Relativity and Cosmology

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[3395] viXra:1906.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-14 23:51:52

Isotropy Of Light In Reference Frame

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The speed of light is identical in all directions in the rest frame of the light source. In a different inertial reference frame, the direction of light may change due to the motion of the light source. The speed of light in the longitudinal direction of the motion of the light source is compared to the speed of light in the transverse direction. The result shows that these two speeds are equal only if the speed of the light source is greater than the speed of light.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3394] viXra:1906.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-13 06:31:04

The Fine Structure of the Cosmos

Authors: José Alberto Pardi
Comments: 14 Pages.

The last century has left us four unresolved facts about a possible "fine structure" of the Cosmos that, according to some theories already existing at that time, it seems that could shed light on some of the great current frustrations of physics, such as, for example, the unification of Quantum Mechanics with the General Theory of Relativity. These facts have the characteristics of true mysteries because, although their existence has been verified independently by several researchers, they have not found a satisfactory explanation. They reveal a "fine structure" like that of the H atom, although it is more "discrete" because even though it has some of the characteristics of the quantization of the atom, it does not have all of them and is also less restrictive, more "soft". Due to these characteristics and the lack of an explanation, these facts have fallen into oblivion. One of the attempts at explanation wrongly used wave mechanics, due to the similarity with the quantization of the atomic orbitals, but the phenomenon is evidently independent of the mass, which makes the use of Quantum Field Theory more plausible. Although if the basic models of quantum gravity proposed at that time do not fit properly, a review of them shows that if a different constant is used to compute the field energy, everything square up. The computations of the Solar System orbits discretization seem to confirm it. This article is just a presentation of these mysteries and how they lead to discover a probable fine structure of the Cosmos, giving only a global view of the integration of theories that help explain it.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3393] viXra:1906.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-13 18:41:59

Calculating "Speeding to Andromeda" Easier

Authors: Tom Fuchs
Comments: 2 Pages.

I derive an equation to calculate the constant speed needed by an unpowered rocket, such that its crew ages a given time during a trip of a given distance.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3392] viXra:1906.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-12 07:58:02

A New Theoretical Framework of Absolute and Relative Motion, the Speed of Light, Electromagnetism and Gravity

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 71 Pages.

In this paper, a new theoretical framework for absolute motion and the speed of light is presented. The new theoretical framework consists of two parts: 1. Constancy of phase velocity of light 2. Apparent Source Theory. The theory of constancy of phase velocity of light is a consequence of non-existence of the ether. Thus the phase velocity of light in vacuum is always constant c, irrespective of absolute or relative motion of the light source, the observer and the mirror, for uniform or accelerated motions. The constancy of phase velocity of light leads to a new Exponential Doppler Effect of light: f ' = f eV/c and λ' = λe -V/c , which fulfills the constant phase velocity condition : f ' λ ' = f eV/cλe-V/c = f λ = c . The Exponential Doppler Effect theory can also explain the Ives-Stilwell experiment. The Michelson-Morley disproved the ether hypothesis but failed to detect absolute motion, which was decisively detected by the Silvertooth experiment, in combination with the NASA CMBR anisotropy experiment. Absolute motion is not motion relative to the ether. According to Apparent Source Theory, the effect of absolute motion is to create an apparent change in the point of light emissionrelative to an inertial observer, in the reference frame of an absolutely moving inertial observer. In the case of the Michelson-Morley experiment, an apparent change in point of light emission relative to the observer/detector will create only a small fringe shift for the same reason that an actual/physical change in the source position ( actual change in point of light emission ) will result only in a small fringe shift. This is the small fringe shift observed in the original Michelson-Morley experiment and in the Miller experiments. A profound prediction of Apparent Source Theory regarding the phenomenon of stellar aberration is that the apparent change in star position in not in the same direction as the observer's velocity, but in the opposite direction ! Thus, an observer in absolute motion needs to tilt his telescope backwards, not forward, to see star light.A formulation of Apparent Source Theory for a non-inertial observer is also presented. For a non-inertial observer/detector, the light speed experiment is analyzed based on thefollowing principle.An imaginary inertial observer is assumed who will be at the same point and moving with the same velocity as the instantaneous velocity of the real accelerating observer at the instant of light detection. In other words, the real accelerating observer and the imaginary inertial observer will detect the light at the same point in space, simultaneously, while moving with the same instantaneous velocity. This general formulation of Apparent Source Theory is applied to analyze the Sagnac effect. The Sagnac effect is shown to be an acceleration effect, not an absolute motion effect. Apparent Source Theory is also applied to static electric, magnetic and gravitational sources. A qualitative analysis of Mercury perihelion advance is presented. It is found that the conventional view that a moving charge creates magnetic field is not strictly correct. Magnetic field is created by objects that have intrinsic magnetic property, i.e., objects that have magnetic field when at absolute rest. Absolute motion is not the cause of magnetic field; it only modifies magnetic field. A current carrying coil and a permanent magnet are sources of magnetic field because they have intrinsic magnetic property. A moving charge cannot be source of magnetic field because it does not have intrinsic magnetic property.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3391] viXra:1906.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-10 11:06:38

The Mass vs Nothingness Theory10

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

as a continuum to the last paper thr mass vs nothingness9 if you go at a speed that is fast and you have someone going at a slower speed you would beat him in distance covered that fine but then you have to look at stuff happening inside the faster person when he goes faster his subatomic particles spin slower as a compensation to the slower speed the other goes by but then the slower man have to pay tribute to the faster man and so the slower man goes faster in the eye of the faster man
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3390] viXra:1906.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-09 09:52:10

Some Problems About The Black Hole

Authors: Ting-Hang Pei
Comments: 5 Pages.

We think about the contribution of the dipole moment whether it is useful or not. In this article, we will see that the contribution of the dipole moment nonzero. In addition, we also discuss the possibility of gravitational waves escaping the black hole.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3389] viXra:1906.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-09 13:31:10

E=mc2 Dimensional Descriptor Usage Error

Authors: Frank H. Makinson
Comments: 2 Pages.

E=mc2 is Einstein's mass-energy equation. It is an algebraic equation that uses letters to represent single or composite numbers. Each number type on the right side of the equal sign, mass, distance and a unit time duration are defined as System International basic units. As described, they correctly represent a dimension type. Over a centuries ago, the unit time duration dimension, the second, was improperly used to represent the time duration for the longest wavelength an electromagnetic wave can have and it would have a frequency of “one”. As a result, all current physical law equations that contain a value for electromagnetic wave frequency or the speed of light are using a non-linear scale.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3388] viXra:1906.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-09 19:38:38

The Mass vs Nothingness Theory9

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

as in the paper the mass vs nothingness8if you spin fast you will spin faster than other masses if you spin normal and you will precieve more stuff about normal spin objects and if you spin slower you will precieve less about normal spin objects hence the time dilation
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3387] viXra:1906.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-08 07:24:59

The Red Shift Effect is Caused by the Decreasing Speed of Light Due to the Curvature of Space - A Proposed Experiment

Authors: Krzysztof Sudlitz
Comments: 13 Pages.

In the following work, a hypothesis is proposed that the curvature of space modifies the basic equations of electrodynamics. This is based on the assumption that the universe is a three-dimensional sphere in four-dimensional space. The modification of the equations results in the slowing of the speed of light over very large distances. This results in the observed red-shift of distant galaxies. Finally, an experiment is proposed that would ultimately validate or refute the hypothesis. The experiment would require a direct comparison of the angles of incidence and reflection of light from very distant galaxies, and would need to be performed in outer space to avoid atmospheric blur.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3386] viXra:1906.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-08 07:29:57

Resolving the Tension Between Planck H0=66.931 and Riess et al H0=73.242

Authors: Bruce Wallman
Comments: 7 Pages.

There is an open question in cosmology about the significance of the difference between the 2016 Planck collaboration value H0=66.93±0.62 km/s/Mpc and the 2016 Riess et al value H0=73.24±1.74 km/s/Mpc. This paper shows that both the Planck collaboration and Riess et al values are valid. Tracing the cosmological redshift z from SN1a several thousand megaparsecs in the past to those that exploded closer to today describes an increase in our perception of Hv as distance to us lessens. A best fit power function of vr=73.227*Dp0.9907 for recessional velocity versus proper distance (where vr is recessional velocity and Dp is proper distance) is derived connecting these two values of H0 using 1836 SN1a in the NED database3. Taking the derivative of this formula to get Hubble slope gives the power function Hv=dvr/dDp= 72.546*Dp -0.0093. When this formula is used to describe an extrapolation of the universe from near the Milky Way galaxy to the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), it describes a change of about 7 km/s/Mpc in the Hubble value for the observable universe increasing smoothly from 66.4 for our measures at the CMB to 73.4 km/s/Mpc locally as the universe expands. Most of the increase occurs in the last 1000 Mpc as was stated in Riess, Perlmutter, and subsequent SN1a studies. This is consistent with ΛCDM cosmology4. After converting distance in megaparsecs to light-seconds, it is possible to show Hv is an acceleration that varies from 6.45 angstrom/s/lt-s when measuring the CMB to 7.13 angstrom/s/lt-s in the local universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3385] viXra:1906.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-08 11:30:26

Four Numbers Having the Digits 1 and 5 Are of Importance in MHCE8S Theory

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: The 3-digit dimensional constants 0.511, 15.5, 1.55, and 155 are 4 constants based on the 2 digits 1 and 5 and they appear in 4 places in MHCE8S theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3384] viXra:1906.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-08 12:26:20

The New Electrodynamic Processes of Distribution Electromagnetic Waves Inside of Moving Inertial System.

Authors: Valenín Ibáñez Fernández
Comments: 123 Pages.

Abstract The new special theory of relativity gives in this paper. The new theory presents the new ideas of the processes occurring inside of the inertial moving systems. The new theory opens up news laws of motion of light wave inside of moving inertial systems and developing the new leys of physical process. The potential energy of the inertial moving system depends on its velocity and the conservation law of energy of the moving system are need to achieve a consistent theory of special relativity with absolute time. All experimental practice of the wide range of moving systems shows the integrity of the findings in this work. The theoretical and experimental conclusions drawn in this work convincingly confirm the importance and authenticity of these new scientific discoveries.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3383] viXra:1906.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-07 18:15:12

The Planck Voltage and Gravitation

Authors: Dennis A. Bluver
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper, the implications of the Planck Voltage as a universally constant voltage are explored. In particular, a surprising result is demonstrated, which is that the resulting modified voltage transformation laws demand the existence of a gravitational interaction. Therefore, there is a strong suggestion that gravitation and electrostatics can naturally be unified through the existence of the Planck voltage. This is directly analogous to the way that electricity and magnetism are unified through the constancy of the speed of light. The impli- cations and also limitations of this new framework are explored, highlighting the analogy with special relativity. It is believed that the general method of unification through Planck units outlined in this paper may ultimately be very fruitful for the unification of classical fields.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3382] viXra:1906.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-08 01:22:53

Standing Wave And Doppler Effect

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The harmonic mode of standing wave requires the number of nodes to be conserved in all inertial reference frames. The half wavelength is proportional to the width of the microwave cavity. The same cavity width is observed by all stationary observers in the same inertial reference frame. All observers observe the same wavelength from the standing wave in a moving cavity. According to the Doppler effect, the observer will detect a higher frequency if the microwave cavity is approaching. The observer will detect a lower frequency if the microwave cavity is receding. With the same wavelength but different frequency, the speed of microwave in the standing wave is different for different observer.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3381] viXra:1906.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-05 08:30:08

Length Contraction and Solution Ladder Paradox.russian Language.

Authors: Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov
Comments: 4 Pages.

Сокращения размеров в Теории Относительности Пуанкаре.И решение парадокса Шеста и Сарая ,впервые за 100 лет
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3380] viXra:1906.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-04 08:00:58

Le Monde Dans Une équation :Une Réévaluation Des Rayons Cosmiques Fossiles de Lemaître

Authors: Russell Bagdoo
Comments: 29 Pages. « Le Monde dans une équation : une réévaluation des rayons cosmiques fossiles de Lemaître » is the French version of «The World in an Equation: A Reappraisal of the Lemaître’s Primeval Cosmic Rays» on viXra.org/abs/1906.0036

Prenant appui sur les phénomènes radioactifs (force faible), Georges Lemaître conçoit, dès 1927, l’univers primitif comme un « quantum super-dense unique », dont la désintégration a donné naissance à tous les composants actuels de l’univers [1, 2]. En s’aidant de la mécanique quantique, il se propose d'expliquer les origines du monde du point de vue de la théorie quantique. Il croit trouver dans les rayons cosmiques la manifestation de la fragmentation initiale. Toutefois, quel que soit la cosmologie adoptée, l’hypothèse de l’atome primitif (big bang froid) n’eut aucune équation pour la soutenir et ne fut pas retenue. Comme tous les autres cosmologistes, il se rabattit sur l’équation Friedmann-Einstein avec une constante cosmologique répulsive qui, d’après les observations de supernovae en fin du millénaire, propulse l’expansion vers l’infini. À cette équation de cosmologie relativiste nous juxtaposons notre équation de « cosmologie quantique ». Nous avons déjà proposé cette équation dans un travail antérieur [3], elle prend sa source dans la mécanique quantique et cadre avec l’hypothèse de « l’atome primitif » de Lemaître. C’est une équation dans lequel le concept de la matière-espace-temps est mathématiquement relié ; la gravitation et l’électromagnétisme sont également liés par l’espace-temps. Un mécanisme décrit comment sont corrélés la vitesse, le temps, la distance, la matière et l’énergie. Nous sommes amenés à constater que la gravité et l’électricité sont deux manifestations distinctes d’un même processus sous-jacent : l’électrogravitation. Pour la première fois, le temps cosmologique, considéré comme un objet physique réel, est intégré à une « une équation cosmologique » qui rend cohérent ce que l’on sait du temps (son origine, son écoulement…), de la matière et de l’espace. Par surcroît, l’équation indique une expansion constamment décélérée. La concentration du milieu matériel et l’importance de l’énergie décroissante du vide concourent à l’augmentation progressive de la pression positive qui devient responsable de la décélération croissante de l’expansion. Est-ce à dire que notre équation nous porte inéluctablement à l’hypothèse de l’atome primitif pour l’ensemble du cosmos ? Certainement pas, puisque notre modèle englobe autant le modèle chaud de Gamow que le modèle froid de Lemaître. L’expression « évolution dynamique » (employée au début par les spécialistes pour les modèles de big bang) convient à notre modèle étant donné qu’il y a à la fois une origine explosive et, tout au long de l’expansion, une désintégration d’une matière hyperdense. La découverte du rayonnement de fond cosmologique a confirmé le modèle de big bang chaud, que Gamow et son équipe ont réalisée. La lumière prédite l’emporta sur les rayons cosmiques (particules) primitifs suggérés par Lemaître. Néanmoins, nous pensons que Lemaître avait également raison. La théorie dite du big bang (explosion cataclysmique singulière), outre qu’elle ne répond pas à des critères élémentaires de la science, est contredite par plusieurs observations dont on se refuse à tenir compte. Par exemple, les travaux des astronomes arméniens nous ont convaincus que l’origine des particules cosmiques résulte non seulement des explosions de supernovae, mais encore de la division de radiogalaxies, non seulement de la mort de mondes, mais encore de leur naissance.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3379] viXra:1906.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-04 14:09:09

Equivalence Principle and GPS ( in Russian )

Authors: L.Rimsha, V.Rimsha
Comments: 7 Pages.

Критика статьи N.Ashby,M.Weiss "Why there is no noon-midnight red shift in GPS"
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3378] viXra:1906.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-04 16:52:18

Testing Cosmological Models Based on Compilations of Supernovae Sne ia "Union" and "Union2"

Authors: A.P. Mahtessian, G.S. Karapetian, V.H. Movsisyan, L.A. Mahtessian
Comments: 20 Pages.

In the present work, on the basis of compilations of supernovae Sne Ia Union and Union2, two cosmological models describing the Universe are considered. One of them (a model with a cosmological constant of zero) was widespread until 1998 when a study of type Ia supernovae showed that the Universe is expanding at an accelerating rate. After that, a model for the case of a flat universe, which is also discussed in this paper, received great recognition. To accept or reject any cosmological model, it is proposed to carry out a test based on the statement that the absolute magnitude of type Ia supernovae should not depend on the redshift (M_SNeIa≠ M_SNeIa (z)), i.e. these supernovae are distance indicators. It turns out that the values of the model parameters obtained according to this principle are also confirmed by the Hubble diagram. It is with these data that the best approximation of the observed data is obtained. Mathematical analysis of the Hubble diagram speaks in favor of a model with a cosmological constant of zero. This model also has one important advantage: it does not need to accept the idea of such a hypothetical substance as “Dark Energy”. Thus, it turns out that we are in open space, filled to about 30% of the critical density of matter, which participates in gravitational interaction and expands with deceleration. This value coincides with the accepted amount of visible and dark matter.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3377] viXra:1906.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-03 08:02:46

The World in an Equation: A Reappraisal of the Lemaître’s Primeval Cosmic Rays

Authors: Russell Bagdoo
Comments: 28 Pages.

Based on radioactive phenomena (weak force), Georges Lemaître conceives, as soon as 1927, the primeval universe as a "unique super-dense quantum", whose disintegration gave birth to all the current components of the universe [1, 2]. Using quantum mechanics, he proposes to explain the origins of the world from the point of view of quantum theory. He believes to find in the cosmic rays the manifestation of the initial fragmentation. However, regardless of the adopted cosmology, the hypothesis of the primeval atom (cold big bang) had no equation to support it and was not retained. Like all other cosmologists, he fell back on the Friedmann-Einstein equation with a repulsive cosmological constant which, according to supernova observations at the end of the millennium, propels expansion towards infinity. We juxtapose our equation of "quantum cosmology" to this equation of relativistic cosmology. We have already proposed this equation in an earlier paper [3], it has its source in quantum mechanics and fits Lemaître's hypothesis of the "primeval atom". It's an equation in which the concept of matter-space-time is mathematically connected; gravitation and electromagnetism are also bound by space-time. A mechanism is described showing how velocity, time, distance, matter and energy, are correlated. We are led to ascertain that gravity and electricity are two distinct manifestations of a single underlying process: electrogravitation. For the first time, the cosmological time, considered as a real physical object, is integrated in a "cosmological equation" which makes coherent what we know regarding the time (its origin, its flow…), the matter and the space. Moreover, the equation indicates a constantly decelerated expansion. The concentration of the material medium and the importance of the decreasing energy of the vacuum contribute to the progressive increase of the positive pressure which becomes responsible for the increasing deceleration of the expansion. Does this mean that our equation leads us inevitably to the hypothesis of the primeval atom for the whole cosmos? Certainly not, since our model includes both the hot Gamow model and the cold Lemaître model. The term "dynamic evolution" (used in the beginning by specialists for big bang models) is appropriate for our model since there is both an explosive origin and, throughout the expansion, a disintegration of a hyper-dense matter. The discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation has confirmed the hot big bang model that Gamow and his team have achieved. The predicted light prevailed over the primitive cosmic rays (particles) suggested by Lemaitre. Nevertheless, we think that Lemaitre was also right. The so-called big bang theory (singular cataclysmic explosion), in addition to not meeting basic criteria of science, is contradicted by several observations that are ignored. For example, the work of Armenian astronomers has convinced us that the origin of cosmic particles results not only from supernova explosions, but also from the partition of radio galaxies, not only from the death of worlds, but also from their birth.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3376] viXra:1906.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-03 09:19:48

Gravitation based on Scalar Fields and Black Holes

Authors: Mark Titleman
Comments: 8 Pages.

This paper puts forward the notion that the universe possesses a scalar field similar to that proposed by E.T. Whittaker in which waveforms travel longitudinally. It is proposed that this scalar field forms through black holes, creating both normal transverse EM radiation as well as gravity. This conception of the universe has important consequences such as increasing the speed limit of light in the universe to 1.14c within a black hole, applying parsimonious explanations of dark matter and dark energy, and accounting for theories such as MOND. These conclusions are arrived at on the basis of an original cosmology as well as mathematical representations of universal rudiments and gravity. Newton’s gravitational constant is given a range that should be used at long distances.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3375] viXra:1906.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-01 12:48:11

The Mass vs Nothingness Theory8

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

all objects time dilate just as photons redshift as in my paper photons redshift0 now when all masses start slowing down they vibrate at lower frequencies and they end up seeing stuff slower even thoug they gone at a faster speed and they end up being like at rest and so they see the speed of light constant
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3374] viXra:1905.0611 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-31 09:22:11

Travel Nearly the Speed of Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

The theory of special relativity showed that particles of light, photons, travel through a vacuum at a constant pace of 670,616,629 miles per hour-a speed that's immensely difficult to achieve and impossible to surpass in that environment. [28] Scientists believe that time is continuous, not discrete-roughly speaking, they believe that it does not progress in "chunks," but rather "flows," smoothly and continuously. [27] Physicists theorize that this time-reversal violation is the key ingredient needed to unravel the cosmic mystery of the missing antimatter. [26] The arrow of time and the accelerated expansion are two fundamental empirical facts of the universe. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19]
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3373] viXra:1905.0606 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-31 11:39:09

The Numbers 4 and 8 are Especially Important in MHCE8S Theory

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: The frequency of the numbers 4 and 8 appearing in Majoranic Holographic Cyclic E8 Symmetric theory is sufficiently high that these numbers can be taken as a useful signal of the theory in operation
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3372] viXra:1905.0604 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-31 18:28:36

Photons Redshift0

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

as the photon goes larger distances it stops spinning its space inside round and round more and so it calms down and has less frequencies and more "wavelength" and then ends up redshifting
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3371] viXra:1905.0602 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-31 22:04:34

Energy-Time Dynamics vs Space-Time Symmetry

Authors: Edwin Eugene Klingman
Comments: 30 Pages.

Special relativity is non-intuitive, leading to logical contradictions. For over a century there has been no alternative theory capable of explaining the many relativity experiments, especially time-dilation experiments. Unlike quantum mechanics, relativity is interpreted only in terms of space-time symmetry. Here we derive and discuss an alternative theory, Energy-time dynamics, that explains relativistic experiments and does not yield the logical contradictions of relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3370] viXra:1905.0596 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-30 14:34:55

Ancillary Inflation and the Theory of General Relativity

Authors: Andrew Goldfarb, Nok Zgrgl
Comments: 5 pages.

This is a review of the main work on the ancient and experimental issues in the study of the potential for inflation in the framework of the classical general relativity. The major subjects considered include the extension of general relativity to the universe in a curved spacetime, and the implications of new and innovative methods for peculiar and general theories of relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3369] viXra:1905.0595 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-30 22:19:27

The Speed of Light On The Earth And In The Gravity-Free Space

Authors: Ting-Hang Pei
Comments: 8 Pages.

The metric for describing the spacetime geometry of a charged and rotating source in general relativity is the Kerr-Newman metrics, and it is an appropriate one to discuss the motion on the Earth. It is explicit that the velocity of light we measure is dependent on the rotation and net charges of the Earth, and usually the measurements are less than it in the really free space, at infinity or the gravity-free space, as long as the net charges of the Earth are less than 1.4x10^19 C. According to this, the velocity of light in the really free space should be corrected and 0.2085 m/s slightly larger than what we identify in vacuum on Earth, 2.9979458x10^8 m/s. The calculations also show the tiny deviation on the speed of light along the longitudinal direction between two poles and the equator, and it is also the same result between the left-handed circularly light and the right-handed circularly one in the equator.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3368] viXra:1905.0549 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-28 13:08:55

The Age of the Universe Predicted by a Time-Varying G Model?

Authors: Christopher Pilot
Comments: 7 Pages.

This is a short note, based on previous work, which shows how a time varying gravitational constant may help solve the current tension in Hubble's constant, and the predicted age of the universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3367] viXra:1905.0532 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-27 09:51:44

Electron Proton Escape Velocity from Electrical Attraction Produces a Dark Matter Candidate

Authors: Michael C Dickerson
Comments: 3 Pages.

The escape velocity between two opposite electrical charges can be treated in a similar fashion as the escape velocity of two gravitational masses. For a given positive and negative charge, one can ask at what radial distance would a particle need to travel at the speed of light in order to escape the electrical attraction towards the other charged mass. In an electron-proton system this distance is found to be 5.62 x 10^-15 meters, which is several times larger than the proton radius. It is proposed that once inside this radius, where it would have to travel the speed of light to escape the electrical attraction of the proton, it can never move to that radius or beyond toward the outside world. This new bound composite particle would be stable, electrically neutral, have no chemical properties, and a mass in the range of 1.73 x 10^-26 kg. It could have also been produced in copious amounts in the early universe when it was extremely hot and dense, in which case it could be a dark matter candidate.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3366] viXra:1905.0508 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-26 20:56:26

Collision Confusion...an Alfa Surprise

Authors: Robert Bennett
Comments: 5 Pages.

Application of Newton’s laws to elastic collisions in different inertial frames produces disturbing violations of the revered laws of physics known as the conservation laws of momentum and energy. The analysis that follows will illustrate the problem – ignored by physics academia – but obvious to those with open and rational minds. We intend to repeat classical collision theory in the reference frame of the laboratory - the ECEF to NASA – the same frame in which Galileo, Newton and subsequent experimentalists derived the primitive laws of motion and established the foundations of dynamics. Then the motion solution in the relative frame of motion will be considered... wherein lies the surprise. The findings are not surprising for adherents to the ALFA model of reality, one of whose key premises is the Earth as fixed and immovable. Yes, the geocentric Earth, revealing itself humbly in the simplest of motion – the laws governing particle collisions.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3365] viXra:1905.0506 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-27 00:03:37

Twin Paradox, Explanation.

Authors: Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov
Comments: 6 Pages.

For the first time in 100 years, an explanation of the Paradox of twins with the help of Poincaré’s Theory of Relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3364] viXra:1905.0492 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 13:33:36

Equivalent Fundamental Physical Quantities and Dimensions in Special Relativity

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed Abouzeid
Comments: 3 Pages.

If we want to get the Derived quantities Lorentz transformation we must be finds the Lorentz transformations for Fundamental Physical Quantities
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3363] viXra:1905.0473 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 09:47:03

Something for You to Think About with Respect to Einstein’s Two Relativity Theories

Authors: John Raymond
Comments: 3 Pages.

I provide you with scientific clues for you to consider with respect to whether Einstein may have suffered some sort of oversight or not when he first released his Special Relativity Theory in 1905. I briefly discuss the 1887 Michelson and Morely Ether experiment and then provide you with ideas to consider as to whether some sort of Ether like field [say like a dynamic fluid condition] exists in the universe. The question that I then ask you to think about is if there is such a field is it possible that the Earth is moving through this field at a specific and measurable rate of speed? I conclude by asking you to consider what the possible ramifications are for contemporary mainstream physics if this eventually proves to be the case.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3362] viXra:1905.0472 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 10:43:01

Origin And Destiny Of The Universe

Authors: Daniele Zamori
Comments: 4 pages, possible model regarding the Big Crunch and the fate of the Universe.

In this paper there will be a theory about the destiny of the Universe, regarding a solution about the future movement of the Universe. Examinating the actual theories about the destiny of the Universe, and ,doing a reductio ad absurdum, we could formalize a solution. Unfortunately the things that we know about the Big Bang are few, and without any kind of evidence it is pretty difficult to create a plausible solution.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3361] viXra:1905.0466 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 22:25:58

Twin Paradox

Authors: Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov
Comments: 6 Pages.

The paradox of the twins. The decision with the help of the Theory of Relativity Poincare. Language is Russian.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3360] viXra:1905.0438 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 17:04:42

Błąd Lorentza I Einsteina

Authors: Dariusz Dudało
Comments: 1 Page.

Analiza eksperymentu myślowego Einsteina i pokazanie błędu w założeniach.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3359] viXra:1905.0424 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 10:35:58

The Heavy Neutrino Leads to an Accurate Critical Value for Hubble's Constant ho of 78.20 Vs. 74.03 (Km/s)/Mps for the Latest Measurement

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: Today is my 95th birthday and this is my most important 1 page note to date.

Abstract: A highly accurate critical value of Hubble's constant of 78.20 (Km/s)/Mps has been found including the 4430 MeV heavy Majorana 4th neutrino.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3358] viXra:1905.0413 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 17:02:21

What is Spacetime?

Authors: Alfonso Leon Guillen Gomez
Comments: 28 Pages.

The author discusses the theory of the time-space fluid that results from the supposed gravitational waves that would have detected LIGO, and reaffirms the spacetime as a structural geometric property of the dynamic matter, now with the strong argument that in an unnatural way, the physicists and philosophers of science confer the conception of the author to that ridiculous material spacetime, while depriving matter, of the intrinsic spacetime. In addition, he warns about the conceptual contradiction existing between NASA and Caltech over gravitational waves, being absurd the concept of Caltech, operator of LIGO, since gravitational waves would propagate in five non-detectable dimensions. NASA validly recognizes that they would be waves of space; therefore, there are no spacetime waves that correspond to gravitational waves that, according to the great current of relativistic physicists, would exist. Finally, the author reaffirms that quadrupole waves detected by LIGO are waves of quantum vacuum.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3357] viXra:1905.0408 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 02:25:53

Explanation of Theory of Relativity

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

so the main idea of relativity is that motion is relative to get a feel for that lets look at point A and point B and a car moving from one to the other now lets say that point A is moving away from point B you would need more speed to achieve the same velocity of the car originally and if point A goes nearer to point B you would need less velocity to reach with the car from point A to point B
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3356] viXra:1905.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 18:07:48

The Accelerating Universe, Dark Energy and the Alpha Variation

Authors: Tony Bermanseder
Comments: 40 Pages.

The experimental data collected by the various supernova observers, and under utility of the Hubble Space Telescope to track the brightness variations of discovered supernovae type Ia, now converged in 1998 to the conclusion, that distant supernovae are between 20% and 30% dimmer than expected and as a consequence of their measured redshift they appear to be further away than theory permits. An interpretation of this discovery implies, that the universe's expansion is accelerating; the measured redshift depicting a distance further away for a dimmer brightness than anticipated by theory. Closer analysis of the redshift data shows an expected distribution of luminosity, calibrated to their distances in the Chilean Cala-Tololo data, up to a redshift of about 0.11 and with a redshift-gap until a redshift of 0.3; after which the 'High-Z's' begin to show the 'curving away' from a predicted decelerating expansion rate in concordance with an Euclidean flat universe of Einsteinian General Relativity. The highest redshift recorded in 1998 was that of 'supernova Iae' at (z=1.1) by the 'High-Z-Team'. Why is there a redshift gap between z=0.11 and z=0.30 approximately? Does this imply a scarcity of supernovas in this redshift interval or is there a cosmological reason for this gap? Is this cosmological reason at the core of the Dark Energy implication and the 'factuality' of an accelerating universe? This treatise shall elucidate the cosmological nature of Dark Energy and the inferred accelerating cosmology of an accelerating universe, stipulated to begin some 5-6 Billion years ago and as a change from a measured deceleration from light speed in the early universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3355] viXra:1905.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 10:35:29

New Concept of Gravity

Authors: Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis
Comments: 8 pages, 6 figures

For more than a hundred years, discussion has been going on in physics: is gravity a force or a curvature of space? This article shows that gravity is both a force and a curvature of space simultaneously. The forcefield of gravity and space are synonyms. Gravity, like other potential forcefields, has allowed different energy levels.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3354] viXra:1905.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 12:56:08

The Heavy Majorana Neutrino Has Been Overlooked Leading to a Falsely Low Value of Hubble's Constant

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: Because of misidentity, the heavy Majorana neutrino has been mistaken for the tetraquark, resulting in a falsely low value of Hubble's constant.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3353] viXra:1905.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-14 19:40:27

Machine Systematics in Dayton Miller’s “Ether Drift” Interferometer Revealed by Analysis of Variance

Authors: Simon WW Manley
Comments: 16 Pages.

The copious data records from Dayton Miller’s heroic experiments have been analyzed and re-analyzed for nearly a century by authors wishing to reinstate some version of an ether theory with a preferred frame of reference. These authors claim that a small but significant signal at the period of half a rotation in the Miller data represents anisotropy in the propagation of light, the “ether drift” effect sought in Michelson and Morley’s 19th century experiment. The analysis of variance presented in this paper, however, shows a component at the period of a full rotation, which can only be a systematic in the machine or the observer. The magnitude of the systematic matches that of the component at the half-rotation period. The remarkable aspect of the story is that the implications of the full rotation systematic, which comprehensively invalidates the claim that the data reveals an “ether drift,” or any other meaningful physics, has gone virtually unnoticed for nearly 100 years.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3352] viXra:1905.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 21:33:19

Temporal Curvature, Murphy’s Law, etc

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 3 Pages.

a brief discussion why temporal curvature is not accepted by convention as an explanation for gravitation
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3351] viXra:1905.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-12 11:34:21

On Einsteins Equivalence Princple

Authors: Nikhil Karth, Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

this paper talks about the mass energy equivalence theorythis is how we derived some aspects of the equivalence its known that work is the force*distance or w=fd and that energy is work multiplied by time or E=wt now E=fdt which is equal to E=madt which is equal to E=m(d^2)/t which looks like E=m (x^2)/t which is equal to the equivalence principle E=mc^2
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3350] viXra:1905.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-12 19:12:17

The Relativity of Lost Energies

Authors: Leonardo Rubino
Comments: 14 Pages.

When a physical system loses energy instead of gaining it, another kind of relativity holds, that of lost energies and, as we will see, the atom will give us a numerical proof of all that.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3349] viXra:1905.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 04:26:12

Quanton Based Model of Space Fabric Interactions

Authors: Ayman Kassem
Comments: 178 Pages.

The mechanism of the universe’s inflation is variation of energy in space and in time , the relationship between space and time varying energy fields is governed by energy constraining inside a Planck scale entity : the quanton as energy varies in space or in time, it creates associated fields and through their interactions, inflationary momentum and the fundamental forces are generated this model comes in three parts : energy constraining , the evolution of the quanton and its different transitions are discussed until the stable state is reached the second part , electromagnetic waves in terms of space and time varying energy fields and role of Maxwell equations in the evolution of the quanton the third part , energy fields and their interactions , while using basic physics concepts , it shows that the origin many of the physical phenomena can be traced back to the Planck scale world
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3348] viXra:1905.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-11 11:07:00

The sixth Dimension

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed Abouzeid
Comments: 13 Pages.

Assume mass and electric current are Fifth and sixth dimensions in Special Relativity and Redefinition of the point as a circle. According to Einstein's first hypothesis only, it can be reached to transfer formats between reference frames in the special theory of relativity
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3347] viXra:1905.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-11 19:24:48

Why Charge is Lorentz Invariant But Relativistic Mass and a Charge-Current Density is Not?

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed Abouzeid
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Conclusion of (1)Relativistic transformation of electrical current. (2) Charge is constant from frame to frame (3) Lorentz transformation of a charge-current density
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3346] viXra:1905.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-10 12:06:17

Can a Page and Wootters’ Mechanism (Paw) Inspired Particle Model Fulfill Mach’s Principle?

Authors: eva K deli
Comments: 11 Pages.

Page and Wootters’ mechanism (PaW) predicts that quantum entanglement leaves the state of the universe static. We satisfy the principle by dividing the cosmos into compact and non-compact dimensions, by insulating the wave function from space and gravity. In this scenario, entangled sister particles satisfy conservation principles independently of distance but modify the local volume. Either pressure or vacuum generates an orthogonal transformation (interaction) to restore symmetry. Over time space contracts or expands to develop curvature. The universe degenerates into poles, two-dimensional black holes, and four-dimensional white holes, connected by a smooth topology. Dimensional anisotropy turns gravity into a bipolar force. The verifiable and elegant hypothesis supersedes general relativity by satisfying Mach’s principle; it also offers a possible path for unification with quantum mechanics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3345] viXra:1905.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-10 20:52:11

Infinite Virtual Superpositions Forming the Fundamental Particles, Radical Proposals Requiring Neither Dark Energy, Dark Matter, Nor Inflation for the Evolution of the Universe.

Authors: Julian Williams.
Comments: 127 Pages. This paper specifically addresses Milgrom's galaxy rotation laws without dark matter and no change to Newton's laws.

Dark matter and dark energy are auxilliary hypotheses added to the standard cosmology model to explain both Milgrom's galaxy rotation laws and accelerating expansion. This paper looks at a different mechanism to Einstein that explains the warping of spacetime as a direct consequence of forming fundamental particles from blue, green and red spin zero virtual preons in groups of eight. At solar system scale it obeys Einstein, at galaxy scale it obeys Milgrom, at cosmic scale it accelerates expansion. Space has to be flat on average with no need of inflation or a critical density. It does this in a manner that also fits closely with key observational phenomena.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3344] viXra:1905.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-11 00:38:42

Speed Of Light From Motion Of Light Source

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The relative motion between a pair of observers represents a reflection symmetry. In the rest frame of first observer, the second observer moves at a distance away. In the rest frame of the second observer, the first observer moves with the same speed at an identical distance away but in the opposite direction. The reflection symmetry shows that the elapsed time in each observer's rest frame is conserved in both rest frames. The light takes the same elapsed time to move between two observers in both rest frames. However, the distance traveled by the light is different in different rest frame. With identical elapsed time but different distance, the speed of light is proved to be different in different reference frame.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3343] viXra:1905.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-09 19:27:47

The Finite Speed of Gravity and Heat from the Big Bang Era can Explain Dark Energy

Authors: Michael C Dickerson, Charles Dickerson
Comments: 8 Pages. American Mathematical Society Presentation 2013

The standard cosmological model calculates the gravitational mass-energy contribution of the Cosmic Background Radiation (CBR) to the mass of the Universe from the single energy density currently observed. The model assumes a homogeneous energy distribution at zero red shift and applies the energy density across the Universe. After reviewing the Friedmann equations for a matter dominated universe and Lematre extension of the space time metric to relativistic energy, we offer an alternative mathematical calculation of the gravitational mass-energy of the CBR component. A complete propagation history of the photons comprising the CBR is used rather than only the current energy density. Because the effects of gravity travel at the speed of light (according to general relativity), and using hot big bang cosmology, we suggest that the higher energy states of the CBR photons in the past also contribute to the currently observed gravitational effects. In our alternative calculation, the CBR energy density is integrated over a range of red shifts in order to account for the gravitational effects of the radiation energy density as it was in the past. By accounting for propagation effects, the resultant gravitational mass-energy calculated for the CBR radiation component almost exactly equals the amount attributed to dark energy. The calculation suggests an extension of the standard cosmological model in which co-moving distance at higher red shift increases with red shift more slowly than it does in the standard model. When compared with Type 1A Supernova data (in an available range of red shift from z = 0.4 to z = 1.5), distance predictions from the extended model have reasonable agreement with observation. The predictions also compare closely with the standard model (up to z = 1.0). Further observations are needed for z > 1.5 to make a final comparison between the standard model and the proposed extended model.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3342] viXra:1905.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-07 18:40:00

Blackholes and Gravity .

Authors: Louiz Akram
Comments: 1 Page.

This is an article that I made , I wish to read your reactions too.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3341] viXra:1905.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-07 18:54:27

Newtonian Origin of Relativity

Authors: Leonardo Rubino
Comments: 4 Pages.

The Theory of Relativity has got a Newtonian origin.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3340] viXra:1905.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-07 05:25:54

An Experiment for Lorentz-Fitzgerald Contraction

Authors: Özgen Ersan
Comments: 4 Pages. S. Hawking had said that “Philosophers have not kept up with modern developments in science. Particularly physics.” However/in my opinion, nature scientists also miss the inferences of philosophy and cognitive evolution, At first the concept of “managin

If length contraction is real, the electrical resistance value of a conductive cable must change in accordance with its different directions because of the Earth’s universal motion. Trouton-Rankine experiment was replicated and reinterpreted by managing of precision in accordance with current methodology and cosmological knowledge. Our electrical resistance based experiment did not indicate an evidence for the length contraction; all measured values are isotropic.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3339] viXra:1905.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-05 10:25:05

Расширение Вселенной-величайшее заблуждение в истории науки

Authors: Акованцев Пётр Иванович
Comments: 11 Pages.

В статье изложена связь космологического красного смещения с температурой среды распространения излучения. На сплошной спектр видимого излучения далѐких галактик накладываются фраунгоферовы линии поглощения определѐнной частоты водородом-средой распространения. Эти линии смещаются в длинноволновую сторону, что говорит об изменении свойств водорода, как среды распространения, а не свойств самого излучения (изменении длины волны) и связаны эти изменения, прежде всего с температурой. А это, в свою очередь говорит о том, что Вселенная в своѐм эволюционном развитии нагревается.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3338] viXra:1905.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-05 19:53:34

Constants Theory

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed Abouzeid
Comments: 176 Pages.

The basic idea is to write the special relativity theory in 11 dimension Using basic physical quantities as a dimensions And the conclusion of transfers of basic physical quantities And constants that change from frame to frame With a change in the speed of light in different dimensions With proof that all quantities become constant at the speed of light Basic physical quantities
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3337] viXra:1905.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-05 20:35:22

Questioning the Conclusion of Michelson-Morley's Experiment

Authors: Simon Zhou
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Michelson-Morley experiment is a test of light, a representation of reality, there is no right and wrong in it. And people will get different conclusions under different assumptions: under the assumption that the speed of light is affected by inertia, the experimental results are completely consistent with the expectation; on the contrary, under the assumption that the speed of light is not affected by inertia, the assumptions and experimental results Inconsistent, for this reason people have made Lorentz-style accommodation, making this assumption seem more satisfactory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3336] viXra:1905.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-04 10:53:38

The Theory of Relativity and the Origin of the Cosmos

Authors: Enrico Cavallo
Comments: 2 Pages. translation of the article in english, the original one is in Italian

Big bang or long bang? What the theory of relativity says about it
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3335] viXra:1905.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-04 17:02:10

خطأ النظرية النسبية لآينشتاين وبديلها الشامل

Authors: سامي عمر محمود
Comments: 232 Pages. البحث وافق عليه العديد من المتخصيين في السودان واليمن

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم ملخص كتاب خطأ النسبية وبديلها الشامل نهدف من هذا الكتاب إلى إثبات خطأ النظرية النسبية، ومن ثم تقديم تفسير جديد لظاهرة ثبات سرعة الضوء المحيرة التي لوحظت أواخر القرن التاسع عشر، وهو تفسير سيؤدي إلى بناء فيزياء جديدة متكاملة تحل محل فيزياء النسبية. أولاً: إثبات خطأ النسبية الخاصة: كان برهان النسبية على ثبات سرعة الضوء هو قدرة تحويل لورنتز على الانتقال من معادلة كرة ضوئية منتفخة بسرعة الضوء بالنسبة لنظام إحداثيات إلى معادلة كرة منتفخة بسرعة الضوء في نظام إحداثيات آخر. وكان يبدو ألا وجود لأي إشكال من الناحية الرياضية في هذا البرهان؛ فالمعادلة الأولى معادلة كرة، والمعادلة النهائية التي وصلنا إليها بعد التعويض بالتحويل وخلط وترتيب الحدود هي معادلة كرة، ولكن يظهر الإشكال من الناحية الفيزيائية، إذ كيف يمكن لراصدين في نظامي إحداثيين أن يريا نفسيهما في مركز نفس النبضة الضوئية رغم وجود سرعة نسبية بينهما؟! ذاك هو المستحيل الذي لا يمكن أن يجيزه أي تصور علمي صحيح! فكيف أجازت الرياضيات النسبوية ذلك المستحيل؟! ثانياً: التفسير الجديد لظاهرة ثبات سرعة الضوء: يرجع سبب ثبات سرعة الضوء عند قيمة بالنسبة لسطح الأرض، وكذلك ثبات سرعة الضوء القادم إلينا من الأجرام الفلكية المختلفة من الاتجاهات المختلفة عند قيمة ، إلى وجود ذلك الوسط الذي تتطلبه الطبيعة الموجية للضوء، وهذا الوسط لابد أن يكون ملتصقاً بالأرض ومحيطاً بها ومتحركاً معها في حركتها الكونية تماماً كما يحيط المجال المغناطيسي بمغناطيس ويتحرك متنقلاً معه من مكان إلى آخر، وهذا الوسط بهذا الوصف لن ينطبق إلا على المجال الجاذبي للأجرام الفلكية، والذي ثبت أن له تأثير على أمواج الضوء يوازي تأثير أي وسط على أمواجه التي تنتشر فيه، من حيث إجباره لأمواج الضوء على أن تعبره دائماً بنفس السرعة بغض النظر عن حركة المصدر، وهذا ما أثبته الدكتور الفرنسي ساديه في تجربته التي أجراها عام 1963، ففيها انطلقت فوتونات جاما بسرعة بالنسبة لسطح الأرض غير متأثرة بسرعة المصدر المنطلقة منه والتي بلغت نصف سرعة الضوء، والذي جعلنا نستنتج أن المجال الجاذبي هو الوسط المرجح لانتشار الضوء وجود تأثير ملموس للمجال الجاذبي على أمواج الضوء، والأدلة على هذا التأثير هي تلك التي اعتُبِرت من أدلـة النسبيّـة العامّـة؛ مثل انحراف صور الأجرام الفلكية عن مواقعها الحقيقية، والزحزحـة التثاقليّة الحمراء، وظاهرة شابيرو .. إن الانحراف في أشعة الضوء القادم من النجوم عند مرورها بالقرب من قرص الشمس دليل جلي على أن الضوء تأثر بالمجال الجاذبي للشمس، لا كمجال قوة، بل كوسط انتشار، أثرت شدته المتغيرة تدريجياً على سرعته فحرفته عن مساره تماماً كما يحدث في ظاهرة السراب أو انكسار الضوء، أما تأخر إشارات الرادار في ظاهرة شابيرو فدليل أن العلاقة بين سرعة الضوء وشدة المجال الجاذبي هي علاقة عكسية؛ كلما زادت شدة المجال الجاذبي قلت سرعة الضوء فيه، وعليه فهي بالقرب من سطح الأرض، وأكبر من عند القمر، وأقل من عند الشمس . بهذا الشكل سيكون المجال الجاذبي للأجرام الفلكية مجال قوة بالنسبة للكتلة يؤثر عليها بتسارع ثابت تعتمد قيمته على شدة المجال، ووسط انتشار بالنسبة للأمواج الكهرومغناطيسية يؤثر عليها بسرعة ثابتة تعتمد قيمتها أيضاً على شدة المجال .. إن ثبات سرعة الضوء التي أسفرت عنها تجربة مايكلسون ومورلي يرجع إلى أن الضوء انتشر في وسطه المحيط بسطح الأرض والساكن بالنسبة لها، وهذا التفسير لا يتناقض مع نتيجة تجربة الدكتور الفرنسي ساديه، فالضوء فيها انتشر في وسطه الساكن بالنسبة لسطح الأرض، وثبات سرعته الدائم عند قيمة رغم حركة المصدر دليل على الطبيعة الموجية للضوء، فالأمواج وحدها من يحتفظ بسرعة ثابتة لا تتأثر بحركة المصدر .. أما ثبات سرعة الضوء القادم من الأجرام الفلكية عند قيمة فيرجع إلى أن وسط انتشاره الساكن والملاصق للأرض كان يفرض عليه دائماً تلك السرعة، سواء كان الضوء قادماً من جرم ساكن بالنسبة للأرض أو متحركاً بالنسبة لها، وهذا التفسير الأخير يفرض علينا اشتقاق صيغة مختلفة عن صيغة دوبلر لحساب مقدار الانزياح نحو الأحمر لتلك الأجرام المتباعدة، حيث ستكون أوساط انتشار الضوء (المجالات الجاذبية) متداخلة ومنسحبة من بعضها البعض،
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3334] viXra:1905.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-04 22:31:11

An Another One

Authors: Bhaskar Yadav
Comments: 42 Pages. 918288915996

it unifies classical, relativistic as well as quantum physics
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3333] viXra:1905.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-04 22:34:57

An Another One (Abstract Paper)

Authors: Bhaskar Yadav
Comments: 7 Pages. 918288915996

contains some of the simple explanations of the of the concepts of the paper(an another one)
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3332] viXra:1905.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-03 17:53:30

النسبية العامة و الكم

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed Abouzeid
Comments: 14 Pages.

فكرة لتوحيد النسبية العامة وميكانيكا الكم
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3331] viXra:1905.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-04 02:26:01

Multiverse Shrinkage

Authors: Dan Ivan
Comments: 2 Pages.

Physics is based on images created by us through observation and transmitted for mathematical or experimental confirmations. In modern physics and cosmology, what could not be noticed, being below or above the limit of observation of our instruments, are simple hypotheses that mathematical sciences have to confirm. Confirmation of the image is not confirmation of reality. We evaluate reality, dividing the universe into macrocosm and microcosm and establishing absolute results for distance and masse relative .The multiverse is composed of forces that are not the quantities that measure an action that produce to a object : a change in speed, direction, shape or pressure. The forces being in fact the change of speed, direction, shape, the pressure. Objects and particles, and their characteristics, such as mass, volume and density, are only images of these changes, not representing reality.The shrinkage velocity of the multiverse is C =299 792 458 m / s. Our image for multiverse shrinkage is radiation. The speed of light, c, is in fact the shrinkage speed of the multiverse, C. The fact that this velocity is the same for all observers and can not be exceeded, was the basis of the theories of modern phisics . But also the shrinkage of the C-speed multiverse lead to the mathematical and experimental results of these theories. Moreover, gravity is the effect of the accelerate motion of the shrinking three-dimensional multiverse, imagined so far as a curvature of the four-dimensional space.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3330] viXra:1905.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-02 15:04:20

Photons Red Shift

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

photons redshift because they lose energy as they cover larger volumes with thier volume their wavelength covers larger volumes of space and so thry have not less energu than other photons
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3329] viXra:1905.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-03 01:08:01

Why the Field Equation of General Relativity is Compatible with the Aether

Authors: Declan Traill
Comments: 3 Pages.

I demonstrate that the centre piece of General Relativity, the Einstein Field Equation, is completely compatible with the concept of an Aether type field, and that a simple rearrangement of the terms in that equation changes the meaning such that variable geometry space-time is removed and an energy field filling flat Euclidean space is described by the equation. Such a field will, by the very definition of the Field Equation, have the same observed (and verified) properties as that used by General Relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3328] viXra:1905.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-01 01:29:06

An Invitation to Research Einstein’s Cosmos: Comparing the Success/failure System with the Theory of Planetary Evolution

Authors: Dong-Yih Bau
Comments: 6 Pages.

Einstein is one among a select few in humanity. Einstein’s cosmos is the main subject of the modern science of the twenty-first century. Herein, we discuss Einstein’s scientific thoughts on the cosmos and principle theory. We also present a comparison of two theories of the mesocosmos: the success/failure system as part of Einstein’s principle theory, and the theory of planetary evolution based on the ideas of Feynman, Polanyi, and Weinberg. The aim of this paper is to exalt Einstein by urging the general public, scientists, and philosophers to participate in researching Einstein’s cosmos, either directly or indirectly. We believe that Einstein’s scientific teachings represent a blessing to humanity and comprise one of humanity’s highest sources of intellectual wisdom. Our work on Einstein’s scientific thoughts includes principle theory, the success/failure system, and the cosmos. These concepts deserve widespread attention, investigation, and experience, and should be the focus of scientific discovery and credit.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3327] viXra:1905.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-01 05:38:52

Vacuum Energy.

Authors: Durgadas Datta.
Comments: 8 Pages. GRAVITOETHERTON SUPERFLUID.

vacuum energy catastrophe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3326] viXra:1904.0587 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-30 14:06:07

The Factor 1.0000055 Used to Accurately Calculate the Mass of the Neutron or Proton ls Needed for Hadronization

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: Three times the factor 1.0000055 used to accurately calculate the mass of the proton or neutron in MHCE8S theory also yields 165 MeV partial energy needed for the 3-quark-gluon hadronization process
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3325] viXra:1904.0586 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-30 14:00:20

Stoe Explaination for the ``ether Wind''

Authors: John Hodge
Comments: 4 Pages.

The Michelson-Morley, the Miller, and other experiments have detected an ``ether wind'' and have stirred a long--standing controversy. The Scalar Theory Of Everything (STOE) is applied to the measurements of the Miller experiment. The STOE's plenum is comparable to the ether. The result is the divergence of the plenum caused by the Sun and Moon and the measured direction of the ``ether wind'' are at an angle of $ 91^\circ \pm 8^\circ$ with a confidence of $1 \sigma$. This suggests that these experiments are measuring the degree of tilt relative to the plenum divergence. That is, the measurements are not detecting the changing light path that results in the real Lorentz matter contraction hypothesis, but rather the measurements are detecting the changing light speed and direction caused by the divergence of the plenum. The support for the Lorentz matter contraction hypothesis as a real contraction is removed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3324] viXra:1904.0579 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-29 08:19:49

The Covariant Operator

Authors: Anamitra Palit
Comments: 2 Pages.

The writing delineates some peculiar aspects of the covariant operator. It appears that the metric coefficients have to disappear.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3323] viXra:1904.0567 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-29 22:44:56

Theory of Gravitation

Authors: Kenneth Dalton
Comments: 14 Pages.

It has now been proved that, in general relativity, gravitational energy, momentum, stress, force and power do not exist. A new theory of gravitation is required. In the new theory, gravitational dynamics is expressed in terms of a field strength tensor. This tensor arises from the scalar, three-vector structure of time and space. The theory predicts that longitudinal waves are responsible for the flux of gravitational energy. It is time to launch a dedicated search for longitudinal gravitational waves.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3322] viXra:1904.0519 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-26 09:09:39

Measuring the Complexity of Simpiicity

Authors: T H Ray
Comments: 11 Pages.

Yaneer Bar-Yam1 based his theory of multi-scale variety on the law of requisite variety 2 that underlies information science. Once we have accepted requisite variety as a theorem for complex systems science, we are compelled to ask: How deep is the structure of complexity? In complex systems science, it has to be deep enough to include gravity, because there can be no coherent system, simple or complex, without negative feedback—and gravity, even though we don’t understand it as a unitary theory, is demonstrably such a universal control (negative feedback) mechanism. We will introduce a mathematical framework by which irreducibly complex spacetime—as the only independent cosmological variable—has the potential to create and interact with matter, and mediate feedback. What is the “ ... Many which allows itself to be thought of by us as a One”, in the words of Georg Cantor, 3 such that gravity is contained in the Many that manifests in our rational judgments as a One? The question begs a set-theoretic construction, and thus we present our result in a set-theoretic context.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3321] viXra:1904.0518 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-26 09:13:21

Do the Planck Length, Time and Mass Follow the Lorentz Contraction?

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed Abouzeid
Comments: 11 Pages.

The Planck length, time and mass follow the Lorentz contraction. The speed of light is different in higher dimensions. The Gravitational Constant not Really Constant.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3320] viXra:1904.0511 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-26 17:10:47

Revised Ether Theory and Its Confirmatory Experiment—— Refractive Test of Relativity

Authors: Ji Xueshi, Ji Yuan
Comments: 6 Pages.

The planet drags the ether around it to move together, and the ether has mass. The density of the ether is distributed according to the size of gravity. The closer to a certain planet, the greater the density of the ether. The higher the density of the ether, the slower the speed of light, and the lower the density of the ether, the faster the speed of light. The higher the density of the ether, the slower the chemical reaction rate and the slower the nuclear physical reaction speed. The T-CUP camera developed by the California Institute of Technology has a shooting speed of 10 trillion frames per second. The camera is placed on an airplane and is flying at a supersonic speed. The camera is used on an airplane to measure the speed of light all directions. If the speed of light does not change, indicates that Einstein's hypothesis is correct, and the revised etheric theory is wrong. If there is an etheric wind, the speed of light that is moving forward is slow, and the speed of light that is backward is faster. Explain that the revised etheric theory is correct and the theory of relativity is wrong.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3319] viXra:1904.0500 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-25 09:03:23

Vacuum in and around horizons

Authors: Igor Hrnčić
Comments: 18 Pages.

This paper puts forward the idea that vacuum is a collection of un-localized quantum oscillators inside a horizon. The characteristics of such vacuum are studied inside the black hole and Hubble horizons. The results suggest that energy is quantized, with the minimal energy depending on the size of the horizon. This suggests that vacuum is more dense in black holes than in the surrounding universe, demanding by continuity the existence of a vacuum halo around every black hole. This vacuum halo could act exactly like dark matter if it exerted no pressure on matter, thus not interacting with matter in any way other than gravitationally. A suitable cosmological model presented here suggests that such vacuum could accelerate the universal expansion. This suggests that the vacuum studied in this paper could successfully stand instead of dark matter, cosmological vacuum and quantum vacuum of quantum theories.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3318] viXra:1904.0463 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-24 17:44:51

A New Hypothetical Solution to Gravitational Singularities

Authors: Manuel Urueña
Comments: 5 Pages.

An expected behaviour of space-time and matter within a black hole is postulated regarding a model based on the mathematical indications of other well-known and empirically confirmed theories, without invalidating such theories when applied where they correspond.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3317] viXra:1904.0452 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-23 09:15:12

The Mass vs Nothingness Theory3

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

why dont masses cover space instantly?because for every new volume of space discovered the masses need to cover the whole space again but why the limit of the speed of light and the slowing of time?because if you want to push forward you need to wait till other masses cover the forward space and there is the need to wait for other masses to cover backwards space
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3316] viXra:1904.0449 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-23 11:31:41

Complex-Dynamic Origin of Quantised Relativity and Its Manifestations at Higher Complexity Levels

Authors: Andrei P. Kirilyuk
Comments: 11 Pages. Published as section 8.3 of the book: A. P. Kirilyuk, Theory of Everything, Ultimate Reality and the End of Humanity: Extended Sustainability by the Universal Science of Complexity (LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, Beau Bassin, 2017), viXra:1802.0168

Unified and causal complex-dynamic origin of standard (special and general) relativistic and quantum effects revealed previously at the lowest levels of world interaction dynamics is explicitly generalised to all higher levels of unreduced interaction processes, thus additionally confirming the causally complete character of complex-dynamical, naturally quantised relativity, which does not contain any artificially added, abstract postulates. We demonstrate some elementary applications of this generalised quantum relativity at higher levels of complex brain and social interaction dynamics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3315] viXra:1904.0444 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-23 22:26:15

The Mass vs Nothingness Theory4

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

could we push a photon? no we cant because ots at the speed of light or c constant for speed that is why we end up time dilating when we go at the speed of light
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3314] viXra:1904.0443 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-24 02:09:56

Conservation of Wavelength In Reference Frame

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

Parity symmetry maps one object to another object as inverse image. It shows that a displacement and its inverse image are of the same length. The length of a displacement is conserved in all reference frames. The wavelength of a wave is the length of the displacement between two adjacent crests. Therefore, the wavelength is conserved in all reference frames. However, Doppler effect shows that the frequency of light is not conserved in all inertial reference frames. As a result, the speed of light is not conserved in all inertial reference frames.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3313] viXra:1904.0442 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-24 03:17:26

Explaining Fleming's Hand Rules By Relativity

Authors: Nabin Timalsina
Comments: 8 Pages. This is continuation of my previous paper " Explaining Magnetism by Relativity"

Fleming's Right Hand Rule and Left Hand Rule for Motors can be explained in very simple way as just 'Relativistic Interaction of Moving Charged particles' which cannot explained by classical electrodynamics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3312] viXra:1904.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-20 09:45:27

Explaining Magnetism By Relativity

Authors: Nabin Timalsina
Comments: 27 Pages. copyrighted © to author .

In this paper , equations of Magnetism are rediscovered by using Special Relativity and Coulomb's law with different method and various cases are studied . Magnetic field near a current carrying conductor is redefined as ratio of relativistic electric field experienced by reference frame of a moving charge near the conductor to velocity of that reference frame with respect to the conductor. Mathematically, it is found that the existing formulas of magnetism given by Biot- Savart Law are valid only for normal velocities and completely fail for higher or microscopic velocities of moving charge. 'Fleming's Right/Left Hand Rules' can easily be explained by Relativity as just interaction between charges. Unlike existing idea, a magnet or current carrying conductor can exert some force even on charges at rest. Magnetic field due to a current carrying conductor is nothing but ratio of approximate relativistic electric field to the velocity of reference frame. Lorentz force can be calculated as 'Just Electric Force' rather as 'Sum of Electric and Magnetic Force' by using Relativity. Magnetic force is just an electric force in Relativistic Electrodynamics that could not be explained by Classical Electrodynamics. The values of speed of light in vacuum and absolute permittivity are fundamental and value of permittivity is depends upon them. It is claimed that "As Maxwell's Equations are based upon existing equations of Magnetism which are only approximation for lower velocities and fail in higher velocities, they are likely to be useless now". It is suggested that, "As Magnetic Force is nothing but Electric Force in Relativistic Electrodynamics, the name of one of the four fundamental forces ; 'Electromagnetic Force' should be changed into just 'Electric Force'." It is claimed that radiations are just non-mechanical waves that can propagate at velocity of light and are not necessarily electromagnetic in nature. Moreover, the writer suggests that electromagnetic waves may not exist at all.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3311] viXra:1904.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-19 14:56:28

Change Constant of Gravity When Mass is the Fifth Dimension

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed Abouzeid
Comments: 10 Pages.

Assume mass is the fifth dimension in Special Relativity and Redefinition of the point as a circle. According to Einstein's first hypothesis only, it can be reached to transfer formats between reference frames in the special theory of relativity and transformation of gravity constant between them.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3310] viXra:1904.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-17 21:10:40

Derivation of All Linear Transformations that Meet the Results of Michelson-Morley’s Experiment and Discussion of the Relativity Basics

Authors: Szostek Roman
Comments: 27 Pages. Discussion about the basics of the Special Theory of Relativity.

The article shows that there are infinitely many kinematics in which one-way speed of light is always equal to c. The kinematics of Special Theory of Relativity (STR) is only one of those infinitely many kinematics. It presents that mathematics on which STR kinematics is based can be interpreted differently and this leads to other conclusions on the properties of this kinematics. In this article, the whole class of linear coordinate and time transformations was derived. Transformations were derived on the assumption that conclusions from Michelson-Morley’s and Kennedy-Thorndikea’s experiments are met for the observer from each inertial frame of reference, i.e. that the mean velocity of light in the vacuum flowing along the way back and forth is constant. It was also assumed that there is at least one inertial frame of reference, in which the velocity of light in a vacuum in each direction has the same value c, and the space is isotropic for observers from this distinguished inertial frame of reference (universal frame of reference). Derived transformations allow for building many different kinematics according to Michelson-Morley’s and Kennedy-Thorndikea’s experiments. The class of transformations derived in the study is a generalization of transformations derived in the paper [10], which consists in enabling non-zero values of parameter e(v). The idea of such a generalization derives from the person, who gave me this extended transformations class for analysis and publication.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3309] viXra:1904.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-17 23:26:26

Einstein’s Notational Equation of Electro-Magnetic Field Equation in Rindler Spacetime

Authors: Sangwha Yi
Comments: 4 Pages. Thank you for reading

We find Einstein’s notational equation of the electro-magnetic field equation and the electro-magnetic field in Rindler space-time. Because, electromagnetic fields of the accelerated frame include in general relativity theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3308] viXra:1904.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-16 07:31:44

Gravity Doesn’t Exist at Infinite Distances: Mathematical Equation

Authors: Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed
Comments: 2 Pages. Author's Email: yahya-sharif@hotmail.com

The article aims to provide a mathematical equation for my new discovery . Link to my new discovery : http://vixra.org/abs/1904.0013
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3307] viXra:1904.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-16 10:03:58

Discovery of the Fundamental Particle and Theory of the Universal Temporality

Authors: Marc J. Meurens
Comments: 9 Pages.

The fundamental particle is the elementary particle of which the active mass corresponds to the fundamental quantum of action and to the fundamental time unit equal to the number 1. The universal temporality is the relation between the unit, the course and the duration of the Universe expansion time. The identification of the fundamental particle in the Planck’s constant and its integration in the Newton’s constant reveal that its interaction simultaneously causes the expansion and the gravitation. The mechanical modelling of this primordial interaction with the Newton’s cradle completes the general relativity with the cosmological relativity and the quantum mechanics with the primordial mechanics. In relating the notions of mass, space and time, the discovery of the fundamental particle and its primordial interaction links the mechanics with the relativity. In relating the unit, the course and the duration of the universal time, the theory of the universal temporality demystifies the black energy as well as the black matter. The spectral time signature is the gravitation weakening hidden behind the expansion acceleration in the spectrum of the universal temporality. The Moon distancing measured since 50 years in the Lunar Laser Ranging experiment is a spectral time signature which allows calculate the Universe age with the Newton’s constant more easily and precisely than with the Hubble’s constant. Together the theory of the universal temporality and the Lunar Laser Ranging experiment unveil the time nature and demonstrates that in its unit, its course and its duration the universal time is an energy ratio between the Universe and the fundamental particle.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3306] viXra:1904.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-16 15:28:51

The Fifth Dimension

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed Abouzeid
Comments: 10 Pages.

Assume mass is the fifth dimension in Special Relativity and Redefinition of the point as a circle. According to Einstein's first hypothesis only, it can be reached to transfer formats between reference frames in the special theory of relativity and find the mass limit for any body is moves
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3305] viXra:1904.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-15 08:28:04

Discrete Time Inside Continuous Time

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Scientists believe that time is continuous, not discrete—roughly speaking, they believe that it does not progress in "chunks," but rather "flows," smoothly and continuously. [27] Physicists theorize that this time-reversal violation is the key ingredient needed to unravel the cosmic mystery of the missing antimatter. [26] The arrow of time and the accelerated expansion are two fundamental empirical facts of the universe. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19] Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18]
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3304] viXra:1904.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-15 14:58:20

Is This a Black Hole?

Authors: Mohamed Ababou
Comments: 02 Pages.

the news about capturing a black hole are spreading quickly all over the globe, but it is clear and according to physical and Mathematical evidences that it can't be a black hole.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3303] viXra:1904.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-14 11:27:30

An MHCE8S Flow Diagram Emphasizing the Existence of Two New Quarks and Older Holography

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 4 Pages.

Abstract: A forward-time, reverse-time cycle of the 4th cycle of an MHCE8S universe emphasizing 2 new neutron quarks and holography extending back to at least the 3rd cyclic universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

Replacements of recent Submissions

[2388] viXra:1906.0147 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-10 10:03:03

The Mass vs Nothingness Theory9

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

as in the paper the mass vs nothingness8 if you spin fast you will spin faster than other masses if you spin normal and you will precieve more stuff about normal spin objects and since there is not much to see about the normal spin objects the faster spin masses see the normal spin masses spin faster and if you spin slower you will precieve less about normal spin objects and so the slower spin masses would have more to see about the normal spin masses and so the slower spin masses see the normal spin masses slower hence the time dilation
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2387] viXra:1906.0139 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-10 09:23:17

The Redshift Effect is Caused by the Decreasing Speed of Light Due to the Curvature of Space – a Proposed Experiment

Authors: Krzysztof Sudlitz
Comments: 6 Pages.

In the following work, a hypothesis is proposed in which the curvature of space modifies the basic equations of electrodynamics. This is done based on the assumption that the universe is a three-dimensional sphere in four-dimensional space. The modification of the equations results in the slowing of the speed of light over very large distances, which results in the observed redshift of distant galaxies. An experiment is proposed that would ultimately validate or refute the hypothesis: the experiment would require a direct comparison of the angles of incidence and reflection of light from very distant galaxies, and would need to be performed in outer space to avoid atmospheric blur.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2386] viXra:1906.0139 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-09 11:15:21

The Redshift Effect is Caused by the Decreasing Speed of Light Due to the Curvature of Space – a Proposed Experiment

Authors: Krzysztof Sudlitz
Comments: 6 Pages.

In the following work, a hypothesis is proposed that the curvature of space modifies the basic equations of electrodynamics. This is based on the assumption that the universe is a three-dimensional sphere in four-dimensional space. The modification of the equations results in the slowing of the speed of light over very large distances, which results in the observed redshift of distant galaxies. An experiment is proposed that would ultimately validate or refute the hypothesis: the experiment would require a direct comparison of the angles of incidence and reflection of light from very distant galaxies, and would need to be performed in outer space to avoid atmospheric blur.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2385] viXra:1905.0549 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-29 08:16:03

The Age of the Universe Predicted by a Time-Varying G Model?

Authors: Christopher Pilot
Comments: 7 Pages. For some reason, the original version, was not transmitted correctly.

This is a short note, based on previous work, which shows how a time varying gravitational constant may help solve the current tension in Hubble's constant, and the predicted age of the universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2384] viXra:1905.0508 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-27 21:22:09

Collision Confusion...an Alfa Surprise

Authors: Robert Bennett
Comments: 5 Pages.

Application of Newton’s laws to elastic collisions in different inertial frames produces disturbing violations of the revered laws of physics known as the conservation laws of momentum and energy. The analysis that follows will illustrate the problem – ignored by physics academia – but obvious to those with open and rational minds. We intend to repeat classical collision theory in the reference frame of the laboratory - the ECEF as known by NASA – the same frame in which Galileo, Newton and subsequent experimentalists derived the primitive laws of motion and established the foundations of dynamics. Then the motion solution in the relative frame of motion will be considered... wherein lies the surprise. The findings are not surprising for adherents to the ALFA model of reality, one of whose key premises is the Earth as fixed and immovable. Yes, the geocentric Earth, revealing itself humbly in the simplest of motion – the laws governing particle collisions.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2383] viXra:1905.0152 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-13 23:52:05

Infinite Virtual Superpositions Forming the Fundamental Particles, Radical Proposals Requiring Neither Dark Energy, Dark Matter, Nor Inflation for the Evolution of the Universe.

Authors: Julian Williams
Comments: 127 Pages. This paper specifically addresses Milgrom's galaxy rotation laws without dark matter

Dark matter and dark energy are auxilliary hypotheses added to the standard cosmology model to explain both Milgrom's galaxy rotation laws and accelerating expansion. This paper looks at a different mechanism to Einstein's general relativity (GR) that explains the warping of spacetime as a direct consequence of the forming of fundamental particles from blue, green and red spin zero virtual preons in groups of eight. At solar system scale it obeys GR, at galaxy scale it obeys Milgrom, and at cosmic scale it accelerates expansion. Space has to be flat on average with no need of inflation or a critical density. It does this in a manner that fits closely with key observational phenomena.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2382] viXra:1905.0029 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-05 22:47:11

Why the Field Equation of General Relativity is Compatible with the Aether

Authors: Declan Traill
Comments: 3 Pages.

I demonstrate that the centre piece of General Relativity, the Einstein Field Equation, is completely compatible with the concept of an Aether type field, and that a simple rearrangement of the terms in that equation changes the meaning such that variable geometry space-time is removed and an energy field filling flat Euclidean space is described by the equation. Such a field will, by the very definition of the Field Equation, have the same observed (and verified) properties as that used by General Relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2381] viXra:1904.0579 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-14 08:40:23

The Covariant Derivative Operator and Scalars

Authors: Anamitra Palit
Comments: 8 Pages.

The writing delineates some peculiar aspects of the covariant operator. It appears that the metric coefficients have to disappear.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2380] viXra:1904.0579 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-06 23:21:57

The Covariant Derivative and Scalars

Authors: Anamitra Palit
Comments: 8 Pages.

The writing delineates some peculiar aspects of the covariant operator. It appears that the metric coefficients have to disappear
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2379] viXra:1904.0463 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-01 18:57:21

A New Hypothetical Solution to Gravitational Singularities

Authors: Manuel Urueña Palomo
Comments: 11 Pages.

An expected behaviour of space-time and matter within a black hole is postulated regarding a model based on the mathematical indications of other well-known and empirically confirmed theories, without invalidating such theories when applied where they correspond, and solving the mathematical problems such as the gravitational singularity and the information paradox.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2378] viXra:1904.0463 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-27 17:01:29

A New Hypothetical Solution to Gravitational Singularities

Authors: Manuel Urueña Palomo
Comments: 9 Pages.

An expected behaviour of space-time and matter within a black hole is postulated regarding a model based on the mathematical indications of other well-known and empirically confirmed theories, without invalidating such theories when applied where they correspond, and solving the mathematical problems such as the gravitational singularity and the information paradox.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2377] viXra:1904.0463 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-17 05:12:33

A New Hypothetical Solution to Gravitational Singularities

Authors: Manuel Urueña Palomo
Comments: 7 Pages.

An expected behaviour of space-time and matter within a black hole is postulated regarding a model based on the mathematical indications of other well-known and empirically confirmed theories, without invalidating such theories when applied where they correspond, and solving the mathematical problems such as the gravitational singularity and the information paradox.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2376] viXra:1904.0400 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-24 07:40:05

Explaining Magnetism by Relativity

Authors: Nabin Timalsina
Comments: 27 Pages. copyright to writer .

In this paper , equations of Magnetism are rediscovered by using Special Relativity and Coulomb's law with different method and various cases are studied . Magnetic field near a current carrying conductor is redefined as ratio of relativistic electric field experienced by reference frame of a moving charge near the conductor to velocity of that reference frame with respect to the conductor. Mathematically, it is found that the existing formulas of magnetism given by Biot- Savart Law are valid only for normal velocities and completely fail for higher or microscopic velocities of moving charge. 'Fleming's Right/Left Hand Rules' can easily be explained by Relativity as just interaction between charges. Unlike existing idea, a magnet or current carrying conductor can exert some force even on charges at rest. Magnetic field due to a current carrying conductor is nothing but ratio of approximate relativistic electric field to the velocity of reference frame. Lorentz force can be calculated as 'Just Electric Force' rather as 'Sum of Electric and Magnetic Force' by using Relativity. Magnetic force is just an electric force in Relativistic Electrodynamics that could not be explained by Classical Electrodynamics. The values of speed of light in vacuum and permittivity of free space are fundamental and permeability depends upon them given by formula µ = 1/εc^2. It is claimed that "As Maxwell's Equations are based upon existing equations of Magnetism which are only approximation for lower velocities and fail in higher velocities, they are likely to be useless now". It is suggested that, "As Magnetic Force is nothing but Electric Force in Relativistic Electrodynamics, the name of one of the four fundamental forces ; 'Electromagnetic Force' should be changed into just 'Electric Force'." It is claimed that radiations are just non-mechanical waves that can propagate at velocity of light and are not necessarily electromagnetic in nature. Moreover, the writer suggests that electromagnetic waves may not exist at all.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology