**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(19) - 0703(4) - 0704(2) - 0706(1) - 0708(1) - 0709(1) - 0711(1) - 0712(2)

2008 - 0801(3) - 0802(1) - 0804(1) - 0805(1) - 0807(5) - 0810(2)

2009 - 0901(1) - 0902(3) - 0903(3) - 0907(7) - 0908(17) - 0909(28) - 0910(19) - 0911(13) - 0912(10)

2010 - 1001(3) - 1002(26) - 1003(26) - 1004(9) - 1005(10) - 1006(11) - 1007(9) - 1008(19) - 1009(9) - 1010(17) - 1011(23) - 1012(7)

2011 - 1101(36) - 1102(14) - 1103(35) - 1104(10) - 1105(4) - 1106(12) - 1107(14) - 1108(5) - 1109(11) - 1110(19) - 1111(23) - 1112(15)

2012 - 1201(37) - 1202(22) - 1203(18) - 1204(22) - 1205(21) - 1206(14) - 1207(16) - 1208(30) - 1209(17) - 1210(19) - 1211(17) - 1212(30)

2013 - 1301(33) - 1302(22) - 1303(42) - 1304(28) - 1305(24) - 1306(28) - 1307(21) - 1308(27) - 1309(21) - 1310(29) - 1311(21) - 1312(44)

2014 - 1401(34) - 1402(27) - 1403(32) - 1404(31) - 1405(38) - 1406(33) - 1407(45) - 1408(32) - 1409(25) - 1410(40) - 1411(30) - 1412(30)

2015 - 1501(39) - 1502(27) - 1503(24) - 1504(27) - 1505(33) - 1506(32) - 1507(24) - 1508(33) - 1509(38) - 1510(40) - 1511(51) - 1512(46)

2016 - 1601(33) - 1602(46) - 1603(39) - 1604(32) - 1605(30) - 1606(44) - 1607(23) - 1608(39) - 1609(45) - 1610(31) - 1611(46) - 1612(32)

2017 - 1701(28) - 1702(27) - 1703(43) - 1704(46) - 1705(31) - 1706(31) - 1707(28) - 1708(28) - 1709(42) - 1710(34) - 1711(41) - 1712(47)

2018 - 1801(35) - 1802(41) - 1803(46) - 1804(46) - 1805(39) - 1806(42) - 1807(48) - 1808(29) - 1809(17)

Any replacements are listed farther down

[3054] **viXra:1809.0366 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-09-18 08:41:11*

**Authors:** Trevor W. Marshall

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In a previous article it was shown that the end state for the dust
metric of Oppenheimer and Snyder has most of its mass concentrated just inside
the gravitational radius; it is proposed that the resulting object be considered as
an idealized shell collapsar. Here the treatment is extended to include the family
of interior metrics described by Choquet-Bruhat. The end state is again a shell
collapsar, and its structure depends on the density pro…le at the beginning of the
collapse. What is lacking in most previous commentaries on the Oppenheimer-
Snyder article is the recognition that Oppenheimer and Snyder matched the
time coordinate at the surface, and that implies a …nite upper limit for the
comoving time coordinate inside the collapsar. A collapse process having all
the matter going inside the gravitational radius would require comoving times
which go outside that upper limit.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3053] **viXra:1809.0363 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-09-18 15:52:28*

**Authors:** Abed Peerally

**Comments:** 24 Pages. The eighth paper under theory of everything.

The series of nine articles by the author (vixra Peerally archives), of which this
article is the sixth about the Theory of Everything, are meant to highlight that
our currentscientific culture could soon have dramatic new openings, that will
trigger science towards a far more productive potential than is generally
believed. Hawking in his various writings harboured both optimism and
pessimism about the Theory of Everything and the future of fundamental
physics and mathematics, and a particularly thoughtful one is "Gödel and the
end of physics". He was generally right in those view, for there is nothing in
science and philosophy that will ever be proved to be final. The reason is that
existence and the universe arose from precursors that cannot be seen to be
final in terms of their physics and philosophy. In any case Hawking’s feeling is
that Gödel’s theorem indicates that there is incompleteness is any concept,
for example, Hawking said: “One can have a well-defined position, or a
well-defined velocity, but not both.”…“This would seem to make
complete determinism impossible. If one can't accurately define both the
positions, and the velocities, of particles at one time, how can one predict
what they will be in the future.” It is not quite why the behaviour should
be an example for the whole of physics, but what he says makes sense.
In p
2
come. The author’s publications, in addition, are his two posters about
consciousness (Tucson Consciousness Conferences, 2016,2017) and two
books that discuss the Theory of Everything and consciousness, for the issue
of consciousness is a corner stone of existence.
The objective of the author’s publications is to demonstrate that the various
facets of the universe are capable of being encapsulated within a single
philosophical and physical concept, the Ultimate Theory of Everything that
agrees with Hawking’s later view that natural phenomena and existence
fundamentally imply the property of incompletenesss. This final concept of
existence is coming at the right time, in view of the wide range of mixed
feelings on the scientific dreams of a final theory of existence. As the eminent
physicist Steven Weinberg said, in his Dreams of a Final Theory, a really
wonderful book to read: “We are on the track of something universalsomething
that governs physical phenomena throughout the universesomething
that we call the laws of nature. We do not want to discover a theory
that is capable of describing all imaginable kinds of force among the particles
of nature. Rather, we hope for a theory that rigidly will allow us to describe
only those forces-gravitational, electroweak, and strong-that actually as it
happens do exist. This kind of rigidity in our physical theories is part of what
we recognise as beauty.”….. “As Abdus Salam has said, it is not particles or
forces with which nature is sparing, but principles. The important thing is to
have a set of simple and economical principles that explain why the particles
are what they are. It is disturbing that we no not yet have a complete theory
of the sort we want. But, when we do, it will not matter very much how many
kinds of consequence of simple principles.” Weinberg then remarked “The
creation of new physical principles is agony and apparently cannot be taught.”
In fact, the Ultimate Theory of Everything will squarely meet Weinberg’s
prescription, and will also widely opine about a large range of aspects of the
universe and existence. Weinberg’s remark does however illustrate to what
extent intellectual pursuits can be challenging, and Einstein did go through
precisely this kind of agony, for he unsuccessfully devoted the last three
decades of his life to the search of a theory that would unify gravitation and
the electromagnetic force, a search which has not been pursued by other
physicists. The truth is that the solution of the mystery of gravitation in
relation to the electromagnetic force is very elusive and requires the Theory
3
of Everything to elucidate. However, this ultimate concept has been, in the
scientific literature, well regarded as a near impossible ambition of science.
Seeing where we are in cosmology, there is an urgency for it, as, if there such
a concept, it would have a universal impact on how we view the universe and
our existence, as realistically as possible.
The fact we were unable to work out a theory of everything in the last decades
of scientific and philosophical studies, more than a century after the Golden
Age of Physics, is ample support of the view that finding the theory of
everything is a tough proposition. Even though it was not forthcoming, it does
look like that without the Theory of Everything, the impact of practically every
aspect of life would feel this lacuna. Potentially the Theory of Everything is
capable of guiding us on views of nature which appear to readers either as
science fiction or just lacking in credibility. To some groups of physicists,
despite the thoroughly organised and extraordinary nature of our universe, it
does not strike them that we are a supernatural creation and, in fact, some of
them go to the extreme of spending decades on natural theories of the origin
of existence, based on mathematical concepts, instead of the attempting to
figure out how to integrate the ultimate philosophy with the ultimate physics
of existence. They cannot be blamed, though. This is simply because the
creation process, for reasons that the Theory of Everything will make clear,
could not, even slightly, have made the universe other than what the physics
of everything integrated with the philosophy of everything tells us. The final
concept of existence and the basic nature of existence have to correspond,
and such a concept does exist. Kepler and Whewell soundly predicted that
humans do have some of the mind of the Supernatural Power that created the
universe, and that we would in due course discover how and why the universe
was conceived, as far as possible. The Supernatural Creator of the universe
must be perfectly and infinitely positive and constructive,such that the nature
of any material creation has necessarily to be infinitely inferior to Supernatural
Power, which is why it cannot be totally evil free. This is because infinite power
goes with absolute perfection. This remark is a profoundly balanced remark,
and can be, nevertheless, very elusive even to some very great minds. When
we reflect deeply about the universe and existence, we cannot avoid this view.
The nature of our realities is both down to earth and partly supernatural,
ultimately, and so it certainly cannot be perfect, thus signifying we are a
4
combination of positive and negative influences. No concepts of the natural
origin of universes, in most cases based on mathematical models, could ever
figure out, scientifically, how our extraordinarily complex universe popped
into existence, 13.8 billion years ago, under any kind of philosophical and
scientific circumstances. That is totally ruled out, except in fiction. In other
words, the actual manner our universe was created imperatively requires a
theory that combines the philosophy of existence with the physics of
existence, as the author’s two books explain in great details. These two books
need to be carefully read and understood to see the marvels in the concept of
the creation of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3052] **viXra:1809.0346 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-09-16 06:28:14*

**Authors:** Luk Rossey

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

If the speed of light is independent of the movement of its source, then it should make no difference at all when clocks are synchronized using light sources at rest or moving ones. It seems it does. When clocks are synchronized in two reference frames, moving relatively to one another, the causal relations between two particular events will depend on whether sources at rest or moving ones have been used. This inconsistency will appear solid evidence that the speed of light can never be invariant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3051] **viXra:1809.0319 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-09-15 15:47:48*

**Authors:** Royan Rosche

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This is a “Unified theory”. “Atoms” of the ocean have a single unified property forming the ocean as a whole-thus we can see “an atom”. While they are moved by the Moon, thus we have unified the Moon with "Atoms' of the Ocean. I propose to you that The Human can only see with Photons, so they will never be able to see an Atom. What I have done is took an "atom" out of the equation. I propose that "Water" is not made out of "atoms" but made out of "waves" and these come from the Moon. While "earth' are not "atoms" but transformed Photons from the Sun creating Dirt as Sulfur forming land masses and volcanoes when heated by the Earth. "Matter" is a visible manifestation of a Celestial Force and not composed out of anything other than what is visible in its "macroscopic form". "Metals, Dirt, Rocks, gems and Stones" are made from the Photons from the Sun, which are not "small" but "Visible Light", while Water from the Moon forms Air. I also propose the Mass is given by the Earth which holds these forces in place and it has its own called Electromagnetism. What no One has bothered to do on Modern Science is to take into account Human Perception for we are IN THE MIDDLE OF THE LARGE AND THE SMALL. I have Unified Physics by destroying the Atom. I have Unified Physics by saying the Sun and Moon are the things which generate Water and Earth and the Earth gives them Mass, and allows these force to manifest as these so called "elements". There is no such thing as an "atom" there is only Celestial forces interacting and thus generating the "Matter" we see.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3050] **viXra:1809.0301 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-09-14 11:57:37*

**Authors:** S.M.Hosseini, M.I.Kendrick

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Abstract
The observation of the Universe at the present epoch will only give the rate of the expansion of the Universe at present era and produce one value of the Hubble constant by any observer in any galaxy in the cosmos.
The expansion rate of the Universe is not obtainable for the past or the future of the Universe by observation; it can only be calculated by the fact that the invers of the Hubble constant is the age of the Universe at any period.
One of the fundamental pillars of the cosmology is the Hubble constant and the inverse of it is the age of the Universe: , this relationship will be violated by observation that the Universe’s expansion is accelerating.
This is fundamental that any epoch any observer on any galaxy in the Universe by looking at all the distant galaxies will measure the velocity of recession divided by Co-moving distant will obtain the value of the Hubble constant precisely the same exact value. The value of the Hubble constant is only constant at a particular epoch by all the observers in the Universe and decays as the passage of time according to the relationship: .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3049] **viXra:1809.0299 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-09-14 13:03:25*

**Authors:** Piscedda Giampaolo

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this theory it is shown that the universe does not expand. The equation that we derive is equivalent to the equation m = a (t)^2 from the book SEEING RED written by the scientist Halton Harp with the replacement M'= a and
|delta r| = t^2

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3048] **viXra:1809.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-09-11 15:35:04*

**Authors:** Valeriy Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Two iterated limits are not equal each other, in general. Thus, we present an example when the massless limit of the function of E, vec p, m does not exist in some calculations within quantum field theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3047] **viXra:1809.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-09-12 01:24:56*

**Authors:** S. k. Malhotra

**Comments:** 49 Pages. a paper that changes phyics and cosmology completely!

In the history of physics, ideas on space and time have changed the course of physics a number of times; this is another such event. This time, we postulate ‘space and time’ as a flow of quantum gravity energy, having the absolute velocity c (same as the velocity of light), where time is the delay in the spread of space (delay from infinite velocity flow, when there would be no time), such a flow has to have a reverse cycle, as energy creating it (howsoever large it might be, has to be limited and limited energy can only create a limited space and time energy spread) and the reverse cycle is that of the creation of fundamental particles. This explanation of the universe (space and time not spacetime), as energy flow having a reverse cycle as its base, tells us that the idea of an expanding universe is prime facie wrong. The problem has been that we have gone along too far with the perception of the relativistic world that Einstein built over 100 years ago. Einstein had no hesitation in accepting the idea of absoluteness of the velocity of light but never thought of giving the same absoluteness to space (and time) as a flow having the same absolute velocity c (the universal constant of nature). Thus, the problem with cosmology is not something contained in the subject but with things, it inherited from physics; they take physics given to us by great minds like Einstein (and Bohr on quantum mechanics) for over the 100 years as a gospel truth and have not questioned it seriously ever. Physicist incorrect conclusions have become the bread and butter of cosmology; cosmologists and physicists thus see the universe without the essential part of it: as an absolute flow of quantum gravity.
This new reasoning on space and time—as a flow of energy--leads us to show that expansion of the universe is only an appearance, reality is far away from it. And why is it only an appearance? The argument, in brief, is as follows: One, the universe is so large that we cannot see the edges, light from the edges takes far too long to reach us, there is a theoretical limit to possible visibility, thus, we have to refute its unlimitedness by theoretical considerations only; the reality is non-observable. Two, the process is dark, it is range of invisible (before charge emerged), the process of creation of charge (the reflection of light starts with it) has not yet taken place; it is the elusive dark energy that constitutes 74% of the total energy of the universe. We never connected space and time to flow of energy, and so did not find its connection either to its limitedness or to its dark nature (dark energy). Three, the space energy flow has a reverse process which leads to the formation of fundamental particles we have not included it in the totality of the processes of the universe, the former is the dark energy and the initial part of the reverse process—till it reaches the state of ionisation-- is dark matter. In the continuity of the cycle of space flow and its reversal to matter forms, ionisation happens at a particular point and visibility comes through along with; ionisation is a later event (which, as we explain later when we come to explaining the reverse process and with it enters visibility). It is this reverse process which creates fundamental particles (no big bang, the creation of particles is here and now). With no idea of space as energy flow and no idea of the reverse process, physicists could never take the step in the direction of the correct understanding of the ‘dark energy’ or ‘dark matter’. Along with the correct understanding of the dark matter and the dark energy, enters another conclusion of great importance: the limitedness of the universe means it is closed from all ends, it is like a crucible of huge dimensions, thus CMB is not radiation from primordial past, it is something which is happening here and now. Thus, one correction—space is an absolute flow of quantum gravity, emerging probably from the binary black holes-- changes all our understanding of cosmology. This is one stone—space is an absolute flow of quantum gravity—that kills (correctly explains) four birds (issues): explains the not expanding universe, explain what dark energy is, explain what dark matter is and it tells us that CMB is not radiation from primordial past. The lack of one entity—absoluteness of space and time—has led us to the wrong conclusion on each of the four issues, biggest of all being: the inflationary universe (and its subsequent conclusion to its Big Bang creation).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3046] **viXra:1809.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-09-10 10:59:43*

**Authors:** Moninder Singh Modgil

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The General Relativistic G\"{o}del-Brahe model visualizes the universe rotating with angular velocity $2 \pi$ radians/day - around a stationary earth. The wave function of this model of universe $\psi_{Univ}$, has two chiral states - clockwise and anti clockwise. Due to instabilities in the electromagnetic fields, the wave function can tunnel between the two states. G\"{o}del-Rindler model with a heigth varying acceleration gives the gravitational field of the earth. G\"{o}del-Obukhov model with a sinusoidally varying scale factor gives the yearly north-south motion of the sun. G\"{o}del-Randall-Sundram model with an angular velocity varying with height, gives the yearly rotation of sun with respect to the back ground of the fixed stars. Confinement of light rays due to rotation in the G\"{o}del universe, coupled with an appropriate mapping, generates the illusion of sphericity over a flat earth - with half of earth lit by sun light and the other half in darkness. Finally a metric combining all these properties is given. Discussion of further work is given, namely - (1) Origin of earth's magnetic field due to a charged G\"{o}del universe - with a relation to the Van Allen radiation belt, (2) Geomagnetic reversals due to reversals of cosmological rotation, (3) Caismir energy in the charged G\"{o}del type universe and the energy density required for the G\"{o}del-Brahe model and (4) Behaviour of Causality in G\"{o}del universe and the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR)
paradox.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3045] **viXra:1809.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-09-10 23:57:04*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Chaos and the motion of space atoms, energy of topological knot.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3044] **viXra:1809.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-09-08 23:15:16*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Based on Wilmer Anderson's experiment in 1937, the light detector is put in motion relatively to the mirror. Two light pulses are emitted from the mirror toward the detector. The elapsed time between two emissions is recorded on the oscilloscope.
This elapsed time is larger if the detector moves away from the mirror faster.
By comparing the elapsed time in the rest frame of the mirror to the elapsed time in the rest frame of the detector, the speed of light pulse in the rest frame of the mirror is found to be different from the speed of light pulse in the rest frame of the detector.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3043] **viXra:1809.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-09-07 06:09:33*

**Authors:** Lluís Bel

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A fully relativistic numerical program is used to calculate the advance of the peri-helium of Mercury or the deflection of light by the Sun is here used also to discuss the case of S2, a star orbiting a very heavy central mass of the order of $4.3\,10^6$ solar masses.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3042] **viXra:1809.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-09-06 12:04:03*

**Authors:** Abed Peerally

**Comments:** 7 Pages. ORIGINAL PAPER ON THE THEORY OF EVERTHING

The Theory of Everything is not a kind of master concept meant to integrate relativity and quantum theory, or to formulate the Grand Unified Theory. Nor is it a concept about the merging the forces and/or particles in one unified theory. In fact, these kinds of unified concepts are not very profound and are far from being a Theory of Everything, capable of describing the ultimate nature of our universe and existence. This is because the universe is now, in the beginning of the 21st century, starting to reveal its scientific nature, but an awful lot remains to be seen, perhaps in the decades, centuries and millennia of the future. We are still at a very early phase of elucidating its fundamental nature. What we know about Einstein’s relativity and quantum theory is a fraction of what is potentially possible. The nature of forces, particles, mass, gravitation is still fragmentary, while space-time and consciousness are hardly beginning to be investigated systematically. These are profoundly complex and elusive phenomena, and that is why we need to be capable of formulating the first version of quite a fairly basic Theory of Everything, the best we are able to achieve in our present time, which is what the author’s second book will present in a fairly detailed treatment of the ultimate philosophical and scientific organisation of our realities of existence. There will wide scope for physicists, cosmologists and mathematicians to evolve new approaches and research projects to start expanding, as deeply as possible, our understanding of what we really are and how the universe was created.
It is inevitable that a final Theory of Everything must integrate science and philosophy into a universal scheme capable of telling us practically everything about existence, and in so doing it would indicate how the universe and its realities originated. The whole approach must be, philosophically and scientifically, unbiased and very objective, to satisfy the criteria that dictate what good science is and to avoid the fictitious kind of pitfalls that seem to be of common occurrence in modern cosmology, which have prompted various eminent thinkers to talk about the end of Physics. The absolute Ultimate Theory of Everything is not an objective attainable in our period of existence, but could only be the result of a process across time, a natural development across the ages, and will be what it is at any time, except that it is continuously evolving, due to new scientific and
2
philosophical data and interpretations. It is a bit awkward, in our still premature scientific culture, to look for an appellation for what is clearly a very ambitious concept, one that is too elusive at a time when so little is known about the nature of our universe. For instance, calling a concept “The Theory of Everything” is unreasonable, for our present times are too unprepared for such an impossible mission. If we do use it, then it has to be understood, in any case, that what we call the Theory of Everything is something that is continuously evolving and we have absolutely no idea when our Planet will be satisfied it has in fact found the Ultimate Theory of Everything. For this reason, the author has to refer to his concept of everything as The First Theory of Everything, because strictly speaking, we have not had a scientific Theory of Everything that is really the one the scientific community would be expecting. The author is quite aware that the Standard Model, Einstein’s Laws of Relativity and Quantum Theory are still largely incomplete, and there is nothing we can do to have the comprehensive mastery of the nature of our universe, even in the next several centuries. Realities like matter, forces, particles, space, space-time, mass, gravity, micro and macro realities of the universe, the Higgs phenomenon, and particularly the existence and nature of consciousness, among other facets of our realities, will take centuries and millennia, to be fairly well explained. There is no doubt that there are complicated schemes of existence that will require an awful lot of new physics and mathematics before we are satisfied we can begin to really understand the origin and the ultimate nature of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3041] **viXra:1809.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-09-05 23:01:30*

**Authors:** Henry Leonidovich Arutyunov

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The constancy of the speed of light in Einstein's theory of relativity, testifies to the existence of an absolute frame of reference.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3040] **viXra:1809.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-09-06 02:05:39*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 10 Pages. this article has been published in Scientific God Journal

Despite its enormous practical success, many physicists and philosophers alike agree that the quantum theory is full of contradictions and paradoxes which are difficult to solve consistently. Even after 90 years, the experts themselves still do not all agree what to make of it. The area of disagreement centers primarily around the problem of describing observations. Formally, the socalled quantum measurement problem can be defined as follows: the result of a measurement is a superposition of vectors, each representing the quantity being observed as having one of its possible values. The question that has to be answered is : how this superposition can be reconciled with the fact that in practice we only observe one value. How is the measuring instrument prodded into making up its mind which value it has observed? Among some alternatives to resolve the above QM measurement problem, a very counterintuitive one was suggested by Hugh Everett in his 1955 Princeton dissertation, which was subsequently called the Many-Worlds Interpretation of QM (MWI). In this paper, we will not discuss all possible scenarios to solve the measurement problem, but we will only shortly discuss Everett’s MWI, because it has led to heated debates on possibility of multiverses, beyond the Universe we live in. We also discuss two alternatives against MWI proposal: (a) the so-called scale symmetry theory, and (b) the Maxwell-Dirac isomorphism. In last section, we also discuss shortly MWI hypothesis from philosophical perspective.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3039] **viXra:1809.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-09-06 02:07:47*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 18 Pages. This paper has been submitted for a book chapter. Comments are welcome

Questions regarding the formation of the Universe and what was there before the existence of Early Universe have been great interest to mankind of all times. In recent decades, the Big Bang as described by the Lambda CDM-Standard Model Cosmology has become widely accepted by majority of physics and cosmology communities. Among other things, we can cite A.A. Grib & Pavlov who pointed out some problems of heavy particles creation out of vacuum and also other proposal of Creatio ex nihilo theory (CET). But the philosophical problems remain, as Vaas pointed out: Did the universe have a beginning or does it exist forever, i.e. is it eternal at least in relation to the past? This fundamental question was a main topic in ancient philosophy of nature and the Middle Ages, and still has its revival in modern physical cosmology both in the controversy between the big bang and steady state models some decades ago and in the contemporary attempts to explain the big bang within a quantum cosmological (vacuum fluctuation) framework. In this paper we argue that Neutrosophic Logic offers a resolution to the long standing disputes between beginning and eternity of the Universe. In other words, in this respect we agree with Vaas, i.e. it can be shown: “how a conceptual and perhaps physical solution of the temporal aspect of Immanuel Kant’s „first antinomy of pure reason“ is possible, i.e. how our universe in some respect could have both a beginning and an eternal existence. Therefore, paradoxically, there might have been a time before time or a beginning of time in time.” By the help of computational simulation, we also show how a model of early Universe with rotation can fit this new picture. Further observations are recommended.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3038] **viXra:1809.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-09-04 17:51:54*

**Authors:** Tarzan

**Comments:** 59 Pages.

Part I of Emergent Theory elaborated many object family types and our naming shortcuts. This group was too large to include as one publication.
As outlined in Part I of this series there are many types of paired- and multi-object systems which exemplify emergent and fission systems. This report describes the “cutout” families of objects. Along with this collection we include a data-driven method of classification members of the family. We also created an ad hoc description of our ‘cutout’ pattern formed by paired family objects.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3037] **viXra:1808.0679 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-31 14:37:08*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In the past, there was an attempt to modify Newton's gravitational theory, in a simple way, to consider relativistic effects. The approach was ``abandoned" mainly because it predicted only half of Mercury's precession. Here we will revisit this method and see how a small logical extension can lead to a relativistic Newtonian theory that predicts the precession of Mercury correctly. In addition, the theory requires much less mass to explain galaxy rotation than standard theories do, and is also interesting for this reason.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3036] **viXra:1808.0676 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-31 21:00:31*

**Authors:** Berry C. Ives

**Comments:** 24 Pages. In the full text of the article, the abstract is also presented in French.

We present an empirical analysis of redshift of 580 supernovae type 1a using special relativistic Doppler to derive velocity of recession. A theory of cosmological scale is developed in which scale history is parabolic in relation to observed distance and time. The parabolic relationship suggests that the present lies on the accelerated contraction side of the scale history. The first-order coefficient of the scale equation matches very precisely the post-Planck value of the Hubble parameter, H0. The second-order coefficient of the parabolic scale history is taken as an acceleration parameter, I0. H0 is thus merely the slope of the parabola at the present time, and it can be eliminated by shifting the abscissa so that t = 0 aligns with the vertex. In this way, the scale history is entirely dependent on the acceleration parameter, I0. A methodology is used to infer physical radial distance from scale. The resulting acceleration rate precisely matches modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) universal acceleration a0 and thus appears to provide a general cosmological link to that phenomenon, implying a universe under accelerated contraction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3035] **viXra:1808.0675 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-31 21:10:36*

**Authors:** Qing-Ping Ma

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

This study has examined the logic in the interpretation of the increased lifetime of high speed elementary particles, an important experimental evidence of the Lorentzian or Einsteinian relativistic time dilation. When analyzed with the particle frame being the rest frame, the interpretation based on the Einsteinian special relativity leads to a velocity paradox and inconsistency between the invariance of space-time intervals in the Minkowski space and the constancy of the speed of light. The Lorentz ether theory and the Standard Model Extension might avoid this inconsistency because they allow privileged reference frames. Therefore, although the mainstream physicists have chosen Einstein’s special relativity as the correct theory, the Lorentz ether theory might be superior in explaining experimental evidence of time dilation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3034] **viXra:1808.0652 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-29 07:50:37*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 12 Pages. To cite this paper: Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics, Vol.6, No.6, 2018.

It has been critically argued by V.A. Leus (Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, Novosibirsk, Russia) that in my proof that Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity is logically inconsistent and therefore false, I violated the basic tenets of Special Relativity and foisted an alternative theory upon Einstein’s. A careful study of the critical analysis reveals however a failure to address the key arguments I adduced to prove Special Relativity logically inconsistent, and a concomitant invocation of Einstein’s theory to try to argue that my analysis is incorrect because it does not concur with Einstein. There is therefore no proof advanced of any alleged error in my analysis. In my paper I did not introduce an alternative theory. The aforementioned critical paper affords opportunity in rebuttal to amplify the invalidity of A. Einstein’s tacit assumption, in constructing the Special Theory of Relativity, that systems of clock-synchronised stationary observers consistent with Lorentz Transformation can be mathematically constructed. Since such systems of observers have in fact no mathematical existence the Special Theory of Relativity is logically inconsistent. It is therefore invalid. The consequences for physics, astronomy, and cosmology, are significant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3033] **viXra:1808.0646 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-29 08:59:02*

**Authors:** Rodrigo de Abreu

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper it is considered the physical meaning of the one-way speed of light. Usually in the standard Special Relativity what is considered is the Einstein one-way speed of light that has been introduced by Einstein in the 1905 paper, by definition. In the standard interpretation the one-way speed of light it is not considered since the Einstein speed of light is considered to be the speed of light. However in our previous work we have shown that this is a terminological confusion. Now we explain why this is so with a very simple example using two methods of synchronization, with rods and with light signalling, that shows the physical meaning of absolute simultaneity and also the physical meaning of Einstein simultaneity in connection with the two concepts “speed of light”. As a result of this analysis an experimental method for the determination of the one-way speed of light emerge.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3032] **viXra:1808.0642 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-29 11:49:21*

**Authors:** Stanley L. Robertson

**Comments:** 7 page main text, 10 pages appendixes

In Einstein’s General Relativity, gravitation is considered to be only an effect of spacetime
geometry. Einstein considered the sources of gravitation to be all varieties of mass and energy
excepting that of gravitational fields. This exclusion leaves General Relativity correct only
to first order. By considering gravitational fields to be real entities that possess field energy
densities and including them as source terms for the Einstein tensor, they contribute to spacetime
curvature in a way that prevents the formation of event horizons and also has the effect of
accelerating the expansion of the cosmos without any need for a cosmological constant (aka
“dark energy”).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3031] **viXra:1808.0631 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-30 04:19:03*

**Authors:** Oleg Tcherepanov

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The simplest experiment with relativity absolutely changes the physical meaning of Einstein's theory

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3030] **viXra:1808.0626 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-28 11:20:59*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: We are now able to make a more accurate calculation of the mass of the proton thanks to Majoranic neutrino effects

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3029] **viXra:1808.0623 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-28 12:02:11*

**Authors:** Abed Peerally

**Comments:** 17 Pages. WILL JOIN THE AUTHOR'S OTHER PAPER AS A VERY USEFUL NEW PAPER.

It goes without saying that in the absence of a Theory of Everything it is not possible to really know, as far as possible, the nature and fate of the universe, mainly because the universe was conceived on a deliberate plan. The implication is that there could have existed only one specific plan: the supernatural plan to create our universe, and the design to humans is the Theory of Everything as far as possible, capable to describe only one cosmic super reality: our universe. The fact humans are destined to discover the Theory of Everything is adequate proof there was supernatural creation of the universe, and being capable to find the Theory of Everything is astounding.
The scientific/philosophical Theory of Everything is coming at a historical juncture where several well-known cosmologists are talking about natural creation from practically nothing or based solely on mathematics. Since most intellectuals and members of the public believe the universe had a supernatural creation, a scientific concept of the origin of the universe by a Supernatural Mind or God, would be of enormous interest. It is the abrupt collision of the traditional Godless concepts of the origin of our universe with the scientific concept, that creates an extraordinary historical event in the intellectual, scientific, philosophical and theological worlds. Since the Theory of Everything will be really, as far as possible, a universal and metaphysical concept of the universe, it can produce an intellectual revolution in the scientific and philosophical sectors, that will impact on theology in ways not seen before. There whole world will benefit, for the total confusion that surrounds the intellectual comprehension of the realities and origin of our universe would reach a turning point, never seen before. It will demonstrate the power of intellectual knowledge as the torch bearer of humanity. The reason is that intellectual ideas are capable to make humanity one collective mind in the universe.
The universe under GRT is expanding, and there has never been any tendency for the universe to contract and collapse into an unimaginable black hole. Penrose’s hypothesis of a cosmic crunch and the rebirth of the universe (CCC), is not a cosmic possibility, because the uncertainly in science is at the quantum microscale, and not at the macro or universal scale. Gravity was correctly explained by Einstein. He referred to it as pseudo-force, causing the warping of space time, being perhaps a kind of variation of the electromagnetic force. The truth is that the nature of black holes happens to be as misunderstood as is the nature of the universe. Cosmology has been a precariously understood domain, the reason being the lack of adequate cosmological understanding of how the universe came into existence. This is not surprising, as I explain in my coming second book on the origin of the universe, for our world is, historically, at the beginning phase of its modern scientific era, being hardly one century old, if we take the golden age of physics of the first decades of the last century, as marking the beginning of our modern scientific culture.
No wonder we do not know the real nature of forces, particles, space, time, atoms, matter, gravitation, expansion of the universe, dark energy, dark matter, and the origin and fate of the universe, topics addressed in my second book due in late 2018. Our extraordinary universe must have been inspired by a scientifically precise and elaborate design. Gravity remains one of the greatest mysteries of science for it has no quantum particulate physical identity, its imagined particle, the graviton cannot exist, and up to now gravity can only be calculated and described, for instance in the equations of Newton and Einstein. It exists because it arises due to totally logical reasons, which were largely prompted in Descartes’ belief there must exist a law of the universal conservation of the quantity of motion. The quantum nature of spacetime, if it is not a particle, must have physical realities that are sensitive to acceleration, indicating that spacetime is perhaps fractal in its physical reality or at least mathematically, the reason why Einstein was very precise in his description of general and special relativity. String Theory, a great intellectual exercise, has the weakness of not explaining how exactly the strings acquire their property of vibration. Any Theory of Everything must incontrovertibly explain the origin of motion and of gravitation. The physics of the universe are intimately fused with the philosophy of existence, not surprisingly, as the purpose of creation must have been for producing a conscious being, not the universe solely.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3028] **viXra:1808.0601 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-27 23:38:11*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 79 Pages.

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that
allows superluminal travel within the framework of General
Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions:
The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario
warp drive discovered in $2001$.Alcubierre used the so-called
$3+1$ original Arnowitt-Dresner-Misner($ADM$) formalism using the
approach of Misner-Thorne-Wheeler to develop his warp drive
theory.As a matter of fact the first equation in his warp drive
paper is derived precisely from the original $3+1$ $ADM$ formalism
and we have strong reasons to believe that Natario which followed
the Alcubierre steps also used the original $3+1$ $ADM$ formalism
to develop the Natario warp drive spacetime.Several years ago some
works appeared in the scientific literature advocating two new
parallel $3+1$ $ADM$ formalisms.While the original $ADM$ formalism
uses mixed contravariant and covariant scripts one of the new
parallel formalisms uses only contravariant scripts while the
other uses only covariant scripts.Since the Natario vector is the
generator of the Natario warp drive spacetime metric in this work
we expand the original Natario vector including the coordinate
time as a new Canonical Basis for the Hodge star generating an
expanded Natario vector and we present $6$ equations for the
Natario warp drive spacetime $3$ of them with constant velocities
one for the original $ADM$ formalism and $2$ other for the
parallel formalisms. We also present the corresponding $3$
extended versions of the Natario warp drive spacetime metric which
encompasses accelerations and variable velocities both in the
original and parallel $ADM$ formalisms.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3027] **viXra:1808.0596 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-28 05:16:18*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In the context of DICE2018, S. Adler launched the interesting idea of an effective observer dependent cosmological constant. We discuss this suggestion in the context of covariant quantum mechanics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3026] **viXra:1808.0581 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-26 03:47:49*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It was shown that the density of the Black Hole Universe is over 17 times bigger than the density of the Friedman’s Universe. Our model does not require the assumption of the existence of dark energy and matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3025] **viXra:1808.0580 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-26 03:53:40*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 3 Pages. In Polish.

Wykazano, że gęstość Czarnodziurowego Wszechświata jest ponad 17 razy większa niż gęstość Wszechświata Friedmana. Nasz model nie wymaga przyjęcia założenia o istnieniu ciemnej energii i materii.
###
It was shown that the density of the Black Hole Universe is over 17 times bigger than the density of the Friedman’s Universe. Our model does not require the assumption of the existence of dark energy and matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3024] **viXra:1808.0562 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-27 04:37:40*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

One of the most confusing problems in physics is whether there is fundamental distinction between translational and rotational motions. The conventional view seems to be that there is no distinction. It is suggested in this paper that the failure to make this distinction is deeply rooted in 'ether thinking' because according to ether theory there is no distinction. Despite all claims that modern physics has got rid of the ether, physicists, including Albert Einstein, have never been able to truly escape the ether 'trap'. It is proposed in this paper that translational motion and rotational motion are fundamentally different and should be treated differently. It was years of struggle to explain the Michelson-Morley experiment and the Sagnac effect within the same theoretical framework that finally led to this conclusion. There are two possible interpretations of the Michelson-Morley experiment (MMX): the 'null' interpretation and the non-null interpretation. From the point of view of stationary ether theory, the MMX result is essentially null because the observed fringe shift is much smaller than the expected value. On the contrary, the MMX result is non-null from the perspective of relativity theories, mainly the classical emission theory and the Special Relativity Theory (SRT ) because there was always a small but significant fringe shift observed, as in the Miller experiments. Therefore, the MMX disproves not only the ether theory, but also the emission theory and SRT. A correct theory of the speed of light, therefore, should account not only for the 'null' interpretation, but also for the non-null interpretation. To this date there is no such known, accepted theory of light. A new theory called Apparent Source Theory (AST ) I have already proposed has resolved this century old puzzle, even though not yet known to the majority of the scientific community. AST predicts the small fringe shifts observed in MM experiments. In this paper it will be shown that AST predicts a maximum fringe shift of about 0.013 fringes for the 1881 Michelson experiment. Michelson measured a maximum fringe shift of about 0.018 fringes ! The discrepancy may be reduced if more details of the dimensions of the apparatus are obtained. AST successfully resolved the enigmatic contradiction between the Michelson-Morley experiment and the Sagnac effect. No known existing theory of light has truly achieved this. For years, I chose to treat the Sagnac effect basically as a translational motion. However, with this approach I could not develop a complete and convincing explanation of the Sagnac effect, leading to the conclusion that rotational motion must be distinct from translational motion, implying distinction between translational AST and rotational AST. On the other hand, Apparent Source Theory was found to be in conflict with stellar aberration, a simple analysis I overlooked for years. These apparent contradictions may be resolved by resorting to a new paradigm: Intrinsic Absolute Motion ( IAM ). The ether doesn't exist, as disproved by the Michelson-Morley experiment, but absolute motion does exist, as proved by the Silvertooth and other experiments. Absolute motion without the ether could be conceived only if absolute (translational and rotational) motion is intrinsic to physical entities. The application of AST to electrostatics also hinted at the need for the IAM paradigm. Mercury perihelion advance anomaly also hinted at the distinction between rotational and translational motions. Distinction between translational and rotational motions implies intrinsic nature of absolute motion. Therefore, Intrinsic Absolute Motion paradigm completes Apparent Source Theory. IAM paradigm makes distinction between equal velocities and same velocity of two bodies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3023] **viXra:1808.0558 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-24 09:20:52*

**Authors:** S.M.Hosseini, M.I.Kendrick

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Abstract
Controversy will result in the Age of the Universe as , ( is the age of the Universe at the present epoch and the Hubble constant at present) due to accelerating expansion of the Universe.
If at any time the universes expansion starts to accelerate then the age of the Universe as the inverse of the Hubble constant will start to go backward and the Universe will become younger. This implicates the idea that the time cannot travel backward or the Universal clock has only forward direction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3022] **viXra:1808.0374 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-20 11:45:49*

**Authors:** Albert Zur Ph.D

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A new theory is proposed describing one-dimensional, open-ended, cumulative, deformable and non-vibrating energy strings as fundamental building blocks for space and particles. The energy strings bear an intrinsic longitudinal momentum which causes each end of a string to expand or contract. The ends of space energy strings expand or contract in opposing directions. Empty-space of the universe is composed of space energy strings and bears dark-energy as well as a newly described dark-momentum. Particle energy strings have ends that expand and contract in the same direction, resulting in net translatory displacement. Particles are composed of particle energy strings which interact with space, inducing 3D-space curvatures embedded in a flat 4D-space. These space curvatures define a longitudinal and a transverse direction of particles and the gravity of particles. The theory provides a universal description of space and particles using similar building blocks, with the following predictions:
1)A newly-defined dark-momentum is the sole contributor to the cosmological constant in Einstein field equations. Energy of the Quantum vacuum is no longer relevant to the cosmological constant, solving the "Cosmological Constant Problem". The new theory also supports the possibility of an expanding-contracting cyclic universe.
2)All particles perform an equal distance of translatory displacement in 4D-space, reflecting a universal displacement rate of particles relative to a generally Euclidian absolute 4D-space.
3)Frames of 3D-space+time are mixed domains: 3 spatial coordinates of position-space and a temporal coordinate of momentum-space, whereby space longitudinally displaces over mass particles and is observed as proper time. Time is a displacement property of mass particles, and frames of 3D-space+time are the perspective by which mass particles experience 4D-space. In frames of 3D-space+time, the position-space of the temporal dimension is inaccessible.
4)In frames of 3D-space+time, the displacement of particles in 4D-space can only be observed by their projection components into the temporal and the spatial coordinates of the frames. The projected displacement components of a particle form a Lorentz 4-vector, which transforms between inertial frames by the Lorentz matrix and its inverse, irrespective of position. This establishes the basis for a Quantum compatible theory of Relativity represented in the momentum-space.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3021] **viXra:1808.0282 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-20 03:32:50*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, we find the electro-magnetic wave function and equation
in Rindler space-time. Specially, this article is that electromagnetic wave equation is
corrected by the gauge fixing equation in Rindler space-time. We define the force in
Rindler space-time We find Lorentz force (electromagnetic force) by electro-magnetic
field transformations in Rindler space-time. In the inertial frame, Lorentz force is
defined as 4-dimensional force. Hence, we had to obtain 4-dimensional force in Rindler
space-time. We define energy-momentum in Rindler space-time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3020] **viXra:1808.0246 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-17 08:37:44*

**Authors:** Pantelis M. Pechlivanides

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

The force experienced by a rotating body that lies in the G field of another rotating body depends both on the G field and on its own angular velocity of rotation that affects the magnitude and direction of the exerted force. The force is in general not central and not symmetric. The cases of the non rotating observer and the far away observer are examined for rotation with and without slippage. It is shown that the force may be repulsive or attractive or alternating between attractive and repulsive depending on the angular velocities of the rotations and distance.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3019] **viXra:1808.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-16 12:22:04*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: It is observed that the mass of the tau lepton matches closely the date of the last signing of the Declaration of Independence

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3018] **viXra:1808.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-15 13:37:49*

**Authors:** John Hodge

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity applies where gravitation is insignificant. There are many observations that remain poorly explained by the standard models of either the big of cosmology or the small of Quantum mechanics. Each of the STOE axioms has been used in the development of models of observations in the big and the small. The strength of the Scalar Theory Of Everything (STOE) is its ability to describe an extremely wide range of observations and to predict observations. The axioms that replace Special Relativity are: (1) Time progression (d$t$) is a constant in the universe rather than the speed of light. (2) The diameter of the hods is the same throughout the universe. (3) The distance between hods is related to plenum density$\rho$. Higher $\rho$ reduces the distance between hods. (4) The speed of photons and hods is the greatest of any matter in a given environment. And (5) The speed of the plenum wave is much faster than the speed of the hods. The STOE passes the tests of Special Relativity and does much more. The STOE is a major paradigm shift.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3017] **viXra:1808.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-13 11:21:55*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: Calculation of the mass of the neutron can be done accurately utilizing only the mass of the Z(4430) tetraquark together with an understood factor and another not understood but smaller factor the neutron has in common with the proton

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3016] **viXra:1808.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-14 03:47:16*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 3 Pages. In Polish.

Pokazano, że temperatura Hawkinga Czarnodziurowego Wszechświata jest wprost proporcjonalna do stałej Hubble’a. Oszacowano wartość tej temperatury, moc promieniowania, energię emitowaną w ciągu jednego roku oraz długość fali odpowiadającą maksymalnej mocy promieniowania.
###
It has been shown that the Hawking temperature of the Black Hole Universe is directly proportional to the Hubble constant. The value of this temperature, the power of radiation, the energy emitted in one year and the wavelength corresponding to the maximum radiation power were estimated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3015] **viXra:1808.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-14 03:50:52*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It has been shown that the Hawking temperature of the Black Hole Universe is directly proportional to the Hubble constant. The value of this temperature, the power of radiation, the energy emitted in one year and the wavelength corresponding to the maximum radiation power were estimated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3014] **viXra:1808.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-10 20:32:26*

**Authors:** Kathleen A. Rosser

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

A review of refutations of general relativity commonly found in today’s literature is presented, with comments on the status of Einstein’s theory and brief analyses of the arguments for modified gravity. Topics include dark matter and the galactic rotation curve, dark energy and cosmic acceleration, completeness and the equation of state, the speed of gravity, the singularity problem, redshift, gravitational time dilation, localized energy, and the gravitational potential. It is conjectured that the contemporary formalism of general relativity offers an incomplete description of gravitational effects, which may be the most compelling reason for seeking new theories of gravity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3013] **viXra:1808.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-09 12:41:39*

**Authors:** DT Froedge

**Comments:** 14 Pages. first draft

Gravitation defined in curved space has never been found to be compatible with quantum mechanics or quantum field theory. This is likely due to the fact that one theory is based in local conservation of energy and the other defines energy globally, and not locally conserved [1]. Equations mixed with variables from the two conservation laws, could neither be invariant nor covariant under coordinate transformations. This paper presents a theory of gravitation constructed within the locally conserved concepts of QFT. In previous papers the author has illustrated that for photons, and confined light speed particles, a gradient in c demonstrates the effect of gravitation. The illustration of a gradient in c generated by Quantum Field Theory equivalent to gravitation therefore could create a theory of gravitation within a Lorenz, local conservation of energy four-space.
With a few assumptions regarding the nature of photons and the reality of path integrals, gravitation can be illustrated as a feature of Quantum Field Theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3012] **viXra:1808.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-10 06:26:20*

**Authors:** Mesut Kavak

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

After midnight just before sleeping, I noticed in my bed, that free space itself can cause a parachute effect on the moving bodies especially the bodies move in low gravitational fields like in pioneer anomaly. Because of this reason, while speed of a satellite is decreasing, speed of another one which spins around the world on different axis can increase; a satellite wandering in interstellar medium can speed up as also it can slow down; low frequency light and high frequency light behavior differently. These are only a few examples.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3011] **viXra:1808.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-08 10:26:48*

**Authors:** Tarzan

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

As outlined in Part I of this series there are many types of paired- and multi-object systems which exemplify emergent and fission systems. This report describes the
CLTG (clone or compact, later-type galaxy) multi-object system. The CLTG have a variety of morphological appearances albeit many are non-spiral ‘stellate’ types and contrast with clones or late spiral type objects. Along with this collection of CLTG families we include a data-driven method of classification members of the family. We also created several ad hoc descriptions of patterns formed by family objects.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3010] **viXra:1808.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-07 08:08:13*

**Authors:** Ting-Hang Pei

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

We use the Kerr-Newman metric based on the general relativity to discuss the superluminal phenomenon of light at the black hole. The black hole have the rotation term a and the charge term RQ with the Schwarzschild radius RS. The geodesic of light is ds2=0 and the equation for three velocity components (dr/dt, rdθ/dt, rsinθdϕ/dt) is obtained in the spherical coordinate (r, θ, ϕ) with the coordinate time t. Then three cases of the velocity of light (dr/dt, 0, 0), (0, rdθ/dt, 0), and (0, 0, rsinθdϕ/dt) are discussed in this research. According to our discussions, only the case of (dr/dt, 0, 0) gives the possibility of the occurrence of the superluminal phenomenon for r between RS and (R_Q^2+a^2 sin^2 θ/2)/R_S at sinθ>0 when RQ∼RS. The calculations of the velocity of light reveal that the maximum speed of light and the range of the superluminal phenomenon are much related to the rotational term a. Generally speaking, the superluminal phenomena for light can possibly occur in these cases that the radial velocity dr/dt is dominant and the other two velocity components are comparably small. When the relative velocity between the reference frame and the black hole is not heavy, these results of the superluminal phenomenon are suitable for the observations by an observer in a reference frame at infinity or very weak gravitation like on Earth.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3009] **viXra:1808.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-08 03:50:51*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Thank you for reding

In the general relativity theory, we define the force in Rindler space-time We find
Lorentz force (electromagnetic force) by electro-magnetic field transformations in
Rindler space-time. In the inertial frame, Lorentz force is defined as 4-dimensional
force. Hence, we had to obtain 4-dimensional force in Rindler space-time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3008] **viXra:1808.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-06 13:49:28*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Presenting a summary of my website regarding a "Theory of Everything".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3007] **viXra:1807.0535 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-31 08:10:14*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 1 Page.

a brief overview of the concise unification between gravitation and strong-nuclear

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3006] **viXra:1807.0525 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-31 11:42:35*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: The HCE8S theory accuracy of the neutron, proton, Z boson and other particle masses has been further improved

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3005] **viXra:1807.0524 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-31 11:46:17*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Yunita Umniyati

**Comments:** 9 Pages. This paper has been submitted to Prespacetime Journal. Your comments are welcome

In a rather old paper, Mario Liu described a hydrodynamic Maxwell equations. While he also discussed potential implications of these new approaches to superconductors, such a discussion of electrodynamics of superconductors is made only after Tajmar's paper. Therefore, in this paper we present for the first time a derivation of fluidic Maxwell-Proca equations. The name of fluidic Maxwell-Proca is proposed because the equations were based on modifying Maxwell-Proca and Hirsch's theory of electrodynamics of superconductor. It is hoped that this paper may stimulate further investigations and experiments in superconductor. It may be expected to have some impact to cosmology modeling too, for instance we consider a hypothetical argument that photon mass can be origin of gravitation. Then, after combining with the so-called chiral modification of Maxwell equations (after Spröessig), then we consider chiral Maxwell-Proca equations as possible alternative of gravitation theory. Such a hypothesis has never been considered in literature to the best of our knowledge.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3004] **viXra:1807.0501 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-29 09:59:17*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, we find the electro-magnetic wave function and equation
in Rindler space-time. Specially, this article is that electromagnetic wave equation is corrected by the gauge fixing equation in Rindler space-time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3003] **viXra:1807.0490 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-30 07:08:56*

**Authors:** Dariusz Dudało

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Next part of Simply Theory

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3002] **viXra:1807.0458 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-26 09:59:56*

**Authors:** Tcherepanov O.A.

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

It is possible that the so-called "anomaly of the Pioneers" is actually caused by the "blue shift", that is, gradually as the approach to the ground transmitter changes in the frequency of the returned signals of the radar tracking of space vehicles, the cause of which may be the weakly refracting properties of the near-solar space. Considering the near space as an optical medium that is inhomogeneous in the direction "from" the Sun or "to" the Sun, we supplement the calculation using the Doppler formula by the Mikhelson rule.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3001] **viXra:1807.0454 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-26 14:44:54*

**Authors:** Jonathan W. Tooker

**Comments:** 24 Pages. 15 figures, 2 tables

We construct time arrow spinor states and define for them a Stern--Gerlach analogue Hamiltonian. The dispersion relations of the allowed modes are derived in a few special cases. We examine experimental data regarding negative frequency resonant radiation and show that the energy shift of the negative frequency mode is on the characteristic scale of the energies of the new Hamiltonian. We describe the similitude of the modified cosmological model (MCM) and the Stern--Gerlach apparatus, and we also show how the Pauli matrices are well-suited to applications in MCM cosmology. Complex and quaternion phase are combined in the wavefunction to generate new multiplectic structures. The principles described in this paper are oriented toward a time circuit application so we briefly describe an electrical circuit whose constructive elements elucidate the requirements needed for a working time circuit. The algebraic graph representation of electrical nodes with different electric potentials is replaced with time nodes that have different times in the time circuit graph.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3000] **viXra:1807.0447 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-27 04:21:03*

**Authors:** Lann N. Ramez

**Comments:** 4 pages

In his referenced paper (Khan 2012), Khan concluded that Einstein’s basic equation obtained in his paper (Einstein 1905) to derive the Special Relativity equations is based on trickery. This paper reveals that Khan conclusion is based on misconceptions and wrong interpretation of the Einstein’s derivation method.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2999] **viXra:1807.0429 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-26 01:18:40*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In the projectile motion under vertical gravity, the horizontal speed remains constant
while the vertical speed increases. The elapsed time to travel over a fixed length
in the horizontal direction remains constant regardless of the vertical speed. Such elapsed
time is independent of any reference frame in vertical motion. Therefore, the elapsed
time is independent of the reference frame. Consequently, time is independent of the reference frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2998] **viXra:1807.0422 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-26 04:20:07*

**Authors:** Moshe Segal

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The kinetic energy of a moving mass is attributed to the mass increase because of its velocity. Thus, mass is recognized as a special form of energy. In contast to mass, charge is believed to be a constant entity, not affected by its velocity.
From the above, two questions might be asked:
1. Why charge remains a distinct entity while mass was discovered to be a special sort of enery.
2. If mass increase by velocity is recognized to be the cause of the kinetic enrgy embeded in a moving mass, what is the cause for the generation of a magnetic field while the charge is moving?
This article deals with these questions by executing the following "thinking exercise":
It assumes that charge is also another form of energy, as mass turned to be. This assumption makes Energy as the only distinct entity, a simpler and cleaner view of nature.
Then, it uses that assumption as follows:
It adds the following two assumptions:
1. The charge magnitude value is not a constant entity and it is affected by the charge velocity.
2. The increase of the charge magnitude because of its velocity is the cause for the generation of the magnetic field of a moving charge.
Then, by analyzing the existing experimental results related to charges and the fields they create from a new point of view, and applying these assumptions, the article tries to evaluate if these assumptions lead to new insights.
The result is the following four conclusions:
1. Charge magnitude increase because of its velocity is described by the following formula:
1/2))2/c21v –/((1 0q = q
- 2 -
- 2 -
This is very similar to the equation:
1/2))2c/2v -((1 /0m = m
Which describes the increase in mass when the mass is moving.
2. The magnetic field generated by a moving point charge is actually two moving field components. One of these moving field components is a moving electric field component. Another moving field component is perpendicular to this moving electric field and it can be seen as the actual magnetic field created. These two moving fields resemble and might be related to the electromagnetic emission from moving charges.
3. Since charge comes in two types, a positive charge and a negative charge, then the energy embeded in charge also comes in two energy types. The article assigns these energy types to one set of Energy Pairs.
4. A magnetic field energy conservation paradox is resolved using the above concept of Energy Pairs. This is done by assuming that Energies belonging to Energy Pairs, cancel each other if they coexist in the same space volume, such that only the net energy intensity of the energy type in the Energy pair that had initially more intensity, remains in the space volume where the two Energy Pairs coexist. Thus, energy conservation exists only when the total amount of energy in a specific volume in space contains only the net amount of one member of the energies which belong to an Energy Pair.
Thus, by assuming that charge is a special form of energy, and analyzing the existing data and knowledge according to this assumption, it seems that new insights can be found, and also an explanation can be supplied to a magnetic field energy conservation paradox.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2997] **viXra:1807.0411 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-23 19:51:43*

**Authors:** Dariusz Dudało

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Uwzględnienie dylatacji czasu przy analizowaniu Czarnych Dziur.Time dilation with black holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2996] **viXra:1807.0379 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-22 08:52:02*

**Authors:** W.Berckmans

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

There seems to be a fundamental conflict between a PhR model, proposing a cosmos on a double layered grid and Einstein's Special Relativity Theory".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2995] **viXra:1807.0376 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-22 12:14:10*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 3 Pages. In Polish.

Równania pola modelujące czarną dziurę z maksymalną otoczką antygrawitacyjną oraz Nasz Wszechświat można sprowadzić do postaci opisującej tzw. przestrzeń Einsteina.
###
Field equations modeling a black hole with maximal anti-gravity halo and Our Universe can be reduced to the form describing the so-called. Einstein space.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2994] **viXra:1807.0375 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-22 12:17:46*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Field equations modeling a black hole with maximal anti-gravity halo and Our Universe can be reduced to the form describing the so-called. Einstein space.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2993] **viXra:1807.0359 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-21 20:53:05*

**Authors:** John Lawrence Duval

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

What we have done in this work is remove the misdirection Relativity Theory employs.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2992] **viXra:1807.0353 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-20 22:35:41*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 30 Pages. a preprint of a paper accepted for publication

The nature and properties of dark matter and dark energy in the universe are among the outstanding open issues of modern cosmology. Despite extensive theoretical and empirical efforts, the question "what is dark matter made of?" has not been answered satisfactorily. Candidates proposed to identify particle dark matter span over ninety orders of magnitude in mass, from ultra-light bosons, to massive black holes. Dark energy is a greater enigma. It is believed to be some kind of negative vacuum energy, responsible for driving galaxies apart in accelerated motion.
In this article we take a relativistic approach in theorizing about dark matter and dark energy. Our approach is based on our recently proposed Information Relativity theory. Rather than theorizing about the identities of particle dark matter candidates, we investigate the relativistic effects on large scale celestial structures at their recession from an observer on Earth. We analyze a simplified model of the universe, in which, large scale celestial bodies, like galaxies and galaxy clusters, are non-charged compact bodies that recede rectilinearly along the line-of-sight of an observer on Earth. We neglect contributions to dark matter caused by the rotation of celestial structures (e.g., the rotation of galaxies) and of their constituents (e.g., rotations of stars inside their galaxies). We define the mass of dark matter as the complimentary portion of the derived relativistic mass, such that at any given recession velocity the sum of the two is equal to the Newtonian mass. The emerging picture from our analysis could be summarized as follows:
1. At any given redshift, the dark matter of a receding body exists in duality to its observable matter, such that the sum of their masses is equal to the body's mass at rest. 2. The dynamical interaction between the dark and the observed matter is determined by the body's recession velocity (or redshift). 3. The observable matter mass density decreases with its recession velocity, with matter transforming to dark matter. 4. For redshifts z < 0.5, the universe is dominated by matter, while for redshifts z > 0.5 the universe is dominated by dark matter. 5. Consistent with observational data, at redshift z = 0.5, the densities of matter and dark matter in the universe are predicted to be equal. 5. At redshift equaling the Golden Ratio (z ≈ 1.618), baryonic matter undergoes a quantum phase transition. The universe at higher redshifts is comprised of a dominant dark matter alongside with quantum matter. 6. Contrary to the current conjecture that dark energy is a negative vacuum energy that might interact with dark matter, comparisons of our theoretical results with observational results of ΛCDM cosmologies, and with observations of the relative densities of matter and dark energy at redshift z ≈ 0.55, allow us to conclude that dark energy is the energy carried by dark matter. 7. Application of the model to the case of rotating bodies, which will be discussed in detail in a subsequent paper, raises the intriguing possibility that the gravitational force between two bodies of mass is mediated by the entanglement of their dark matter components.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2991] **viXra:1807.0351 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-21 04:26:05*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The description of the experiment, published in 1972 in Science by J.C. Hafele and R.E. Keating, shows in the first part, called: Predicted Relativistic Time Gains, the theoretical background for the calculated time gains. In the second part: Observed Relativistic Time Gains, the results of the measurements are shown. This analysis shows several theoretical errors and a tendentious presentation of the measurements, so clear that the reader cannot avoid a feeling of being deceived in order to get convinced of the correctness of the Special Theory of Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2990] **viXra:1807.0342 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-19 13:38:40*

**Authors:** John S. Huenefeld

**Comments:** 20 Pages. A simple elegant theory of the cosmos - easy to understand.

An inward dynamic, within a gravitational field of General Relativity, provides the basis to propose a space-time contraction field around matter. This can only be achieved by making a fundamental shift in thinking from Einstein’s conception of GR. This shift, if fully embraced, will change the paradigm of understanding for both space-time and matter, with implications ranging from quark behavior to the expanding cosmos.
Adding mass is not the only way to influence orbital velocities. A field of contracting space-time surrounding a massive object will also increase orbital velocities above that of Newtonian gravity alone. When applied to a model galaxy, a contraction field yields a flat rotation curve consistent with observations. The contraction field will also create gravitational lensing and hold galactic clusters together, explaining all observations attributed to dark matter.
Cosmologically, space-time contraction fields surrounding galaxies embedded within intergalactic regions of expanding space-time can lead to an observed acceleration of universal expansion. Over time, a greater proportion of the universe becomes occupied by expanding space-time. In the early universe, contraction fields acting within vast clouds of hydrogen gas , can explain the rapid formation of super-massive black holes, quasars, and large early stars.
The theoretical contraction field arises from consideration of a special class of inertial reference frames in freefall around a gravitating body. This class of inertial reference frame, falling from an infinite distance, reveals not only the metric of the GR field, but also a dynamic process where space-time is continuously contracted around matter in a very specific way.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2989] **viXra:1807.0335 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-20 03:16:06*

**Authors:** Anonymous

**Comments:** 3 pages

This reply to Khan’s referenced paper (Khan 2012) shows that Khan performed erroneous, false, and invalid operations on a wrongly assumed equation to obtain Einstein’s basic partial differential equation that Einstein derived in in his paper (Einstein 1905) to develop the Special Relativity equations. Khan naively concluded that the latter Einstein’s equation must be an “equation of trickery”, without realizing that performing invalid operations on a wrong equation to force it to lead to a desired equation doesn’t necessarily falsify the forced equation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2988] **viXra:1807.0334 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-20 03:25:22*

**Authors:** Moninder Singh Modgil

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Exterior of the Kerr black hole is considered as the likely spacetime geometry around a black hole formed by gravitational collapse. However the Kerr black hole has chronology violating Closed Time-like Curves (CTCs), near the ring singularity in interior. Hawking has considered formation of CTCs using a scalar field and shown that back reaction of nature - divergence of energy-momentum tensor - would prevent formation of CTCs. The question being raised here is whether the physics behind Hawking's concept of "chronology protection", will actually prevent formation of the Kerr black hole - through gravitational collapse. On the other hand, if the Kerr black hole indeed gets formed by gravitational collapse, then one has a counter example to Chronology Protection Conjecture. Chronology protection thus imposes the constraint that formation of a rotating black hole through gravitational collapse should be such that the interior metric of the black hole does not match that of the Kerr black hole, or any other black hole with CTCs. It is possible that the quantum gravity effects rule out formation of CTCs during gravitational collapse - as they are expected to remove singularities. There may however be classical solutions to the problem. Angular momentum orginating from the rotation and the formation of CTCs are intimately related - through the off diagonal term $g_{t \phi}$ i.e., the coefficient of the $dtd\phi$ term (corresponding to the temporal coordinate $t$ and the longitudinal angular coordinate $\phi$) - of the metric tensor. A possible solution is that during the gravitational collapse, all the angular momentum of the star, is radiated away by gravitational waves - leaving behind as residual, the Schwarzschild black hole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2987] **viXra:1807.0320 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-18 07:47:22*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In a previous paper, I gave my opinion on some significant questions of physics. This note is to reinforce that opinion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2986] **viXra:1807.0314 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-19 03:10:22*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 178 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

The size of the Universe and the speed of the Gravitons
“The diameter of the universe D:
D = 2 × 13.8 × v
where v is the Gravitons speed”
Adrian Ferent
“The diameter of the universe D = 9.2 × 10^9 billion light-years, much bigger than 93 billion light-years how you learned from your professors, from your books”
Adrian Ferent
“The universe is a sphere with a diameter of 9.2 × 10^9 billion light-years”
Adrian Ferent
The age of the universe is estimated to be 13.8 billion years.
We know that parts of the universe are too far away for the light emitted since the Big Bang to have had enough time to reach Earth and so lie outside the observable universe.
The expansion rate of the universe is accelerating due to dark energy.
What is dark energy?
“Dark Energy is Gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
What you learned from your professors about the size of the universe:
The universe doesn’t expand at a particular speed, it expands at a speed per distance.
Light and objects within spacetime cannot travel faster than the speed of light, this limitation does not restrict the metric itself.
A metric defines the concept of distance, by stating in mathematical terms how distances between two nearby points in space are measured, in terms of the coordinate system.
Diameter of the observable universe is 93 Gly
From Earth to the edge of the observable universe the comoving distance is about 46.5 billion light-years.
Anyway nothing in the universe can travel faster than light.
In Ferent Quantum Gravity theory Gravitons travel faster than light.
“I quantized the gravitational field with gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
“Gravitational waves are carried by gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
“During the Big Bang first emerged the gravitational force with the speed of the gravitons: v = 1.001762 × 10^17 m / s”
Adrian Ferent
Gravitons speed is v = 1.001762 × 10^17 m/s, how I explained in my Gravitation theory close to the speed of light squared.
“The diameter of the universe D:
D = 2 × 13.8 × v
where v is the Gravitons speed”
Adrian Ferent
This means:
D = 2 × 13.8 × 1.001762 × 10^17
D = 9.2 × 10^9 billion light-years
“The diameter of the universe D = 9.2 × 10^9 billion light-years, much bigger than 93 billion light-years how you learned from your professors, from your books”
Adrian Ferent
The size of the universe:
“The universe is a sphere with a diameter of 9.2 × 10^9 billion light-years”
Adrian Ferent
“Einstein, Hilbert General Relativity theory, String theory, LQG, all Quantum gravity theories are incorrect because are limited to the speed of light”
Adrian Ferent
89. I am the first who calculated the size of the universe, a sphere with a diameter of 9.2 × 10^9 billion light-years

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2985] **viXra:1807.0289 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-16 20:35:54*

**Authors:** Piscedda Giampaolo

**Comments:** 1 Page.

When we discuss the ether, we must specify what type of ether we are referring to: Dirac's ether, Einstein's ether, Lorentz's ether, Weyl's ether, etc. Among the physicists the word ether became gradually unusual over time. It has been replaced by the empty term, but the meaning has not changed. Currently, we have return to the use of the wird ether. The use of the term: stationary ether, new ether, relativistic ether, has already becomes normal during son international conferences.
See the book of LUDWIK KOSTRO title: EINSTEIN AND THE ETHER.
In this article we combine reconciles the Lorentz's ether with the relativistic ether of Einstein

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2984] **viXra:1807.0282 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-15 12:00:32*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract: A chargeless Z(4430) tetraquark acts physically like a ~ 270X heavier neutrino

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2983] **viXra:1807.0278 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-16 01:08:43*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Based on Fizeau's experiment, the single cogwheel is replaced with two rotating disks to measure the one-way speed of light. A single slit is cut out in the radial direction on each disk for the light to pass through the disk. With both disks rotating at the same angular speed, the light can pass through both disks only if the second slit is in a different radial direction from the first slit. The light takes time to travel from the first disk to the second disk. With both slits rotating into the straight path of light, the one-way speed of light can be calculated from the distance between two disks, angular speed of the disks and the angular difference between two slits.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2982] **viXra:1807.0267 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-16 15:06:38*

**Authors:** Xiaogang Ruan

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In 1905, based on the Michelson-Morley experiment, Einstein proposed the hypothesis of invariance of light speed (ILS). He then theoretically deduced the Lorentz transformation from ILS, established the theory of special relativity (SR), and revealed the relativistic phenomena of matter motion. Up till today, however, we still don’t exactly know what role light plays in Einstein’s theory, or why the speed of light is invariant; moreover, we still don’t exactly understand relativistic phenomena. Based on the locality of physical world, this paper establishes the principle of observational locality (POL), proposes the hypothesis of observational limit (HOL), and tries to accertain the role of light in observation and the root and essence of ILS. According to POL and HOL, the Michelson-Morley experiment does not really mean ILS, but does demonstrate to us a significant phenomenon in physical observation: the speeds that observational media transmit the spacetime information about observed objects possess observational invariance. In Michelson-Morley experiment, light acts as both the observed object and the observational medium, and therefore, its speed is observationally invariant. Perhaps, this paper could provide new knowledge on light speed and new understanding on relativistic phenomena including ILS. Perhaps, in the future, the observational locality of light would be broken through with technological progress so that we could observe a more real objective world.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2118] **viXra:1808.0623 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-08-29 15:10:53*

**Authors:** Abed Peerally

**Comments:** 18 Pages. REPLACEMENT WITH A NEW UPDATED FILE

Summary
The topics of Dark Matter and Dark Energy and of the Higgs phenomenon, are amongst the dramatic examples of the universe being to a large extent unknown. Reported in the late 1990’s by S. Perlmutter, B. Schmidt and A. Riess, the Nobel Committee in awarding the Nobel Prize to them in 2011 said: Their “findings have unveiled a universe that is to a large extent unknown to science”. That is still true today and is likely to be so for decades to come. These findings were based on the behaviour of the Type 1a Supernovae which, due to their consistent brightness, have developed the reputation of being reliable standard candles in cosmological research. Perlmutter, Schmidt and Riess found that these supernovae, as earlier workers for decades had observed, are dimmer than what expected, and they concluded that they must be accelerating faster than believed, in their motion. The work of Riess et al proposed that dark energy, must be a kind of energy that could have an anti-gravitational pull, thus explaining the strange behaviour of the Type 1a supernovae as they move away from us, into the infinite horizon of the universe. Now in the late second decade of the 21st century, no dark energy reality has been discovered at all, and the same applies to the dark matter hypothesis that came out of the work that was awarded the Nobel Prize 2011. It appears like there will perhaps never be any proof of the existence of dark matter and dark energy particles, for these are claimed to be unable to interact with normal matter and energy and not to have any radiation. This is a typical example of why perhaps a Theory of Everything is required to throw some light on the mysterious realities of existence, if possible. Actually explaining something that has no material or energy evidence of any kind, makes that something as impossible to explain as God. They do not interact with anything at all. However, if the Theory of Everything can explain how the universe originated, it might surely also provide evidence of whether dark matter and dark energy exist or not. This appears very tricky for they have been claimed as being totally invisible and insensitive to any kind of experimental set up.
2
The Higgs boson came out dramatically in the work of Higgs, Salam, Weinberg, Glashow and others, that found linkages between the weak force and the electromagnetic force. It is believed in relation to the Higgs boson, even if it is not true, that all particles should have zero mass. Several different eminent physicists thought of rather similar ways of explaining mass and its origin. Generally, it was felt that a new Field that was later called the Higgs Field, permeated the universe, and the property of mass was acquired when particles interacted with this field whose particle was named the Higgs boson, the simplest manifestation of the field. However many physicists believe the Higgs phenomenon and its particle discovered in 2012 should be a more elaborate mechanism, on which further work is ongoing, particularly at the LHC. The feeling is that the phenomenon of mass has not understood in its full reality.
It goes without saying that in the absence of a Theory of Everything, it is not possible to really know, as far as possible, the nature and fate of the universe, mainly because the universe was conceived on a deliberate master plan. The implication is that there could have existed only one such specific plan: the supernatural plan to create our universe, which to humans is the Theory of Everything as far as possible, capable to describe our universe. The fact humans are destined to discover the Theory of Everything, according to Kepler and Whewell, indicates there was supernatural creation of the universe, and therefore finding the Theory of Everything is an astounding perspective.
The scientific/philosophical Theory of Everything will be describes soon, is coming at a historical juncture where several well-known cosmologists are talking about natural creation from practically nothing or based solely on mathematics. Since most intellectuals and members of the public believe the universe had a supernatural creation, a scientific concept of the origin of the universe by a Supernatural Mind or God, would be of enormous interest. It will be the collision of the traditional imaginary Godless concepts of the origin of our universe with a scientific concept that creates an extraordinary historical event in our current intellectual, scientific, philosophical and theological world. Since the Theory of Everything will be really, as far as possible, a universal and metaphysical concept of the universe, it can produce an intellectual revolution in the scientific and philosophical sectors, that will impact on theology in ways not seen before. There whole world will benefit, for the total
3
confusion that surrounds the comprehension of the realities and origin of our universe would reach a turning point, never seen before. It will demonstrate the power of intellectual knowledge as the torch bearer of humanity. The reason is that intellectual ideas are capable to turn humanity into one collective mind in the universe.
The universe under GRT is expanding, and there was never been any tendency for the universe to contract and collapse into an unimaginable black hole. Penrose’s hypothesis of a cosmic crunch and the rebirth of the universe (CCC), is not a possibility, because the uncertainly in science is at the quantum microscale, and not at the macro or universal scale. Gravity was correctly explained by Einstein. He referred to it as pseudo-force, causing the warping of space time, being perhaps a kind of variation of the electromagnetic force. The truth is that the nature of black holes happens to be as misunderstood as is the nature of the universe. Cosmology has been a precariously understood domain, the reason being the lack of adequate cosmological understanding of how the universe came into existence. This is not surprising, as I explain in my coming second book on the origin of the universe, for our world is, historically, at the beginning phase of its modern scientific era, being hardly one century old, if we take the golden age of physics of the first decades of the last century, as marking the beginning of our modern scientific culture.
No wonder we do not know the real nature of forces, particles, space, time, atoms, matter, gravitation, expansion of the universe, dark energy, dark matter, and the origin and fate of the universe, topics addressed in my second book due in late 2018. Our extraordinary universe must have been inspired by a scientifically precise and elaborate design. Gravity remains one of the greatest mysteries of science for it has no quantum particulate physical identity, its imagined particle, the graviton cannot exist, and up to now gravity can only be calculated and described, for instance in the equations of Newton and Einstein. It exists because it arises due to totally natural reasons, which were largely seen in Descartes’ belief there must exist a law of the universal conservation of the quantity of motion. The quantum nature of spacetime, if it is not a particle, must have physical realities that are sensitive to acceleration, indicating that spacetime is perhaps fractal in its physical reality or at least mathematically, the reason why Einstein was very precise in his description of general and special relativity. String Theory, a great intellectual exercise, has the weakness of not explaining how exactly the strings acquire their
4
property of vibration. Any Theory of Everything must incontrovertibly explain the origin of motion and of gravitation. The physics of the universe are intimately fused with the philosophy of existence, not surprisingly, as the purpose of creation must have been for producing a conscious being, not solely the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2117] **viXra:1808.0558 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-09-03 03:44:05*

**Authors:** S.M.Hosseini, M.I.Kendrick

**Comments:** 7 Pages. The formula change to include c (speed of light)

Abstract
Controversy will result in the Age of the Universe as , ( is the age of the Universe at the present epoch and the Hubble constant at present) due to accelerating expansion of the Universe.
If at any time the universes expansion starts to accelerate then the age of the Universe as the inverse of the Hubble constant will start to go backward and the Universe will become younger. This implicates the idea that the time cannot travel backward or the Universal clock has only forward direction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2116] **viXra:1808.0282 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-09-06 16:16:21*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In the general relativity theory, we find the electro-magnetic wave function and equation
in Rindler space-time. Specially, this article is that electromagnetic wave equation is
corrected by the gauge fixing equation in Rindler space-time. We define the force in
Rindler space-time We find Lorentz force (electromagnetic force) by electro-magnetic
field transformations in Rindler space-time. In the inertial frame, Lorentz force is
defined as 4-dimensional force. Hence, we had to obtain 4-dimensional force in Rindler
space-time. We define energy-momentum in Rindler space-time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2115] **viXra:1808.0205 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-08-17 12:24:57*

**Authors:** John Hodge

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity applies where gravitation is insignificant. There are many observations that remain poorly explained by the standard models of either the big of cosmology or the small of Quantum mechanics. Each of the STOE axioms has been used in the development of models of observations in the big and the small. The strength of the Scalar Theory Of Everything (STOE) is its ability to describe an extremely wide range of observations and to predict observations. The axioms that replace Special Relativity are: (1) Time progression (d$t$) is a constant in the universe rather than the speed of light. (2) The diameter of the hods is the same throughout the universe. (3) The distance between hods is related to plenum density$\rho$. Higher $\rho$ reduces the distance between hods. (4) The speed of photons and hods is the greatest of any matter in a given environment. And (5) The speed of the plenum wave is much faster than the speed of the hods. The STOE passes the tests of Special Relativity and does much more. The STOE is a major paradigm shift.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2114] **viXra:1808.0117 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-08-14 05:40:07*

**Authors:** Mesut Kavak

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

After midnight just before sleeping, I noticed in my bed, that free space itself can cause a parachute effect on the moving bodies especially the bodies move in low gravitational fields like in Pioneer Anomaly. Because of this reason, while speed of a satellite is decreasing, speed of another one which spins around the world on different axis can increase; a satellite wandering in interstellar medium can speed up as also it can slow down; low frequency light and high frequency light behave differently; galaxies have lower mass can spin faster since mutual gravitation is not only option. These are only a few examples.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2113] **viXra:1808.0117 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-08-11 12:43:23*

**Authors:** Mesut Kavak

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

After midnight just before sleeping, I noticed in my bed, that free space itself can cause a parachute effect on the moving bodies especially the bodies move in low gravitational fields like in Pioneer Anomaly. Because of this reason, while speed of a satellite is decreasing, speed of another one which spins around the world on different axis can increase; a satellite wandering in interstellar medium can speed up as also it can slow down; low frequency light and high frequency light behavior differently; galaxies have lower mass can spin faster since mutual gravitation is not only option. These are only a few examples.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2112] **viXra:1807.0535 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-08-13 10:34:51*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 1 Page.

a brief overview of the concise unification between gravitation and strong-nuclear

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2111] **viXra:1807.0335 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-08-03 08:24:10*

**Authors:** Lann N. Ramez

**Comments:** 3 pages

This reply to Khan’s referenced paper (Khan 2012) shows that Khan performed invalid operations on a wrongly assumed equation to obtain Einstein’s basic partial differential equation that Einstein derived in in his paper (Einstein 1905) to develop the Special Relativity equations. Khan concluded that the latter Einstein’s equation must be an “equation of trickery”, without realizing that performing invalid operations on a wrong equation to force it to lead to a desired equation doesn’t necessarily falsify the forced equation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2110] **viXra:1807.0320 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-09-18 07:31:17*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In a previous paper, I gave my opinion on some significant questions of physics. This note is to reinforce that opinion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology