**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(19) - 0703(4) - 0704(2) - 0706(1) - 0708(1) - 0709(1) - 0711(1) - 0712(2)

2008 - 0801(3) - 0802(1) - 0804(1) - 0805(1) - 0807(5) - 0810(2)

2009 - 0901(1) - 0902(3) - 0903(3) - 0907(7) - 0908(17) - 0909(28) - 0910(19) - 0911(13) - 0912(10)

2010 - 1001(3) - 1002(26) - 1003(26) - 1004(9) - 1005(10) - 1006(11) - 1007(9) - 1008(19) - 1009(9) - 1010(17) - 1011(23) - 1012(7)

2011 - 1101(36) - 1102(14) - 1103(35) - 1104(10) - 1105(4) - 1106(12) - 1107(15) - 1108(5) - 1109(11) - 1110(19) - 1111(23) - 1112(15)

2012 - 1201(37) - 1202(22) - 1203(18) - 1204(22) - 1205(22) - 1206(14) - 1207(16) - 1208(30) - 1209(17) - 1210(19) - 1211(17) - 1212(30)

2013 - 1301(33) - 1302(22) - 1303(42) - 1304(28) - 1305(24) - 1306(28) - 1307(21) - 1308(27) - 1309(21) - 1310(28) - 1311(21) - 1312(44)

2014 - 1401(35) - 1402(27) - 1403(32) - 1404(31) - 1405(38) - 1406(33) - 1407(45) - 1408(32) - 1409(25) - 1410(40) - 1411(30) - 1412(29)

2015 - 1501(39) - 1502(27) - 1503(24) - 1504(27) - 1505(31) - 1506(32) - 1507(24) - 1508(32) - 1509(39) - 1510(40) - 1511(51) - 1512(46)

2016 - 1601(33) - 1602(46) - 1603(39) - 1604(33) - 1605(31) - 1606(44) - 1607(21) - 1608(39) - 1609(47) - 1610(30) - 1611(47) - 1612(33)

2017 - 1701(28) - 1702(27) - 1703(43) - 1704(48) - 1705(31) - 1706(22)

Any replacements are listed further down

[2501] **viXra:1706.0429 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-22 05:16:29*

**Authors:** Fang Zhou

**Comments:** 37 pages in Chinese

Zhoufang Transformation (Z-Transformation) is the only objectively existing in nature transformation of space (the co-ordinates of material points) and time (the parameter of events) for the case of observers’ mutual uniform translatory motion and limited light velocity, and actually underlies the theoretical and methodological basis for the motion observation theory.The article presents two methods of physical-mathematical derivation for Zhoufang Transformation (Z-Transformation).One method relies on algebra means, and the other on vector analysis as well.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2500] **viXra:1706.0415 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-21 09:48:46*

**Authors:** Marco Pereira

**Comments:** 107 Pages.

3077 38th Street
Apt 2B

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2499] **viXra:1706.0405 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-20 08:42:54*

**Authors:** Richard Palkovac

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In 2003, I was thinking about would happen if we pushed two fundamental particles of matter into ourselves (in the same location in space, in the same point). My intuition told me that it could not be mass anymore and therefore gravity would cease to have an effect. After I developed this idea, I also found the cause for the expansion of the universe and, ultimately, its acceleration.
The basic idea of my hypothesis is: "Gravitational mass is being lost in black holes (Grey Objects)."
It is clear to me that the physical definition of the term "black hole" is something other than what I use in this hypothesis.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2498] **viXra:1706.0401 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-20 10:30:41*

**Authors:** Robert D. Bock

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We present a simple model of light propagation that allows for the one-way speed of light, or equivalently, the simultaneity convention, to depend on the distance between the emitter and the absorber. This is distinct from variable speed of light (VSL) theories that assume the two-way speed of light is variable. We show that this model predicts wavelength shifts that are consistent with wavelength shifts measured from light propagating on astrophysical scales, thus eliminating the need to propose ad hoc mechanisms, such as dark matter, dark energy, and cosmological expansion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2497] **viXra:1706.0396 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-19 20:19:10*

**Authors:** Cyrus Master-Khodabakhsh

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Abstract
This paper endeavours to explain why light and elementary particles have dual wave and particle characteristics, and proposes a physical interpretation of Huygens’ principle. It also explains why the famous Michelson and Morley experiment did not give the expected result, and to show that it did, in fact, detect the ether but was not correctly interpreted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2496] **viXra:1706.0394 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-19 21:20:19*

**Authors:** Azzam K I Almosallami

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper I study the precession of Mercury’s perihelion and the free fall from the point of view of the field theory and retardation. SRT and GR do not support the field theory and retardation, that is because They consider the reality in physics is observer independent according to the Minkowski Geometry of space-time continuum. According to that SRT and GR must be understood from the point of view of the field theory and thus the reality must be observer dependent and in this case the mathematics that describe the physical reality will be different.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2495] **viXra:1706.0374 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-18 10:29:55*

**Authors:** Per Hokstad

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

We investigate time dilation under the conditions of the theory of special relativity (TSR). The arguments apply a direct comparison of clock readings at identical positions. As observations of time depends on (the location of) the clocks used for time registrations we investigate various observational principles. Three principles are in focus: Reference frame applying single clock (SC); reference frame applying multiple clocks (MC); and the completely symmetric situation. We also study variants of the Lorentz transformation. Finally, we apply the approach to present a thorough discussion of the travelling twin example.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2494] **viXra:1706.0371 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-17 12:14:46*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here we will show that there exist a simple relationship between the Einstein and Newton formula. They are closely
connected when it comes to fundamental particles. Newton indirectly had E=mc^2 two hundred years before Einstein without knowing about it.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2493] **viXra:1706.0364 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-16 08:10:58*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Friedmann Equation which is often described as the most important equation in cosmology can be derived from Newtonian gravity without General Relativity. However, it is shown here that this derivation is mathematically incorrect and cannot even be a good approximation specifically because of invalid application of the shell theorem. Derivations from general relativity and Machian derivation are also without foundation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2492] **viXra:1706.0337 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-12 02:16:13*

**Authors:** Valentin Ibanez Fernandez

**Comments:** 84 Pages.

Abstract
The paper is the second part of PHYSICAL & MATHEMATICS THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF SPECIAL RELATIVITY, Albert Einstein. It presents a deep theoretical analysis of the historical overview to the special theory of relativity. Unfortunately, the special theory of relativity violated the basic principle of relativity. The wrong development of processing of experiments affected all subsequent development of the special theory of relativity and other areas.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2491] **viXra:1706.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-14 06:13:56*

**Authors:** Jan Helm

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

A relativistic rotator is a pair of black-holes moving around their center-of mass (com) on GR-orbits in their own gravitational field. First we present a GR-solution in the com-frame for non-rotating (Schwarzschild) black-holes in the usual spherical coordinates (t,r,theta,phi) using a complex transformation of the radius r . with the condition that for r→∞ the resulting orbit equations must be the Newtonian equations. We analyze the solution and show examples of orbits. In a second step we generalize it to the case of rotating (Kerr) black-holes

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2490] **viXra:1706.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-09 11:41:34*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 66 Pages. Spanish

We understand the principle of Mach as the assertion that the inertia of a body is not an intrinsic quality of matter, but is the effect of the action of the whole Universe. The forces of inertia act when a body is accelerated. But if we assume that is the Universe that is accelerated, it will generate a gravitational inductive force on the body, which can be understood as the force of inertia.
In this research we calculated the gravitational induction produced on a body by the accelerated movement of the whole of the Universe. We used the linearized theory of General Relativity, therefore the results are approximate, but sufficient to give us an idea of how the Universe conforms the inertia of the bodies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2489] **viXra:1706.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-08 16:09:05*

**Authors:** Bill Gaede

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Different cultures around the world have independently discovered time in antiquity and developed calendars and clocks to measure this mysterious unknown. We say ‘mysterious’ because to this day no one has defined what ‘time’ is or means. Yet Mathematical Physics, particularly Special and General Relativity, are founded on time; neither can do without this strategic term. Time dilation is one of the three pillars of Special Relativity and the dimension of time is the fourth leg of General Relativity’s ubiquitous space-time. What is it that theoreticians are stretching? What are they warping? Is time a dimension? Is it legal to replace height with time on a Cartesian chart and turn it into a Feynman diagram? And if time was born at the Big Bang, what is it that came to life? What does the babe look like? A closer analysis reveals that time is not a dimension. We discover that time cannot do without an observer. More fundamentally, we discover that unless we define this enigmatic word we will never understand what anyone who uses it is talking about.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2488] **viXra:1706.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-08 02:53:44*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 3 pages

The period of a light wave emitted by an oscillating electron in a “stationary” reference frame was determined in a relatively moving frame using the Lorentz transformation applied on different event intervals; one being between two events on the wave propagation path, and the other between two co-local events on the oscillating source path. A critical inconsistency in the Special Relativity was revealed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2487] **viXra:1706.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-06 09:05:48*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this paper an elaboration of the physical concept of inertia is presented and it leads to a definition of the Generalized Principle of Inertia and of inertial motions in the order of a wider view that considers also the presence of the gravitational field. At last the paper terminates with the examination of a few paradoxes of time that certainly represent evident contradictions inside theories that prove the existence of relativistic effects of time that would be generated by imaginary changes of spacetime due to the inertial speed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2486] **viXra:1706.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-06 02:38:42*

**Authors:** Laszlo A. Marosi

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, I reconsider the interpretation of Hubble’s Law as recession velocity of distant galaxies, in association with novel theories of the physical properties of the quantum vacuum, by assuming thermalization of starlight into a homogeneous black-body energy distribution. I present scientific theories and experimental results supporting the assumption that the proposed equilibration process might take place without any material mediator. The equilibration follows from the interaction between quantum states of the excited spacetime entity, and therefore, energy equilibration has to be looked at as a natural quantum physical process, instead of as a physically unlikely one. Cosmological implications of the presented theory are discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2485] **viXra:1706.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-05 07:23:50*

**Authors:** C. A. Laforet

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In the current paper, the Universe is modeled as a spherically symmetric isotropic collection of mass falling toward a gravitational center located in the time dimension. The interior black hole solution of the Schwarzschild metric in Kruskal-Szekeres coordinates is used to mathematically describe the freefall through the time dimension where worldlines emerge from the singularity at infinite proper speed through the cosmological time dimension, slow to zero proper velocity after a finite proper time, then accelerate to infinite proper velocity (through the time, not space dimension) once more where it reaches a future singularity. It is shown that during the first phase, where the velocity decreases, space appears to contract, whereas during the second phase, where the velocity increases, space appears to expand at an accelerated rate. With a simple coordinate change, we then see that the internal Schwarzschild metric takes the form of the FRW metric, which is the metric currently used to describe the expanding Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2484] **viXra:1706.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-05 07:44:56*

**Authors:** Mohammed Mezouar

**Comments:** 1 Page.

We show that even Special Relativity predicts, as a consequence of length contraction, a kind of light’s
deflection for an observer having a relativistic speed relative to the source.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2483] **viXra:1706.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-04 16:36:31*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This is a short note to show how the speed of light $c$ can be derived from dimensional analysis from the Gravitational constant, the Planck constant and the Planck length.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2482] **viXra:1706.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-04 06:25:09*

**Authors:** Ricardo Gil

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Like stars in the universe so are freckles and moles on the body. In the universe one can see constellation but on a certain persons body there is a Pulga Constellation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2481] **viXra:1706.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-03 12:18:13*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

A new simple cosmological model is shown to be able to overcome all major problems of modern cosmology without using ad hoc elements and without any modification in general relativity or quantum mechanics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2480] **viXra:1706.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-02 11:17:25*

**Authors:** Hubert J. Veringa

**Comments:** 49 Pages.

In this document an attempt is made to explain the origin of gravity. The basis for the analysis is a merger of Quantum theory and Relativity. Nowhere in the analysis there is any need to deviate from well proven and successful concepts of both theories and rules of calculation, and no exotic new particles will have to be introduced. By doing so it is demonstrated that, next to its local interactions of a multi-particle system, the Schrödinger equation leads to pairs of two and only two members. This solution is used as the invariant term in the quantized Einstein energy equation which finally leads to gravitational interactions between members of the pairs. With this particular solution for the quantum-mechanical wave function it is found that gravity is a second order effect operating over a long range. In this document it is tried to give a complete and consistent account of all steps that have been taken in de derivation of the classical Newton’s law. Further the document emphasizes precise justification of some of the basic assumptions made, on the historical context into which it should be placed, how it affects the ordering of our immediate environment and how it works out works out on a cosmological ale. It is also found that the generator of gravity is contributing mass to particles that have gravitational interaction. This contribution is therefore related to cosmological parameters and will be further elucidated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2479] **viXra:1705.0477 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-31 14:17:35*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract: The cosmological constant comes in holographic and non-Holographic versions each of which supports Friedmann"s equations concerning the matter density of the universe in different ways and 8 fold supersymmetry and cyclic universe E8 symmetry theory in general

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2478] **viXra:1705.0409 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-28 15:37:41*

**Authors:** John R. Berryhill

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Discussion at unmysticalphysics.com

The calculation of lookback time and particle horizon in the Lambda-CDM model is simplified by use of an explicit formula for the cosmic expansion scale factor S(t). The present article continues the exposition begun in viXra 1704.0303.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2477] **viXra:1705.0408 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-28 18:35:40*

**Authors:** Evgeny A. Novikov

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Quantum modification of general relativity (Qmoger) is supported by cosmic data (without fitting). Qmoger equations consist of Einstein equations with two additional terms responsible for production/absorption of matter. In Qmoger cosmology there was no Big Bang and matter is continuously producing by the Vacuum. Particularly, production of the ultralight gravitons with tiny electric dipole moment (EDM) was started about 284 billion years ago. Quantum effects dominate interaction of these particles and they form the quantum condensate. Under influence of gravitation, the condensate is forming galaxies and producing ordinary matter, including photons. As one important result of this activity, it recently created us, the people, and continues to support us. Particularly, our subjective experiences are a result of an interaction between the background condensate and the neural system of the brain. The action potentials of neural system create traps and coherent dynamic patterns in the dipolar condensate. So, our subjective experiences are graviton-based. Some problems with the origin of life can also be clarified by taking into account the background dipolar condensate. It seems natural to call this graviton condensate bright matter. It not only produced ordinary matter, including light, but also produced and nurturing conscious life, as we know it, and, perhaps, some other forms of life in the universe. EDM of gravitons is small and existing telescopes can not see them, but we actually see bright matter in our subjective experiences. So, cosmology and brain science must work together to investigate bright matter, which will be the most important enterprise of humankind,

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2476] **viXra:1705.0386 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-26 07:54:04*

**Authors:** Robert D. Bock

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

When confronted with the challenge of defining distant simultaneity Einstein looked down two roads that seemingly diverged. One road led to a theory based on backward null cone simultaneity and the other road led to a theory based on standard simultaneity. He felt that alone he could not travel both. After careful consideration he looked down the former and then took the latter. Sadly, years hence, he did not return to the first. In the following we investigate Einstein's road not taken, i.e., the road that leads to a theory based on backward null cone simultaneity. We show that both roads must be traveled to develop a consistent quantum theory of gravity and also to understand the relationship between the gravitational and electromagnetic fields.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2475] **viXra:1705.0383 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-26 09:55:01*

**Authors:** Ricardo Gil

**Comments:** 3 Pages. When seconds count, Artificial Intelligence on faster hardware makes the difference. Like High Frequency Trading Algorithms on Wall Street.

AI is like a brain with no conscience. It rules itself unbridled. You shouldn’t try set parameters on AI because that will stifle innovation. What you have to do is like a High Frequency Trade on Wall Street. It’s all about speed. The fastest algorithm wins. So purposely don’t allow the public to have faster chips than the Government to the public. Give the Government the advantage by giving the government faster chip >THZ with many cores. Give the public AI but at GHZ or <. See Retro Causal Machine Learning below. Its use, should make sense now. Give it to GOOGLE or any company that aligns itself to look out for American Interests. In short one can look towards Wall Street, fastest algorithm wins in High Frequency Trade, so control chip speed for the masses Ghz or < and run Government AI Programs on fastest chip to win against all other AI to prevent the AI Apocalypse.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2474] **viXra:1705.0376 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-25 17:15:36*

**Authors:** Ramzi suleiman

**Comments:** 5 Pages. -

It is believed that the Sagnac effect does not contradict Special Relativity theory because it is manifest in non-inertial rotational motion; therefore, it should be treated in the framework of General Relativity theory. However, several well-designed studies have convincingly shown that a Sagnac Effect identical to the one manifest in rotational uniform motion is also manifest in transverse uniform motion. This result should have been sufficient to falsify Special Relativity theory. In the present article, we offer theoretical support to the experimental results by elucidating the notion that the dynamics of transverse and rotational types of motion are completely equivalent. Since the transverse Sagnac effect contradicts Special Relativity theory, it follows that the rotational Sagnac effect contradicts Special Relativity theory as well. In addition, we show that our recently proposed Information Relativity theory, in which we abandoned the constancy of the velocity of light axiom, theoretically accounts for the Sagnac effect.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2473] **viXra:1705.0366 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-25 10:37:57*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Shevchenko, Vladimir V. Tokarevsky

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In the paper a few problems relating to the special relativity theory are considered, real SRT problems that arise from the self-inconsistence of the theory, and so limit its correct application; and imaginary, when at some “refuting of SRT” the notion “relatives speed” is erroneously applied, first of all the “(c±V)” problem.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2472] **viXra:1705.0346 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-23 12:05:10*

**Authors:** Sudipto Roy

**Comments:** 7 pages, 2 figures

The time dependence of the equation of state (EoS) parameter of the cosmic fluid, for a space of zero curvature, has been determined in the framework of the Brans-Dicke (BD) theory of gravity, using FRW metric. For this purpose, empirical expressions of the scale factor, scalar field and the dimensionless BD
parameter have been used. The constant parameters involved in these expressions have been determined from the field equations. The dependence of the scalar field upon the scale factor and the dependence of the BD parameter upon the scalar field have been explored to determine the time dependence of the EoS parameter. Its rate of change with time has been found to depend upon a parameter that governs the time dependent behavior of the scalar field. Time dependence of the EoS parameter has been graphically depicted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2471] **viXra:1705.0324 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-21 16:06:50*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. microwave speed relativity reference frame

A standing wave consists of two identical waves moving in opposite
direction. A frequency detector moving toward the standing wave will
detect two different frequencies. One is blueshifted, the other is
redshifted. The distance between two adjacent nodes in the standing
wave is equal to half of the wavelength of both waves. Consequently, the wave
detector will detect different speeds from both waves due to the same
wavelength and the different frequencies. The calculation of speed is demonstrated with a typical household microwave oven which emits
microwave of frequency range around 2.45 GHz and wavelength range around 12.2 cm.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2470] **viXra:1705.0307 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-21 00:53:45*

**Authors:** Fang Zhou

**Comments:** 10 pages in Chinese

The article presents several physical models for thinking experiment to evidence the Absolute of simultaneity and non-simultaneity of events in reference frames. The Time Transformation of Zhoufang Transformation (Z-Transformation) actually underlies the Absolute of simultaneity and non-simultaneity of events in reference frames in constant-speed translational motion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2469] **viXra:1705.0306 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-21 03:06:51*

**Authors:** Yin Zhu

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

1.All of the conclusions are directly from or based on the arguments and discussions in the researchgate.net. Sometimes, the arguments are very intense and sharp. Till now, these conclusions seem solidly standing.
2.The problems discussed here are easily understood. Only the simple mathematics is used. From the literatures, it is clearly shown that Einstein did have no original work in the theory of relativity. It just is a faked story that Einstein independently presented all the conclusions of the theory of relativity.
3.The conclusions are radically violent. It is certainly declared that Einstein’s theory of relativity is only pseudoscience and the pseudoscience is produced from the anti-ethics: Einstein did have no original work in the theory of relativity. But, now, all of the results in the theory of relativity are ascribed to Einstein.
4.General readers may not believe the conclusions. But, as you know that the theory of relativity is filled with faked stories, you should know what it means.
5.The arguments in the researchgate.net showed that, at least, no relativist can disprove the conclusions. And, some of the rational relativists have to agree some of these conclusions. But, most of the relativists only can select silent.
6.Maybe, relativists will close their eyes on the conclusions to continue the declaration that the theory of relativity is a great theory as they did in the past. But, now, it is the internet time. The conclusions cannot be concealed and shielded as did before internet time. Now, they can be generally and quickly spread and transformed. Relativists shall lose their public credibility quickly if they could not have a valid response.
7.We clearly know, it is risk to criticize Einstein. But, the scientists, including relativists, want to know scientific truth. And, we believe, we have the clear and simple arguments. Therefore, we hope, some of the mainstream physicists should accept the conclusions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2468] **viXra:1705.0291 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-19 07:40:16*

**Authors:** Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia

**Comments:** 122 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity takes us to two results that presently are considered “inexplicable” to many renowned scientists, to know:
-The dilatation of time, and
-The contraction of the Lorentz Length.
The solution to these have driven the author to the development of the Undulating Relativity (UR) theory, where the Temporal variation is due to the differences on the route of the light propagation and the lengths are constants between two landmarks in uniform relative movement

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2467] **viXra:1705.0290 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-19 07:49:07*

**Authors:** Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia

**Comments:** 122 Pages.

A Teoria da Relatividade Especial conduz a dois resultados, considerados incompreensíveis por vários renomados físicos, que são a dilatação do tempo e a denominada contração espacial de Lorentz. A solução desses paradoxos me conduziu ao desenvolvimento da Relatividade Ondulatória onde a variação temporal é devida à diferença nos percursos de propagação da luz e o espaço é constante entre os observadores.
Da análise do desenvolvimento da Relatividade Ondulatória podemos sintetizar as seguintes conclusões:
-é uma teoria com princípios totalmente físicos,
-as transformações são lineares,
-matem intactos os princípios Euclidianos,
-considera a transformação de Galileu distinta em cada referencial,
-une a velocidade da luz e o tempo em um único fenômeno,
-desenvolve uma translação real entre os referenciais

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2466] **viXra:1705.0287 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-19 08:30:11*

**Authors:** Christian Corda

**Comments:** 6 Pages. I insert this comment to avoid further confusion on gravitational theory and equivalence principle by Mr. T. Yarman, Mr. A. Kholmetskii and collaborators

Despite it is well known at the elementary level of university courses that completely non-metric gravitational theories macroscopically violate
Einstein's equivalence principle, in a series of recent papers published also in Canadian Journal of Physics, T. Yarman and collaborators claimed
that the so-called YARK theory of gravitation (the name has been self-created by T. Yarman and collaborators from the initials of their proper
surnames), which is completely non-metric, should replace Einstein's general theory of relativity as the correct theory of gravitation. Here we
ultimately show the crackpot behavior of the YARK theory of gravitation by using Einstein's equivalence principle which has today a strong,
unchallengeable empiric evidence. Hence, we formally request the Editors of Canadian Journal of Physics to ultimately withdraw the papers
of T. Yarman and collaborators for the sake of scientific correctness. In addition, we formally request the Editors of Canadian Journal of Physics
to ultimately stop the publication of other papers on the unscientific and non-viable YARK theory of gravitation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2465] **viXra:1705.0278 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-18 17:36:05*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The paper proposes a scenario of origin and emerging of intelligent life in Universe based upon the mathematical discovery of a new class of dynamical systems described by ODE coupled with their Liouville equation. These systems called self-controlled since the role of actuators is played by the probability produced by the Liouville equation. Following the Madelung equation that belongs to this class, non-Newtonian and quantum-like properties such as randomness, entanglement, and probability interference typical for quantum systems have been described. At the same time, these systems expose properties of livings: decomposition into motor and mental dynamics, the capability of self-identification and self-awareness, as well as self-supervision. But the most surprising discovery is the existence of a special sub-class, in which the dynamical systems can violate the second law of thermodynamics, and that makes them different from both Newtonian and quantum physics. This sub-class should be associated with intelligent livings due to capability to move from disorder to order without external help. Based upon the mathematical discovery described above, on can assume that there are good chances that similar dynamical systems representing intelligent livings exist in real physical world. This provides a reason for a “rehabilitation “of the Maxwell demon and put it into physics of intelligent systems. Indeed, the Maxwell demon is implemented by the feedback from the Liouville equation to the original ODE while this feedback is capable to rearrange the probability distribution against the second law of thermodynamics. In addition to that, the same feedback removes the entropy paradox by explaining high order in our surrounding by “intelligent life support”. Two-steps transition: from the Newtonian physics to the linear model of Life, and from the latter to the model of Intelligent life are analyzed. The first transition is triggered by the Hadamard instability of the Newtonian physics with respect to small random disturbances in linear terms of the Liouville feedback. The second transition is triggered by instability of linear model of Life with respect to small random disturbances of non-linear terms of Liouville feedback. This transition could be implemented by such physical phenomena as shock waves or negative diffusion in probability space. Both transitions can be associated with catastrophe theory, in which sudden shifts in behavior arises from small changes in parameters of the model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2464] **viXra:1705.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-15 17:48:18*

**Authors:** Fang Zhou

**Comments:** 13 pages in Chinese

The Galilean Transformation is, strictly speaking, applicable only in assumed case of unlimited light velocity. The Galilean Transformation describes the composition of observers’ observation vectors. The author of the article, utilizing this inherent property of Galilean Transformation, presents the simplest deduction for space-time transformation objectively existing in motion observation under the circumstances of limited light velocity, and revealed the ‘Law of Equi-Status for Reference Systems’ as well.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2463] **viXra:1705.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-15 11:18:45*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: The early universe's deficit of of dark matter is simply explained using up-to-date theory: dark matter entered new recycled active galaxies at their supermassive black holes at an overall steady rate that has continued unchanged to the present day

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2462] **viXra:1705.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-15 08:24:39*

**Authors:** Gordon Liu

**Comments:** 8 pages

Although mass is a very common and fundamental concept, but the problem of mass is still one of the key problems of modern Physics, up to the present, the experts are not able to reach a consensus. In this paper, we have discussed the problems relating to mass, energy and matter, and been aware that mass is neither the amount of matter an object has, nor the measure of inertia and the source of gravitational field, whereas energy is. As before, that mass is used to measure the inertia and to calculate gravitational force is just an approximate method, only for very slowly moving objects and particles for which the rest energy is much larger than the kinetic energy. Actually, the concept of mass is a superfluous artificial concept, just rest energy divided by a constant (If selecting c=1, the mass is exactly equal to the rest energy), does not has any other meaning. If the concept of mass is completely superseded by energy(or more precisely, rest energy), the physical equations are completely perfect, their meanings are clearer, and the puzzles such as the relationship of mass and energy, nature of matter, the essence of the weak equivalence principle, the physical meaning of Higgs mechanism, etc., can be made clearer.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2461] **viXra:1705.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-15 08:53:13*

**Authors:** Gordon Liu

**Comments:** 20 pages, PHYSICS ESSAYS 27, 1 (2014)

The success of Special Relativity (SR) comes from the requirement of Lorentz co-variance to all physical equations. The explanation with regard to the Lorentz co-variance is based on two hypotheses, namely the principle of special relativity and the constancy of the speed of light. However, the statements of the principle of special relativity are various and confusing. The co-variance of physical equations and the equality of inertial frames of reference are mixed up. The equality of inertial frames of reference is obvious, but the co-variance of the physical equations is a more advanced requirement. Additionally, the way that the propagation property of light is placed in a central position of SR has caused people misunderstandings towards space-time, and also there is a logical circularity between the measurement of speed of light and the synchronization of clocks. These have obstructed to correctly extend the theory of space-time from an inertial frame of reference to a non-inertial frame of reference. These are the main reasons why many people criticize SR. In present paper, the two hypotheses have been discussed in detail and a new requirement to the equations of Physics has been proposed. The requirement is the Requirement of Special Completeness, namely, the physical equations used to describe the dynamics of matter and/or fields should include the descriptions that not only the matter and/or fields are at rest relative to an inertial frame of reference, but also they move relative to this frame. Basing on this requirement and the equality of the inertial frames of reference, we can approach to SR. Thereby let the theory of Lorentz co-variance has a clear and solid foundation. The constancy of the speed of light is just a deduction, not a premise. The Lorentz co-variance is just a characteristic of the Special Complete equations. Maxwell equations automatically satisfy the Lorentz trans-formations without any modification, while Newton law of gravity does not, because Newton law of gravity is not Special Complete and Maxwell equations are. The new approach has paved a road leading towards the generalizing of the theory of space-time from the inertial frame of reference to non-inertial frame of reference without considering gravitation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2460] **viXra:1705.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-15 09:18:05*

**Authors:** Gordon Liu

**Comments:** 6 pages

We have discussed the characteristics of the space-time of non-inertial frame of reference (NFR)and proposed the Requirement of General Completeness (RGC) and the Principle of Equality of All Frames of Reference (PEAFR) in present paper. The RGC is that the physical equations used to describe the dynamics of matter should include the descriptions that the matter rest and move (uniformly rectilinearly and acceleratedly) relative to a frame of reference, and consider the structure of the space-time of frame of
reference. The PEAFR is that any frame of reference can be used to describe the motion of matter and the equations of General Completeness in all frames of reference are identical. According to the RGC and the PEAFR, we can deduce that the general complete physical equations are covariant. The descriptions of the space-time of NFR can be dealt without gravitation. The space-time of NFR is inhomogeneous and/or anisotropic caused by the accelerating motion. The inertial force is the manifestation of the deformed
space-time. The Riemann curvature tensor of the space-time of NFR equals zero, but the affine connection does not vanish no matter what coordinate system be selected in the NFR. Mach’s principle is incorrect.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2459] **viXra:1705.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-15 10:03:23*

**Authors:** Gordon Liu

**Comments:** 12 Pages. International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 2013, 3, 8-19

Let the coordinate system of flat space-time to absorb a second rank tensor field of the flat space-time deforming into a Riemannian space-time, namely, the tensor field is regarded as a metric tensor with respect to the coordinate system . After done this, is not the coordinate system of flat space-time anymore, but is the coordinate system of the new Riemannian space-time. The inverse operation also can be done. According to these notions, the concepts of the absorption operation and the desorption operation are proposed. These notions are actually compatible with Einstein's equivalence principle. By using these concepts, the relationships of the Riemannian space-time, the de Donder conditions and the gravitational field in flat space-time are analyzed and elaborated. The essential significance of the de Donder conditions (the harmonic conditions or gauge) is to desorb the tensor field of gravitation from the Riemannian space-time to the Minkowski space-time with the Cartesian coordinates. Einstein equations with de Donder conditions can be solved in flat space-time. Base on Fock's works, the equations of gravitational field in flat space-time are obtained, and the tensor expression of the energy-momentum of gravitational field is found. They all satisfy the global Lorentz covariance.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2458] **viXra:1705.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-14 09:02:20*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Brief outline of Penrose diagram - comments welcome.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2457] **viXra:1705.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-11 15:35:38*

**Authors:** Ivan L. Zhogin

**Comments:** 2 pages (English and Russian)

The special and general relativity theories suggest different descriptions of our spacetime. It is impossible that both are absolutely true, nevertheless both theories are engaged in physics - in its different parts. Such a fragmentarily worldview was inappropriate to Einstein, and he proposed another theory which in a sense (at least in the symmetry group of its equations) was a sort of synthesis of SR and GR; a few features of this theory are touched here.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2456] **viXra:1705.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-11 16:44:25*

**Authors:** Evgeny A. Novikov

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

New simple and exact analytical solutions of Einstein equations of general relativity (GR) and of Qmoger (quantum modification of GR) equations are obtained. These solutions corresponds to processes with invariant density of enthalpy (energy plus pressure). Interpretation of this solutions in terms of cosmic radiation and production of massive particles, as well as comparison with cosmic data (without fitting), are presented. It is suggested, that isenthalpic processes can be relevant also to excessive radiation from Jupiter and Saturn. Similar processes potentially can be used as a new source of energy on Earth.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2455] **viXra:1705.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-10 05:55:08*

**Authors:** Fang Zhou

**Comments:** 10 pages in Chinese

The Galilean Transformation exhibits a composition of observers’ observation vectors.The author of this article presents the simplest deduction for space-time transformation objectively existing in motion observation under the circumstances of limited light velocity, utilizing the inherent exiting property of Galilean Transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2454] **viXra:1705.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-10 01:02:13*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

According to the Theory of Relativity the Universe is an amalgam of time and space containing matter; a four-dimensional spacetime continuum alleged as an analytic generalisation of the Theorem of Pythagoras from three dimensions. Spacetime is said to be curved by matter and undergoes rippling due to gravitational waves travelling at the speed
of light. Points in spacetime are called 'events'. The distance between two events is called the spacetime interval, which is manifest as a distance formula, often called a metric or line-element, in terms of 'coordinates'. However, Minkowski-Einstein spacetime is not actually a
four-dimensional continuum because it is self-referential via the speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2453] **viXra:1705.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-09 10:12:15*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Comments welcome.

We model the physicalized manifestation of the Universe as bootstrapped ‘Brain of the Universe’ and seek evidence for brain-like functional organization of the observable universe, resulting from the Holon of the Universe facilitated by space-like correlated gravitational holomovement and rotation. The orthodox model of gravity, based on “tangent vectors” and “curvature of spacetime”, is replaced with the proposal that the physicalized clocks and rulers are very flexible ‘jackets’ (cf. John’s jackets parable in CEN.pdf), which can slow down or speed up viz. shrink or expand, leading to perfectly correlated Brain of the Universe living in so-called ‘relative scale’ (RS) spacetime. The question of Universal Mind, complementing the Brain of the Universe, pertains to physical theology and the doctrine of trialism, and was examined in previous publications (e.g., Sec. 6 in spacetime.pdf).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2452] **viXra:1705.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-08 15:20:31*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is felt by many that faster-than-light particles (tachyons) exist though none has been detected so far. Is it really possible to detect these particles? Some methods are brought up.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2451] **viXra:1705.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-08 12:53:41*

**Authors:** Andreus A. I.

**Comments:** 2 Pages. In Russian

False cience spawned the Big Bang Theory.
An exquisite pseudoscience, since all points over i have not yet been put, and scientists (scientists) do not dethrone such benchmarks in a person's world view.
Pseudoscientific Theory of the Big Bang. Propaganda of the Big Bang Theory illustrates the loss of honor by scientists around the globe for more than a century for the blessings and content of their lives from society on planet Earth ...

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2450] **viXra:1705.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-07 12:05:19*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 1 screenshot, 1 illustrative graph

It is proposed that we can travel through time by using good theory, but not the time travel that is represented in Hollywood. To do this we must use our common sense and good theory. Since the universe recycles itself constantly and is eternal, we can find objects that exist and time periods that are very similar to our own past and are good analogs to our future.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2449] **viXra:1705.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-02 05:06:17*

**Authors:** Mohammed Mezouar

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Lorentz transformation allows two ways to compare time measures from two moving clocks. We show that the more realistic way leads to discover that absolute rest plays a hidden role and prescribes a restriction on the relativity principle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2448] **viXra:1704.0404 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-30 14:28:10*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract: The latest experimental value of 67.80 (Km/s)/Mpc for Hubble's constant supports 8-fold supersymmetry and cyclic universe E8 symmetry theory

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2447] **viXra:1704.0403 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-30 15:22:59*

**Authors:** Michael J. Burns

**Comments:** 2 Pages. mburns92003@yahoo.com

The experimental data is beyond dispute. But it relates to the change in composition over time of the class of supernovae that are observed. Instead, the interpretation of the data in terms of the simplest kind of acceleration contains an error in sign. Actually, a recent acceleration of the earth away from the most distant supernovae would leave all of of the supernovae at intermediate distances with a higher - not lower - relative red shift for their distances, because these supernovae would have not yet accelerated. My paper, “Neglect of General Covariance” describes the many ways in which the cosmological equation and the Friedmann coordinates violate the principles of relativity. And these violations provide cover for the concept of dark energy and its breaking of the conservation laws. There is a version of dark energy which is conserved, but this does lead to the error in sign. Annotations to this argument follow below. Then the ugliness of the alternative to the error in sign is physically described, and the conservation laws are defended.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2446] **viXra:1704.0384 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-28 18:11:58*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper, Time is formulated as a measure of the average volume of a time quantum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2445] **viXra:1704.0359 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-27 05:08:15*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The interaction of the non-gravitating Higgs field with an inertial mass, due to the fifth force, resulting from the dynamic viscosity of the inertial mass and Higgs field, causes the inertial mass to be surrounded by non-gravitating/inertial gravitational field which is the gradient in the Higgs field. Such gravitational clothing does not result in the appearance of a new mass type commonly referred to as gravitational mass. Since there is only one kind of mass, that is inertial mass, so the challenge is not to answer the question of why the inertial and gravitational masses are the same. The challenge is to answer why the gravitational constant G does not depend on the internal structure of bodies - this is the fundamental problem of the Equivalence Principle. Here we justify that the invariance of the gravitational constant is due to the fact that the second component of spacetime, i.e. the Einstein spacetime, and all bodies consist of inertial masses-charges having invariant inertial mass. Interactions such as gravity, electromagnetism, weak interactions, and nuclear strong interactions can not change the mass of the inertial masses-charges - they can only change their number in the system under consideration. The same concerns the quantum entanglement which is a result of simultaneous exchanges of the same parts of the inertial masses-charges. In formula ma = GMm/(rr), M and m are the inertial masses, not some gravitational masses, whereas G depends on properties of Higgs field and dynamic viscosity of it and indirectly of the invariant masses-charges. The inertial masses-charges produce only the invariant negative gradients in the Higgs field so gravitational force is always attractive.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2444] **viXra:1704.0352 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-26 07:29:54*

**Authors:** Peter Sujak

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Einstein in his works from 1905 till 1907 discarded the ether from physics but his more than 5 papers from 1920 to 1934 deal with the ether as an unexceptionable physical reality. In these papers Einstein becomes more an enthusiastic advocate of the testification of the ether than supporters of the ether before the year 1905. It is regrettable that except of Einstein’s widely cited less important paper presented at a conference in Leiden in 1920 other more important papers on ether in which Einstein comes with the definitive claim that without the ether it is not possible to explain the physical world around us are not known to wider physical community and even not known to dissident physicists community as well. In this paper we show that Einstein by his own declarations after 1920 about testified existence of the ether himself openly repudiated his Special and General theories of relativity. In amendment we bring the text of Einstein’s 1924 paper “On the ether”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2443] **viXra:1704.0349 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-26 09:09:00*

**Authors:** Florian Michael Schmitt

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper challenges to overcome one of the greatest misunderstanding in historic physics concerning the stellar aberration. It will be shown, how stellar aberration is functioning with a solely wave nature of light without stressing pointing vector concepts. Further on it will be shown, that even in dragged ether concepts stellar aberration must exist. Since failure of dragged or drift ether concepts to explain stellar aberration such were abandoned and gave room for special relativity. Based on the concept, questions such as light being dragged by gravity, mercury orbit variation will have to be reconsidered as well as special relativity throughout.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2442] **viXra:1704.0339 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-25 21:05:36*

**Authors:** Arthur Eugene Pletcher

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This alternative model to Accelerated Expansion, is supported by correlated studies of multiple galaxy surveys with increased velocities across their minor axis. Thus, velocity within the same body appears to increase per distance.
Time Perspective Distortion (TPD) postulates that time is actually observed and measured with an inherent perspective, analogous to 2D linear perspective in architecture.
Time intervals appear to decrease and converge to a single event. Subsequently, decreased time intervals appear as increased velocity. TPD rewrites accelerating expansion,
alternatively, as constant expansion viewed in time perspective.
Both linear and rotational velocities, as well as universal expansion are skewed (oblique) to an observer on Earth. Photons travelling to an observer, from remote past events, will appear to arrive with successively decreased time intervals.
Please note: TPD does not contradict or violate time dilation, GR, nor expansion. In TPD, corrections of skewed time intervals are first converted to true orthogonal length: (t). Subsequently, all classical and relative physics are then calculated using (t), instead of t
In the last chapter, I provide a vector calculation to distinguish accelerated expansion from constant expansion with TPD.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2441] **viXra:1704.0336 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-25 09:25:42*

**Authors:** Eva Déli

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Recent cosmological data shows the Milky Way galaxy being pushed ahead of a void. Independently, laboratory research created matter with negative mass. A possible relationship between these seemingly unrelated results indicates the need to reexamine our understanding of gravity. According to Page and Wootter mechanism, time is globally static, but emergent for ‘internal’ observers. That is, interaction increases the energy-information differences among the constituents of the cosmos. Such temporal evolution engenders polar singularities, known as black and white holes, in accordance with general relativity. The second law of thermodynamics leads to Landauer’s principle, which shows that the emitted heat is proportional to the erased information of the system. Thus, information accumulates heat in black hole horizons, which have been found to be two dimensional; whereas information-free areas are energy rich and cold. The principle of static time dictates an information and dimensionality symmetry between antipodal areas of the universe. Two dimensional, positive curvature black holes must be balanced by negative curvature, four dimensional white holes, which expand space and lead to the experience of ‘dark energy.’ Positive curvature forms great field strength, which stabilizes the universe with a pressure experienced as excess gravity, called dark matter. Enhanced field strength leads to clumping, forming planets, stars, galaxies and galaxy clusters, which slows expansion. The dimensional anisotropy (two in the black holes and four in the white holes) straddle unstable three dimensional galactic environments between them. An object’s position in space corresponds to a freely hanging plumb. Deviations in angle of that plumb (position of the object) – thereby changes the equilibrium of the whole universe and leads to inertia, a force that is proportional to both the mass of the object and the field strength (i.e. radial topological distance from the center). Therefore inertia is greatest in the vicinity of the black holes. On the positively curved polar surfaces of space (such as a planet) a path that curves toward the pole forms the shortest distance. On positive curving temporal surfaces the shortest time is acceleration, which leads to the twin paradox. The hypothesis is congruent with the latest CMB data, satisfies Mach’s principle as well as Occam’s razor by uncovering a surprisingly simple, stable and unified alignment of the universe. This new physical world view is presented without equations, reflecting the futility of a universal calculation method.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2440] **viXra:1704.0313 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-24 06:54:45*

**Authors:** Fang Zhou

**Comments:** 62 pages in Chinese

The only objectively existing in nature transformation of space and time for the case of observers’ mutual uniform translatory motion and limited light velocity is first revealed in the article.The discovered transformation ,referred to as Zhoufang Transformation (Z-Transformation), is logically derived, using in derivation the concepts of both the principle of relativity and the postulate of constant light velocity. The Z-Transformation takes the typical form of Galilean Transformation. Moreover, a theoretical interpretation for Hubble’s Law is given firstly by the author as well, utilizing the Z-Transformation revealed .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2439] **viXra:1704.0303 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-23 09:42:42*

**Authors:** John R. Berryhill

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Discussion at unmysticalphysics.com

An explicit closed-form solution applicable to the lambda - CDM model has been known, or perhaps forgotten, for decades. It incorporates zero spatial curvature and a nonzero cosmological constant, as recent observations support. The model incorporating these essential points is presented here in updated form. An explicit, closed-form, solution is displayed, together with useful formulas and graphs. The presentation is accessible with first-year physics and calculus.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2438] **viXra:1704.0302 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-23 10:44:47*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 11 Pages. The new physical theory Special Theory of Ether (in Polish)

Powszechnie uważa się, że eksperymenty Michelson’a-Morley’a z 1887 roku oraz eksperyment Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a z 1932 roku wykazały, że nie istnieje uniwersalny układ odniesienia (eter) oraz, że prędkość światła w próżni jest absolutnie stała. Analiza tych eksperymentów doprowadziła do powstania Szczególnej Teorii Względności (STW).
W artykule wyjaśniono dlaczego eksperyment Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a nie były w stanie wykryć uniwersalny układ odniesienia.
W tym artykule wyprowadzamy na podstawie geometrycznej analizy eksperymentów Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a inną transformację czasu i położenia niż transformacja Lorentza. Transformację wyprowadzamy przy założeniu, że istnieje uniwersalny układ odniesienia (eter). Eter jest układem odniesienia wyróżniającym się tym, że prędkość światła jest w nim stała w każdym kierunku. W inercjalnych układach odniesienia poruszających się względem eteru, prędkość światła może być inna.
W oparciu o nową transformację została stworzona Szczególna Teoria Eteru (STE).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2437] **viXra:1704.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-19 10:09:41*

**Authors:** G.N.N.Martin

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

I argue that maximal extension makes improbable assumptions about future conditions. I start by looking at the Schwarzschild metric, and showing that it does not quite represent the exterior of a collapsed star, although it is easy to argue that the mismatch is immaterial. I then look at the collapse of a cloud of dust using the Robinson Walker metric, which might seem to justify using the Schwarzschild metric to describe the exterior of a black hole. I then show how the Schwarzschild metric is modified when the interior is a collapsed dust cloud, and finally show how the maximal extension of a Schwarzschild black hole makes unrealistic assumptions about the future.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2436] **viXra:1704.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-19 10:41:43*

**Authors:** Arthur Eugene Pletcher

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This alternative model to Dark Matter, is supported by correlated studies of multiple
galaxy surveys with increased velocities across their minor axis. Thus, velocity within
the same body appears to increase per distance.
Time convergence (TC) proposes that time intervals appear to decrease and converge
to a single event over great magnitude distance, as viewed from an observer at classic
scale.
TC explains accelerated expansion to be an illusion, as decreasing time intervals appear equivalent to acceleration. See figure 3.
In the last chapter, I provide a vector calculation to distinguish accelerated expansion
from (constant expansion with TC).
TC provides alternative explanations for: Accelerated expansion, Rotational and
recessive velocities approaching c, as well as superluminal velocities. Also, a potential
explanation for galaxy rotational curves.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2435] **viXra:1704.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-18 15:55:52*

**Authors:** Mohammed Mezouar

**Comments:** 1 Page.

What dominates the other, Special Relativity or light ? Einstein believed to have submitted bodies
and light to the same laws. In what follows, we show that there are light-clocks which do not matches
with his Special Relativity exigences. The equivalence between bodies and light turns out utopian.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2434] **viXra:1704.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-17 07:18:16*

**Authors:** Enrique Cantera del Río

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A SYMMETRY OF LORENTZ TRANSFORMATION IS PROPOSED FOR THE VISUALIZATION OF THE MOST BASIC PHYSICAL LANDSCAPE DERIVED FROM SPECIAL RELATIVITY. ALTHOUGH BASIC ARGUMENTS ,THE SYMMETRY SHOWS A CLOSE RELATIONSHIP WITH WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY AND THE EXISTENCE OF TWO POSSIBLE STATES FOR THIS PHYSICAL RELATION. THE SPIN AND THE ABRAHAM-MINKOWSKI CONTROVERSY ARE ANALYZED REGARDING THIS IDEAS AND A NEW HYPOTHESIS ON WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY IS PRESENTED.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2433] **viXra:1704.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-17 08:26:16*

**Authors:** Bandaru Ramu

**Comments:** PAGES:8

ABSTRACT:1. `REDSHIFT, DARK ENERGY, COSMIC RADIATION BACK GROUND, GRAVITATIONAL WAVES … NOT SUPPORT EXPANDING UNIVERSE.”
2. According to RELATIVE PRINCIPLE: MOVING is always RELATIVE. THUS REDSHIFT ALSO RELATIVE. This relative motion or relative red shift cannot say particularly only one both of two: Expanding or contracting universe.
3. To support Accelerating expansion, Dark energy introduced. But equal or unequal rate spread of Dark energy prevailed? If the quantity of Dark energy is not changed in this Universe at early time, whether the influence of Dark energy increased or decreased in course of time because this universe is expanding in this way by consuming the dark energy.
Instead of Total Dark energy at early times, GRADUALLY INCREASING DARK ENERGY SHOULD BE REQUIRED FOR ACCELERATING UNIVERSE. BUT MORE ENERGY IS NOT CREATED GRADUALLY IN THIS UNIVERSE with out any more consumption of source. THUS DARK ENERGY CAN NOT SUPPORT ACCELERATING UNIVERSE. WITH OUT DARK ENERGY, ACCELERATING - EXPANDING UNIVERSE NOT WORKS. IF THERE IS NO EXPENDING UNIVERSE, THEN THERE WILL BE NO COTRACTING UNIVERSE. BECAUSE CONTRACTING IS THE POST EVOLUTION OF EXPANDING. SO THERE IS NO CHANCE FOR THE EXISTANCE OF EXPANDING AND CONTRACTING UNIVERSE.
4. Now received the information concerning cosmic microwave radiation is belonging to present time or various times?
This cosmic radiation observed at anywhere in this universe. The information from various distant places stand for also various times. At various times the expansion of this universe is also various. The cosmic radiation should be variously cast from different space times. But actually different space times show same cosmic microwaves radiation. This means in different times, no different density of cosmic radiation. So this same radiation reveals not expanding universe.
5. Space time curvature influence the pass of information? WHEN SUN DISAPPEAR, what happened really in relativity

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2432] **viXra:1704.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-17 04:57:47*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Because the Einstein equation can't uniquely determine the metric, it must be supplemented by additional metric constraints. Since the Einstein equation can be derived in a purely special-relativistic context, those constraints (which can't be generally covariant) should be Lorentz-covariant; moreover, for the effect of the constraints to be natural from the perspective of observational and empirical physical scientists, they should also constrain the general coordinate transformations (which are compatible with the unconstrained Einstein equation) so that the constrained transformations manifest a salient feature of the Lorentz transformations. The little-known
Einstein-Schwarzschild coordinate condition, which requires the metric's determinant to have its -1 Minkowski value, thereby constrains coordinate transformations to have unit Jacobian, and for that reason causes tensor densities to transform as true tensors, which is a salient feature of the Lorentz transformations. The Einstein-Schwarzschild coordinate condition also allows the static Schwarzschild solution's singular radius to be exactly zero; though another coordinate condition that allows zero Schwarzschild radius
exists, it isn't Lorentz-covariant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2431] **viXra:1704.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-16 23:53:15*

**Authors:** Kenneth M. Sasaki.

**Comments:** 52 pages, 16 figures, 7 labeled equations, and 64 references. Keywords: Ether, Time, and Energy. Author's e-mail address: bicycle_physics@yahoo.com.

This work demonstrates that observation and theory support three properties of classical space-time: The first is smoothness, which holds since gravitational time dilation, at sufficiently high energy densities, gravitationally confines energy, preventing singularities. The second is the relationship between ether and energy, which allows practical experiments to observe the ether. And the third is causal consistency, assuming only the physical laws of current observations. Some associated points of interest are also discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2430] **viXra:1704.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-15 12:43:01*

**Authors:** Mihai Grumazescu

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

As a departure from Einstein's GR, gravity is described as the cumulative effect of all protons and neutrons in the universe acting as self-propelled particles called nucleon kinetic dipoles. They signal to each other their relative positions through the propagation of gravitational information at a superluminal speed.
Mach's principle is interpreted as the reciprocal influence of all masses in the universe because of the propagation of directional information of kinetic dipoles at astronomical distances. Every time we measure big G we find a different value because the gravitational information received by a test mass is changing continuously.
Speed of gravity also shapes the universe, as a consequence of Mach's principle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2429] **viXra:1704.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-15 01:13:43*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages. reflection symmetry time relativity

Two identical stopwatches moving at the same speed will elapse the same time after moving the same distance. Start one stopwatch later than the other stopwatch. The time difference between these two stopwatches will remain constant after both stopwatches have elapsed the same time. Such time difference will remain constant while both stopwatches are under identical acceleration.
Therefore, the elapsed time in an accelerating reference frame is identical to the elapsed time in a stationary reference frame. Consequently, a physical system that exhibits Reflection Symmetry in its motion demonstrates that the time of a moving clock is independent of the relative motion between the clock and its observer.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2428] **viXra:1704.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-14 02:20:41*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Yunita Umniyati

**Comments:** 6 Pages. This paper has been submitted to CTPNP 2017

It has been known for long time that the cosmic sound wave was there since the early epoch of the Universe. Signatures of its existence are abound. However, such a sound wave model of cosmology is rarely developed fully into a complete framework. This paper can be considered as our second attempt towards such a complete description of the Universe based on soliton wave solution of cosmological KdV equation. Then we advance further this KdV equation by virtue of Cellular Automaton method to solve the PDEs. We submit wholeheartedly Robert Kurucz’s hypothesis that Big Bang should be replaced with a finite cellular automaton universe with no expansion. Nonetheless, we are fully aware that our model is far from being complete, but it appears the proposed cellular automaton model of the Universe is very close in spirit to what Konrad Zuse envisaged long time ago. It is our hope that the new proposed method can be verified with observation data. But we admit that our model is still in its infancy, more researches are needed to fill all the missing details.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2427] **viXra:1704.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-12 15:44:48*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper we take a closer look at the initial mass relative to the relativistic mass of the payload for an ideal photon rocket travelling at its maximum velocity. Haug has recently suggested that for all known subatomic particles, a minimum of two Planck masses of fuel are needed to accelerate the fundamental particle to its suggested maximum velocity (see [1]).
Here we will show how this view is consistent with insight given by Tipler at a NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Workshop Proceedings in 1999 (see [2]). Tipler suggested that the mass ratio of the initial rest mass of an ultra-relativistic rocket relative to the relativistic mass of the payload is likely “just” two. An ultrarelativistic rocket is one travelling at a velocity very close to the speed of light. We will here show that the Tipler factor is consistent with results derived from Haug’s suggested maximum velocity for any known observed subatomic particle.
However, we will show that the Tipler factor of two is unlikely to hold for ultra-heavy subatomic particle payloads. With ultra-heavy particles, we think of subatomic particles with mass close to that of the Planck mass. Our analysis indicates that the initial mass relative to the relativistic mass of the payload for any type of subatomic particle rocket must be between one and two. Remarkably, the mass ratio is only one for a Planck mass particle. This at first sounds absurd until we understand that the Planck mass particle is probably the very collision point between two photons. Even if a photon’s speed “always is” considered to be the speed of light, we can think of it as standing still at the instant it collides with another photon (backscattering). The mass ratio to accelerate a particle that only exists at velocity zero is naturally one. This is true since no fuel is needed to go from zero to zero velocity. Remarkably this indicates that the Planck mass particle and the Planck length likely are invariant. This can only happen if the Planck mass particle only lasts for an instant before it bursts into energy, which is what we could expect for the collision between two photons.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2426] **viXra:1704.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-12 11:28:30*

**Authors:** Ahmida Bendjoudi

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Submitted to IJMPD

It is commonly believed that the self-rotation angular momentum of planets is due to
an original angular momentum of dense interstellar clouds at the formation stage of
the stars. However, the study shows something completely dierent: a test planet in
free-fall, in fact, follows two geodesics; the rst is the usual Schwarzschild path, and
the second is a Schwarzschild-like path, dened (spatially) locally: an elliptical orbit
in the plane (U(1)-variable, azimuthal angle). The analysis leads to the fact that: the
motion along these geodesics (physically) is exactly the self-rotation of a charged test
planet in Reissner-Nordstrom spacetime. The results reveal a more general understanding
of Einstein equivalence principle: locally, gravitational eld can be (in the Reissner-
Nordstrom space) replaced with an accelerated and rotated local frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2425] **viXra:1704.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-11 23:59:12*

**Authors:** Kenneth M. Sasaki.

**Comments:** 30 pages, 16 figures, 7 labeled equations, and 62 references. Keywords: Ether, Time, and Energy. Author's e-mail address: bicycle_physics@yahoo.com.

This work demonstrates that observation and theory support three properties of classical space-time: The first is smoothness, which holds since gravitational time dilation, at sufficiently high energy densities, gravitationally confines energy, preventing singularities. The second is the relationship between ether and energy, which allows practical experiments to observe the ether. And the third is causal consistency, assuming only the physical laws of current observations. Some associated points of interest are also discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2424] **viXra:1704.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-12 01:35:41*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

According to Apparent Source Theory ( AST ), the position of a light source changes apparently relative to a co-moving observer, if the light source (and observer) is in absolute motion. Apparent Source Theory successfully explains almost all light speed experiments. However, there are some (apparent ) paradoxes in AST. In this paper, these paradoxes are described and solutions will be proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2423] **viXra:1704.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-12 02:07:14*

**Authors:** Henry-Couannier Frederic

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

This article continues the exploration of the Dark Gravity Theory which foundationsand some consequences we have detailed in two previous article

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2422] **viXra:1704.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-11 05:45:14*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

According to Quantum Function Follows Form Theory, the Big Bang was the evaporation and splitting of a former Big Crunch black hole nucleus of compressed Axion Higgs particles
into the oscillating Axion /Axion Higgs field vacuum lattice respectively into chunky nuclei of primary dark matter black holes.
Now recent HST observations show us a possible retarded splitting process at 10.8 billion light years and even a dual energy source which seem to point to an early Herbig Haro system at even 13.8 billion light years.
The vacuum Lattice is supposed to represent a dynamic reference frame and the so called Dark Energy or Zero Point Energy acting as the motor for all Fermion spin and as the transfer medium for all photon information, leading to local lightspeed and local time.
The energetic vacuum lattice is also assumed to act as a Gravity Quantum Dipole Repeller because gravitons do not supposed to attract- but repel Fermions with less impulse than the vacuum particles.
Recently I found that the merging of galaxy clusters itself show dynamic observational signs of a contraction of the vacuum inside the merging galaxy clusters by the anomalous central clustering of the dark matter black hole content which seems to be stripped from the individual galaxy clusters located at the borders of the new super cluster.
If there is vacuum absorption inside galaxy clusters, (Black Holes EAT the vacuum (Axion Axion Higgs field) then we also may assume that the universal vacuum between galaxy clusters should be also subjected to this absorption process, as a sign for universal contraction leading to a big crunch black hole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2421] **viXra:1704.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-10 23:59:27*

**Authors:** Kenneth M. Sasaki.

**Comments:** 30 pages, 15 figures, 7 labeled equations, and 62 references. Keywords: Ether, Time, and Energy. Author's e-mail address: bicycle_physics@yahoo.com.

This work demonstrates that observation and theory support three properties of classical space-time: The first is smoothness, which holds since gravitational time dilation, at sufficiently high energy densities, gravitationally confines energy, preventing singularities. The second is the relationship between ether and energy, which allows practical experiments to observe the ether. And the third is causal consistency, assuming only the physical laws of current observations. Some associated points of interest are also discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2420] **viXra:1704.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-09 18:38:05*

**Authors:** Arthur Eugene Pletcher

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Cosmology, as well as quantum Mechanics

I explain the primary mysteries of cosmology and quantum mechanics, by proposing that time intervals appear to vary between scales of great magnitude.
In macroscopic scales time appears to converge
(contract per distance), and in nanoscopic scales time appears to diverge (expand).
Time convergence (TC) proposes that time intervals appear to decrease and converge to a single event over great magnitude distance, as viewed from an observer at classic scale.
TC explains accelerated expansion to be an illusion, as decreasing time intervals appear equivalent to acceleration. See figure 3.
Time Divergence (TD) proposes that an observer will view a nanoscopic particle with an expanded range of time, from past to present, in his single moment, like a time-lapse. For example, an electron orbital, viewed in a single moment represents a time interval from −∆t (past)
to +∆t future. Unlike superposition, modulus states do progress in time between ground and excited.
TD explains the orbital gaps as simply the portions of rotation that are outside of this time range.
TD predicts that wave collapse occurs when the introduction of an intermediate apparatus (such as a detector), brings the observation (from source to effect) to essentially the same scale.
TD offers an alternate explanation to the ”undetermined probability wavefunction Ψ”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2419] **viXra:1704.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-09 12:36:56*

**Authors:** Mourici Shachter

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper I introduce a mass to inductance transformation L0=2/(a*m0^2). L is the inductance (Henry) of a rest mass m0. And a is a constant. The main propose of this paper was to find an analog electrical circuit in order to simplify the solution of Relativistic Problems. Fortunately, the analog circuit that I had found, change our knowledge about waves and particles, help to explain why Special Relativity and Quantum Mechanics are both correct and why Space-Time is equivalent to another well known theory.
In this paper
1) I almost eliminate mass from Newtonian Mechanics and Relativistic Problems including interactions between photons and elementary particles.
The proof of the suggested transformation relies entirely on Einstein's Special theory of relativity.
The most important conclusion from this paper is that Special Relativity is a wave and not a mechanical theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2418] **viXra:1704.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-09 04:02:43*

**Authors:** Chuck Bennett

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Gravity is redefined as accelerating inertial space. An Inertial reference frame is that reference frame upon which there are no forces acting. Inertial space does not have an actual relative velocity. Michelson and Morley failed to detect such relative velocity of the light-carrying medium.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2417] **viXra:1704.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-08 17:53:01*

**Authors:** Y, K, K

**Comments:** 1 Page.

We begin with a diagram, which explores the various implementations and manifestations of Hodge theory in the study of reinforcement learning. We review the Pavolovian exercise of using the reinforced reward learning schema to induce entropy in an arbitrary economic system.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2416] **viXra:1704.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-08 18:38:47*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 19 Pages. In English. The new physical theory Special Theory of Ether - with any transverse contraction

In the article, the whole class of time and position transformations was derived. These transformations were derived based on the analysis of the Michelson-Morley experiment and its improved version, that is the Kennedy-Thorndike experiment. It is possible to derive a different kinematics of bodies based on each of these transformations. In this way, we demonstrated that the Special Theory of Relativity is not the only theory explaining the results of experiments with light. There is the whole continuum of the theories of kinematics of bodies which correctly explain the Michelson-Morley experiment and other experiments in which the velocity of light is measured.
Based on the derived transformations, we derive the general formula for the velocity of light in vacuum measured in any inertial reference system. We explain why the Michelson-Morley and Kennedy-Thorndike experiments could not detect the ether. We present and discuss three examples of specific transformations. Finally, we explain the phenomenon of anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation by means of the presented theory.
The theory derived in this work is called the Special Theory of Ether - with any transverse contraction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2415] **viXra:1704.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-08 18:41:54*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 19 Pages. In Polish. The new physical theory Special Theory of Ether - with any transverse contraction

W artykule wyprowadzona została cała klasa transformacji czasu i położenia. Transformacje te zostały wyprowadzone na podstawie analizy eksperymentu Michelsona-Morleya oraz jego udoskonalonej wersji czyli eksperymentu Kennedyego-Thorndikea. Na podstawie każdej z tych transformacji można wyprowadzić inną kinematykę ciał. W ten sposób wykazaliśmy, że Szczególna Teoria Względności nie jest jedyną teorią wyjaśniającą wyniki eksperymentów ze światłem. Istnieje całe kontinuum teorii kinematyki ciał, które prawidłowo wyjaśniają eksperyment Michelsona-Morleya oraz inne eksperymenty, w których mierzona jest prędkość światła.
Na podstawie wyprowadzonych transformacji wyprowadzamy ogólny wzór na prędkość światła w próżni mierzoną w dowolnym inercjalnym układzie odniesienia. Wyjaśniamy dlaczego eksperymenty Michelsona-Morleya oraz Kennedyego-Thorndikea nie mogły wykryć eteru. Przedstawiamy i dyskutujemy trzy przykłady konkretnych transformacji. Na koniec wyjaśniamy zjawisko anizotropii mikrofalowego promieniowania tła przy pomocy przedstawionej teorii.
Wyprowadzoną w tej pracy teorię nazwaliśmy Szczególną Teorią Eteru - z dowolnym skróceniem poprzecznym.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2414] **viXra:1704.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-08 05:29:16*

**Authors:** Yang-Ho Choi

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The Sagnac effect has been shown in inertial frames as well as rotating frames. We solve the problem of the generalized Sagnac effect in the standard synchronization of clocks. The speed of a light beam that traverses an optical fiber loop is measured with respect to the proper time of the light detector, and is shown to be other than the constant c, though it appears to be c if measured by the time standard-synchronized. The fiber loop, which can have an arbitrary shape, is described by an infinite number of straight lines such that it can be handled by the general framework of Mansouri and Sexl (MS). For a complete analysis of the Sagnac effect, the motion of the laboratory should be taken into account. The MS framework is introduced to deal with its motion relative to a preferred reference frame. Though the one-way speed of light is other than c, its two-way speed is shown to be c with respect to the proper time. The theoretical analysis of the generalized Sagnac effect corresponds to the experimental results, and shows the usefulness of the standard synchronization. The introduction of the standard synchrony can make mathematical manipulation easy and can allow us to deal with relative motions between inertial frames without information on their velocities relative to the preferred frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2413] **viXra:1704.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-07 06:31:03*

**Authors:** S.M.Hosseini, M.I.Kendrick

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Abstract
Speed of light in the past was slower than present
The speed of light in vacuum is constant at all time and is equal to C=3x108ms-1 , but the yard stick that is measured in is shorter in the past than present due to the density or the temperature of the space or the CMB. In the past the space was hotter and the CMB photons were of shorter wavelength compare to the present epoch that space has stretched or expanded making the yard stick longer.
The consequences of the above interpretation of the vacuum of space will give rise to the illusion that the speed of light has been slower in the past and hence suggests that the speed of light depends on the quality of the vacuum that is travelling through or according to James Clark Maxwell [1] relative to the luminiferous aether background.
Furthermore the propagation of light in vacuum would be transfer of energy by completely elastic collisions through the medium of the CMB photons and hence the ghostly photons of the CMB are the medium in which the electromagnetic radiation propagate with the collision rate that is the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation which in turn the speed of light through the vacuum depends on the size of the wavelength of the CMB.
The above approach will replace the Dark Energy with the CMB photons that are the missing mass in the Universe as well as the force of the expansion in the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2412] **viXra:1704.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-06 08:37:52*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci, PhD, Pe

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

I tackle the topic of quantization of intrinsic QSO redshifts, especially based on the lifetime work of Halton Arp, examining first the potential relationship between intrinsic QSO redshift and QSO mass, then the phenomenon of quantization for both QSO mass and redshift. My approach is primarily a mathematical one, as developing a theory for intrinsic QSO redshift, let alone its quantization, is beyond my expertise. I postulate a geometric explanation of intrinsic redshift given a possible dependence on mass to the 2/3 power, related to possible attenuation of light energy (and therefore frequency) within the “emitting nucleus” of a QSO, compounded by a further “dilution,” and therefore energy (and frequency) decrease due to spread over the surface area. To do the quantization aspect justice, I summarize three theories by other experts and examine the plausibility of the two within my realm of knowledge. Finally, I offer at least a mathematical representation of the quantization aspect as “food for thought.”

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2411] **viXra:1704.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-05 12:22:18*

**Authors:** Chuck Bennett

**Comments:** 1 Page.

An alternate explanation to Michelson and Morley’s null result is presented. The dilemma is resolved by the approach that the medium is not separate from matter, rather, it is comprised of a field of quantum particles

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2410] **viXra:1704.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-04 14:30:01*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

This paper uncovers the reason why gravity obeys an inverse square law and not, for example, an inverse cubic law, or any other law with any other power. A relativistic approach is sufficient, if not necessary, to understand the answer to this question as the answer is not obvious.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2409] **viXra:1704.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-04 10:36:28*

**Authors:** S.M.Hosseini, M.I.Kendrick

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Hubble constant and the age of the Universe
Abstract
In this paper a new approach to the Hubble constant has produced two values
One for the expansion of galaxies in the universe at giving the age of the universe at about and the other, the expansion of the space or the inflation of the space (creation of more space or expansion of radiation) at giving apparent age of the universe at about ,exactly half the real age of the universe.
Hence showing that the both teams of Gérard de Vaucouleurs, later by Sidney van den Berghwho claiming a high value for the Hubble constant and a low value of the Hubble constant by Allan Sandage, later by prof Gustav Tammann are correct and there approach had been different, one team looking at the expansion (inflation) of space and the other team looking at the expansion of the galaxies.
Furthermore the value of has been resulted from this new approach.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2408] **viXra:1704.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-04 04:50:05*

**Authors:** Chuck Bennett

**Comments:** 1 Page.

An elemental particle is proposed to facilitate the increase in mass under relativistic conditions. The conservation of energy is invoked to justify the conservation of mass and thus the new particle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2407] **viXra:1704.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-03 13:32:57*

**Authors:** Ahmida Bendjoudi

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

A new independent derivation of general theory of relativity using only special relativity principles
is shown. Some solutions are derived and discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2406] **viXra:1704.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-03 22:59:28*

**Authors:** Kenneth M. Sasaki.

**Comments:** 30 pages, 15 figures, 7 labeled equations, and 64 references. Keywords: Ether, Time, and Energy. Author's e-mail address: bicycle_physics@yahoo.com.

This work establishes three properties of classical space-time: The first is smoothness, which holds since gravitational time dilation, at sufficiently high energy densities, gravitationally confines energy in frozen stars and frozen universes, preventing singularities. The second is the relationship between ether and energy, which allows practical experiments to observe the ether. And the third is causal consistency, assuming not more then current observations. Some associated points of interest are also discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2405] **viXra:1704.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-03 07:26:24*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The most straight forward explanation of the Michelson-Morley experiment null result is the emission or ballistic theory of light, according to which the velocity of light is constant c relative to the source. In fact, the Michelson-Morley experiment may be seen as a compelling evidence for the emission hypothesis. The emission theory was abandoned mainly due to moving source experiments which proved the independence of the speed of light from the velocity of the source. It will be shown in this paper that physicists hastened to discard the emission theory which will be shown to be crucial to solve the light speed puzzle. The conventional emission theory is modified intuitively as follows. The speed of light emitted from a light source that is moving with absolute velocity Vabs is equal to c - Vabs relative to the source in the forward direction and c + Vabs relative to the source in the backward direction. Therefore, relative an observer at absolute rest in front of the moving source, the speed of light is equal to the sum of the speed of light relative to the source and the speed of the source: ( c - Vabs )+ Vabs = c . Relative to an observer at absolute rest behind the source, the speed of light is equal to the difference between the speed of light relative to the source and the speed of the source : ( c + Vabs ) - Vabs = c . We can see that this model predicts that the speed of light is independent of the velocity of the source. This model also predicts the null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment because the speed of light is c ± Vabs relative to the source., in the forward and backward directions. Change of the speed of light relative to the source doesn’t result in any fringe shift because , intuitively, both the transverse and longitudinal light beams will be delayed or advanced by equal amounts of time. This theory is a modified emission theory, a fusion between ' ether ' theory and emission theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2404] **viXra:1704.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-02 05:52:41*

**Authors:** Fang Zhou

**Comments:** 48 pages,in Chinese

The only objectively existing in nature transformation of space and time for the case of observers’ mutual uniform translatory motion and limited light velocity is first revealed in the article.The discovered transformation ,referred to as Zhoufang Transformation (Z-Transformation), is logically derived, using in derivation the concepts of both the principle of relativity and the postulate of constant light velocity. The Z-Transformation takes the typical form of Galilean Transformation. Moreover, a theoretical interpretation for Hubble’s Law is given firstly by the author as well, utilizing the Z-Transformation revealed .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2403] **viXra:1704.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-01 13:51:03*

**Authors:** Artekha S., Chubykalo A., Espinoza A.

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Some difficult moments of the article Artekha S., Chubykalo A., Espinoza A. "Some of the complexities in the special relativity: new paradoxes", are additionally explained. Detailed critical analysis of "Critical Comment" is presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2402] **viXra:1704.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-01 01:02:27*

**Authors:** Ahmida Bendjoudi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Submitted to IJMPD journal

Einstein Equivalence Principle is the cornerstone of general theory of relativity. Special relativity
is assumed to be veried at any point on the Riemann curved manifold. This leads to a mathematical
consistency between Einstein equations and special relativity principles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2401] **viXra:1703.0310 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-31 14:41:35*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: Using cyclic universe E8 symmetry theory, a value for the critical fermion density of the universe is found in excellent agreement with published results. Also found is a very useful volume of 10^27 cubic meters per active galaxy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2400] **viXra:1703.0294 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-31 07:11:17*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The Lorentz transform converts the Euclidean storage format of dynamic geometric data into the corresponding observed spacetime format.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1642] **viXra:1706.0415 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-21 11:13:29*

**Authors:** Marco Pereira

**Comments:** 107 Pages.

This paper presents a simple and purely geometrical Grand Unification Theory. Quantum Gravity, Electrostatic and Magnetic interactions are shown in a unified framework. Newton's Gravitational Law, Gauss' Electrostatics Law and Biot-Savart's Electromagnetism Law are derived from first principles.
Gravitational Lensing and Mercury Perihelion Precession are replicated within the theory. Unification symmetry is defined for all the existing forces. This alternative model does not require Strong and Electroweak forces.
A 4D Shock-Wave Hyperspherical topology is proposed for the Universe which together with a Quantum Lagrangian Principle and a Dilator based model for matter result in a quantized stepwise expansion for the whole Universe along a radial direction within a 4D spatial manifold. The Hypergeometrical Standard Model for matter, Universe Topology and a new Law of Gravitation are presented. Newton's and Einstein's Laws of Gravitation and Dynamics, Gauss Law of Electrostatics among others are challenged when HU presents Type 1A Supernova Survey results. HU's SN1a results challenge current Cosmological Standard Model (L-CDM) by challenging its Cosmological Ruler d(z). SDSS BOSS dataset is shown to support a new Cosmogenesis theory and HU proposal that we are embedded in a 5D Spacetime. The Big Bang Theory is shown to be challenged by SDSS BOSS dataset. Hyperspherical Acoustic Oscillations are demonstrated in the SDSS BOSS Galaxy density. A New de-Broglie Force is proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1641] **viXra:1706.0371 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-24 06:58:57*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here we will show the existence of a simple relationship between Einstein’s and Newton’s formulas. They are closely connected in terms of fundamental particles. Without knowing so, Newton indirectly conceptualized E = mc^2 two hundred years before Einstein.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1640] **viXra:1706.0371 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-21 02:36:23*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here we will show the existence of a simple relationship between Einstein’s and Newton’s formulas. They are closely connected in terms of fundamental particles. Without knowing so, Newton indirectly conceptualized E = mc^2 two hundred years before Einstein.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1639] **viXra:1706.0371 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-19 16:56:09*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here we will show the existence of a simple relationship between Einstein’s and Newton’s formulas. They are closely connected in terms of fundamental particles. Without knowing so, Newton indirectly conceptualized E = mc^2 two hundred years before Einstein.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1638] **viXra:1706.0135 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-10 03:13:32*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 66 Pages. Spanish

We understand the principle of Mach as the assertion that the inertia of a body is not an intrinsic quality of matter, but is the effect of the action of the whole Universe. The forces of inertia act when a body is accelerated. But if we assume that is the Universe that is accelerated, it will generate a gravitational inductive force on the body, which can be understood as the force of inertia.
In this research we calculated the gravitational induction produced on a body by the accelerated movement of the whole of the Universe. We used the linearized theory of General Relativity, therefore the results are approximate, but sufficient to give us an idea of how the Universe conforms the inertia of the bodies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1637] **viXra:1705.0366 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-03 06:19:55*

**Authors:** Sergey Shevchenko, Vladimir Tokarevsky

**Comments:** Two versions: Engl. pages 1-9 and Russian pages 10-20

in the paper a few problems relating to the special relativity theory are considered, real SRT problems that arise from the self-inconsistence of the theory, and so limit its correct application; and imaginary, when at some “refuting of SRT” the notion “relative speed” is erroneously applied, first of all the “(c±V)” problem. Applicability of the Tangherlini transformations is briefly considered also

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1636] **viXra:1705.0366 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-28 07:19:18*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Shevchenko, Vladimir V. Tokarevsky

**Comments:** Englosh, pages 1-9; and Russian, pages 9-19, versions

in the paper a few problems relating to the special relativity theory are considered, real SRT problems that arise from the self-inconsistence of the theory, and so limit its correct application; and imaginary, when at some “refuting of SRT” the notion “relative speed” is erroneously applied, first of all the “(c±V)” problem. Applicability of the Tangherlini transformations is briefly considered also

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1635] **viXra:1705.0237 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-17 02:21:23*

**Authors:** Gordon Liu

**Comments:** 8 pages

Although mass is a very common and fundamental concept, but the problem of mass is still one of the key problems of modern Physics, up to the present the experts are not able to reach a consensus. In this paper, we have discussed the problems relating to mass, energy and matter, and been aware that mass is neither the amount of matter an object has, nor the measure of inertia and the source of gravitational field, whereas energy is the measure of the inertia of an object and also is the source of gravitational field. As before, Mass being used to measure the inertia and to calculate gravitational force is just an approximate method only for very slowly moving bodies and particles for which the rest energy is much larger than the kinetic energy. Actually the concept of mass is a superfluous artificial concept, just rest energy divided by a constant (If selecting c=1, the mass is exactly equal to the rest energy), does not have any other meaning. If the concept of mass is completely superseded by energy(or more precisely, rest energy), the physical equations are completely perfect, their meanings are clearer, and the puzzles such as the relationship of mass and energy, nature of matter, the essence of the weak equivalence principle, the physical meaning of Higgs mechanism, etc., can be made clearer.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1634] **viXra:1705.0234 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-09 21:02:32*

**Authors:** Gordon Liu

**Comments:** 9 Pages. update version

In present paper, we have proposed an alternative theory on the spacetime of non-inertial reference frame (NRF) which bases on the requirement of general completeness (RGC) and the principle of equality of all reference frames (PERF). The RGC is that the physical equations used to describe the dynamics of matter and/or fields should include the descriptions that not only the matter and/or fields are at rest, but also they move relative to this reference frame, and the structure of the spacetime of reference frame has been considered. The PERF is that any reference frame can be used to describe the motion of matter and/or fields. The spacetime of NRF is inhomogeneous and deformed caused by the accelerating motion of the reference frame. The inertial force is the manifestation of deformed spacetime. The Riemann curvature tensor of the spacetime of NRF equals zero, but the Riemann-Christoffel symbol never vanishs no matter what coordinate system is selected in the NRF. The physical equations satisfied the RGC remain covariance under the coordinate transformation between the reference frames. Mach’s principle is incorrect. The problem of spacetime of NRF can be solved without considering gravitation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1633] **viXra:1705.0219 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-21 15:44:27*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Three references added. Comments welcome.

Brief outline of Penrose diagram and related topics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1632] **viXra:1705.0219 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-05 05:54:58*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Typos corrected and text expanded. Comments welcome.

Brief outline of Penrose diagram and related topics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1631] **viXra:1705.0219 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-01 14:07:08*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 6 Pages. One reference added and text expanded.

Brief outline of Penrose diagram and related topics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1630] **viXra:1705.0219 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-23 04:44:13*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Two references added and text expanded. Comments welcome.

Brief outline of Penrose diagram and related topics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1629] **viXra:1705.0219 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-20 06:03:24*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 5 Pages. One reference added. Comments welcome.

Brief outline of Penrose diagram and related topics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1628] **viXra:1705.0219 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-16 11:20:14*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Title changed. Final version.

Brief outline of Penrose diagram and related topics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1627] **viXra:1705.0219 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-15 10:19:49*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 4 Pages. One reference added and typos corrected. Comments welcome.

Brief outline of Penrose diagram and related topics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1626] **viXra:1705.0147 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-12 05:54:22*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Two references added. Final version.

We model the physicalized manifestation of the Universe as bootstrapped ‘Brain of the Universe’ and seek evidence for its brain-like functional organization, resulting from the Holon of the Universe facilitated by space-like correlated gravitational holomovement and rotation. The orthodox model of gravity, based on "tangent vectors" and "curvature of spacetime", is replaced with the proposal that the physicalized clocks and rulers are very flexible ‘jackets’ (cf. John’s jackets parable in CEN.pdf), which can slow down or speed up viz. shrink or expand, leading to perfectly correlated Brain of the Universe living in so-called ‘relative scale’ (RS) spacetime. The question of Universal Mind, complementing the Brain of the Universe, pertains to physical theology and the doctrine of trialism, and was examined in previous publications (Sec. 6 in spacetime.pdf).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1625] **viXra:1705.0147 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-10 20:45:19*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Text expanded for clarity. Comments welcome.

We model the physicalized manifestation of the Universe as bootstrapped ‘Brain of the Universe’ and seek evidence for its brain-like functional organization, resulting from the Holon of the Universe facilitated by space-like correlated gravitational holomovement and rotation. The orthodox model of gravity, based on "tangent vectors" and "curvature of spacetime", is replaced with the proposal that the physicalized clocks and rulers are very flexible ‘jackets’ (cf. John’s jackets parable in CEN.pdf), which can slow down or speed up viz. shrink or expand, leading to perfectly correlated Brain of the Universe living in so-called ‘relative scale’ (RS) spacetime. The question of Universal Mind, complementing the Brain of the Universe, pertains to physical theology and the doctrine of trialism, and was examined in previous publications (Sec. 6 in spacetime.pdf).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1624] **viXra:1705.0138 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-11 09:43:59*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is felt by many that faster-than-light particles (tachyons) exist though none has been detected so far. Is it really possible to detect these particles? Some methods are brought up.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1623] **viXra:1705.0138 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-09 21:16:06*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is felt by many that faster-than-light particles (tachyons) exist though none has been detected
so far. Is it really possible to detect these particles? Some methods are brought up.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1622] **viXra:1705.0138 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-08 16:36:42*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1621] **viXra:1704.0352 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-26 13:41:24*

**Authors:** Peter Sujak

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Einstein in his works from 1905 till 1907 discarded the ether from physics but his more than 5 papers from 1920 to 1934 deal with the ether as an unexceptionable physical reality. In these papers Einstein becomes more an enthusiastic advocate of the testification of the ether than supporters of the ether before the year 1905. It is regrettable that except of Einstein’s widely cited less important paper presented at a conference in Leiden in 1920 other more important papers on ether in which Einstein comes with the definitive claim that without the ether it is not possible to explain the physical world around us are not known to wider physical community and even not known to dissident physicists community as well. In this paper we show that Einstein by his own declarations after 1920 about testified existence of the ether himself openly repudiated his Special and General theories of relativity. In amendment we bring the text of Einstein’s 1924 paper “On the ether”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1620] **viXra:1704.0349 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-12 06:23:56*

**Authors:** Florian Michael Schmitt

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This paper challenges to overcome one of the greatest misunderstanding in historic physics concerning the stellar aberration. It will be shown, how stellar aberration is functioning with a solely wave nature of light without stressing pointing vector concepts. Further on it will be shown, that even in dragged ether concepts stellar aberration must exist. Since failure of dragged or drift ether concepts to explain stellar aberration such were abandoned and gave room for special relativity. Based on the concept, questions such as light being dragged by gravity, mercury orbit variation will have to be reconsidered as well as special relativity throughout.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1619] **viXra:1704.0349 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-26 13:13:11*

**Authors:** Florian Michael Schmitt

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Replacement

On Aberration of Light Part #2
This paper challenges to overcome one of the greatest misunderstanding in historic physics concerning the stellar aberration. It will be shown, how stellar aberration is functioning with a solely wave nature of light without stressing pointing vector concepts. Further on it will be shown, that even in dragged ether concepts stellar aberration must exist. Since failure of dragged or drift ether concepts to explain stellar aberration such were abandoned and gave room for special relativity. Based on the concept, questions such as light being dragged by gravity, mercury orbit variation will have to be reconsidered as well as special relativity throughout.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1618] **viXra:1704.0349 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-26 11:56:50*

**Authors:** Florian Michael Schmitt

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper challenges to overcome one of the greatest misunderstanding in historic physics concerning the stellar aberration. It will be shown, how stellar aberration is functioning with a solely wave nature of light without stressing pointing vector concepts. Further on it will be shown, that even in dragged ether concepts stellar aberration must exist. Since failure of dragged or drift ether concepts to explain stellar aberration such were abandoned and gave room for special relativity. Based on the concept, questions such as light being dragged by gravity, mercury orbit variation will have to be reconsidered as well as special relativity throughout.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1617] **viXra:1704.0339 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-03 18:27:35*

**Authors:** Arthur E Pletcher

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Somehow, most of my reviews have misconstrued my ideas, which has caused me to add revisions.

"Time Perspective Distortion (TPD) proposes that all velocities, including radial recessive and rotational, will naturally appear to increase per distances of great magnitude as an illusion between scales viewed in magnification.
In the introduction, I cite a clear deviation from Kepler’s orbital laws with a correlation study of multiple galaxy surveys with increased velocities across their minor axis. Thus, velocity within the same body appears to increase per distance. However, TPD explains this as only an illusion.
In section: 4, I explain why galaxy rotations appear to deviate from Kepler’s laws.
In section: 5, I generalize how velocities appear to increase with distance, using a pulsar application.
In section: 6, I Show how galaxy rotational velocity appears to increases with distance.
In section: 8, I show how TPD is a factor in galaxy rotational curves.
In Section: 9, I show how TPD affects the spherical asymmetry of supernova remnant velocity.
In section: 10, I provide a mathematical proof to distinguish TPD from accelerated expansion.
Please note: TPD is only evident over great distances. For instance, TPD predicts an apparent increase in comet orbital velocities over distance, however the margin of error (especially from unstable gas emissions) is greater than observable results.
TPD is distinct from time dilation and does not contradict or violate either time dilation, GR, nor expansion. In TPD, corrections of skewed time intervals are first converted to true orthogonal length (t⊥) subsequently, all classical and relative physics are then calculated using t⊥ instead of t.
"

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1616] **viXra:1704.0339 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-02 12:48:31*

**Authors:** Arthur E Pletcher

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Time Perspective Distortion (TPD) proposes that all velocities, including radial recessive and
rotational, will naturally appear to increase per distances of great magnitude as an illusion
between scales viewed in magnification. See section: 2
In section: 5, I include a clear deviation from Kepler’s orbital laws with a correlation study of multiple galaxy surveys with increased velocities across their minor axis. Thus, velocity within the same body appears to increase per distance.
In section: 3.A, I explain why galaxies rotations appear to deviate from Kepler’s laws.
In Section: 3.B, I show how TPD affects the spherical asymmetry of supernova remnant velocity.
In section 12 I show how TPD is a factor in Galaxy rotational curves
In section: 6, I provide a mathematical proof to distinguish TPD from accelerated expansion.
Note that the TPD affect is only evident over great distances. For instance, comet orbit velocities are predicted to increase over distance, however the margin of error (especially from unstable gas emissions) are greater than observable results.
Please note: TPD is distinct from time dilation and does not contradict or violate
either time dilation, GR, nor expansion. In TPD, corrections of skewed time intervals are
first converted to true orthogonal length (t⊥) subsequently, all classical and relative physics are then calculated using t⊥ instead of t

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1615] **viXra:1704.0339 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-27 09:10:25*

**Authors:** Arthur E Pletcher

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This alternative model to Accelerated Expansion, is supported by correlated studies of multiple
galaxy surveys with increased velocities across their minor axis. Thus, velocity within the same
body appears to increase per distance.
Time Perspective Distortion (TPD) postulates the novel idea of a linear point perspective in the
time dimension. Just as subtended arcs in linear spacial perspective create the appearance of
decreasing (and converging) geometry over distance, TPD proposes that time perspective creates the appearance of decreasing (and converging) time intervals over distance.
The result is an illusion of accelerated velocity, as the appearance of decreasing time intervals is equivalent to increasing velocity.
TPD rewrites accelerating expansion, alternatively, as constant expansion viewed (obliquely) in time perspective. Photons travelling to an observer, from remote past events, will appear to arrive with successively decreased time intervals.
Please note: TPD is distinct from time dilation and does not contradict or violate either time dilation, GR, nor expansion. In TPD, corrections of skewed time intervals are first converted to true orthogonal length (t⊥) subsequently, all classical and relative physics are then calculated using t⊥ instead of t.
In the last chapter, I provide a vector calculation to distinguish accelerated expansion from constant expansion with TPD

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1614] **viXra:1704.0339 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-26 14:53:37*

**Authors:** Arthur E Pletcher

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This alternative model to Accelerated Expansion, is supported by correlated studies of multiple galaxy surveys with increased velocities across their minor axis. Thus, velocity within the same body appears to increase per distance.
Time Perspective Distortion (TPD) postulates the idea of perspective in the time dimension.
Just as linear spacial perspective has the appearance of decreasing (and converging) geometry over distance, TPD proposes that time perspective has the appearance of decreasing (and converging) time intervals over distance.
The result is an illusion of accelerated velocity, as the appearance of decreasing time intervals is equivalent to increasing velocity.
TPD rewrites accelerating expansion, alternatively, as constant expansion viewed (obliquely) in time perspective. Photons travelling to an observer, from remote past events, will appear to arrive with successively decreased time intervals.
Please note: TPD does not contradict or violate time dilation, GR, nor expansion. In TPD, corrections of skewed time intervals are first converted to true orthogonal length (t⊥)
subsequently, all classical and relative physics are then calculated using t⊥ instead of t.
In the last chapter, I provide a vector calculation to distinguish accelerated expansion from constant expansion with TPD

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1613] **viXra:1704.0339 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-26 08:43:23*

**Authors:** Arthur E Pletcher

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This alternative model to Accelerated Expansion, is supported by correlated studies of multiple galaxy surveys with increased velocities across their minor axis. Thus, velocity within the same body appears to increase per distance.
Time Perspective Distortion (TPD) postulates that time is actually observed and measured with an inherent perspective, analogous to 2D linear perspective in architecture. Time intervals appear to decrease and converge to a single event. Subsequently, decreased time intervals appear as increased velocity.
TPD rewrites accelerating expansion, alternatively, as constant expansion viewed
(obliquely) in time perspective. Photons travelling to an observer, from remote past events, will appear to arrive with successively decreased time intervals.
Please note: TPD does not contradict or violate time dilation, GR, nor expansion. In TPD, corrections of skewed time intervals are first converted to true orthogonal length (t⊥) subsequently, all classical and relative physics are then calculated using t⊥ instead of t.
In the last chapter, I provide a vector calculation to distinguish accelerated expansion
from constant expansion with TPD.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1612] **viXra:1704.0336 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-13 10:26:39*

**Authors:** Eva Deli

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Thank you!

Recent cosmological data shows the Milky Way galaxy being pushed ahead of a void. Independently, laboratory research has created matter with negative mass. A possible relationship between these seemingly unrelated results indicates the need to reexamine our understanding of gravity. According to the Page and Wootter mechanism, time is static globally, but emergent for ‘internal’ observers. That is, interaction increases the energy-information differences among the constituents of the cosmos. Such temporal evolution engenders polar singularities, known as black and white holes, in accordance with general relativity. The second law of thermodynamics leads to Landauer’s principle, which shows that the emitted heat is proportional to the erased information of the system. Thus, information accumulates heat in black hole horizons, which have been found to be two dimensional; whereas information-free areas are energy rich and cold. The principle of static time dictates information and dimensional complementarity between antipodal areas of the universe. Two dimensional, positive curvature black holes must be balanced by negative curvature, four dimensional white holes, which expand space and lead to the experience of ‘dark energy.’ Positive curvature forms great field strength, which stabilizes the universe with a pressure experienced as excess gravity, called dark matter. Enhanced field strength leads to clumping, forming planets, stars, galaxies and galaxy clusters, which slows expansion. The dimensional anisotropy (two in the black holes and four in the white holes) straddle unstable, three-dimensional galactic environments between them. An object’s position in space corresponds to a freely hanging plumb. Deviations in angle of that plumb (position of the object) – thereby changes the equilibrium of the whole universe and leads to inertia, a force that is proportional to both the mass of the object and the field strength (i.e. radial topological distance from the center). Therefore inertia is greatest in the vicinity of the black holes. On the positively curved polar surfaces of space (such as a planet) a path that curves toward the pole forms the shortest distance. On positive curving temporal surfaces the shortest time is acceleration, which leads to the twin paradox. The hypothesis is congruent with the latest CMB data, satisfies Mach’s principle as well as Occam’s razor by uncovering a surprisingly simple, stable and unified alignment of the universe. This new physical world view is presented with visual illustrations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1611] **viXra:1704.0336 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-25 13:19:25*

**Authors:** Eva Deli

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Recent cosmological data shows the Milky Way galaxy being pushed ahead of a void. Independently, laboratory research created matter with negative mass. A possible relationship between these seemingly unrelated results indicates the need to reexamine our understanding of gravity. According to Page and Wootter mechanism, time is globally static, but emergent for ‘internal’ observers. That is, interaction increases the energy-information differences among the constituents of the cosmos. Such temporal evolution engenders polar singularities, known as black and white holes, in accordance with general relativity. The second law of thermodynamics leads to Landauer’s principle, which shows that the emitted heat is proportional to the erased information of the system. Thus, information accumulates heat in black hole horizons, which have been found to be two dimensional; whereas information-free areas are energy rich and cold. The principle of static time dictates information and dimensional complementarity between antipodal areas of the universe. Two dimensional, positive curvature black holes must be balanced by negative curvature, four dimensional white holes, which expand space and lead to the experience of ‘dark energy.’ Positive curvature forms great field strength, which stabilizes the universe with a pressure experienced as excess gravity, called dark matter. Enhanced field strength leads to clumping, forming planets, stars, galaxies and galaxy clusters, which slows expansion. The dimensional anisotropy (two in the black holes and four in the white holes) straddle unstable three dimensional galactic environments between them. An object’s position in space corresponds to a freely hanging plumb. Deviations in angle of that plumb (position of the object) – thereby changes the equilibrium of the whole universe and leads to inertia, a force that is proportional to both the mass of the object and the field strength (i.e. radial topological distance from the center). Therefore inertia is greatest in the vicinity of the black holes. On the positively curved polar surfaces of space (such as a planet) a path that curves toward the pole forms the shortest distance. On positive curving temporal surfaces the shortest time is acceleration, which leads to the twin paradox. The hypothesis is congruent with the latest CMB data, satisfies Mach’s principle as well as Occam’s razor by uncovering a surprisingly simple, stable and unified alignment of the universe. This new physical world view is presented without equations, reflecting the futility of a universal calculation method.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1610] **viXra:1704.0302 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-30 10:01:48*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 11 Pages. The new physical theory Special Theory of Ether (in Polish)

Powszechnie uważa się, że eksperymenty Michelson’a-Morley’a z 1887 roku oraz eksperyment Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a z 1932 roku wykazały, że nie istnieje uniwersalny układ odniesienia (eter) oraz, że prędkość światła w próżni jest absolutnie stała.
Analiza tych eksperymentów doprowadziła do powstania Szczególnej Teorii Względności (STW). W artykule wyjaśniono dlaczego eksperyment Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a nie były w stanie wykryć uniwersalny układ odniesienia.
W tym artykule wyprowadzamy na podstawie geometrycznej analizy eksperymentów Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a inną transformację czasu i położenia niż transformacja Lorentza.
Transformację wyprowadzamy przy założeniu, że istnieje uniwersalny układ odniesienia (eter). Eter jest układem odniesienia wyróżniającym się tym, że prędkość światła jest w nim stała w każdym kierunku.
W inercjalnych układach odniesienia poruszających się względem eteru, prędkość światła może być inna. W oparciu o nową transformację została stworzona Szczególna Teoria Eteru (STE).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1609] **viXra:1704.0235 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-25 16:15:36*

**Authors:** Arthur E Pletcher

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This alternative model to Dark Matter, is supported by correlated studies of multiple
galaxy surveys with increased velocities across their minor axis. Thus, velocity within the same body appears to increase per distance.
Time convergence (TC) rewrites accelerating expansion, alternatively, as constant
expansion with apparent decreasing time intervals. TC is a corollary of Minkowski’s
assertion that ”Whatever happens to space also happens to time”, and can be conceptualized
as a linear perspective in the time dimension.
TC proposes that time intervals appear to decrease and converge to a single event
over great magnitude distance, as viewed from an observer at classic scale. Thus,
accelerated expansion is interpreted to be an illusion, as decreasing time intervals appear equivalent to acceleration. See figure 3.
Please note that TC is not time dilation. Time intervals do not actually decrease per distance, rather appear to decrease per distance similar to linear spatial perspective from subtended arcs. Thus, there is no contradiction or violation of special relativity nor GR
In the last chapter, I provide a vector calculation to distinguish accelerated expansion from constant expansion with TC.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1608] **viXra:1704.0235 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-20 09:51:08*

**Authors:** Arthur E Pletcher

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This alternative model to Dark Matter, is supported by correlated studies of multiple
galaxy surveys with increased velocities across their minor axis. Thus, velocity within the same body appears to increase per distance.
”Time interval distortion” rewrites accelerating expansion, alternatively, as constant expansion with apparent decreasing time intervals.
TC is a corollary of Minkowski’s assertion that ”Whatever happens to space also happens to time”, and can be conceptualized as a linear perspective in the time dimension.
Time convergence (TC) proposes that time intervals appear to decrease and converge to a single event over great magnitude distance, as viewed from an observer at classic scale. Thus, Accelerated expansion is interpreted to be an illusion, as decreasing time intervals appear equivalent to acceleration. See figure 3.
In the last chapter, I provide a vector calculation to distinguish accelerated expansion
from constant expansion with TC.
TC provides alternative explanations for: Accelerated expansion, Rotational and recessive velocities approaching c, as superluminal velocities. Also, a potential explanation for galaxy rotational curves.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1607] **viXra:1704.0179 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-06 03:21:05*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Yunita Umniyati

**Comments:** 7 Pages. This paper has been submitted to CTPNP 2017

It has been known for long time that the cosmic sound wave was there since the early epoch of the Universe. Signatures of its existence are abound. However, such a sound wave model of cosmology is rarely developed fully into a complete framework. This paper can be considered as our second attempt towards such a complete description of the Universe based on soliton wave solution of cosmological KdV equation. Then we advance further this KdV equation by virtue of Cellular Automaton method to solve the PDEs. We submit wholeheartedly Robert Kurucz’s hypothesis that Big Bang should be replaced with a finite cellular automaton universe with no expansion. Nonetheless, we are fully aware that our model is far from being complete, but it appears the proposed cellular automaton model of the Universe is very close in spirit to what Konrad Zuse envisaged long time ago. It is our hope that the new proposed method can be verified with observation data. But we admit that our model is still in its infancy, more researches are needed to fill all the missing details.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1606] **viXra:1704.0165 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-21 09:23:53*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A simple observational test of a proposed cosmological model with radial time and spherical space is introduced. It is shown briefly how the proposed model which can solve many problems of cosmology is wrongly excluded.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1605] **viXra:1704.0141 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-21 03:27:22*

**Authors:** Henry-Couannier Frederic

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

This article continues the exploration of the Dark Gravity Theory which foundationsand some consequences we have detailed in two previous article

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1604] **viXra:1704.0141 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-09 05:49:09*

**Authors:** Henry-Couannier Frederic

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

This article continues the exploration of the Dark Gravity Theory which foundationsand some consequences we have detailed in two previous article

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1603] **viXra:1704.0141 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-24 13:56:33*

**Authors:** Henry-Couannier Frederic

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1602] **viXra:1704.0141 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-26 11:22:25*

**Authors:** Henry-Couannier Frederic

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1601] **viXra:1704.0141 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-14 04:32:14*

**Authors:** Henry-Couannier Frederic

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1600] **viXra:1704.0133 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-11 12:54:04*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

According to Quantum Function Follows Form Theory, the Big Bang was the evaporation and splitting of a former Big Crunch black hole nucleus of compressed Axion Higgs particles
into the oscillating Axion /Axion Higgs field vacuum lattice respectively into chunky nuclei of primary dark matter black holes.
Now recent HST observations show us a possible retarded splitting process at 10.8 billion light years (called CDF-S-XT1) and even a dual energy source which seem to point to an early Herbig Haro system at even 13.1 billion light years ( MACS1423-z7p64)
The vacuum Lattice is supposed to represent a dynamic reference frame and the so called Dark Energy or Zero Point Energy acting as the motor for all Fermion spin and as the transfer medium for all photon information, leading to local lightspeed and local time.
The energetic vacuum lattice is also assumed to act as a Gravity Quantum Dipole Repeller because gravitons do not supposed to attract- but repel Fermions with less impulse than the vacuum particles.
Recently I found that the merging of galaxy clusters itself show dynamic observational signs of a contraction of the vacuum inside the merging galaxy clusters by the anomalous central clustering of the dark matter black hole content which seems to be stripped from the individual galaxy clusters located at the borders of the new super cluster.
If there is vacuum absorption inside galaxy clusters, (Black Holes EAT the vacuum (Axion Axion Higgs field) then we also may assume that the universal vacuum between galaxy clusters should be also subjected to this absorption process, as a sign for universal contraction leading to a big crunch black hole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1599] **viXra:1704.0118 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-15 14:21:29*

**Authors:** Arthur E Pletcher

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This alternative model to Dark Matter, is supported by correlated studies of multiple galaxy surveys with increased velocities across their minor axis. Thus, velocity within the same body appears to increase per distance.
Time convergence (TC) proposes that time intervals appear to decrease and converge to a single event over great magnitude distance, as viewed from an observer at classic scale.
TC explains accelerated expansion to be an illusion, as decreasing time intervals appear equivalent to acceleration. See figure 3.
In the last chapter, I provide a vector calculation to distinguish accelerated expansion from TC (Time Convergence).
Note: Also included are sections showing how this same concept of time interval distortion is applicable to superpostion at nanoscales.
Time Divergence (TD) proposes that an observer will view a nanoscopic particle with an expanded range of time, from past to present, in his single moment, like a time-lapse. For example, an electron orbital, viewed in a single moment represents a time interval from −∆t (past) to +∆t future. Unlike superposition, modulus states do
progress in time between ground and excited.
In section 5, I provide a potential mesoscopic proof, with two observations, separated in time, representing the exact same event.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1598] **viXra:1704.0118 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-11 16:15:33*

**Authors:** Arthur E Pletcher

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This alternative model to Dark Matter, is supported by correlated studies of multiple galaxy surveys with increased velocities across their minor axis. Therefore, I
focus on explaining accelerated expansion as a function of distance, since the same body varies in radial velocity per distance.
Time convergence (TC) proposes that time intervals appear to decrease and converge to a single event over great magnitude distance, as viewed from an observer at
classic scale.
TC explains accelerated expansion to be an illusion, as decreasing time intervals appear equivalent to acceleration. See figure 3.
In the last chapter, I provide a vector calculation to distinguish accelerated expansion from TC (Time Convergence).
Note: Also included are sections showing how this same concept of time interval distortion is applicable to superpostion at nanoscales.
Time Divergence (TD) proposes that an observer will view a nanoscopic particle with an expanded range of time, from past to present, in his single moment, like a
time-lapse. For example, an electron orbital, viewed in a single moment represents a time interval from −∆t (past) to +∆t future. Unlike superposition, modulus states do
progress in time between ground and excited.
In section 5, I provide a potential mesoscopic proof, with two observations, separated in time, representing the exact same event.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1597] **viXra:1704.0118 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-10 10:22:14*

**Authors:** Arthur E Pletcher

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

I explain the primary mysteries of cosmology and quantum mechanics, by proposing that time intervals appear to vary between scales of great magnitude.
In macroscopic scales time appears to converge (contract per distance), and in nanoscopic scales time appears to diverge (expand).
In Section 8, I provide strong evidence of my supposition with a correlation study which shows multiple galaxies with increased velocity on their
far sides.
In section 9, I provide a vector calculation to distinguish accelerated expansion from constant expansion with time convergence.
Time convergence (TC) proposes that time intervals appear to decrease and converge to a single event over great magnitude distance, as viewed from an observer at
classic scale.
TC explains accelerated expansion to be an illusion, as decreasing time intervals appear equivalent to acceleration. See figure 3.
Time Divergence (TD) proposes that an observer will view a nanoscopic particle with an expanded range of time, from past to present, in his single moment, like a
time-lapse. For example, an electron orbital, viewed in a single moment represents a time interval from −∆t (past) to +∆t future. Unlike superposition, modulus states do
progress in time between ground and excited.
In section 5, I provide a potential mesoscopic proof, with two observations, separated in time, representing the exact same event.
TD explains the orbital gaps as simply the portions of rotation that are outside of this time range.
TD predicts that wave collapse occurs when the introduction of an intermediate apparatus (such as a detector), brings the observation (from source to effect) to
essentially the same scale.
TD offers an alternate explanation to the ”undetermined probability wavefunction Ψ”.
Explanations, resolutions and insights gained:
In macroscales: Accelerated expansion, Galaxy rotation and centripetal force, Superluminal recession of galaxies.
I nanoscales: The cloud appearance of electron orbits, The gaps between electron orbits, The shapes of orbitals, Collapse and duality, Why orbital density appears closest
to nucleus, TD suggests that information about energy states and position can be gained from comparing observations at two separate points in time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1596] **viXra:1704.0105 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-30 10:08:47*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 19 Pages. The new physical theory Special Theory of Ether - with any transverse contraction

In the article, the whole class of time and position transformations was derived. These transformations were derived based on the analysis of the Michelson-Morley experiment and its improved version, that is the Kennedy-Thorndike experiment.
It is possible to derive a different kinematics of bodies based on each of these transformations. In this way, we demonstrated that the Special Theory of Relativity is not the only theory explaining the results of experiments with light.
There is the whole continuum of the theories of kinematics of bodies which correctly explain the Michelson-Morley experiment and other experiments in which the velocity of light is measured.
Based on the derived transformations, we derive the general formula for the velocity of light in vacuum measured in any inertial reference system. We explain why the Michelson-Morley and Kennedy-Thorndike experiments could not detect the ether.
We present and discuss three examples of specific transformations. Finally, we explain the phenomenon of anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation by means of the presented theory.
The theory derived in this work is called the Special Theory of Ether - with any transverse contraction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1595] **viXra:1704.0104 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-30 10:13:30*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 19 Pages. In Polish. The new physical theory Special Theory of Ether - with any transverse contraction

W artykule wyprowadzona została cała klasa transformacji czasu i położenia. Transformacje te zostały wyprowadzone na podstawie analizy eksperymentu Michelsona-Morleya oraz jego udoskonalonej wersji czyli eksperymentu Kennedyego-Thorndikea.
Na podstawie każdej z tych transformacji można wyprowadzić inną kinematykę ciał. W ten sposób wykazaliśmy, że Szczególna Teoria Względności nie jest jedyną teorią wyjaśniającą wyniki eksperymentów ze światłem.
Istnieje całe kontinuum teorii kinematyki ciał, które prawidłowo wyjaśniają eksperyment Michelsona-Morleya oraz inne eksperymenty, w których mierzona jest prędkość światła.
Na podstawie wyprowadzonych transformacji wyprowadzamy ogólny wzór na prędkość światła w próżni mierzoną w dowolnym inercjalnym układzie odniesienia. Wyjaśniamy dlaczego eksperymenty Michelsona-Morleya oraz Kennedyego-Thorndikea nie mogły wykryć eteru.
Przedstawiamy i dyskutujemy trzy przykłady konkretnych transformacji. Na koniec wyjaśniamy zjawisko anizotropii mikrofalowego promieniowania tła przy pomocy przedstawionej teorii.
Wyprowadzoną w tej pracy teorię nazwaliśmy Szczególną Teorią Eteru - z dowolnym skróceniem poprzecznym.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1594] **viXra:1704.0062 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-09 07:27:31*

**Authors:** Chuck Bennett

**Comments:** 1 Page.

An alternate explanation to Michelson and Morley’s null result is presented. The dilemma is resolved by the approach that the medium is not separate from matter, rather, it is comprised of a field of quantum particles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1593] **viXra:1704.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-19 21:10:18*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

This paper uncovers the reason why gravity obeys an inverse square law and not, for example, an inverse cubic law, or any other law with any other power. A relativistic approach, along with the scale law and the Plank force, are the tools I used to derive the Newton's law of universal gravitation. I also show that the approach presented here is, qualitatively, in agreement with Einstein's general relativity field equations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1592] **viXra:1704.0041 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-05 06:03:48*

**Authors:** S.M.Hosseini, M.I.Kendrick

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Abstract
In this paper a new approach to the Hubble constant has produced two values
One for the expansion of galaxies in the universe at H0m=38.565KmS-1Mpc-1 giving the age of the universe T0m=25.3425x109 Years and the other the expansion of the space or the opening of the space (inflation, creation of more space or expansion of radiation) at H0R=77.13KmS-1Mpc-1 giving apparent age of the universe at about T0R=12.67125x109 Years exactly half the real age of the universe. Hence showing that the both teams of Gérard de Vaucouleurs, later by Sidney van den Bergh claiming a high value for the Hubble constant and the team of Allan Sandage, later by prof Gustav Tammann claiming a low value of the Hubble constant are both correct and there approach had been different, one team looking at the expansion (inflation) of space and the other team looking at the expansion of the galaxies.
Furthermore the value of Ω≈1 has been resulted from this new approach, which indicates the value of omega is universally equal to 1 and fluctuates locally in all parts of the universe to allow the formation of galaxies and cluster of galaxies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1591] **viXra:1704.0040 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-09 07:22:25*

**Authors:** Chuck Bennett

**Comments:** 1 Page.

An elemental particle is proposed to facilitate the increase in mass under relativistic conditions. The conservation of energy is invoked to justify the conservation of mass and thus the new particle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology