viXra:1802.0286 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-20 21:32:41*

**Authors:** Robert Spoljaric

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The classical theories making up modern physics are: Newtonian mechanics, Maxwell’s equations, statistical mechanics, thermodynamics, special relativity and general relativity. We also mention nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. Excluding Maxwell’s equations the Newtonian concept of mass plays a fundamental role in each of these theories even though no one really knows what mass is. Starting with relativistic mass we will reason our way to the conclusion that mass is an illusion, and tidal effects are local. That is, behind the illusion of mass lay the mass-free foundations of a mass-free paradigm of Relativity that transcends all the theories mentioned and shows just why general relativity does not go far enough. Further, the true significance of Planck’s four-dimensional constant is to be found in this new paradigm of Relativity. The maths employed here have been used in [1] and [2].

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2784] **viXra:1802.0263 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-19 23:19:08*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

An isolated physical system of elastic collision between two identical charged
particles is chosen to manifest the physics law,
conservation of momentum, in a random inertial reference frame under Lorentz Transformation.
In this random reference frame, the center of mass
moves at a constant velocity. By applying
Lorentz transformation to the velocities of both particles, total momentum
during the collision in this random inertial reference frame can be calculated and
is expected to remain constant.
The calculation
shows that conservation of momentum fails to hold under Lorentz Transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2783] **viXra:1802.0261 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-20 00:36:57*

**Authors:** Chou Yu-Ching

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Einstein's general relativistic eld equation is a nonlinear partial dierential equation that lacks an easy way to obtain exact solutions. The most famous examples are Schwarzschild and Kerr's black hole solutions. The Kerr metric has astrophysical meaning because most of cosmic celestial bodies are rotating. The Kerr metric is even more diffcult to derive than the Schwarzschild metric specically due to off-diagonal term of metric tensor. In this paper, a derivation of Kerr metric was obtained by ellipsoid coordinate transformation, which causes elimination a large amount of tedious derivation. This derivation is not only physics enlightening, but also further deducing some
characteristics of the rotating black hole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2782] **viXra:1802.0251 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-19 06:17:18*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

This author has already proposed a new theory, Apparent Source Theory ( AST ), that can explain the Michelson-Morley experiment, the Sagnac effect, the Silvertooth experiment, the Roland De Witte experiment, the Venus planet radar range data anomaly ( analyzed and reported by Bryan G Wallace ) and other experiments. According to AST, there will be an apparent change in position of a light source as seen by the observer, for absolutely co-moving source and observer. The 'null' result of the Michelson-Morley experiment (MMX) is explained as follows. The effect of absolute motion is just to create an apparent change in position of the light source relative to the detector. There will be no (significant) fringe shift in the MMX for the same reason that there will be no (significant) fringe shift if the source position was actually, physically shifted slightly. The fringe shift in Sagnac effect is explained as follows. The source will be apparently shifted away relative to the detector when looking in the backward direction and shifted towards the detector when looking in the forward direction, hence creating a path difference. Einstein's thought experiment ( 'chasing a beam of light' ) is re-interpreted and used as one of the foundational arguments in this paper. The new interpretation is that it is the phase velocity of light that is always constant irrespective of source, observer and mirror velocity. The group velocity behaves in a more conventional way: it is independent of source (absolute) velocity but depends on observer and mirror velocity. For an observer moving near the speed of light away from a light source, the phases will still move past the observer at the speed of light while the group will be at rest relative to the observer. The new theoretical framework consists of two theories: 1. Apparent Source theory 2. Exponential Doppler Effect of light theory . The results of many light speed experiments can be derived from these two theories. Apparent Source Theory determines the phase and group delay of light, whereas Exponential Doppler Effect theory determines the frequency/wavelength of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2781] **viXra:1802.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-19 07:50:14*

**Authors:** Karan R.Takkhi

**Comments:** 4 pages, 1 figure

The value of the cosmological constant obtained according to the quantum field theory is 10^120 times larger than the observed small value of the cosmological constant. Such huge discrepancy with the cosmological constant, known as the cosmological constant problem would cause a vacuum catastrophe. Since the discrepancy involved with the cosmological constant is unimaginably very high, therefore, molecular diffusion model has been introduced in this paper as an alternative to dark energy in order to explain the accelerated expansion of the Universe. The molecular diffusion model considers the distribution of large-scale structures as molecules inside a vacuum chamber. Since large-scale structures are ensemble of atoms, therefore, they can be treated as distribution of molecules possessing finite amount of energy. Instead of considering that space is expanding, the manuscript emphasizes upon the recession of large-scale structures upon a stationary space-time continuum. Since the discrepancy with the cosmological constant is very large, therefore, instead of considering that empty space possesses energy, it would be much more prudent to consider that large-scale structures possess energy by the virtue of which they recede, quite similar to a molecule that recedes by the virtue of energy that it possesses, after all, “the diffusion or free expansion of gas molecules inside a vacuum chamber by the virtue of vacuum energy or dark energy” has never been heard of; such claim, if true, would only suggest that gas molecules do not possess any energy. Instead of considering distant Type 1a supernova as a standard candle, I have considered the Sun as the standard candle. The study shows that the large-scale structures are receding at a constant rate, instead at an accelerated rate. The actual or the finite recessional velocity that a massive galaxy cluster attains by the virtue of its finite energy has also been unravelled in this paper along with the corresponding value of their “true” redshift.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2780] **viXra:1802.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-18 17:16:26*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

We test counter examples of conditions for the speed of light as s:
If possibly c is not equivalent to s, and c is less than or greater than s, then: (1.2)
If possibly c is not equivalent to s, and possibly c is less than or greater than s, then: (1.3)
If possibly c is equivalent to s, or possibly c is less than or greater than s, then: (1.4)
The result is that E=mc^2 not tautologous after all.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2779] **viXra:1802.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-18 11:09:01*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 6 pages

In its basic form, the Special Relativity’s famous mass-energy equivalence equation doesn’t seem to hold for massless particles. To get around this deficiency, another form (energy-momentum relation) of the same equation incorporating a momentum term has been introduced by the physics mainstream. The adopted mainstream derivation of the energy-momentum relation is based on certain assumptions using Minkowski spacetime four-momentum, forcing a solution towards the energy-momentum relation. This form of the mass-energy equivalence equation appears to hold for massless particles. However, in this paper, an analysis of the mainstream derivation of the energy-momentum relation is carried out, highlighting the made assumptions, and revealing a resulting contradiction. It is clearly shown, through a straight forward derivation, that the energy-momentum relation still doesn’t hold for massless particles. Consequently, the energy-momentum relation requires that a photon must have an infinitesimal rest mass, for which its speed only approaches c. Thus, the speed of light will no longer be invariant with respect to all inertial reference frames, as postulated by Einstein in his formulation of the Special Relativity!

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2778] **viXra:1802.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-18 01:15:56*

**Authors:** Durgadas Datta.

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Review and re think.

Re look cosmology observations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2777] **viXra:1802.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-16 14:42:23*

**Authors:** Abed Peerally

**Comments:** 29 Pages. Last paper in the author's series on Theory of Everything

Members of the public and intellectuals do appreciate that the universe appears to be something
beyond explanations. It is a colossal miracle, because there is no evidence of any kind, capable
of indicating how such an impossible reality could have arisen, without attributing it to superintelligent
induction, based on nothing like the science and physics we know of. We should not
use the limitation of human knowhow, to claim that it all of existence arose from nothing, or from
a few grams of vacuum energy, based on science which did not exist. This third article is the last,
before the author publishes his Theory of Everything, in his coming book, later this year, 2018.
Elaborating a genuine Theory of Everything (TOE) is obviously a very demanding proposition. To
start with, you can never be certain it has been correctly formulated, because we are just humans,
created without the capacity to possess supernatural knowledge. The TOE remains the only
universal unified concept having a future, after Glashow two years back openly admitted that the
Grand Unified Theory of his and Georgi, of 1974, was dead. To start with, the TOE should be an
all-encompassing model that provides answers to many questions from scientists and the public
about the origin and nature of our universe. Historically, the seeds of a theory of our universe
were sown in efforts to produce a field unification theory, in 1864, when Maxwell published his
dynamical theory of electromagnetic field. This influenced Einstein in 1905 to use Maxwell’s
constancy of the speed of light to unify space and time into the concept of spacetime. Later
Einstein conceived of curved four-dimensional spacetime to describe gravity in his General
Relativity. Some years later Weyl in 1919 came up with the gauge electromagnetic field theory,
which eventually led to the concept of Grand Unified Theory, which was believed to be one in
which all forces would merge into a single force, due to different fields being able to “merge” into
a unified one.
2
Kaluza in 1921 envisaged General Relativity as a 5-dimensional entity in which Klein, in 1926,
suggested that the fourth dimension could be curled up to illustrate gravitational force. These
varied developments were the earliest attempts at trying to understand the universe in unified
field theories, and it was in this rather confused context, as from 1930, that Einstein embarked on
an ambitious journey into a 25 year-dedication to formulate a classical Unified Field Theory, which
never materialised, and he was still scribbling some equations on his last day in 1955. A decade
later, there started a new realisation about unifying the electromagnetic force with the Weak
Interaction, arising from the work of Higgs, Glashow, Weinberg and Salam that produced the
unified Electroweak Theory, the unification of the electromagnetic and weak forces. This trend
encouraged physicists to contemplate that perhaps at very high energies, not yet possible under
contemporary technologies, all forces might unify into one grand unified theory, the GUT, which
when unified with gravity, would produce a theory of everything. Recent data suggest that a Grand
Unified Theory is either a theoretical curiosity, misunderstood, or a mirage. Speculations went
much further, for there have been suggestions that a GUT, championed by Salam and others,
would produce at the highest energy a single combined field of all forces, from which would
emerge evidence of the occurrence of superparticles, for each of the standard particles in today’s
physics. The important questions are why the universe requires such physical entities and how
do they fit into the final explanations of the realities of our laws of nature, for instance the nature
of consciousness and other phenomena of existence, like Darwin’s theory of evolution or black
holes or the Big Bang theory, or even about the origin of our universe.
This being so, several efforts, in the physics and cosmology domains, try to dig into the strata of
universal knowledge to search for our ultimate relevance and future, but the topic of finding a TOE
was seen to be even more elusive. However, scientists were convinced that the Theory of
Everything was first and foremost a concept of our ultimate realities and of existence. It is believed
it would harbour major components of physics in intimacy with philosophy. You need philosophical
inspiration to see the physics, which then tells you how the philosophy should be like, or you need
to see the philosophy to understand why the physics is as it is. The physics is pure physics and
the philosophy pure philosophy, but they might both be imperative towards understanding the
origin and the meaning of existence.
What we have currently is a collection of narratives about the origin of our universe, all spinning
around contrasting centres of philosophical influence. Even here in intellectual work, there is an
implication of entropy for once the culture of defining various theories of everything has reached
a certain maximum, the true Theory of Everything could find a greater likelihood to emerge. In
3
entropy, including intellectual entropy, there will be factors of determinism and indeterminism,
such that they would interplay in the process of the evolution of ideas, where entropy would ensure
we always move from maximum order, with loads of data, to maximum disorder, in framed
concepts on which little more conceptual work is possible, a fact which means that the Theory of
Everything, describing the most evolved universal tenets of existence, would represent the most
disorderly intellectual system, at the highest intellectual entropy. That would be the universal
explanatory key conceived by humans for humans, based on philosophy and physics, to unlock
the mysteries of the universe that was masterminded by a Supernatural Power.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2776] **viXra:1802.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 14:18:02*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 4 Pages. none

This paper investigates the General Relativity Theory (GRT) by studying the relativistic free fall of a small test body in a uniform gravitational field. The paper compares the predictions of energy loss, perhaps by radiation, in a free fall obtained from the GRT and the Metric Theory of Gravity (MTG). It is found that the gravitational mass dependence on velocity in GRT is not correct, because it predicts a negative loss of energy while the MTG predicts correctly a positive loss.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2775] **viXra:1802.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-16 01:01:27*

**Authors:** Wei Xu

**Comments:** 5 Pages. The related articles are available at http://vixra.org/author/wei_xu

By discovering *Asymmetric World Equation*, we formulate the astonishing results: the *Third Universal Motion Equations, *which produce a consequence of laws of conservations and commutations, and characterize universal evolutions of *Ontology* and *Cosmology*:

- Flux Commutations and classical General Relativity,
- Animation and Reproduction of Physical Ontology,
- Creation and Annihilation of Virtual Ontology
- Motion Dynamics of Cosmology, and
- Field Equations of Cosmology.

Finally, the philosophical terminology is outlined as the inspirational highlights of “*Universal and Unified Field Theory”*.

[2774] **viXra:1802.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 09:03:56*

**Authors:** R. I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 3 Pages. 20th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, GR-20, Sydney Australia Jan 29-30, 2018. Conference Proceedings

As is well known, the energy-momentum pseudotensors of the gravitational field allow you to calculate the total mass of a body and its gravitational field. We performed such a calculation and found a positive contribution of the pseudotensor to the mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2773] **viXra:1802.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-14 08:46:18*

**Authors:** John Hunter

**Comments:** 5 pages + references and appendices, total 14 pages.

In order to deal with the coincidence problem a new scalefactor-redshift relation is considered. With the new relation a constant rate of expansion with no cosmological constant matches observations well. There is thus the possibility that the dark energy phenomenon is an illusion caused by the use of an incorrect relation.
The new relation arises naturally in a cosmological model which expands - yet appears static, incorporating the perfect cosmological principle. It is found that the new relation also leads to a natural resolution of the tension between Hubble constant values from the distance ladder and Cosmic Background Radiation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2772] **viXra:1802.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-14 01:34:32*

**Authors:** Valentín Ibáñez Fernández

**Comments:** 58 Pages.

The estimation obtained in this work convincingly confirms that, due to the errors previously committed in Albert Einstein's theory of special relativity, the resulting mathematical transformation is erroneous and the two physical systems described in the special theory of relativity are not inertial systems.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2771] **viXra:1802.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-13 02:22:05*

**Authors:** Lev I. Verkhovsky

**Comments:** 15 Pages. In 2000 I published in Russian a brochure "Memoir on the Theory of Relativity and a Unified Field Theory": http://viXra.org/abs/1801.0305. Now I present the English translation of version II of the brochure with minor differences from the version 2000 (

Lorentz transformations in their originally more general form, i.e. with the scale factor are considered. It is shown, that H. Lorenz, A. Poincare, and A. Einstein put this factor equal to one without proper foundations. It is clarified the physical sense of this factor – he describes the Doppler effect. As the result the paradoxes of the special theory of relativity are removed, grandiose simplifications occur in GR and the natural path to the construction of unified field theory is opening.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2770] **viXra:1802.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-11 20:35:42*

**Authors:** Evgeny A Novikov

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract
The creation of the universe is described in a form of conversation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2769] **viXra:1802.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-11 22:29:30*

**Authors:** Jody A Geiger

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Unifying quantum and classical physics has proved difficult as their postulates are conflicting. Using the notion of counts of the fundamental measures—length, mass, and time—a unifying description is resolved. A theoretical framework is presented in a set of postulates by which a conversion between expressions from quantum and classical physics can be made. Conversions of well-known expressions specific to gravitation, special and general relativity exemplify the approach and mathematical procedures. The postulated integer counts of fundamental measures changes our understanding of length and allows a straight-forward application of the principles of relativity to a gravitational field.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2768] **viXra:1802.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-12 01:09:49*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Expansion of the universe by Hubble, allows you to calculate the expansion at a minimum distance. What makes it possible to set a correction to the limiting speed of information transfer, which is used in the theory of relativity. At the same time, the corrections in different local regions differ from each other. The amendments, albeit insignificantly small, can unexpectedly give some results, as shown in the example.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2767] **viXra:1802.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-09 14:40:16*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Non

This paper investigates the possibility of testing the General Relativity Theory (GRT) by studying the relativistic free fall of a small test body in a uniform gravitational field. The constant improvements in technology lead to increased precision of measurements, which opens up new possibility of testing the GRT. The paper compares the free fall predictions obtained from the Newtonian physics theory, the GRT, and the Metric Theory of Gravity (MTG). It is found that it might be possible to distinguish between the GRT and the MTG theories with a reasonable confidence and thus determine by experimental methods which theory is actually correct.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2766] **viXra:1802.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-09 02:26:11*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

An isolated physical system of elastic collision between two identical
objects is chosen to manifest the physics law,
conservation of momentum, in two inertial reference frames. In the
first reference frame,
the center of mass (COM) is stationary. In the second reference frame, the center of mass
moves at a constant velocity. By applying
Lorentz transformation to the velocities of both objects, total momentum before and
during the collision in the second reference frame can be compared. The comparison
shows that conservation of momentum fails to hold
when both objects move together at the same velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2765] **viXra:1802.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-07 07:34:13*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In deep space, accurate timekeeping is vital to navigation, but many spacecraft lack precise timepieces on board. [5] Physics is sometimes closer to philosophy when it comes to understanding the universe. Donald Chang from Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, China, attempts to elucidate whether the universe has a resting frame. [4] This paper explains the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2764] **viXra:1802.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-05 13:32:20*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci, Pe

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Ever since the Laser Interferometer Gravitational–Wave Observatory (LIGO), one each at Hanford, Washington, and Livingston, Louisiana, allegedly detected gravity waves from merging binary black holes on September 14, 2015, there have been numerous challenges to the claim (and to subsequent claims for further detections, including even gravity waves from merging binary neutron stars on August 17, 2017). These challenges range from denying the very existence of black holes to “liberties” taken with the interpretation of the signals received at the different sites, especially the fact that these signals were pre-simulated to align with the theory of gravitational waves themselves, such that their “detection” was no more than a self-fulfilling prophecy. One particularly astute challenge stems from the claim that, if a gravity wave were to distort space-time, then not only light waves, but also the physical dimensions of LIGO itself, would be distorted, such that any alleged “perturbation” claimed to be a gravity wave due to generation of an interference pattern from the LIGO lasers could not be due to gravity waves. This possibility is examined here, with an alternative as aether disturbances included as what LIGO actually has detected.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2763] **viXra:1802.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-05 21:24:31*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

An isolated physical system of inelastic collision between two identical
objects is chosen to manifest the physics law,
conservation of momentum, in two inertial reference frames. In the
first reference frame,
the center of mass (COM) is stationary. In the second reference frame, one
object is at rest before collision. By applying
Lorentz transformation to the velocities of both objects, total momentum before and after the collision in the second reference frame can be compared. The comparison shows that conservation of momentum fails to hold
when both objects move together at the same velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2762] **viXra:1802.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-02 16:17:51*

**Authors:** Mario Everaldo de Souza

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Paper submitted to Frontiers in Science

It is shown that galaxies close to galactic sheets are attracted towards them with an approximate Hooke’s law force. Thus, as they get closer to the sheets, the more their velocities increase, and the more the magnitude of their accelerations decrease. Therefore, the so-called acceleration of the Universe is completely misleading. A sort of molecular potential exists for galaxies inside voids. It is suggested that the Universe is a new kind of amorphous solid. For the first time it is estimated that the universal expansion is of the order of one trillion years.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2761] **viXra:1802.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-01 15:43:26*

**Authors:** Szostek Roman, Góralski Paweł, Szostek Kamil

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Gravity waves in Newton's gravitation and test proposition of Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave (LIGO) (in Polish)

W artykule wykazane zostało, że z prawa ciążenia Newtona wynika istnienie fal grawitacyjnych.
W artykule pokazane zostały różnice pomiędzy przebiegiem fal grawitacyjnych wynikających z grawitacji Newtona oraz przebiegiem fal grawitacyjnych wynikających z Ogólnej Teorii Względności, których pomiar został ogłoszony przez zespół LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory).
Według obu teorii fale grawitacyjne są cyklicznymi zmianami natężenia pola grawitacyjnego.
W artykule zaproponowana została metoda testowania interferometru laserowego do pomiaru fali grawitacyjnej używanego w obserwatorium LIGO.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2760] **viXra:1802.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-01 22:17:09*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

We define the twin paradox without resort to stopping because we assume that instant velocity commences and terminates at an instant state of rest.
Twins occupy the same fiducial point from which one twin obtains an instant velocity to a non-fiducial point, then obtains another instant velocity back to the fiducial point. The question is are the twins the same at the fiducial point before and after the separation and travel of the one twin. This is the state of affairs without special relativity.
We also test the above as the counter example for the state of affairs with special relativity.
[T]he twin paradox is not a paradox, but rather something else, namely, a state of affairs that is not tautologous and not contradictory.
What follows is that special relativity is suspicious.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2759] **viXra:1802.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-02 01:36:32*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

An isolated physical system of elastic collision between two identical
objects is chosen to manifest the
conservation of momentum in two inertial reference frames. In the first reference frame,
the center of mass (COM) is stationary. In the second reference frame, one
object is at rest.
The second frame is created by a temporary
acceleration from the first frame. By applying both
velocity transformation and
conservation of momentum to this isolated system, mass transformation
is derived precisely.
The result shows that the mass of an object is independent of its motion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2758] **viXra:1801.0422 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-31 23:50:32*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Rejected by Internattional Knowledge Press because "we are unable to conclude that these findings would warrant publication in this journal."

This letter is suggesting that dark energy, dark matter and universal expansion are intimately related. However, they aren't viewed as revolutions in cosmology which are essential to a complete understanding of the modern universe. They are instead viewed as properties which need to be added to the cosmos when Einstein's theory of gravity (General Relativity) is apparently still not thoroughly comprehended a little over a century since it was published.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2757] **viXra:1801.0420 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-30 07:20:18*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci, Pe

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Famous dissident physicist, Bill Gaede, has a unique theory as to the nature of light. He postulates that light consists of electromagnetic “ropes” where electric and magnetic “threads” intertwine to connect all atoms in the universe. This is akin to a concept I have entertained that the “aether,” if it exists, can be viewed as standing waves making similar connections. Such “waves” may consist of contiguous “aether particles,” each the size of the electron or smaller (neutrino?). At least on a cursory level, it appears that these two independent concepts may be consistent with light speed being constant with respect to its source, but variable with respect to an observer when the observer or the source (or both) are in motion. Of course, in the presence of an all-pervading aether whose perturbation constitutes light itself and limits its speed to c, this variation in light speed would not occur, but would be manifest instead as Doppler shifts.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2756] **viXra:1801.0415 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-30 11:15:57*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Shevchenko, Vladimir V. Tokarevsky

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In the paper a number of existent solutions of the twin paradox are considered. It is shown, that any solutions aren’t and cannot be principally the solutions, if they are in accordance with the special relativity theory; the unique correct solution is possible only provided that Matter’s spacetime is absolute.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2755] **viXra:1801.0372 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-26 15:14:45*

**Authors:** Florian Michael Schmitt

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

All relevant experiments that disagree with static or entrained ether vice versa that led to the historical breakthrough of Special Relativity will be revised from the scratch. It will be shown that an alternative model based on rightly understood gravitational dragging of light is able to explain the notorious phenomena. Invariance of light speed, time dilation and Lorentz contraction will become obsolete. Focus is laid on the most problematic subjects as there are: Stellar and terrestrial aberration, anomaly of Mercury orbit shift, Sagnac effect and Michelson/Gale/Pearson/Pearson versus Michelson/Morley experiment.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2754] **viXra:1801.0368 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-27 02:42:00*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 101 Pages.

This paper details a “time-relativity” theorem, the golden ratio algorithm effecting a unified theory of time and space, the calculations of which are entirely consistent with all known fundamental equations and associated observed phenomena, atomic to cosmological; “time” is presented as the fundamental “quality” of reality through which space, defined as 0-scalar space, is given its characteristics. Six key preceding papers [1-6] are streamed in sections 1-6, following which section 7 presents all the key concepts of the new relativity of time and associated cosmological model into a “one theory” for time and space; flowcharts are forwarded highlighting the idea of time as this new algorithm linking all known fundamental equations and associated observed phenomena. From this, it demonstrated that all key concepts of space-time have been addressed, with all relevant equations derived thereof, all central to the new algorithm for time. Finally, three key mechanisms of proof, well within scientific research capability of the near future, are proposed, detailing here how to emerge a gravitational field from electromagnetism in a laboratory setting.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2753] **viXra:1801.0338 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-25 07:27:47*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity ( STR ) provides a formula for the Doppler effect of light that differs from conventional formulas based on ether theory and emission theory. The relativistic Doppler effect formula becomes undefined for source-observer relative velocities greater than the speed of light. Since STR asserts that no ( relative ) velocity can ever reach or exceed the speed of light, this has never been seen as a problem. However, it will be shown in this paper that relative velocities greater than the speed of light can be attained even within the framework of STR, i.e. without violating the universal light speed limit. Imagine a light source and an observer at rest relative to each other and located close to each other. Light emitted by the source travels to a distant mirror and reflects back to the observer, while the mirror is moving towards the observer and the source with velocity equal to ( close to ) the speed of light. In this case the relative velocity between the mirror image of the source and the observer is equal to twice the speed of light, 2c. Since it is the relative velocity of the mirror image of the source and the observer that determines the Doppler effect, which is equal to 2c in this case, the relativistic Doppler effect formula becomes undefined because β = V/c = 2c/c = 2, which is greater than 1, resulting in a square root of negative number in the relativistic Doppler effect formula. This disproves relativistic Doppler effect, and hence the Special Theory of Relativity. According to STR the usual analysis is that the mirror image of the source never attains the speed of light because of the relativistic velocity addition formula. Since STR has been disproved logically, experimentally and theoretically, this assertion is not valid.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2752] **viXra:1801.0330 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-24 15:38:00*

**Authors:** Richard J Benish

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Essay submitted to Fundamental Questions Institute (FQXi) 2018 Essay Contest

After the physicality of existence, gravity's role in the Universe is the most fundamental thing. This role has various manifestations which, it is argued, have been largely misinterpreted by modern physics. An alternative conception of gravity---one that agrees with firmly established empirical evidence---is most compactly characterized by its definition of Newton's constant in terms of other fundamental constants. This expression and supporting arguments largely fulfill the long-standing goal of unifying gravity with the other forces. Phenomena spanning atomic nuclei to the large-scale cosmos and the basic physical elements, mass, space, and time, are thereby seen as comprising an interdependent (unified) whole. Meanwhile, a virtual industry of fanciful, far-from-fundamental mathematical distractions clog up the literature of what is still called fundamental physics. By contrast with this dubious activity---most importantly---the new conception can be empirically tested by probing gravity where it has not yet been probed: inside (through the center) of every body of matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2751] **viXra:1801.0328 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-24 16:39:02*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Time in an inertial reference frame can be obtained from the definition of velocity
in that inertial reference frame.
Velocity depends on coordinate and time. Therefore, coordinate transformation and
velocity transformation between inertial reference frames can lead to
time transformation.
Based on this approach, the time transformation between two arbitrary inertial
reference frames in one dimensional space is derived. The result shows that the
elapsed time is identical in all inertial reference frames.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2750] **viXra:1801.0308 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-23 22:45:10*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The theory of Special Relativity does not truly show symmetry in the phenomenon of stellar aberration, and hence is no better than ether theory in this respect. Only emission theory conforms to such symmetry, which is a requirement of the principle of relativity. In this paper, it will be proposed that the phenomenon of stellar aberration is in fact symmetrical with respect to motion of the light source and motion of the observer. According to Apparent Source theory (AST), the phenomenon of stellar aberration occurs not only in the case of light source at rest and observer in motion, but also in the case of light source in absolute motion and observer at rest. The phenomenon of stellar aberration occurs in the latter case because of an apparent change in the past position of a light source in absolute motion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2749] **viXra:1801.0305 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-23 06:14:40*

**Authors:** Lev I. Verkhovsky

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

In the brochure (in Russian) "Memoir on the Theory of Relativity and Unified Field Theory" (2000)it is shown that the generally accepted Lorentz transformations have an erroneous form: they lack a scale factor (therefore the whole SRT is incorrect). It is well known, that at first Lorentz considered a more general form of transformations (with a scale factor), but then he, and after him, Poincare and Einstein equated it 1 without due cause. We have revealed the physical meaning of the scale factor -- it characterizes the Doppler effect.
A new kind of transformations (with Doppler factor) immediately removes paradox of twins and Ehrenfest's paradox. The interval is no longer an invariant -- only the condition that the interval is zero rests invariant. As a consequence, we get that the laws of nature are scale invariants.
In GR there will be a grandiose simplification: the gravitational equation will be reduced to the d'Alembert equation. It seems that the way to the construction of a unified field theory is opening

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2748] **viXra:1801.0261 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-20 14:20:30*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this article section 1 and 2 of Einstein’s article about his Special Theory of Relativity have been scrutinized. The conclusion is that Einstein spent a lot of text on the concepts simultaneousness, synchronousness and time, without bringing forth any relevant information. Besides that he made two fundamental mistakes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2747] **viXra:1801.0255 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-19 12:28:27*

**Authors:** Mamaev A.V.

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

An alternative interpretation of Special Relativity Theory is offered, according to which light clocks of identical design (with aboslutely identical distance between parallel mirrors of light clocks), moving each with respect the other uniformly and rectilinearly, may be synchronised each with other because they have equal time measurement units and do not retard each from other, retardation of a moving clock with respect a stationary one is absent and superlight speeds of motion are not forbidden.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2746] **viXra:1801.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-19 20:37:31*

**Authors:** Jayanta Majumder, Shikha Majumder, Sambuddha Majumder

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

This article presents an alternative theory of relativity whereby relativistic effects emerge as a result of rationing of Newtonian time into spatial and intrinsic motions. Time dilation and Lorentz transform are deduced from postulates that are fundamentally different from those used by Einstein.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2745] **viXra:1801.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-19 09:37:19*

**Authors:** Piscedda Giampaolo

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this theory I have described the electricity force as a gravitational force.
For read this article is necessary consulting
Vixra 1711.0299, 1711.0362 Author: Piscedda Giampaolo

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2744] **viXra:1801.0229 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-18 06:20:20*

**Authors:** Giacomo Roccaforte

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The “Absolute Time Theory” is the natural result of the analysis of specific situations that the Special Theory of Relativity does not take in consideration, or for which it does not provided information about them.
These situations are listed as critical points, scenarios that would lead to ambiguous, contradictory or unexplained conclusions, using the same principles as the theory itself.
Using the same experimental data as the basis for the birth of the Special Theory of Relativity, and which are normally used to confirm the theory itself, we comes to a solution where these critical points would be eliminated.
We then come to a theory where the results would be unambiguous, not dependent by arbitrary choice, in line with data experiences and established theory principles, such as the constancy of the speed of light and its independence from the motion of the source , means the same elements that are in Special Theory of Relativity, but interpreted in a different way.
The entire theory is now divided into chapters and translate in English in order to be more clear and readable.
Each chapter can be a theory itself or unexplained scenario, all of them with their conclusion, till to arrive to the final conclusion that means the final theory.
The following first chapter is the analysis of the same experimental data used for the basis for the birth of the Special Theory of Relativity, the Michelson/Morley experiment.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2743] **viXra:1801.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-18 11:08:58*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Abstract: A revised and improved forward-time, reverse-time energy cycle of the 9th cycle of an HCE8S universe for a full loop of the cycle is shown

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2742] **viXra:1801.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-18 02:55:26*

**Authors:** Edgars Alksnis

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Space gravity look more in line with early thougts of Newton.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2741] **viXra:1801.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-17 09:08:32*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The x-direction Galilean and Lorentz space-time transformations are both effectively two-dimensional matrix transformations, so a simple four-parameter general framework of which both are special cases is easily devised. Moreover, passing from the general space-time transformation to its velocity counterpart uniquely singles out one of those four parameters as the general transformation's intrinsic x-direction constant velocity. This allows the "principle of relativity" to be extended to such general transformations; it applies when the transformation's inversion is accomplished by reversing the sign of its intrinsic velocity. Both the Galilean and Lorentz transformations abide by the "principle of relativity", and the Galilean transformation in addition refrains from altering the time coordinate. The Michelson-Morley null result, however, motivates the Lorentz transformation to refrain from changing the speed of light, which is readily shown to be outright incompatible with transformation-invariant time. The Lorentz transformation's pairing of invariant light speed with the "relativity principle" is closely allied to its
preservation of the Minkowski quadratic form.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2740] **viXra:1801.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-17 12:02:30*

**Authors:** Jayanta Majumder, Shikha Majumder, Sambuddha Majumder

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This article presents a new interpretation of relativity whereby relativistic effects emerge as a result of rationing of Newtonian time into spatial and intrinsic motions. Unlike special theory of relativity, this theory does not need to postulate that speed of light (c) is constant for all reference frames. The constancy of speed of light emerges from more basic principles.
This theory postulates that :

** The speed of spatial motion of a particle is always c **

**
Spatial motion and intrinsic motion continuously, linearly, and symmetrically rubs into each other.
**

Postulate 1 seems reasonable because the Dirac model of electron already shows that the spatial speed of intrinsic degrees of freedom of an electron is always c. If the spatial speed was anything other than c then time-sharing between spatial and intrinsic motions would have entailed repeated cycles of high accelerations and deccelerations. Postulate 2 is also reasonable because it is the simplest and most symmetric way for the spatial and intrinsic time-shares to co-evolve in time.
An observer's physical measure of time is entirely encoded by its intrinsic motions. This is the relativistic time. The time spent in spatial motion does not cause any change of the particle's internal state, and therefore does not contribute to measurable time.

Speed of light is constant regardless of the speed of the observer because light advances with respect the observer only for the duration of its intrinsic motion (i.e. during the relativistic time). During spatial motion, the observer moves with the light. Consequently the spatial advance of light divided by the relativistic time (i.e. the observed relative speed) is always c. Hence constancy of speed of light, which is a postulate for Einstein's relativity, is a deduced result here.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2739] **viXra:1801.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-15 06:26:44*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The explanation of Michelson-Morley experiment is based on both actual and apparent reduction (equal) of light speed. The actual reduction of light speed happens only when the light is transmitted on moving material systems, on which the cohesive pressure of the proximal space is reduced. The apparent reduction of
light speed happens due to the aberration of light, which can be used as a detection criterion of the absolute motion. Lorentz factor of special relativity is the tool for the mathematical expression of the problem that had arisen from the Michelson-Morley
experiment. Of course, the time dilation was an ingenious and pioneering idea, which
has been accepted, ignoring, though, the real cause of the slowing of the moving clock,
i.e. the phenomenon of motion. However, this same reduction factor appears as
well in the unified theory of dynamic space with the Galilean transformations, by
calculating the actual reduction of the light speed on moving material systems, not
based on the second postulate of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2738] **viXra:1801.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-15 12:13:07*

**Authors:** Lex Neale

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Integral Relativity, as an extension of General Relativity, Special Relativity and Advanced Relativity, has four proposed Tenets: (1) The Equation of Energy with Awareness; (2) The Conservation of Awareness; (3) The Continuum of Energy, Consciousness, Mind and Matter via the Kosmic Constant; (4) The Integral Relativity between Observers and the Observed in Hilbert Spaces as specified Frequency Domains. It is corroborated by the Observer Effect in all the related double slit and interferometer experiments, most notably those of Dean Radin’s Sigma 5.7 rated results (2016); by the Unified Spacememory Network, modeled by Nassim Haramein and William Brown (2016); by Elizabeth Rauscher’s Complex Eight Dimensional Model of Minkowsky Space; and is modeled by an extension of Ken Wilber’s All Quadrants, All Levels (AQAL) Integral model called the “AQAL Cube” (Neale, 2011), which correlates non- physical existence with physical existence.
Integral Relativity predicts that the Observer and observed are a mutually inclusive Consciousness/Mind/Energy/Matter continuum. We propose that the terms Consciousness and Mind be no longer used synonymously in the scientific community, but differentiated as an integral Awareness/Energy continuum between Hilbert Spaces, where Consciousness is non-local or Subtle awareness, and Mind is its correlated local or Concrete awareness and means of en-action.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2737] **viXra:1801.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-14 17:26:03*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 16 Pages. The new physical theory called the Special Theory of Ether (in Russian).

Широко распространено мнение, что эксперименты Майкельсона-Морли с 1887 года и эксперимент Кеннеди-Торндайка с 1932 года показали, что нет универсальной системы отсчета (эфир) и что скорость света в вакууме абсолютно постоянна. Анализ этих экспериментов привел к созданию Специальной Теории Относительности (СТО).
В статье объясняется, почему с помощью экспериментов Майкельсона-Морли и Кеннеди-Торндайка не могла быть обнаружена универсальная система отсчета.
Кроме того, в этой статье мы выводим на основе геометрического анализа экспериментов Майкельсона-Морли и Кеннеди-Торндайка другое преобразование координат и времени, чем преобразование Лоренца. Мы выводим преобразование, предполагая, что существует универсальная система отсчета (universal frame of reference - UFR, эфир). UFR является системой отсчета, которая отличается тем, что скорость света в ней постоянна в любом направлении. В инерциальных системах отсчета, движущихся относительно UFR, скорость света может быть разной.
В статье мы получаем формулу для относительной скорости и формулы для максимальной и минимальной скорости света, которая может быть измерена в инерциальной системе. В конце, используя представленную теорию, объясняется явление анизотропии микроволнового фонового излучения. Согласно модели кинематики тел, представленной в этой статье, аберрация микроволнового фонового излучения для наблюдателя, движущегося относительно UFR, обусловлена эффектом Доплера.
Вся статья содержит только оригинальные исследования авторов публикации.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2736] **viXra:1801.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-14 17:34:44*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 24 Pages. There are many dynamics in STR, and not one, it is believed. (in Russian)

В статье представлен наш новаторский метод вывода многочисленных динамик в Специальной Теории Относительности. Этот метод позволяет выводить бесконечно много динамик в релятивистской механике. Мы показали пять примеров таких выводов. Таким образом, мы доказали, что динамика, известная сегодня как динамика Специальной Теории Относительности, является только одной из бесконечно многих возможных. Также нет никаких оснований, ни по экспериментальным, ни по теоретическим причинам, чтобы считать эту, действующую релятивистскую динамику, исключительной. В связи с этим решение, какая из возможных динамик релятивистской механики является правильной, остаётся открытой проблемой физики.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2735] **viXra:1801.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-13 04:48:12*

**Authors:** Karan R.Takkhi

**Comments:** 3 pages, 1 figure

Dark energy, a mysterious and unknown form of energy is rightfully considered as the reason for causing the accelerated expansion of the Universe. Universe expanding at an accelerated rate instead of slowing down or even coming to a stop seems extremely uncanny. In this paper I present a theory/model as an alternative to dark energy in order to explain the mysterious accelerated expansion of the Universe. According to this theory/model, the large-scale structures are receding away from each other at an accelerated rate instead of space undergoing accelerated expansion. The reason why a cosmic structure recedes into the cosmic wilderness has also been unravelled in this paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2734] **viXra:1801.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-11 22:19:15*

**Authors:** Robert Bennett

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Abstract
Newton’s Bucket has been an enigma since being published in the Principia in 1687.
It was the source of debate between Newton’s absolute space and Ernst Mach’s concept of relative rotation with respect to distant objects.
Wikipedia’s rendition of the Bucket argument provides no solution but just confusion by ignoring some basic facts which will be pointed out in the detailed edits below.
•Relativity is assumed true instead of being proven true
•Kinematics and dynamics are not distinguished
•Arguing against discarded theories is pointless
•Switching reference frames during observations is fatal
•Missing the crucial role of the lab frame
•Fictitious forces are symbols of fictitious physics.
The key is to recognize that:
water at rest in the bucket frame => no rotation => no centrifugal force => no covariance => laws of dynamics are invalid in a non-lab frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2733] **viXra:1801.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-10 13:03:11*

**Authors:** Jorge Martinez Fernandez

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The purpose of this article is to present a new
cosmological model, based on the union of the Wilhelm
De Sitter Model applying the equations of the Russian
physicist Anatoli Logunov in the Relativistic Theory of
Gravitation (TRG).
The general ideas of the Relativistic Theory of Gravitation
(GRT) are based on the ideas of Poincaré, Minkowski,
Einstein and Hilbert, all within the framework of Special
Relativity (SR).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1932] **viXra:1803.0224 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-21 15:03:20*

**Authors:** Robert Bennett

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Static gravity alone accounts for the observation of the double tides on opposite sides of the earth and the different range of the lunar and solar tides. When the centrifugal acceleration of the Earth’s orbital speed is added to the gravitational accelerations, the HelioC theory is exposed as fictitious. There is no evidence of a centrifugal acceleration ...or force... in the tidal behavior. This agrees with other GC tests, like Newton’s Bucket, Sagnac’s rotor and R. Wang’s linear Sagnac version. Conversely, there are no proofs by scientific method testing or realistic interpretation that the Earth orbits the Sun. The rise and fall of the tides around the world is a semi-diurnal repetitive demonstration of the Earth’s central position in the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1931] **viXra:1803.0165 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-15 19:50:42*

**Authors:** Peter V. Raktoe

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The universe is enormous and it looks endless to us, but a clue tells us that it must also have a shell. That clue is the speed properties of light, they are similar to the properties of a transfer speed of a medium. A transfer speed of a medium is an internal speed that can only be found in a medium with a shell, and that tells us that the universe is a medium with some kind of a shell.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1930] **viXra:1803.0165 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-12 16:31:45*

**Authors:** Peter V. Raktoe

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The universe is enormous and it looks endless, but a clue tells us that it must also have a shell. That clue is the speed properties of light, they are similar to the properties of a transfer speed of a medium. A transfer speed of a medium is an internal speed that can only be found in a medium with a shell, and that tells us that the universe has a shell as well.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1929] **viXra:1803.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-13 13:13:20*

**Authors:** Theophile Caby

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

We discuss the notion of perception, and describe a simple mechanism by which distortion of observed distances occurs in a static universe, that is compatible with many cosmological observations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1928] **viXra:1803.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-12 12:43:29*

**Authors:** Theophile Caby

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

We discuss the notion of perception, and describe a simple mechanism by which distortion of observed distances occurs in a static universe, that is compatible with many cosmological observations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1927] **viXra:1803.0086 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-10 11:51:12*

**Authors:** Jaykov Foukzon, S.A.Podosenov, A.A.Potapov, E.Menkova

**Comments:** 135 Pages.

In present article the original proposition is a generalization of the Einstein's world tensor g ij by the introduction of pure inertial field tensor g ac ij such that R α μνλ (g ac ij )≠0 .Bimetric theory of gravitational-inertial field is considered for the case when the gravitational-Inertial field is governed by either a perfect magnetic fluid.In a series of papers published during the past decade with respect to Mössbauer experiments in a rotating system [71]-[75],it has been experimentally shown that the relative energy shift ΔE/E between the source of resonant radiation (situated at the center of the rotating system) and the resonant absorber (located on the rotor rim) is described by the relationship ΔE/E=−ku 2 /c 2 , where u is the tangential velocity of the absorber, c the velocity of light in vacuum, and k some coefficient, which -- contrary to what had been classically predicted equal 1/2 (see for example [35]) -- turns out to be substantially larger than 1/2. It cannot be stressed enough that the equality k=1/2 had been predicted by general theory of relativity (GTR) on account of the special relativistic time dilation effect delineated by the tangential displacement of the rotating absorber, where the "clock hypothesis" by Einstein (i.e., the non-reliance of the time rate of any clock on its acceleration [35]) was straightly adopted. Hence, the revealed inequality k>1/2 indicates the presence of some additional energy shift (next to the usual time dilation effect arising from tangential displacement alone) between the emitted and absorbed resonant radiation. By using Bimetric Theory of Gravitational-Inertial Field [76] we obtain k=0.625 in a good agreement with experimental result k=0.69 [75].

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1926] **viXra:1803.0005 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-02 14:53:45*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In the history of physics, momentum has been represented by two expressions.
One from Issac Newton, the other from Special Relativity. Both expressions are expected
to describe a physical system that demands conservation of momentum. By examining
the gravitational force between two identical particles in two different inertial reference frames,
the momentum expression from Issac Newton
is found to obey conservation of momentum while the momentum expression from Special
Relativity is found to violate conservation of momentum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1925] **viXra:1802.0410 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-18 20:28:35*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This article presents a new formulation of special relativity which is invariant under transformations between inertial and non-inertial (non-rotating) frames. Additionally, a simple solution to the twin paradox is presented and a new universal force is proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1924] **viXra:1802.0410 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-17 09:12:05*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This article presents a new formulation of special relativity which is invariant under transformations between inertial and non-inertial (non-rotating) frames. Additionally, a simple solution to the twin paradox is presented and a new universal force is proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1923] **viXra:1802.0410 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-08 07:00:59*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This article presents a new formulation of special relativity which is invariant under transformations between inertial and non-inertial (non-rotating) frames. Additionally, a simple solution to the twin paradox is presented and a new universal force is proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1922] **viXra:1802.0397 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-20 11:01:05*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Text expanded and references added.

Commemorating 110 years of Hermann Minkowski's lecture RAUM UND ZEIT, given at the 80th Meeting of the Natural Scientists in Cologne on 21 September 1908 and based on the crucial contributions to the theory of Special Relativity by Hendrik Lorentz, Albert Einstein and Henri Poincaré, I am happy to announce my video lecture, entitled: About Space and Time. It will be posted at my YouTube channel on Friday, 21 September 2018, at 10 GMT. Here is a brief introduction (draft version), which will be amended with the final text version of the lecture by the end of September 2018.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1921] **viXra:1802.0397 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-14 12:37:31*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Dedicated to 139th birthday of Albert Einstein, 14 March 2018.

Commemorating 110 years of Hermann Minkowski's lecture RAUM UND ZEIT, given at the 80th Meeting of the Natural Scientists in Cologne on 21 September 1908 and based on the crucial contributions to the theory of Special Relativity by Hendrik Lorentz, Albert Einstein and Henri Poincaré, I am happy to announce my video lecture, entitled: About Space and Time. It will be posted at my YouTube channel on Friday, 21 September 2018, at 10 GMT. Here is a brief introduction, which will be amended with the full text version of the lecture by the end of September 2018.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1920] **viXra:1802.0397 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-11 17:58:31*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Text expanded and references added.

Commemorating 110 years of Hermann Minkowski's lecture RAUM UND ZEIT, given at the 80th Meeting of the Natural Scientists in Cologne on 21 September 1908 and based on the crucial contributions to the theory of Special Relativity by Hendrik Lorentz, Albert Einstein and Henri Poincaré, I am happy to announce my video lecture, entitled: About Space and Time. It will be posted at my YouTube channel on Friday, 21 September 2018, at 10 GMT. Here is a brief introduction, which will be amended with the full text version of the lecture by the end of September 2018.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1919] **viXra:1802.0397 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-08 16:51:47*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Text expanded for clarity.

Commemorating 110 years of Hermann Minkowski's lecture RAUM UND ZEIT, given at the 80th Meeting of the Natural Scientists in Cologne on 21 September 1908 and based on the crucial contributions to the theory of Special Relativity by Hendrik Lorentz, Albert Einstein and Henri Poincaré, I am happy to announce my video lecture, entitled: About Space and Time. It will be posted at my YouTube channel on Friday, 21 September 2018, at 10 GMT. Here is a brief introduction (5 pages), which will be amended with the full text version of the lecture by the end of September 2018.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1918] **viXra:1802.0397 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-05 01:19:26*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Commemorating 110 years of Hermann Minkowski's lecture RAUM UND ZEIT, given at the 80th Meeting of the Natural Scientists in Cologne on 21 September 1908 and based on the crucial contributions to the theory of Special Relativity by Hendrik Lorentz, Albert Einstein and Henri Poincaré, I am happy to announce my video lecture, entitled: About Space and Time. It will be posted at my YouTube channel on Friday, 21 September 2018, at 10 GMT. Here is a brief introduction (4 pages), which will be amended with the full text version of the lecture by the end of September 2018.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1917] **viXra:1802.0372 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-03 02:12:12*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In the unified theory of dynamic space the quantum time is identical to the elementary motion, traveled by electrically opposite elementary units (in short units) in the interval (click-shift) of the quantum dipole length at the speed of light. The quantum time in the units region is the Natural time, that replaced the conventional time, i.e. the second. Nature understands time, as a crowd of moving units, as a length traveled with click-shifts and as a volume occupied by the units. Therefore, time is reflected in the structures of space by the number of their units. However, motion is a form of space deformation, created by force that is reduced from the dynamic space
as motion force, which is accumulated on the spherical zone of the particle, due to the
difference of cohesive pressure in front of and behind it. This accumulation is made by force talantonion (oscillator) per quantum time in the formations region as quantum force, causing harmonic change to the difference of cohesive pressure in proximal space of the particle as a motion wave (wave-like form), the so-called, de Broglie's wave-particle. The Physical meaning of Planck's constant is interpreted as the product of three Nature's entities, namely the force talantonion (which is the foundation of
motion), the quantum dipole length and the quantum time in the formations region. The "relative" mass has now been proved and the proof is not based on the second postulate of relativity. So, the particle mass does not in fact increase, when it moves, but only the final force (of gravity and motion), which causes the new dynamics of particle motion, increases. This new dynamics appears as a tension of space, which is maintained in a different way for each uniform motion, resulting the change of the Physics Laws in different inertial systems.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1916] **viXra:1802.0368 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-27 05:37:27*

**Authors:** Arjun Dahal, Naresh Adhikari

**Comments:** 7 Pages. ©2017-2018 Journal of St. Xavier's Physics Council

Black holes are one of the fascinating objects in the universe with gravitational pull strong enough to capture light within them. Through this article we have attempted to provide an insight to the black holes, on their formation and theoretical developments that made them one of the unsolved mysteries of universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1915] **viXra:1802.0304 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-11 19:47:18*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The derivation of the Lorentz transformation normally rests on two a priori demands, namely that reversing the direction of the transformation's constant-velocity boost inverts the transformation, and that the transformation leaves light-speed invariant. It is notable, however, that the simple light-clock concept, which is rooted entirely in
light-speed invariance, immediately implies reciprocal time dilation, and it has been demonstrated that reciprocal time dilation implies length contraction. Reciprocal time dilation and length contraction are the pivotal consequences of the Lorentz transformation, so demanding only inertial transformation-invariance of light-speed apparently already uniquely produces the Lorentz transformation. We show that the demand of x-direction inertial transformation-invariance of the light-cone space-time locus uniquely produces the x-direction Lorentz transformation, and also that the demand of x-direction inertial transformation-invariance of light speed itself has the same consequence; in the latter case the velocity, instead of the space-time, version of the general x-direction inertial transformation must be used. The x-direction Lorentz transformation is also uniquely produced by the reciprocal time dilation and length contraction implications of light clocks.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1914] **viXra:1802.0286 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-25 00:36:31*

**Authors:** Robert Spoljaric

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The classical theories making up modern physics are: Newtonian mechanics, Maxwell’s equations, statistical mechanics, thermodynamics, special relativity and general relativity. We also mention nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, which is considered to be a nonclassical theory. Excluding Maxwell’s equations the Newtonian concept of mass plays a fundamental role in each of these theories even though no one really knows what mass is. Starting with relativistic mass we will reason our way to the conclusion that mass is an illusion, and tidal effects are local. That is, behind the illusion of mass lay the mass-free foundations of a mass-free paradigm of Relativity that transcends all the theories mentioned, and shows just why general relativity does not go far enough. Further, the true significance of Planck’s four-dimensional constant is to be found in this new paradigm of Relativity. The maths employed here have been used in [1] and [2].

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1913] **viXra:1802.0263 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-21 13:51:46*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

An isolated physical system of elastic collision between two identical charged
particles is chosen to manifest the physics law,
conservation of momentum, in a random inertial reference frame under Lorentz Transformation.
In this random reference frame, the center of mass
moves at a constant velocity. By applying
Lorentz transformation to the velocities of both particles, total momentum
during the collision in this random inertial reference frame can be calculated and
is expected to remain constant.
The calculation
shows that conservation of momentum fails to hold under Lorentz Transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1912] **viXra:1802.0263 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-21 00:10:12*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

An isolated physical system of elastic collision between two identical charged
particles is chosen to manifest the physics law,
conservation of momentum, in a random inertial reference frame under Lorentz Transformation.
In this random reference frame, the center of mass
moves at a constant velocity. By applying
Lorentz transformation to the velocities of both particles, total momentum
during the collision in this random inertial reference frame can be calculated and
is expected to remain constant.
The calculation
shows that conservation of momentum fails to hold under Lorentz Transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1911] **viXra:1802.0244 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-26 07:29:06*

**Authors:** Karan R.Takkhi

**Comments:** 5 pages, 1 figure

The value of the cosmological constant obtained according to the quantum field theory is 10^120 times larger than the observed small value of the cosmological constant. Such huge discrepancy with the cosmological constant, known as the cosmological constant problem would cause a vacuum catastrophe. Since the discrepancy involved with the cosmological constant is unimaginably very high, therefore, molecular diffusion model has been introduced in this paper as an alternative to dark energy in order to explain the accelerated expansion of the Universe. The molecular diffusion model considers the distribution of large-scale structures as molecules inside a vacuum chamber. Since large-scale structures are ensemble of atoms, therefore, they can be treated as distribution of molecules possessing finite amount of energy. Instead of considering that space is expanding, the manuscript emphasizes upon the recession of large-scale structures upon a stationary space-time continuum. Since the discrepancy with the cosmological constant is very large, therefore, instead of considering that empty space possesses energy, it would be much more prudent to consider that large-scale structures possess energy by the virtue of which they recede, quite similar to a molecule that recedes by the virtue of energy that it possesses, after all, “the diffusion or free expansion of gas molecules inside a vacuum chamber by the virtue of vacuum energy or dark energy” has never been heard of; such claim, if true, would only suggest that gas molecules do not possess any energy. The study shows that large-scale structures will attain a constant recessional velocity in distant future.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1910] **viXra:1802.0244 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-20 04:44:41*

**Authors:** Karan R.Takkhi

**Comments:** 4 pages, 1 figure

The value of the cosmological constant obtained according to the quantum field theory is 10^120 times larger than the observed small value of the cosmological constant. Such huge discrepancy with the cosmological constant, known as the cosmological constant problem would cause a vacuum catastrophe. Since the discrepancy involved with the cosmological constant is unimaginably very high, therefore, molecular diffusion model has been introduced in this paper as an alternative to dark energy in order to explain the accelerated expansion of the Universe. The molecular diffusion model considers the distribution of large-scale structures as molecules inside a vacuum chamber. Since large-scale structures are ensemble of atoms, therefore, they can be treated as distribution of molecules possessing finite amount of energy. Instead of considering that space is expanding, the manuscript emphasizes upon the recession of large-scale structures upon a stationary space-time continuum. Since the discrepancy with the cosmological constant is very large, therefore, instead of considering that empty space possesses energy, it would be much more prudent to consider that large-scale structures possess energy by the virtue of which they recede, quite similar to a molecule that recedes by the virtue of energy that it possesses, after all, “the diffusion or free expansion of gas molecules inside a vacuum chamber by the virtue of vacuum energy or dark energy” has never been heard of; such claim, if true, would only suggest that gas molecules do not possess any energy. The study shows that the large-scale structures are receding at a constant rate, instead at an accelerated rate. The actual or the finite recessional velocity that a massive galaxy cluster attains by the virtue of its finite energy has also been unravelled in this paper along with the corresponding value of its “true” redshift.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1909] **viXra:1802.0199 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-10 13:19:21*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 5 Pages. none

This paper investigates the General Relativity Theory (GRT) by studying the relativistic free fall of a small test body in a uniform gravitational field. The paper compares the predictions of energy loss, perhaps by radiation, in a free fall obtained from the GRT and from the Metric Theory of Gravity (MTG). It is found that the gravitational mass dependence on velocity in GRT is not correct, because it predicts a negative loss of energy while the MTG predicts correctly a positive loss. The case with no radiation loss and conservation of energy is also investigated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1908] **viXra:1802.0199 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-27 16:02:24*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 5 Pages. none

This paper investigates the General Relativity Theory (GRT) by studying the relativistic free fall of a small test body in a uniform gravitational field. The paper compares the predictions of energy loss, perhaps by radiation, in a free fall obtained from the GRT and from the Metric Theory of Gravity (MTG). It is found that the gravitational mass dependence on velocity in GRT is not correct, because it predicts a negative loss of energy while the MTG predicts correctly a positive loss.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1907] **viXra:1802.0199 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-25 09:22:48*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 4 Pages. none

This paper investigates the General Relativity Theory (GRT) by studying the relativistic free fall of a small test body in a uniform gravitational field. The paper compares the predictions of energy loss, perhaps by radiation, in a free fall obtained from the GRT and the Metric Theory of Gravity (MTG). It is found that the gravitational mass dependence on velocity in GRT is not correct, because it predicts a negative loss of energy while the MTG predicts correctly a positive loss.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1906] **viXra:1802.0195 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-18 14:58:43*

**Authors:** Wei Xu

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

By discovering *Asymmetric World Equation*, we formulate the astonishing results: the *Third Universal Motion Equations, *which produce a consequence of laws of conservations and commutations, and characterize universal evolutions of *Ontology* and *Cosmology*:

- Flux Commutations and classical General Relativity,
- Animation and Reproduction of Physical Ontology,
- Creation and Annihilation of Virtual Ontology
- Motion Dynamics of Cosmology, and
- Field Equations of Cosmology.

Finally, the philosophical terminology is outlined as the inspirational highlights of “*Universal and Unified Field Theory”*.

[1905] **viXra:1802.0195 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-22 17:48:45*

**Authors:** Wei Xu

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

By discovering *Asymmetric World Equation*, we formulate the astonishing results: the *Third Universal Motion Equations, *which produce a consequence of laws of conservations and commutations, and characterize universal evolutions of *Ontology* and *Cosmology*:

- Flux Commutations and classical General Relativity,
- Animation and Reproduction of Physical Ontology,
- Creation and Annihilation of Virtual Ontology
- Motion Dynamics of Cosmology, and
- Field Equations of Cosmology.

Finally, the philosophical terminology is outlined as the inspirational highlights of “*Universal and Unified Field Theory”*.

[1904] **viXra:1802.0111 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-13 23:03:04*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 6 Pages. none

This paper investigates the possibility of testing the General Relativity Theory (GRT) by studying the relativistic free fall of a small test body in a uniform gravitational field. The constant improvements in technology lead to increased precision of measurements, which opens up new possibility of testing the GRT. The paper compares the free fall predictions obtained from the Newtonian physics theory, the GRT, and the Metric Theory of Gravity (MTG). It is found that it might perhaps be possible to distinguish between the GRT and the MTG theories with a reasonable confidence and thus determine by experimental means which theory is actually correct.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1903] **viXra:1802.0111 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-13 11:54:19*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 6 Pages. none

This paper investigates the possibility of testing the General Relativity Theory (GRT) by studying the relativistic free fall of a small test body in a uniform gravitational field. The constant improvements in technology lead to increased precision of measurements, which opens up new possibility of testing the GRT. The paper compares the free fall predictions obtained from the Newtonian physics theory, the GRT, and the Metric Theory of Gravity (MTG). It is found that it might perhaps be possible to distinguish between the GRT and the MTG theories with a reasonable confidence and thus determine by experimental means which theory is actually correct.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1902] **viXra:1802.0111 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-11 09:14:50*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 4 Pages. non

This paper investigates the possibility of testing the General Relativity Theory (GRT) by
studying the relativistic free fall of a small test body in a uniform gravitational field. The constant
improvements in technology lead to increased precision of measurements, which opens up new
possibility of testing the GRT. The paper compares the free fall predictions obtained from the Newtonian
physics theory, the GRT, and the Metric Theory of Gravity (MTG). It is found that it might be possible to
distinguish between the GRT and the MTG theories with a reasonable confidence and thus determine by
experimental methods which theory is actually correct.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1901] **viXra:1802.0054 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-09 14:53:24*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

An isolated physical system of inelastic collision between two identical
objects is chosen to manifest the physics law,
conservation of momentum, in two inertial reference frames. In the
first reference frame,
the center of mass (COM) is stationary. In the second reference frame, one
object is at rest before collision. By applying
Lorentz transformation to the velocities of both objects, total momentum before and after the collision in the second reference frame can be compared. The comparison shows that conservation of momentum fails to hold
when both objects move together at the same velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1900] **viXra:1802.0054 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-08 23:45:30*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

An isolated physical system of inelastic collision between two identical
objects is chosen to manifest the physics law,
conservation of momentum, in two inertial reference frames. In the
first reference frame,
the center of mass (COM) is stationary. In the second reference frame, one
object is at rest before collision. By applying
Lorentz transformation to the velocities of both objects, total momentum before and after the collision in the second reference frame can be compared. The comparison shows that conservation of momentum fails to hold
when both objects move together at the same velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1899] **viXra:1801.0422 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-14 01:01:40*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

This article is suggesting that dark energy, dark matter and universal expansion are intimately related. However, they aren't viewed as revolutions in cosmology which are essential to a complete understanding of the modern universe. They are instead viewed as properties which need to be added to the cosmos when Einstein's theory of gravity (General Relativity) is apparently still not thoroughly comprehended a little over a century after it was published. If General Relativity truly does eliminate Dark Energy and Dark Matter plus Universal Expansion, then its treatment of gravitation as a push must necessarily be reflected in every encounter with gravity. The author has developed possible solutions (hypotheses) about this in the second section - which has topics ranging from M-sigma through geysers on Saturn's moon Enceladus and the Law of Falling Bodies to planetary magnetism and tides. The first part proposes that acceptance of gravity as a push could delete the ideas of cosmic expansion, dark energy and dark matter.
Science admires General Relativity. However, respect for tradition seems to prevent science from embracing Einstein's theory completely. General Relativity says gravity is a push exerted by the curvature of space-time. But the world still holds to the Newtonian view that gravity is a pull. Since Isaac Newton's mathematics works so well, it's understandable that his gravitational pull is accepted. It's time to explore ways in which gravitation as a push could produce identical physical results. The second part of this article proposes hypotheses – not formal theories – to this end. The first part proposes that acceptance of gravity as a push could delete the ideas of cosmic expansion, dark energy and dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1898] **viXra:1801.0422 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-09 23:29:16*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Published by AAAS at http://science.sciencemag.org/content/347/6226/1103/tab-e-letters

This article is suggesting that dark energy, dark matter and universal expansion are intimately related. However, they aren't viewed as revolutions in cosmology which are essential to a complete understanding of the modern universe. They are instead viewed as properties which need to be added to the cosmos when Einstein's theory of gravity (General Relativity) is apparently still not thoroughly comprehended a little over a century after it was published. If General Relativity truly does eliminate Dark Energy and Dark Matter plus Universal Expansion, then its treatment of gravitation as a push must necessarily be reflected in every encounter with gravity. The author has developed possible solutions (hypotheses) about this in the following section - which has topics ranging from M-sigma through geysers on Saturn's moon Enceladus and the Law of Falling Bodies to Earth's magnetism and tides.
Science admires General Relativity. However, respect for tradition seems to prevent science from embracing Einstein's theory completely. General Relativity says gravity is a push exerted by the curvature of space-time. But the world still holds to the Newtonian view that gravity is a pull. Since Isaac Newton's mathematics works so well, it's understandable that his gravitational pull is accepted. It's time to explore ways in which gravitation as a push could produce identical physical results. The second part of this article proposes hypotheses – not formal theories – to this end. The first part suggests that acceptance of gravity as a push could delete the ideas of cosmic expansion, dark energy and dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1897] **viXra:1801.0415 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-01 10:22:54*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Shevchenko, Vladimir V. Tokarevsky

**Comments:** The file contains two versions of the paper: English, pages 1-7 and Russian, pages 8-15

in the paper a number of existent solutions of the twin paradox are considered. It is shown,
that any solutions aren’t and cannot be principally the solutions, if they are in accordance with the
special relativity theory; the unique correct solution is possible only provided that Matter’s spacetime
is absolute, when in this case the paradox simply doesn’t appear. The file contains two versions of the
paper: English, pages 1-7 and Russian, pages 8-15

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1896] **viXra:1801.0372 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-15 06:57:26*

**Authors:** Florian Michael Schmitt

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Binary Star Systems

All relevant experiments that disagree with static or entrained ether and led to the historical breakthrough of Special Relativity will be revised from the scratch. It will be shown that an alternative assumption, that simply gravity itself is the “luminiferous ether”, is able to explain all the notorious phenomena, if rotational effects are properly interpreted. Invariance of light speed, time dilation and Lorentz contraction will become obsolete. Focus is laid on the most problematic classic subjects as there are: Michelson/Morley experiment, Sagnac effect and Michelson/Gale/Pearson experiment, stellar and terrestrial aberration as well as anomaly of Mercury orbit shift. A series of fateful and fundamental misinterpretations will be disclosed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1895] **viXra:1801.0372 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-02 07:31:17*

**Authors:** Florian Michael Schmitt

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

All relevant experiments that disagree with static or entrained ether and led to the historical breakthrough of Special Relativity will be revised from the scratch. It will be shown that an alternative assumption, that simply gravity itself is the “luminiferous ether”, is able to explain all the notorious phenomena, if rotational effects are properly interpreted. Invariance of light speed, time dilation and Lorentz contraction will become obsolete. Focus is laid on the most problematic classic subjects as there are: Michelson/Morley experiment, Sagnac effect and Michelson/Gale/Pearson experiment, stellar and terrestrial aberration as well as anomaly of Mercury orbit shift. A series of fateful and fundamental misinterpretations will be disclosed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1894] **viXra:1801.0372 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-29 15:23:54*

**Authors:** Florian Michael Schmitt

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Berlin

All relevant experiments that disagree with static or entrained ether and led to the historical breakthrough of Special Relativity will be revised from the scratch. It will be shown that an alternative model based on rightly understood gravitational dragging of light is able to explain the notorious phenomena. Invariance of light speed, time dilation and Lorentz contraction will become obsolete. Focus is laid on the most problematic classic subjects as there are: Michelson/Morley experiment, Sagnac effect and Michelson/Gale/Pearson experiment, stellar and terrestrial aberration as well as anomaly of Mercury orbit shift. A series of fateful and fundamental misinterpretations will be disclosed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1893] **viXra:1801.0368 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-28 01:27:06*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 104 Pages.

This paper details a “time-relativity” theorem, the golden ratio algorithm effecting a unified theory of time and space, the calculations of which are entirely consistent with all known fundamental equations and associated observed phenomena, atomic to cosmological, where “time” is presented as the fundamental “quality” of reality through which space, defined as 0-scalar space, is given its characteristics. Six key preceding papers [1-6] are streamed in sections 1-6, following which section 7 presents all the key concepts of the new relativity of time and associated cosmological model into a “one theory” for time and space; flowcharts are forwarded highlighting the idea of time as this new algorithm linking all known fundamental equations and associated observed phenomena. From this, it is demonstrated that all key concepts of space-time have been addressed, with all relevant equations derived thereof, all central to the new algorithm for time. Finally, three key mechanisms of proof, well within scientific research capability of the near future, are proposed, detailing here how to emerge a gravitational field from electromagnetism in a laboratory setting.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1892] **viXra:1801.0338 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-30 02:53:59*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity ( STR ) provides a formula for the Doppler effect of light that differs from conventional formulas based on ether theory and emission theory. The relativistic Doppler effect formula becomes undefined for source-observer relative velocities greater than the speed of light. Since STR asserts that no ( relative ) velocity can ever reach or exceed the speed of light, this has never been seen as a problem. However, it will be shown in this paper that relative velocities greater than the speed of light can be attained even within the framework of STR, i.e. without violating the universal light speed limit. Imagine a light source and an observer at rest relative to each other and located close to each other. Light emitted by the source travels to a distant mirror and reflects back to the observer, while the mirror is moving towards the observer and the source with velocity equal to ( close to ) the speed of light. In this case the relative velocity between the mirror image of the source and the observer is equal to twice the speed of light, 2c. Since it is the relative velocity of the mirror image of the source and the observer that determines the Doppler effect, which is equal to 2c in this case, the relativistic Doppler effect formula becomes undefined because β = V/c = 2c/c = 2, which is greater than 1, resulting in a square root of negative number in the relativistic Doppler effect formula. This disproves relativistic Doppler effect, and hence the Special Theory of Relativity. According to STR the usual analysis is that the mirror image of the source never attains the speed of light because of the relativistic velocity addition formula. Since STR has been disproved logically, experimentally and theoretically, this assertion is not valid.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1891] **viXra:1801.0338 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-25 23:57:10*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity ( STR ) provides a formula for the Doppler effect of light that differs from conventional formulas based on ether theory and emission theory. The relativistic Doppler effect formula becomes undefined for source-observer relative velocities greater than the speed of light. Since STR asserts that no ( relative ) velocity can ever reach or exceed the speed of light, this has never been seen as a problem. However, it will be shown in this paper that relative velocities greater than the speed of light can be attained even within the framework of STR, i.e. without violating the universal light speed limit. Imagine a light source and an observer at rest relative to each other and located close to each other. Light emitted by the source travels to a distant mirror and reflects back to the observer, while the mirror is moving towards the observer and the source with velocity equal to ( close to ) the speed of light. In this case the relative velocity between the mirror image of the source and the observer is equal to twice the speed of light, 2c. Since it is the relative velocity of the mirror image of the source and the observer that determines the Doppler effect, which is equal to 2c in this case, the relativistic Doppler effect formula becomes undefined because β = V/c = 2c/c = 2, which is greater than 1, resulting in a square root of negative number in the relativistic Doppler effect formula. This disproves relativistic Doppler effect, and hence the Special Theory of Relativity. According to STR the usual analysis is that the mirror image of the source never attains the speed of light because of the relativistic velocity addition formula. Since STR has been disproved logically, experimentally and theoretically, this assertion is not valid.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1890] **viXra:1801.0330 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-02 19:57:38*

**Authors:** Richard J Benish

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Minor revisions to Figure 2 and various wording improvements.

After the physicality of existence, gravity's role in the Universe is the most fundamental thing. This role has various manifestations which, it is argued, have been largely misinterpreted by modern physics. An alternative conception of gravity---one that agrees with firmly established empirical evidence---is most compactly characterized by its definition of Newton's constant in terms of other fundamental constants. This expression and supporting arguments largely fulfill the long-standing goal of unifying gravity with the other forces. Phenomena spanning atomic nuclei to the large-scale cosmos and the basic physical elements, mass, space, and time, are thereby seen as comprising an interdependent (unified) whole. Meanwhile, a virtual industry of fanciful, far-from-fundamental mathematical distractions clog up the literature of what is still called fundamental physics. By contrast with this dubious activity---most importantly---the new conception is empirically testable. The test would involve probing gravity where it has not yet been probed: inside (through the center) of every body of matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1889] **viXra:1801.0330 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-26 15:13:08*

**Authors:** Richard J Benish

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Fixed author name (Edwin Klingman) and made two minor wording improvements.

After the physicality of existence, gravity's role in the Universe is the most fundamental thing. This role has various manifestations which, it is argued, have been largely misinterpreted by modern physics. An alternative conception of gravity---one that agrees with firmly established empirical evidence---is most compactly characterized by its definition of Newton's constant in terms of other fundamental constants. This expression and supporting arguments largely fulfill the long-standing goal of unifying gravity with the other forces. Phenomena spanning atomic nuclei to the large-scale cosmos and the basic physical elements, mass, space, and time, are thereby seen as comprising an interdependent (unified) whole. Meanwhile, a virtual industry of fanciful, far-from-fundamental mathematical distractions clog up the literature of what is still called fundamental physics. By contrast with this dubious activity---most importantly---the new conception can be empirically tested by probing gravity where it has not yet been probed: inside (through the center) of every body of matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1888] **viXra:1801.0308 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-16 03:13:37*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This author has already proposed a new theory, Apparent Source Theory ( AST ), that can explain the Michelson-Morley experiment, the Sagnac effect, the Silvertooth experiment, the Roland De Witte experiment, the Venus planet radar range data anomaly ( analyzed and reported by Bryan G Wallace ) and other experiments. According to AST, there will be an apparent change in position of a light source as seen by the observer, for absolutely co-moving source and observer. The 'null' result of the Michelson-Morley experiment (MMX) is explained as follows. The effect of absolute motion is just to create an apparent change in position of the light source relative to the detector. There will be no (significant) fringe shift in the MMX for the same reason that there will be no (significant) fringe shift if the source position was actually, physically shifted slightly. The fringe shift in Sagnac effect is explained as follows. The source will be apparently shifted away relative to the detector when looking in the backward direction and shifted towards the detector when looking in the forward direction, hence creating a path difference. Einstein's thought experiment ( 'chasing a beam of light' ) is re-interpreted and used as one of the foundational arguments in this paper. The new interpretation is that it is the phase velocity of light that is always constant irrespective of source, observer and mirror velocity. The group velocity behaves in a more conventional way: it is independent of source (absolute) velocity but depends on observer and mirror velocity. For an observer moving near the speed of light away from a light source, the phases will still move past the observer at the speed of light while the group will be at rest relative to the observer. A contradiction between Apparent Source Theory and the phenomenon of stellar aberration has been found. The contradiction if found to be due to a conflict between conventional stellar aberration theory and the unconventional nature of Apparent Source Theory and hence is only an apparent contradiction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1887] **viXra:1801.0255 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-24 06:00:36*

**Authors:** Mamaev A.V.

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

A new conception of relativism is offered, providing a breakthrough development of physics in the new millenium. This new conception is based upon new relativistic space-time theory, founded only on the single relativity principle of Galileo, stating that condition of translational straightforward motion is completely equivalent to the condition of resting, and the Einstein’s second principle is cut-off by Occams sickle as superfluous. A theorem is proven, that is a consequence from the relativity principle, that units of time measurements by clocks of identical design, that are moving each with respect the other uniformly and rectilinearly, are absolutely preciously equal each with other. Its proof is founded on a newly introduced concept “light speed in vacuum of a moving inertial reference frame”. The proven equality of time measurement units for light clocks of identical design, moving each with respect the other uniformly and rectilinearly, transforms Einstein’s theorem about retardation of moving clock with respect to a stationary clock into an antiscientific statement. A transformation is offered for events space-time coordinates from one inertial reference frame to another with noninvariant speed of light. It is proven that in the new space-time theory the causality principle does not forbid motion with superlight speed, mass of moving particles and bodies does not depend but their electrical charge does depend upon their speed of motion. The new conception of relativism offers absolutely new explanation to causes of supernovas and pulsars light flashes, to red shift of far stars spectrums, to microwave background radiation and to Olbers’ paradox. Such explanation results in refusal from Big Bang hypothesis, from accelerated expansion of the Universe, from «dark matter» and from «dark energy». In the new conception of relativism the experiments of 1938 year with cosmic ray particles are explained with superlight speeds and dependence of charge upon speed, but not with existence of particles with masses intermediate between the masses of protons and electrons. In this conception the “neutrino” is excluded from the assembly of particles existing in the Nature

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1886] **viXra:1801.0255 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-03 04:46:35*

**Authors:** Anatoly V. Mamaev

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

An alternative interpretation of Einstein’s Special Relativity Theory is offered based
upon the only relativity principle in Galileo’s formulation and the second Einstein’s postulate is
cut by Occam’s sickle as superfluous. Instead of Einstein’s second postulate a theorem is proved,
which is a consequence from the relativity postulate, about equality of time measurement units for two light clocks of identical design moving each with respect to another one uniformly and rectilinearly. The proof is based upon a newly introduced concept of light speed in a moving
inertial reference frame. That equality of time measurement units converts the Einstein’s theorem
about moving clock retardation with respect to a stationary clock into an erroneous statement.
Transformation is derived for events space-time coordinates from one inertial frame to another
one with non-invariant light speed. In this interpretation superlight speeds of motion are not
forbidden, the value of a moving particle mass does not depend on the value of the particle
speed, but a value of the moving particle charge does depend upon the value of its speed. This
interpretation provides absolutely new explanation of supernovas and all astronomical
phenomena leading to refusal from Bing Bang hypothesis, “accelerated expansion of the
Universe”, from “dark matter” and from “dark energy”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1885] **viXra:1801.0255 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-24 11:14:35*

**Authors:** Mamaev A.V.

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

An alternative interpretation of Special Relativity Theory is offered, according to which light clocks of identical design (with accurately identical distance between parallel mirrors of light clocks), moving each with respect the other uniformly and rectilinearly, may be synchronised each with other because they have equal time measurement units and do not retard each from other, retardation of a moving clock with respect a stationary one is absent and superlight speeds of motion are not forbidden. This interpretation provides giving an absolutely new approach to explanation phenomena leading to making a conclusion about “accelerated expansion of the Universe”, to “dark matter” and “dark energy”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1884] **viXra:1801.0252 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-24 20:06:20*

**Authors:** Jayanta Majumder, Shikha Sarkar, Sambuddha Majumder

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

This article presents a new theory or at least interpretation of relativity whereby relativistic effects emerge as a result of rationing of Newtonian time into spatial and intrinsic motions. Unlike special theory of relativity, this theory does not need to postulate that speed of light (c) is constant for all reference frames. The constancy of speed of light emerges from more basic principles.This theory postulates that :

** Postulate 1:** The speed of spatial motion of a particle is always c.

** Postulate 2:** Spatial motion and intrinsic motion continuously, linearly, and symmetrically rub into each other.

Postulate 1 seems reasonable because the Dirac model of electron (i.e. its **zitterbewegung** interpretation) indicates that the speed in the intrinsic degrees of freedom of an electron is always c. If the spatial speed was anything other than c then transitioning between spatial and intrinsic motions would have entailed repeated cycles of high accelerations and deccelerations. Postulate 2 is also reasonable because it is the simplest and most symmetric way for the spatial and intrinsic time-shares to co-evolve in time. An observer's physical measure of time is entirely encoded by its intrinsic motions. This is the relativistic time. The time spent in spatial motion does not cause any change of the particle's internal configuration, and therefore does not contribute to its measurable time.

If an observer races against a photon, the photon will always
lead ahead with a relative speed of c because light advances with respect to the observer only for the duration of the observer's intrinsic motion, i.e. for the full duration of its measurable time. During spatial motion, the observer moves at
the same speed as the photon. Consequently the observed relative speed of light - i.e. the spatial advance of light divided by the measurable time is always c. Thus in the limited sense of racing a photon, constancy of its measured speed is a deduced result here. The broader question of relative velocity of an observer with respect to a photon or a light wave-front is clarified in section 5

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1883] **viXra:1801.0252 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-17 00:43:43*

**Authors:** Jayanta Majumder, Shikha Sarkar Majumder, Sambuddha Majumder

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

This article presents a new theory or at least interpretation of relativity whereby relativistic effects emerge as a result of rationing of Newtonian time into spatial and intrinsic motions. Unlike special theory of relativity, this theory does not need to postulate that speed of light (c) is constant for all reference frames. The constancy of speed of light emerges from more basic principles.This theory postulates that :

** Postulate 1:** The speed of spatial motion of a particle is always c.

** Postulate 2:** Spatial motion and intrinsic motion continuously, linearly, and symmetrically rub into each other.

Postulate 1 seems reasonable because the Dirac model of electron (i.e. its **zitterbewegung** interpretation) indicates that the speed in the intrinsic degrees of freedom of an electron is always c. If the spatial speed was anything other than c then transitioning between spatial and intrinsic motions would have entailed repeated cycles of high accelerations and deccelerations. Postulate 2 is also reasonable because it is the simplest and most symmetric way for the spatial and intrinsic time-shares to co-evolve in time. An observer's physical measure of time is entirely encoded by its intrinsic motions. This is the relativistic time. The time spent in spatial motion does not cause any change of the particle's internal configuration, and therefore does not contribute to its measurable time.

If an observer races against a photon, the photon will always
lead ahead with a relative speed of c because light advances with respect to the observer only for the duration of the observer's intrinsic motion, i.e. for the full duration of its measurable time. During spatial motion, the observer moves at
the same speed as the photon. Consequently the observed relative speed of light - i.e. the spatial advance of light divided by the measurable time is always c. Thus in the limited sense of racing a photon, constancy of its measured speed is a deduced result here. The broader question of relative velocity of an observer with respect to a photon or a light wave-front is clarified in section 5.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1882] **viXra:1801.0252 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-15 19:56:50*

**Authors:** Jayanta Majumder, Shikha Sarkar Majumder, Sambuddha Majumder

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

This article presents a new theory or at least interpretation of relativity whereby relativistic effects emerge as a result of rationing of Newtonian time into spatial and intrinsic motions. Unlike special theory of relativity, this theory does not need to postulate that speed of light (c) is constant for all reference frames. The constancy of speed of light emerges from more basic principles.This theory postulates that :

** Postulate 1:** The speed of spatial motion of a particle is always c.

** Postulate 2:** Spatial motion and intrinsic motion continuously, linearly, and symmetrically rub into each other.

Postulate 1 seems reasonable because the Dirac model of electron (i.e. its **zitterbewegung** interpretation indicates) that the speed in the intrinsic degrees of freedom of an electron is always c. If the spatial speed was anything other than c then transitioning between spatial and intrinsic motions would have entailed repeated cycles of high accelerations and deccelerations. Postulate 2 is also reasonable because it is the simplest and most symmetric way for the spatial and intrinsic time-shares to co-evolve in time. An observer's physical measure of time is entirely encoded by its intrinsic motions. This is the relativistic time. The time spent in spatial motion does not cause any change of the particle's internal configuration, and therefore does not contribute to its measurable time.

If an observer races against a photon, the photon will always
lead ahead with a relative speed of c because light advances with respect to the observer only for the duration of the observer's intrinsic motion, i.e. for the full duration of its measurable time. During spatial motion, the observer moves at
the same speed as the photon. Consequently the observed relative speed of light - i.e. the spatial advance of light divided by the measurable time is always c. Thus in the limited sense of racing a photon, constancy of its measured speed is a deduced result here. The broader question of relative velocity of an observer with respect to a photon or a light wave-front is clarified in section 5.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1881] **viXra:1801.0252 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-28 07:47:22*

**Authors:** Jayanta Majumder, Shikha Sarkar Majumder, Sambuddha Majumder

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

This article presents a new theory or at least interpretation of relativity whereby relativistic effects emerge as a result of rationing of Newtonian time into spatial and intrinsic motions. Unlike special theory of relativity, this theory does not need to postulate that speed of light (c) is constant for all reference frames. The constancy of speed of light emerges from more basic principles.This theory postulates that :

** Postulate 1:** The speed of spatial motion of a particle is always c.

** Postulate 2:** Spatial motion and intrinsic motion continuously, linearly, and symmetrically rub into each other.

Postulate 1 seems reasonable because the Dirac model of electron (i.e. its **zitterbewegung** interpretation indicates) that the speed in the intrinsic degrees of freedom of an electron is always c. If the spatial speed was anything other than c then transitioning between spatial and intrinsic motions would have entailed repeated cycles of high accelerations and deccelerations. Postulate 2 is also reasonable because it is the simplest and most symmetric way for the spatial and intrinsic time-shares to co-evolve in time. An observer's physical measure of time is entirely encoded by its intrinsic motions. This is the relativistic time. The time spent in spatial motion does not cause any change of the particle's internal configuration, and therefore does not contribute to its measurable time.

Speed of light is constant regardless of the speed of the observer because light advances with respect to the observer only for the duration of the observer's intrinsic motion, that is for the full duration of its measurable (relativistic) time. During spatial motion, the observer moves with the light. Consequently the observed relative speed of light - i.e. the spatial advance of light divided by the measurable time is always c. Hence constancy of speed of light, which is a postulate for Einstein's relativity, is a deduced result here.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1880] **viXra:1801.0252 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-23 16:14:32*

**Authors:** Jayanta Majumder, Shikha Sarkar Majumder, Sambuddha Majumder

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

This article presents a new theory or at least interpretation of relativity whereby relativistic effects emerge as a result of rationing of Newtonian time into spatial and intrinsic motions. Unlike special theory of relativity, this theory does not need to postulate that speed of light (c) is constant for all reference frames. The constancy of speed of light emerges from more basic principles.This theory postulates that :
**Postulate 1:** The speed of spatial motion of a particle is always c.

**Postulate 2:** Spatial motion and intrinsic motion continuously, linearly, and symmetrically rub into each other.

Postulate 1 seems reasonable because the Dirac model of electron already shows that the speed in the intrinsic degrees of freedom of an electron is always c. If the spatial speed was anything other than c then transitioning between spatial and intrinsic motions would have entailed repeated cycles of high accelerations and deccelerations. Postulate 2 is also reasonable because it is the simplest and most symmetric way for the spatial and intrinsic time-shares to co-evolve in time.
An observer's physical measure of time is entirely encoded by its intrinsic motions. This is the relativistic time. The time spent in spatial motion does not cause any change of the particle's internal configuration, and therefore does not contribute to its measurable time.

Speed of light is constant regardless of the speed of the observer because light advances with respect to the observer only for the duration of the observer's intrinsic motion, that is for the full duration of its measurable (relativistic) time. During spatial motion, the observer moves with the light. Consequently the observed relative speed of light - i.e. the spatial advance of light divided by the measurable time is always c. Hence constancy of speed of light, which is a postulate for Einstein's relativity, is a deduced result here.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1879] **viXra:1801.0252 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-22 12:09:16*

**Authors:** Jayanta Majumder, Shikha Sarkar Majumder, Sambuddha Majumder

**Comments:** 18 Pages. We have expanded the paper and added new references.

This article presents a new theory or at least interpretation of relativity whereby relativistic effects emerge as a result of rationing of Newtonian time into spatial and intrinsic motions. Unlike special theory of relativity, this theory does not need to postulate that speed of light (c) is constant for all reference frames. The constancy of speed of light emerges from more basic principles.This theory postulates that :
Postulate 1: The speed of spatial motion of a particle is always c.
Postulate 2: Spatial motion and intrinsic motion continuously, linearly, and symmetrically rub into each other.
Postulate 1 seems reasonable because the Dirac model of electron already shows that the speed in the intrinsic degrees of freedom of an electron is always c. If the spatial speed was anything other than c then transitioning between spatial and intrinsic motions would have entailed repeated cycles of high accelerations and deccelerations. Postulate 2 is also reasonable because it is the simplest and most symmetric way for the spatial and intrinsic time-shares to co-evolve in time.
An observer's physical measure of time is entirely encoded by its intrinsic motions. This is the relativistic time. The time spent in spatial motion does not cause any change of the particle's internal configuration, and therefore does not contribute to its measurable time.
Speed of light is constant regardless of the speed of the observer because light advances with respect to the observer only for the duration of the observer's intrinsic motion, that is for the full duration of its measurable (relativistic) time. During spatial motion, the observer moves with the light. Consequently the observed relative speed of light - i.e. the spatial advance of light divided by the measurable time is always c. Hence constancy of speed of light, which is a postulate for Einstein's relativity, is a deduced result here.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1878] **viXra:1801.0199 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-23 19:48:55*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The x-direction Galilean and Lorentz space-time transformations are both effectively two-dimensional matrix transformations, so a simple four-parameter general framework of which both are special cases is easily devised. Moreover, passing from the general space-time transformation to its velocity counterpart uniquely singles out one of those four parameters as the general transformation's intrinsic x-direction constant velocity. This allows the "principle of relativity" to be extended to such general transformations; it applies when the transformation's inversion is accomplished by reversing the sign of its intrinsic velocity. Both the Galilean and Lorentz transformations abide by the "principle of relativity", and the Galilean transformation in addition refrains from altering the time coordinate. The Michelson-Morley null result, however, motivates the Lorentz transformation to refrain from changing the speed of light, which is readily shown to be outright incompatible with transformation-invariant time. The Lorentz transformation's pairing of invariant light speed with the "relativity principle" is closely allied to its
preservation of the Minkowski quadratic form.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1877] **viXra:1801.0144 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-24 06:29:31*

**Authors:** Karan R.Takkhi

**Comments:** 3 pages, 1 figure

Dark energy, a mysterious and unknown form of energy is rightfully considered as the reason for causing the accelerated expansion of the Universe. Universe expanding at an accelerated rate instead of slowing down or even coming to a stop seems extremely uncanny. In this paper I present a theory/model as an alternative to dark energy in order to explain the mysterious accelerated expansion of the Universe. According to this theory/model, the large-scale structures are receding away from each other at an accelerated rate instead of space undergoing accelerated expansion. The reason why a large-scale structure recedes into the cosmic wilderness has also been unravelled in this paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology