**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(19) - 0703(4) - 0704(2) - 0706(1) - 0708(1) - 0709(1) - 0711(1) - 0712(2)

2008 - 0801(3) - 0802(1) - 0804(1) - 0805(1) - 0807(5) - 0810(2)

2009 - 0901(1) - 0902(3) - 0903(3) - 0907(7) - 0908(17) - 0909(28) - 0910(19) - 0911(13) - 0912(10)

2010 - 1001(3) - 1002(26) - 1003(26) - 1004(9) - 1005(10) - 1006(11) - 1007(9) - 1008(19) - 1009(9) - 1010(17) - 1011(23) - 1012(7)

2011 - 1101(36) - 1102(14) - 1103(35) - 1104(10) - 1105(4) - 1106(12) - 1107(15) - 1108(5) - 1109(11) - 1110(19) - 1111(23) - 1112(15)

2012 - 1201(37) - 1202(22) - 1203(18) - 1204(22) - 1205(21) - 1206(14) - 1207(16) - 1208(30) - 1209(17) - 1210(19) - 1211(17) - 1212(30)

2013 - 1301(33) - 1302(22) - 1303(42) - 1304(28) - 1305(24) - 1306(28) - 1307(21) - 1308(27) - 1309(21) - 1310(28) - 1311(21) - 1312(44)

2014 - 1401(35) - 1402(27) - 1403(32) - 1404(31) - 1405(38) - 1406(33) - 1407(45) - 1408(33) - 1409(25) - 1410(40) - 1411(30) - 1412(30)

2015 - 1501(39) - 1502(27) - 1503(24) - 1504(27) - 1505(32) - 1506(32) - 1507(24) - 1508(32) - 1509(39) - 1510(40) - 1511(51) - 1512(46)

2016 - 1601(33) - 1602(46) - 1603(39) - 1604(33) - 1605(30) - 1606(44) - 1607(21) - 1608(38) - 1609(45) - 1610(31) - 1611(46) - 1612(32)

2017 - 1701(28) - 1702(27) - 1703(43) - 1704(48) - 1705(31) - 1706(31) - 1707(28) - 1708(30) - 1709(43) - 1710(33) - 1711(41) - 1712(52)

2018 - 1801(18)

Any replacements are listed further down

[2746] **viXra:1801.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-15 06:26:44*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The explanation of Michelson-Morley experiment is based on both actual and apparent reduction (equal) of light speed. The actual reduction of light speed happens only when the light is transmitted on moving material systems, on which the cohesive pressure of the proximal space is reduced. The apparent reduction of
light speed happens due to the aberration of light, which can be used as a detection criterion of the absolute motion. Lorentz factor of special relativity is the tool for the mathematical expression of the problem that had arisen from the Michelson-Morley
experiment. Of course, the time dilation was an ingenious and pioneering idea, which
has been accepted, ignoring, though, the real cause of the slowing of the moving clock,
i.e. the phenomenon of motion. However, this same reduction factor appears as
well in the unified theory of dynamic space with the Galilean transformations, by
calculating the actual reduction of the light speed on moving material systems, not
based on the second postulate of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2745] **viXra:1801.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-15 12:13:07*

**Authors:** Lex Neale

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Integral Relativity, as an extension of General Relativity, Special Relativity and Advanced Relativity, has four proposed Tenets: (1) The Equation of Energy with Awareness; (2) The Conservation of Awareness; (3) The Continuum of Energy, Consciousness, Mind and Matter via the Kosmic Constant; (4) The Integral Relativity between Observers and the Observed in Hilbert Spaces as specified Frequency Domains. It is corroborated by the Observer Effect in all the related double slit and interferometer experiments, most notably those of Dean Radin’s Sigma 5.7 rated results (2016); by the Unified Spacememory Network, modeled by Nassim Haramein and William Brown (2016); by Elizabeth Rauscher’s Complex Eight Dimensional Model of Minkowsky Space; and is modeled by an extension of Ken Wilber’s All Quadrants, All Levels (AQAL) Integral model called the “AQAL Cube” (Neale, 2011), which correlates non- physical existence with physical existence.
Integral Relativity predicts that the Observer and observed are a mutually inclusive Consciousness/Mind/Energy/Matter continuum. We propose that the terms Consciousness and Mind be no longer used synonymously in the scientific community, but differentiated as an integral Awareness/Energy continuum between Hilbert Spaces, where Consciousness is non-local or Subtle awareness, and Mind is its correlated local or Concrete awareness and means of en-action.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2744] **viXra:1801.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-14 17:26:03*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 16 Pages. The new physical theory called the Special Theory of Ether (in Russian).

Широко распространено мнение, что эксперименты Майкельсона-Морли с 1887 года и эксперимент Кеннеди-Торндайка с 1932 года показали, что нет универсальной системы отсчета (эфир) и что скорость света в вакууме абсолютно постоянна. Анализ этих экспериментов привел к созданию Специальной Теории Относительности (СТО).
В статье объясняется, почему с помощью экспериментов Майкельсона-Морли и Кеннеди-Торндайка не могла быть обнаружена универсальная система отсчета.
Кроме того, в этой статье мы выводим на основе геометрического анализа экспериментов Майкельсона-Морли и Кеннеди-Торндайка другое преобразование координат и времени, чем преобразование Лоренца. Мы выводим преобразование, предполагая, что существует универсальная система отсчета (universal frame of reference - UFR, эфир). UFR является системой отсчета, которая отличается тем, что скорость света в ней постоянна в любом направлении. В инерциальных системах отсчета, движущихся относительно UFR, скорость света может быть разной.
В статье мы получаем формулу для относительной скорости и формулы для максимальной и минимальной скорости света, которая может быть измерена в инерциальной системе. В конце, используя представленную теорию, объясняется явление анизотропии микроволнового фонового излучения. Согласно модели кинематики тел, представленной в этой статье, аберрация микроволнового фонового излучения для наблюдателя, движущегося относительно UFR, обусловлена эффектом Доплера.
Вся статья содержит только оригинальные исследования авторов публикации.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2743] **viXra:1801.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-14 17:34:44*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 24 Pages. There are many dynamics in STR, and not one, it is believed. (in Russian)

В статье представлен наш новаторский метод вывода многочисленных динамик в Специальной Теории Относительности. Этот метод позволяет выводить бесконечно много динамик в релятивистской механике. Мы показали пять примеров таких выводов. Таким образом, мы доказали, что динамика, известная сегодня как динамика Специальной Теории Относительности, является только одной из бесконечно многих возможных. Также нет никаких оснований, ни по экспериментальным, ни по теоретическим причинам, чтобы считать эту, действующую релятивистскую динамику, исключительной. В связи с этим решение, какая из возможных динамик релятивистской механики является правильной, остаётся открытой проблемой физики.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2742] **viXra:1801.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-13 04:48:12*

**Authors:** Karan R.Takkhi

**Comments:** 3 pages, 1 figure

Dark energy, a mysterious and unknown form of energy is rightfully considered as the reason for causing the accelerated expansion of the Universe. Universe expanding at an accelerated rate instead of slowing down or even coming to a stop seems extremely uncanny. In this paper I present a theory/model as an alternative to dark energy in order to explain the mysterious accelerated expansion of the Universe. According to this theory/model, the large-scale structures are receding away from each other at an accelerated rate instead of space undergoing accelerated expansion. The reason why a cosmic structure recedes into the cosmic wilderness has also been unravelled in this paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2741] **viXra:1801.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-11 22:19:15*

**Authors:** Robert Bennett

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Abstract
Newton’s Bucket has been an enigma since being published in the Principia in 1687.
It was the source of debate between Newton’s absolute space and Ernst Mach’s concept of relative rotation with respect to distant objects.
Wikipedia’s rendition of the Bucket argument provides no solution but just confusion by ignoring some basic facts which will be pointed out in the detailed edits below.
•Relativity is assumed true instead of being proven true
•Kinematics and dynamics are not distinguished
•Arguing against discarded theories is pointless
•Switching reference frames during observations is fatal
•Missing the crucial role of the lab frame
•Fictitious forces are symbols of fictitious physics.
The key is to recognize that:
water at rest in the bucket frame => no rotation => no centrifugal force => no covariance => laws of dynamics are invalid in a non-lab frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2740] **viXra:1801.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-10 13:03:11*

**Authors:** Jorge Martinez Fernandez

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The purpose of this article is to present a new
cosmological model, based on the union of the Wilhelm
De Sitter Model applying the equations of the Russian
physicist Anatoli Logunov in the Relativistic Theory of
Gravitation (TRG).
The general ideas of the Relativistic Theory of Gravitation
(GRT) are based on the ideas of Poincaré, Minkowski,
Einstein and Hilbert, all within the framework of Special
Relativity (SR).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2739] **viXra:1801.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-10 01:09:16*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 221 Pages. This book is distributed freely. Published by the Second Coming Institute, www.sci4God.com

This book is a compilation of some rather old papers and some new papers, by myself and also Prof. Florentin Smarandache. In some papers, we also join working with other colleagues, e.g. Dr. Volodymyr Krasnoholovets from IOP Ukraine, and Dr. Yunita Umniyati.
This compilation is inspired from a series of prophetic seminars by Rev. Jan Friso from Kingdom Impact , and also a discussion with Minister Dr. Robby Chandra.
All in all, we are also grateful to a number of colleagues, including Prof. Thee Houw Liong, Prof. Liek Wilardjo, Prof. Atmonobudi Soebagyo, Dr. David Widihandojo, Sujarwo Silas & Linda, Dr. Wonsuk Ma, Minister Gatut Budiyono, Minister Gani Wiyono, Dr. Yonky Karman, Dr. Joas Adiprasetya, Dr. Paskalis Edwin Nyoman Paska, Minister Yulia Oeniyati, Prof. Akira Kanda, Dr. Carmen Wrede, Mrs. Hiroko Morioka, Prof. Jose Carlos Tiago Oliveira and Prof. Gusto Gadama, and many others, who often encouraged and reminded us to keep on being faithful Christians in this darkness time.
As a last note, we also thank to Holy Spirit who always guide us in our way, especially whenever we were lost of our path to find the truth. That is why this book with title: Let The Wind blows is dedicated to Holy Spirit. Let us pray that the Holy Spirit will be poured once again in our time, as prophesied by Joel.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2738] **viXra:1801.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-10 02:32:19*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A moving object in one inertial reference frame always moves at a different speed in another
inertial reference frame. To determine this different speed, a temporary acceleration
is applied to a duplicate of the first inertial reference frame in order to match
the second inertial reference frame. The velocity transformation between two inertial
reference frames is precisely derived based on the applied acceleration. The result shows that
velocity transformation depends solely on the relative motion between inertial
reference frames. Velocity transformation is independent of the speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2737] **viXra:1801.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-07 12:04:26*

**Authors:** Sergio Garcia Chimeno

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Comments welcome

Demonstration how to obtain the Einstein Field Equations without using the Stress-Energy Tensor, without using the Bianchi Identities and without using the Energy Conservation to obtain it.
Demonstration how to obtain the Einstein Field Equations only using the Gauss Curvature and the zoom universe model characteristics.
Gravity in zoom universe model.
Sphere and Hypersphere example to understand it better.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2736] **viXra:1801.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-07 07:32:30*

**Authors:** Peter C Morris

**Comments:** Pages.

Prof. Reg Cahill has reported that Random Event Generator (REG) devices can detect passage of dynamical 3-space waves. Herein we describe additional evidence for this discovery obtained by applying correlation analysis to a year of data from a REG located in Perth, Australia and from another in Muenster, Germany, recorded between July 1, 2012 and June 30, 2013.
The results obtained are consistent with results that we obtained earlier by applying the same analysis to data obtained from a REG located in Manchester UK and the REG in Perth. Consequently evidence for dynamical space is mounting.
For each day we applied correlation analysis to determine travel times for putative waves. Then wave speed and direction, over each 24 hour period, were determined by fitting to the observed travel times, theoretical curves of how travel times would vary with Earth rotation. We thereby derived an average incoming RA, declination and speed for the waves of each day.
A probability density plot of the incoming directions exhibited a peak near RA = 4.5 h, consistent with previous determinations of incoming 3-space flow direction by Cahill and Dayton Miller. Moreover, removing Earth orbital and gravitational inflow velocities from the observed velocities allowed a peak of higher density to be obtained, which is consistent with predictions of Dynamical 3-Space theory. The peak indicated a most probable average galactic flow direction of RA = 4.49 h, dec = -80.4 deg, and wave speed of 508 km/s.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2735] **viXra:1801.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-04 20:47:43*

**Authors:** Hanna Edwards

**Comments:** Pages. Formal publication (Results in Physics, 2017): https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rinp.2017.09.053 ; Audio-slides: https://youtu.be/mFgYrEj28Es

The present manuscript aims to clarify why motion causes matter to age slower in a comparable sense, and how this relates to relativistic effects caused by motion. A fresh analysis of motion, build on first axiom, delivers proof with its result, from which significant new understanding and computational power is gained.
A review of experimental results demonstrates, that unaccelerated motion causes matter to age slower in a comparable, observer independent sense. Whilst focusing on this absolute effect, the present manuscript clarifies its context to relativistic effects, detailing their relationship and incorporating both into one consistent picture. The presented theoretical results make new predictions and are testable through suggested experiment of a novel nature. The manuscript finally arrives at an experimental tool and methodology, which as far as motion in ungravitated space is concerned or gravity appreciated, enables us to find the absolute observer independent picture of reality, which is reflected in the comparable display of atomic clocks.
The discussion of the theoretical results, derives a physical causal understanding of gravity, a mathematical formulation of which, will be presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2734] **viXra:1801.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-05 04:47:03*

**Authors:** Xavier Terri Castañé

**Comments:** 87 Pages.

About Time and Relativity

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2733] **viXra:1801.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-04 06:03:34*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

This conscious theory of everything (TOE) also called Quantum FFF Theory, (FFF = Function Follows Form) is a semi classical theory.
Quantum FFF Theory is a semi classical theory because it describes reality by the real collision and shape transformation processes of real sub quantum rigid stringy fully entangled particles.
Each particle is supposed to be entangled with 8 or 12 CP symmetric particles located inside 8 or 12 universal bubbles at long distance.
Those particles are supposed to be based on only one original transformable ring shaped massless virgin particle called the Axion/Higgs particle assumed to be the product of the symmetric cyclic big bang nucleus as the creation of a limited symmetrical multiverse equipped with an even number of material and anti material universal bubbles.
The Q-FFF theory is called Semi classical because in addition to the ring shaped transformable rigid string particles, all universal bubbles are assumed to be each others Charge Parity (CP) mirror symmetric universal bubbles which are assumed to be instant entangled down to each individual string particle created out of the Axion Higgs splitting cold Big Bang.
The sheer simplicity of such a system is perhaps the reason that I could not find comparable proposals for theories of everything.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2732] **viXra:1801.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-02 12:24:50*

**Authors:** Walter Orlov

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The Lorentz transformations rotate the vectors of the electric and magnetic fields referring
to the current position of the source. But there is no physical basis for this.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2731] **viXra:1801.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-01 18:49:13*

**Authors:** Azzam Almosallami

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper, I’ll propose an exact solution for the Pioneer anomaly and the flyby
anomaly. My solution interprets inertia from an asymmetric Casimir effect, and it
interprets why inertial is related to Unruh effect and a Hubble-scale Casimir effect. My
solution of the Pioneer anomaly and the flyby anomaly is depending on my new
transformation and my equivalence principle. According to my transformation, the
reality is observer dependent as a result of translating the retardation according to the
invariance by the entanglement which is leading to the wave-particle duality and the
uncertainty principle by the vacuum fluctuation. In this case by translating the
retardation according to my transformation, it is resulted the relativistic ether as
observer dependent, and thus in this case the reality in my transformation is observer
dependent. This relativistic ether is not classical, but it is depending on the energy of
the vacuum by translating the retardation according to my transformation. My
transformation expresses about field by the vacuum fluctuation, and that explains also
why field is observer dependent, and that explains also why Unruh effect is observer
dependent.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2730] **viXra:1801.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-02 00:38:54*

**Authors:** Dan Ivan

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Distances are the result of sensory perception. Physics is based on images created by us through observation and transmitted for mathematical or experimental confirmations. In modern physics and cosmology, what could not be noticed, being below or above the limit of observation of our instruments, are simple hypotheses that mathematical sciences have to confirm. We evaluate the cosmic space in terms of objects, bodies and particles, dividing the universe into the macrocosm and microcosm and establishing absolute results for relative distances, which is illogical.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2729] **viXra:1801.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-01 09:04:53*

**Authors:** Philip J. Carter

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

With scant regard for conventional paradigms we look squarely at the evidence and derive a space-time framework accounting for quantum non-locality and retro-causality. On this basis we gather insight into the origins of time, space and mass. We derive the mass-transformation formula according to Special Relativity and provide a context for the internal symmetries of the Standard Model. To provide a philosophical context we derive the central structure of the esoteric cosmological model from first principles while demonstrating its consistency with the framework. As a result of this unification, consciousness enters physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2728] **viXra:1801.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-01 11:37:54*

**Authors:** A.Hughmann

**Comments:** 4 Pages

Abstract We previously demonstrated that it is possible to describe the Gravitational Constant in terms of a simple mathematical function and in this paper we examine the first order consequences of that fact. We demonstrate that we can successfully model gravitational acceleration, escape velocity and the Schwarzchild radius without employing the Gravitational Constant or indeed any requirement for an external force. We conclude that Gravity is entirely an effect of the presence of mass, and that the applicable quantity of Gravity is directly proportional to both the quantity and density of local mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2727] **viXra:1712.0673 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-30 13:15:48*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Shevchenko, Vladimir V. Tokarevsky

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this paper the “conventions problem” in physics is considered, first of all in application to mechanics .
Key words: Space, Time, mechanics, Lorentz transformations, relativity theories, conventions

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2726] **viXra:1712.0665 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-29 14:17:56*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract: The forward-time, reverse-time energy cycle of the 9th cycle of an HCE8S universe for a full loop of the cycle is shown

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2725] **viXra:1712.0651 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-28 20:50:03*

**Authors:** Emil Gigov

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The well-known Lorentz transformations are controversial and misunderstood.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2724] **viXra:1712.0646 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-28 23:39:00*

**Authors:** Robert Bennett

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

ALFA theory has been tested successfully against many classic motion problems in physics—from Newton’s Bucket to Ruyong Wang’s FOC. Here we pick up the story by applying ALFA to the train gedanken experiment and then the light clock device of rel-ativity, with the same results as before. A practical implementation of the light clock is suggested to validate claims made herein. The analysis again supports a mobile aether that can be dragged along by ambient matter motion and a laboratory frame anywhere on the ground that can—and must—serve as an absolute frame, if the physics laws of motion are to be covariant. It’s strange that the effect of a wind vector on sound speed is well known to be ; yet the same effects—like Doppler shifts and time de-lays—are seen when …and ignored or rejected.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2723] **viXra:1712.0638 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-27 15:12:41*

**Authors:** Sergio Garcia Chimeno

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Comments welcome

Demonstration how to do the light velocity c it to be the same independently of the velocity of observer and obtain the mass-energy equivalence E=mc^2 using the Galilean transformations and the 4 dimensions zoom-universe model characteristics.
Demonstration how to interpret it the time dilation/length contraction typical of the special relativity using the Galilean transformations and the 4 dimensions zoom-universe model characteristics.
Demonstration how to obtain the typical waves equation with transmission velocity c and how to obtain it through the medium for transmission of light given by the zoom-universe model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2722] **viXra:1712.0635 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-27 20:32:40*

**Authors:** Fredrick W. Cotton

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The proposed modifications of the Einstein-Maxwell equations include: (1) the addition of a scalar term to the electromagnetic side of the equation rather than to the gravitational side, (2) the introduction of a 4-dimensional, nonlinear electromagnetic constitutive tensor and (3) the addition of curvature terms arising from the non-metric components of a general symmetric connection. The scalar term is defined by the condition that a spherically symmetric particle be force-free and mathematically well-behaved everywhere. The constitutive tensor introduces two auxiliary fields which describe the particle structure. The additional curvature terms couple both to particle solutions and to electromagnetic and gravitational wave solutions. This paper corrects and expands earlier work.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2721] **viXra:1712.0625 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-27 05:46:57*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Given the magical statements in physics about the speed of light in vacuum it seems to be difficult to form an image of the propagation of light in vacuum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2720] **viXra:1712.0607 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-26 06:50:25*

**Authors:** Albert Zur Ph.D

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The Displacement Theory proposes new concepts relating to space, particles and time. This first article details the fundaments, the vocabulary and the context for this new theory. At the basics are a broader definition of energy and momentum yielding a universal description of space and particles in terms of similar building blocks. The description of space yields derivation of Hubble law, associating the recession velocity of galaxies with space expansion. It provides new insight to the essence of dark-energy and predicts that the cosmological constant Ʌ in Einstein field equations is associated with dark-momentum rather than dark-energy. The description of particles yields a new domain of displacement-space conjugate to a domain of 4D position-space. In 4D position-space all particles universally perform the same amount of total displacement yielding the constancy of the speed of light. This represents a new form of relativity which is inherently compatible with Quantum theories. It also provides new insight into the notion of time, and suggests that 3D space+time is actually 3 dimensions of position-space and a fourth dimension of displacement-space, which is a Fourier conjugate of the fourth dimension of position-space.
This is the first in a series of articles introducing the Displacement Theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2719] **viXra:1712.0604 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-26 06:57:48*

**Authors:** Albert Zur Ph.D

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

A modified theory of Relativity, derived in a newly defined domain of displacement-space is presented. The displacement-space is a Fourier conjugate to a 4D position-space of Euclidian metric, as opposed to the Minkowski metric of spacetime. In displacement-space all particles are predicted to universally perform an equal amount of total displacement, generally composed of a longitudinal and a transverse component. This new form of Relativity provides inherent compatibility with Quantum theories, and unveils the origin of the constancy of light speed in inertial frames. This theory emerges from a general relativistic expression of energy-momentum│1│proposed to cover additional energy sources beyond particles, such as the cosmological dark-energy of "empty-space". Many predictions of Special-Relativity such as time dilation, energy-mass-momentum relation, and various 4-vector Lorentz invariants emerge as natural expressions of displacement-space, albeit from a completely different derivation principle. The spacetime 4-vector and associated length contraction, which are position-space expressions, are obviated. This is supported by the lack of definitive data published to date presenting direct evidence of length contraction. Representation of Relativity in the domain of displacement-space, as opposed to the 4 dimensional position-space domain of spacetime, yields natural non-commutation of conjugate observables such as position and momentum. Moreover, wave-functions and bound states, representing spatially localized probability distributions, remain invariant and simultaneous in all inertial frames. These new properties of Relativity provide improved consistency and integration with Quantum theories. The Displacement Theory can be tested by experimentally evaluating the actual existence of length contraction.
This is the second article in a series describing The Displacement Theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2718] **viXra:1712.0602 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-26 07:01:10*

**Authors:** Arijit Bag

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper, applying only Newtonian mechanics, I have made an analysis of the nature of an accelerating universe. In this
model loss of gravitational force replaces any need for dark energy to explain an accelerating universe. This model is consistent
with the Big Bang model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2717] **viXra:1712.0577 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-24 00:12:19*

**Authors:** Cres Huang

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Space is in our hands and all around us. We have learned to manipulate matter and energy since our first existence on Earth, but never space. It is the absolute complement of the physical universe.

It is impossible to bend space since it has no boundary and surface. Space can not have boundary. Otherwise, it would separate space from something else outside of the space. Neither the boundary or surface of the space nor the outside of the space can be defined as anything other than space. On the contrarily, we can bend time by varying clock ticks. It is true for all artificial measurements.

Space has natural existence, time is artificial measurement. Space is absolutely recyclable, NEVER TIME BE RECYCLED. And, space is fundamental, it is independent of mass, energy, and everything else. Space and time can not go together.

[2716] **viXra:1712.0568 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-22 18:28:16*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

The singular state inside the body will be reached way before the curvature singularity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2715] **viXra:1712.0567 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-22 18:41:13*

**Authors:** Robert L. Oldershaw

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Comments welcome

Some science fiction that really about the science of theoretical physics, or the lack thereof.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2714] **viXra:1712.0553 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-21 13:57:54*

**Authors:** Richard Lighthouse

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

If our universe is blinking, off and on, a trillion times each second, then how does time actually work? And why do we perceive sequential time, where one event follows a seeming cause and effect? This short ebook describes how time actually works, and what makes it a coherent illusion.
First, all of time is simultaneous. There is no backwards or forwards with time. When the universe blinks on, each cycle - all of time and space is newly constructed, with particles that did not exist one second ago. Sequential time is an illusion that has to do with the nature of perception and the ego.
The massive present moment contains all of time, every second of every year, past, present,
and future. When you travel thru time, you do not travel backwards or forwards. Rather, you are moving "sideways" across parallel timelines, that exist within the present moment. For those that want to solve the paradox, killing your grandfather in the past will not change your
current reality, because for each person, there are a near-infinite number of probable timelines that exist simultaneously. Graphs and references are provided. #blinkinguniverse RLighthouse.com

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2713] **viXra:1712.0552 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-21 14:33:50*

**Authors:** Richard Lighthouse

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This short technical paper presents an alternate mathematical approach for determining the blinking frequency of our universe. The source for this
alternate idea comes from an email sent to this author in May 2015. The source author prefers to remain anonymous.
Basically, Let's think about the fundamental unit of the universe as a classical entity. The energy of such a classical entity, using the equipartition theorem, translates the number of
degrees of freedom into "units" of k_B*T (where T is the temperature and k_B is the well-known Boltzmann constant). In this way, we find that the fundamental energy is 3*k_B*T (6 d.o.f.).
We use a foundational temperature, consistent with the anthropic principle, of the freezing point (and melting point) of the essential object for existence - water. Using this temperature, we obtain a fundamental energy of ~70.6 meV.
Calculation is as follows: 70.6 meV / (\hbar \pi^4) = 1.1 THz. Note that the \pi^4
in general is \pi^D, where D is the number of spacetime dimensions in existence. Each reader must comprehend that our universe is literally blinking off and on, at 1.1 trillion times every second (THz).
For those unconvinced that our universe is blinking, please read “The First Periodic Table for Elementary Particles,” or “1024 Elementary Particles” which provides compelling mathematical evidence. Also see youtube: Colonel Philip Corso, THE DAY AFTER ROSWELL; author comments on the
Army's investigation of the 1947 Roswell vehicle; "We were never able to figure out how the propulsion system works... We only know it has something to do with blinking."

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2712] **viXra:1712.0544 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-21 05:36:34*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

According to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), photons and rotating neutrinos produce around them discs in the Einstein spacetime - there is obligatory the Einstein formula E = Mcc, where E is the photon/neutrino energy (the rotational energy) and M is the mass of photon/neutrino disc. In the discs, when they interact with fermions, there are created virtual pairs. Due to the quantum phenomena, the Principle of Equivalence (PE) is locally “broken” for photons with energy higher than 10 GeV - it leads to the incorrect conclusion that the deflection of high-energy photons contradicts general relativity. Here we show that general relativity describes correctly the bending of high-energy photons by masses when the weak interactions of the photon discs with matter are eliminated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2711] **viXra:1712.0542 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-21 11:17:02*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 1 Page.

At least, that is the opinion of convinced supporters of the Special Theory of Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2710] **viXra:1712.0535 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-20 12:03:05*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Links to previous paper at http://vixra.org/pdf/1609.0014v1.pdf

In an earlier paper, “Who Needs Dark Matter? An Alternative Explanation for the Galactic Rotation Anomaly,” this author examined a possible electromagnetic phenomenon as an explanation for the ‘galactic rotation anomaly,’ whereby the rotational speeds of stars in a spiral galaxy exhibit a relatively constant value despite increasing radius. There, this author assumed that angular rotation speed remained relatively constant, so as to preserve the stability of the spiral arms as they rotate. Several other authors’ theories were presented along with one by this author himself, which cited the magnetic field within the plane of a galaxy resulting from rotation by both the spherical galactic core and flattened ‘disk’ containing the spiral arms as possibly yielding the constant angular speed. However, many galactic rotation curves exhibit constant tangential rather than angular rotation speed, inconsistent with a ‘pinwheel-like’ galactic rotation which would preserve spiral arm stability. The possibility that this is really an ‘optical illusion’ masking the actual pinwheel-like rotation, and corresponding constancy of angular, not tangential, speed is considered here. Finally, speculation as to the phenomenon responsible for this ‘illusion’ is offered.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2709] **viXra:1712.0533 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-20 13:43:48*

**Authors:** Thomas Günther

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

McVittie's model, which interpolates between a Schwarzschild Black Hole and an expanding global (FLRW) spacetime, can be constructed by a simple coordinate replacement in Schwarzschild's isotropic intervall. Analogously, one gets a similarly generated exact solution of Einstein's equations based on a static transformation of de Sitter's metric. The present article is concerned with the application of this method on the AdS (Anti de Sitter) spacetime. Multiplying the radial coordinate and it's differential by a function a(t) gives the basic line element. Einstein's equations for the modified interval reduce to a system of two differential equations, which are solved in the article. The resulting solution is classified depending on the value of the cosmological constant. Several promising theories like String theorie and AdS/CFT correspondence include spacetimes with higher dimensions. Thereby motivated, the previous results of this article are generalized to D dimensions in the last section.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2708] **viXra:1712.0530 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-20 23:12:04*

**Authors:** Edwin Eugene Klingman

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The special theory of relativity is classically interpreted in terms of space-time symmetry, with the Lorentz transformation modifying the Galilean transformation as required to translate between 4-dimensional inertial frames as defined by Einstein and developed in relativistic texts (1..6). We begin here an energy-time asymmetrical interpretation based on multiplying the Galilean transformation by an energy factor representing the difference in energy between a system at rest and a system moving with velocity , both systems existing in one universal inertial frame. Detailed consequences of this energy-time interpretation of Lorentz-based physics will be treated in following papers.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2707] **viXra:1712.0527 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-21 04:19:37*

**Authors:** Wan-Chung Hu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Angle change is not fully explained in special relativity. This article is focusing on angle change in special relativity and to derive spinity by the concept of additive angular velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2706] **viXra:1712.0505 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-18 14:55:36*

**Authors:** Azzam Almosallami

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

In this paper I’ll show how the relativistic effect in SRT must be observer dependent which is leading to field and retardation, and that is leading to the wave-particle duality and the uncertainty principle by the vacuum fluctuation. In this I propose a new transformation by translating the retardation according to the invariance by the entanglement which is leading to the relativistic ether from the point of view of the quantum vacuum which is leading to the wave-particle duality and the uncertainty principle by the vacuum fluctuation. According to my transformation, there two pictures for the moving train, and these two pictures are separate in space and time as a result of the retardation but they are entangled by the invariance of the energy momentum. That will lead also to explain the double slit experiment from the point of view of quantum theory. In my new transformation, I propose there is no space-time continuum, as in special relativity; it is only time, and space is invariant. That leads to the new transformation being vacuum energy dependent instead of relative velocity dependent as in Einstein’s interpretation of the Lorentz transformation equations of the theory of special relativity. Furthermore, the Lorentz factor in my transformation is equivalent to the refractive index in optics. That leads to the disappearance of all the paradoxes of the theory of special relativity: The Twin paradox, Ehrenfest paradox, the Ladder paradox, and Bell’s spaceship paradox. Furthermore, according to my interpretation, one could explain the experimental results of quantum tunneling and entanglement (spooky action), Casimir effect, and Hartman effect. Also according to that by my equivalence principle, dark matter and dark energy are explained, and no need to propose dark matter and dark energy, and as a consequence of that, the cosmological constant problem will be solved.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2705] **viXra:1712.0491 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-18 01:03:16*

**Authors:** Andrew Thomas Holster

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

In the first part we analyze a novel metric for a spherically symmetric mass distribution, here called the K-gravity metric. This has a close formal similarity to the Schwarzschild metric, but has quite distinct properties, including infinitely dispersed mass, and lack of an event horizon. In the second part we propose that this may be taken as a general alternative solution for physical gravity within GTR, resulting from an alternative interpretation of the stress-energy tensor, which is no longer 0 for empty space, and we consider the empirical differences with standard Schwarzschild gravity. We propose a novel test of GTR is in order, to test this against the usual Schwarzschild solution in the solar system.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2704] **viXra:1712.0489 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-18 03:34:44*

**Authors:** John Lawrence Duval

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The only way to comprehensively refute Einstein's SRT Time Dilation idea, is to reveal the errors - both logical and trigonometric - in the thought experiment upon which it is based. This work does just that.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2703] **viXra:1712.0480 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-17 04:13:36*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 24 Pages. There are many dynamics in STR, and not one, it is believed.

The article presents our innovative method of deriving dynamics in the Special Theory of Relativity. This method enables to derive infinitely dynamics in relativistic mechanics. We have shown five examples of these derivations. In this way, we have shown that the dynamics known today as the dynamics of Special Theory of Relativity is only one of infinitely possible. There is also no reason to treat this relativistic dynamics as exceptional, either for experimental or theoretical reasons. Therefore, determination of which possible dynamics of relativistic mechanics is a correct model of reality remains an open problem of physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2702] **viXra:1712.0470 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-15 22:02:20*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We show that the Kerr metric for de Sitter spacetime is consistent with the demand that the associated Einstein field equations be derived from a simple conformally invariant Lagrangian.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2701] **viXra:1712.0462 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-16 07:18:33*

**Authors:** Furkan Akal

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Antihesis against Dark Matter and Dark Energy Theories..

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2700] **viXra:1712.0456 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-14 16:26:27*

**Authors:** Evgeny A Novikov

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Evolution of our universe with continuous production of matter by the vacuum, is described. The analysis is based on the quantum modification of the general relativity (Qmoger), supported by the cosmic data without fitting. Various types of matter are selected by the vacuum in accordance with stability of the developing universe. All laws of nature seems to be emergent and approximate, including the conservation of energy. The (3+1)-dimensional space-time and gravity were selected first. Than came quantum condensate of entangled gravitons (dark matter). Photons and other ordinary matter were selected much later during formation of galaxies, when the background condensate becomes gravitationally unstable. The effect of radiation on the global dynamics is described in terms of conservation of the enthalpy density. Mass of neutrino, as the first massive fermionic particle created from the background condensate, is estimated, in accord with experimental bound. The electric dipole moment of neutrino is also estimated. The oscillations of neutrinos are explained in terms of interaction with background condensate. The phenomena of quantum entanglement of ordinary matter was, apparently, inherited from the background condensate. The phenomena of subjective experiences are also explained in terms of interaction of the action potentials of neurons with the background dipolar condensate, which opens a new window into the dark sector of matter. The Qmoger theory goes beyond the Standard Model and the Quantum Field Theory and can be combined with their achievements.
Key words: quantum modification of general relativity, emergence of the laws of nature, isenthalpic universe, quantum condensate of gravitons, oscillating neutrinos, subjective experiences and dark sector of matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2699] **viXra:1712.0455 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-14 16:56:51*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: It is noticed that the sum of the s and c quarks mc^2 = 1370 MeV. 1000X this energy is close to the energy needed per second per active galaxy to energize the universe according to HCE8S theory

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2698] **viXra:1712.0447 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-15 07:35:21*

**Authors:** Mohammed Abdelwhab Husseiny

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper, we explain why speed of light is constant for all observers by postulating that the moving frames travel to forward and backward with the same velocity with respect to observers at rest. The regress of moving frames to backward during its motion to forward refers to reversal of space and time of moving frames with respect to observers at rest. The conclusions drawn in this study refer to “Retrocausality" or "backward causation" of moving frames along reversed space and during reversed time with respect to a stationary frame of reference.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2697] **viXra:1712.0436 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-13 16:11:57*

**Authors:** Tom Hollings

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

ABSTRACT
The Equivalence principle.
"Bodies which are moving under the sole influence of a gravitational field receive an acceleration, which does not in the least depend on the material or the physical state of the body. For instance, a piece of lead and a piece of wood fall in exactly the same manner in a gravitational field (in vacuo) when they start off from rest or with the same initial velocity."
There appears to be an error in the formation of the equivalence principle (and here the author gives the evidence of that error), which when corrected would lead to a new understanding of stellar formation and planetary orbits, including an explanation of why trinary star systems are not observed - as opposed to a binary pair with another star orbiting that pair (or vice versa).
Einstein used a Gedankenexperiment with a man in a chest, to prove that falling objects of differing masses all fall at the same rate for the man in the chest who is being accelerated at a steady 9.8 m/s^2, and the man on Earth who is experiencing 9.8 m/s^2 of gravity. It can be proved that the equivalence principle does not hold when the falling object used as an example is an extremely large mass. The logical conclusion therefore is that by reducing the extremely large mass down to more normal mass values, although the objects appear to fall at the same rate, they do not, but as the difference is minute, it can be, and is, customarily ignored. This does not matter on Earth, but it does matter a great deal for planetary formation and orbits, and for stellar and galactic formation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2696] **viXra:1712.0423 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-12 08:27:04*

**Authors:** Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia

**Comments:** 144 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity takes us to two results that presently are considered “inexplicable” to many renowned scientists, to know:
-The dilatation of time, and
-The contraction of the Lorentz Length.
The solution to these have driven the author to the development of the Undulating Relativity (UR) theory, where the Temporal variation is due to the differences on the route of the light propagation and the lengths are constants between two landmarks in uniform relative movement

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2695] **viXra:1712.0418 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-12 14:37:36*

**Authors:** Richard Lighthouse

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

No one has ever provided mathematical evidence that unifies gravity and electromagnetism. This is an important mathematical discovery. Note that the 2 classical equations of Newton's Gravity and Coulomb's Law have a similar form. Also note that when
Limit (r) ---> 0, these 2 equations approach a singularity
This implies that our universe collapses to a single point for unification. Each reader must
comprehend that our universe literally blinks, off and on, 1.1 trillion cycles each second (1.1
THz). See my related articles, including the blinking universe calculation and 1024-QAM for
elementary particles. There are 3 mathematical approaches and 3 empirical sources that all
conclude the same idea - our universe is blinking.
As Einstein once said, "Reality is merely an illusion..." - A blinking universe would certainly
make his statement correct.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2694] **viXra:1712.0417 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-12 14:43:39*

**Authors:** Richard Lighthouse

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This short technical note describes an approximate mathematical solution for Time Travel involving relativity and very brief time intervals. Limitations of the solution are discussed including possible error sources. Assumptions are made for small changes in the speed of light and for the Lighthouse Frequency, which has been described in previous papers. This paper will only be meaningful to those with a background in calculus. Each reader must comprehend that our universe literally blinks off and on, approximately 1.1 trillion times every second. The solution is derived by taking the partial derivative with respect to time, of E=mc^2. Readers will note that the speed of light is not constant per NASA scientist, Dr Daniel Gezari's important 2009 paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2693] **viXra:1712.0416 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-12 14:49:56*

**Authors:** Richard Lighthouse

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This short paper presents information into technology that has been used to move between two parallel universes. Described here are the technology characteristics of glowing orbs or balls of light, which have been photographed and filmed, all over the world. By utilizing the blinking frequency of our universe, it is possible to move between parallel universes. These orbs have been reported as glowing and/or pulsing and some appear to be 12 to 14 inches in diameter. Each reader must comprehend that our universe is blinking off and on, approximately 1.1 trillion cycles every second. The energy required to transit between two parallel universes is
E = Volts * Amp * sec
Where volts is proportional to the mass, and Amp*sec is the "electrical distance" or "range" between the two universes. Pictures and videos are referenced for discussion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2692] **viXra:1712.0415 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-12 14:54:56*

**Authors:** Richard Lighthouse

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This short technical paper presents the first practical technology solution for traveling faster than the speed of light. Light-years of distance can be traversed by performing millions of “hops;” yet the entire distance traveled requires only a fraction of a second. Each reader must comprehend that our universe is literally blinking off and on, more than 1.1 trillion times every second.
For those unconvinced that our universe is blinking, please read “The First Periodic Table for Elementary Particles,” which provides compelling mathematical evidence.
Also see youtube: Colonel Philip Corso, THE DAY AFTER ROSWELL; author comments on the Army's investigation of the 1947 Roswell vehicle; "We were never able to figure out how the propulsion system works... We only know it has something to do with blinking." Recorded 1997.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2691] **viXra:1712.0413 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-12 15:08:22*

**Authors:** Richard Lighthouse

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This short technical ebook describes a simple mathematical solution for unifying the four fundamental forces in nature. The fundamental forces of gravitation, electromagnetism, strong force, and the weak force are actually different aspects of the same force. In general, the relationship between the four forces can be described using a form of the equation for Analog Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (Analog-QAM). This equation form is developed utilizing the concept of a “blinking” physical universe. The approach to
develop the solution is described by minimizing the number of available dimensions (zero), which is in contrast to numerous efforts (String theory, M-theory, Quantum gravity) that attempt to maximize the number of dimensions under consideration. An Electrical Universe (EU) model is presented that provides sufficient conditions for a solution. This mathematical solution should
be tested against experimental data to confirm its validity, however it is noted that, “discrete-time” forces will be measured differently than “time-averaged” forces in a laboratory environment. Confirmation of the theory is suggested through small, discrete-time interval measurements of gravitational acceleration and the Electromagnetic Force, where they will be seen to
vary continuously, and yet also retain a “time-averaged” value. Each reader must comprehend that our universe literally blinks, off and on, more than 1 trillion cycles each second.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2690] **viXra:1712.0412 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-12 15:15:48*

**Authors:** Richard Lighthouse

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This short technical paper discuss a method and technology that can be utilized to minimize energy requirements for all kinds of travel. Specifically, there are three types of travel under discussion: (1) Time Travel, (2) Distance Travel, and (3) Travel between parallel universes. The method requires precise control, synchronization, and amplification of very high frequencies, which is difficult for current technology computer processors. To reduce the effective mass value or weight of a vehicle, requires extremely fast clocks, called gamma-ray clocks. These clocks operate at about 10^21 cycles per second. Each reader must comprehend that our physical universe literally blinks, off and on, more than 1.1 trillion times every second. By synchronizing an electrical signal on a vehicle with the neutral point in the blinking cycle - the effective mass of the vehicle will approach zero.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2689] **viXra:1712.0394 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-11 16:06:01*

**Authors:** Ozan Varli

**Comments:** 4 Pages. A Hardy Consistent Representing Of Strong Hypothesis Of Theory Of Everything

Figuring out the mystery of expanding universe seems a mandatory question for today’s physicists. The space, time and dark energy are also all the same thing as we found out that the space and time are the same. Looking at observations and findings take us to one result which is consisted with specifications and behaviors of space that; anti-gravitation field named as anti-neutral field is space-time itself. This anti-neutral field expands in 3 dimensions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2688] **viXra:1712.0387 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-12 01:10:14*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 23 Pages. Method of deriving numerous dynamics in the Special Theory of Relativity (in Polish)

W artykule przedstawiliśmy naszą nowatorską metodę wyprowadzania dynamik w Szczególnej Torii Względności. Metoda ta pozwala na wyprowadzenie w mechanice relatywistycznej nieskończenie wielu dynamik. Pokazaliśmy pięć przykładów takich wyprowadzeń. Wykazaliśmy w ten sposób, że dynamika znana dzisiaj jako dynamika Szczególnej Teorii Względności jest tylko jedną z nieskończenie wielu możliwych. Nie ma także żadnej podstawy, aby tą obowiązującą dynamikę relatywistyczną traktować jako wyjątkową, ani z powodów eksperymentalnych, ani z powodów teoretycznych. W związku z tym rozstrzygnięcie, która z możliwych dynamik mechaniki relatywistycznej jest prawidłowym modelem rzeczywistości pozostaje otwartym problemem fizyki.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2687] **viXra:1712.0377 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-11 05:43:47*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Although Fresnel's ether drag coefficient was ad hoc, its curious confirmation by the Fizeau experiment forced physicists to accept and adopt it as the main guide in the development of theories of the speed of light. Lorentz's 'local-time' , which evolved into the Lorentz transformations, was developed to explain the Fizeau experiment and stellar aberration. Given the logical, theoretical and experimental counter-evidences against the theory of relativity today, it turns out that the Fresnel's drag coefficient may not exist at all. The Fizeau experiment and the phenomenon of stellar aberration have no common physical basis. The result of the Fizeau experiment can be explained in a simple, classical way. It is as if nature conspired to lead physicists astray for more than one century. Alternative theories and interpretations for the ether drift experiments and invariance of Maxwell's equations will be proposed. Physicists rightly assumed the invariance of Maxwell's equations, but their deeply flawed conception of light as ordinary local phenomenon led them unnecessarily to seek an 'explanation' for this invariance, which was the Lorentz transformation. Einstein went down the wrong path when he sought an 'explanation' for the light postulate, when none was needed. The invariance of Maxwell's equationsfor light is a direct consequence of non-existence of the ether and there is no explanation for it for the same reason that there is no explanation for light being a wave when there is no medium for its propagation. Constancy of phase velocity of light and rotation of the wave fronts for a moving observer, which are direct consequences of non-existence of light carrying medium, can explain the phenomenon of stellar aberration .The group velocity of light behaves in a conventional way: independent of source absolute velocity, but varying with observer absolute velocity. Light is a dual phenomenon: local and non-local. Light is a dual and quantum mechanical phenomenon. The paradoxes in classical electromagnetism, such as the moving magnet and conductor problem, arose due to incompleteness of classical electromagnetism and its wrong interpretation. The solutions to these paradoxes lay in unconventional and subtle, yet logical and natural, fundamental nature of light and electromagnetism.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2686] **viXra:1712.0367 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-10 00:42:00*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez, Christian Bizouard, Dominique Weugel, Renée Veysseyre

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Two mandatory combinations from different constants gives the same time 5.53 × 10^57 s, which is, apart a √2 factor, the Kotov quasar non-Doppler periodicity 9600.61(6) s multiplied by the order of the Monster group. The square and the cube of the later are also identified in canonical ratios of Coherent Cosmology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2685] **viXra:1712.0348 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-07 08:00:34*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 46 Pages. develops a Natario warp drive which encompasses accelerations

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that
allows superluminal travel within the framework of General
Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions:
The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario
warp drive discovered in $2001$. However the major drawback
concerning warp drives is the huge amount of negative energy
density able to sustain the warp bubble.In order to perform an
interstellar space travel to a "nearby" star at $20$ light-years
away in a reasonable amount of time a ship must attain a speed of
about $200$ times faster than light.However the negative energy
density at such a speed is directly proportional to the factor
$10^{48}$ which is $1.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000$ times
bigger in magnitude than the mass of the planet Earth!!. With the
correct form of the shape function the Natario warp drive can
overcome this obstacle at least in theory.Other drawbacks that
affects the warp drive geometry are the collisions with hazardous
interstellar matter that will unavoidably occurs when a ship
travels at superluminal speeds and the problem of the
Horizons(causally disconnected portions of spacetime).The
geometrical features of the Natario warp drive are the required
ones to overcome these obstacles also at least in theory.However
both the Alcubierre or Natario warp drive spacetimes always have a
constant speed in the internal structure of their equations which
means to say that these warp drives always travel with a constant
speed.But a real warp drive must accelerate from zero to a
superluminal speed of about $200$ times faster than light in the
beginning of an interstellar journey and de-accelerate again to
zero in the end of the journey.In this work we expand the Natario
vector introducing the coordinate time as a new Canonical Basis
for the Hodge star and we introduce an extended Natario warp drive
equation which encompasses accelerations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2684] **viXra:1712.0303 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-07 02:32:29*

**Authors:** Amir Ali Tavajoh

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Existence of Dark Matter is proved by the flat rotation curves which show the distribution of luminous matter and dark matter when we move from the De Vaucuoleur spheroid of galaxy to the farthest points from center of galaxy. The dark matter increases as we get far from it, on the contrary, the luminous matter decreases.
There are two types of Dark Matter: 1- Baryonic Dark Matter, 2- Non-baryonic Dark Matter;
The volunteers for elements of dark matter are as follows:
1. MACHO (known as Baryonic Dark Matter)
2. Neutrinos (based on OPERA experiment, it is more probable that Tau neutrinos would be the fundamentals of dark matter), these are candidates for Non-baryonic Dark Matter, Hot Dark Matter.
3. Neutralinos (Candidate for Cold Dark Matter)
4. WIMP (Candidate for Cold Dark Matter)
Dark energy and Dark Matter are making the universe accelerating in a way that the voids get totally empty and superclusters get heavier in the universe by pushing the galaxies located at the void to the superclusters.
The primordial universe was continuous and there was no void, but as time goes and the superclusters appeared, voids appeared as well and the universe turn out to be discrete.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2683] **viXra:1712.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-06 03:12:10*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A standing wave consists of two identical waves moving in opposite
direction. In a moving reference frame, this standing wave becomes a traveling wave.
Based on the principle of superposition, the wavelengths of these two opposing waves are shown to be identical in any inertial reference frame.
According to Doppler Effect, a moving wave detector will detect two different frequencies on these two waves.
Consequently, the wave
detector will detect different speeds from both waves due to the same
wavelength but different frequencies. The calculation of the speed of
the microwave in the standing wave is
demonstrated with the typical household microwave oven which emits
microwave of frequency range around 2.45 GHz and wavelength range
around 12.2 cm.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2682] **viXra:1712.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-04 11:40:08*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

At least three authors have proposed the concept of light as a traveling series of ‘matter waves.’ Such a concept does not require an ‘aether’ medium as does the more prevalent concept of light, if behaving as a wave, doing so analogous to other types of ‘disturbance waves,” such as sound or water. One author’s concept is examined mathematically for plausibility and, when found to be so, extended qualitatively to incorporate that of the other authors’ to at least what is hoped may be viewed as a reasonable extent.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2681] **viXra:1712.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-04 19:33:31*

**Authors:** Karl De Paepe

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We present an example of a gravitational plane wave pulse incident on a finite mass where conservation of energy and momentum does not hold.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2680] **viXra:1712.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-01 17:57:25*

**Authors:** A. Hughmann

**Comments:** Pages.

Based on a quantitative assessment of the fundamental forces and constants, we demonstrate a solution to the Constant Speed of Light V's Variable Speed of Light question. The solution provides that all physical constants begin at a point of fundamental perfection, where their values can be described in the absolute simplest terms, requiring only the numbers 1, 2, 3, and 5 to do so. We subsequently demonstrate that by inserting a Mass Variable into the model, to account for the quantity of mass interacting with our locale of space, we can transform these perfect prime based constants, to attain predictive results that are on average 99.94% in agreement with CODATA values. We conclude that the speed of light is indeed variable, as is every other physical constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2679] **viXra:1712.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-02 03:01:50*

**Authors:** Jean Pierre Rukundo

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper, a general spacetime transformation from biquaternion left and right multiplications is introduced. First, it is shown that the transformation leaves the spacetime length invariant. Furthermore, the Lorentz transformation is derived as a special case of the general biquaternion transformation. Surprisingly, some commutation and anticommutation properties generally found in quantum mechanics are manifested by the biquaternion transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2678] **viXra:1712.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-01 01:47:24*

**Authors:** Lluís Bel

**Comments:** 7 Pages. 2 figures

A restriction of the Boyer-Linquist model of the Kerr metric is considered that is globally hyperbolic on the space manifold R3 with the origin excluded, the quotient m/r being unrestricted. The model becomes in this process a generalization of Brillouin’s model, describing the gravitational ﬁeld of a rotating massive point particle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2677] **viXra:1712.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-01 03:27:16*

**Authors:** Evgeny A Novikov

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Evolution of our universe with continuous production of matter by the vacuum, is described. The analysis is based on the quantum modification of the general relativity (Qmoger), supported by the cosmic data without fitting. Various types of matter are selected by the vacuum in accordance with stability of the developing universe. All laws of nature are emergent and approximate, including the conservation of energy. The (3+1)-dimensional space-time and gravity were selected first. Than came quantum condensate of gravitons (dark matter). Photons and other ordinary matter were selected much later during formation of galaxies, when the background condensate becomes gravitationally unstable. The effect of radiation on the global dynamics is described in terms of conservation of the enthalpy density. Mass and electric dipole moment of neutrino (as the first massive fermionic particle) are estimated. The oscillations of neutrinos are explained in terms of interaction with background condensate. The phenomena of subjective experiences are also explained in terms of interaction of the action potentials of neurons with the background dipolar condensate.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2676] **viXra:1711.0458 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-29 03:32:30*

**Authors:** Durgadas Datta.

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Critical thinking and common sense.

Modern physics based on relativity theory requires re look . Some ideas can save time for all of us instead of harping on the same string.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2675] **viXra:1711.0455 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-27 10:20:15*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: There are at least two recent publications indicating that spinless tau leptonic matter-antimatter pairs can exist and are Nature's way of removing redundant H dark matter and top quark annihilation dark energy particles via spin-less neutrinos of several masses that are also dark and thus unobservable

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2674] **viXra:1711.0451 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-27 16:08:13*

**Authors:** Per Hokstad

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Abstract. Simultaneity is a key concept in the special theory of relativity (STR), considering two reference frames moving relative to each other at constant speed, v. We introduce a new approach to simultaneity and its relation to clock readings and position. The two clocks at the origins play a crucial role. We synchronize these at time 0, and refer to this event as the ‘point of initiation’. From symmetry reasons, we conclude that these two clock readings –at least in some sense – represent simultaneity. The second element of our approach is a new version of the Lorentz transformation; where we in a new way combine the four (time, space) variables at a specific position, giving a state variable of two orthogonal components. The resulting description of simultaneity is well suited to analyse and conclude on the travelling twin case. Further, we provide a generalization; specifying a two dimensional time vector. The absolute value of the time vector specifies a measure of distance (in time) from the point of initiation. We utilise this distance to specify simultaneity of events related to the two reference frames; simultaneity corresponding to identical distances; i.e. time vectors having same absolute value (=‘total distance’). We can also give the time vector as a complex number, where the real part equals the clock reading at the relevant position.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2673] **viXra:1711.0428 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-27 06:58:58*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Where standard physics runs into infinite challenges, atomism predicts exact limits. We summarize the mathematical results briefly in a table in this note and are also revisiting the energy momentum relationship based on this view.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2672] **viXra:1711.0424 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-25 13:42:22*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 7 pages

In this study, it was hypothesized that speed cannot be indefinite, and must be bounded by a universal limit. This hypothesis was rigorously analyzed using thought experiment and mathematical deduction. A time and space transformation was deemed necessary for the hypothesis to seem viable. However, the transformation turned out to be inconsistent when obtained using different derivation approaches. Furthermore, the obtained transformation equations resulted in critical contradiction. Hence, the universal speed limit hypothesis was deemed false and rejected.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2671] **viXra:1711.0422 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-25 23:14:27*

**Authors:** Garen Karapetian

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This article reports a relation between Heliocentric velocities of galaxies vʘ and Luminosity distances dL: dL≈vʘ/H0+dL*vʘ/c.
Data of 3655 Ia type Supernovas from Open Supernova Catalog (https://sne.space/) with Heliocentric velocities v☉ between 240 and 142100 km/sec was utilized and shows accuracy about 3%.
The relation utilized for developing the distance calculation formula: dV=vʘ/(H0*(1-vʘ/c)).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2670] **viXra:1711.0418 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-26 05:33:37*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 1 Page.

An explanation is provided for why different observers can see the same shape as a whole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2669] **viXra:1711.0414 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-24 10:29:12*

**Authors:** Karl De Paepe

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We show there are two colliding gravitational plane wave pulses that result in signals that travel faster than light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2668] **viXra:1711.0411 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-25 02:31:50*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Many previous attempts have been undertaken to produce a singularity-free solution to the black hole problem. This effort included many “Bardeen black hole” models, as well as quantum mechanical, and string theory models. The present paper describes a new solution based on a relativistic extension of Newton-Galileo physics, termed Information Relativity theory. For a purely gravitational, spherical black hole, the theory yields a black hole radius that equals the Schwarzschild radius, but without an interior singularity. Moreover, for a typical galaxy with a supermassive black hole residing at its center, the model produces a simple expression for the galaxy's dynamics in its dependence on redshift. According to the emerging dynamics, a galaxy's supermassive black hole is part of a binary system, together with a naked singularity at redshift z = 2 -1/2 ≈ 0.707, suspected to be a quasar with extreme velocity offsets or an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Another redshift, z ≈ 2.078, is also predicted to be associated with quasars and AGNs. The derived results are contrasted with observational data and with a recent ΛCDM model. Taken together, the produced galaxy dynamics and the aforementioned results could shed some light on the role of supermassive black holes in the evolution of the galaxies in which they reside.
The success of Information Relativity in reproducing the Schwarzschild radius of black holes, together with previous successful predictions of the phenomena of light bending, gravitational redshift, dark matter, and dark energy, attest the possibility of constructing a simple cosmology, based only on physical variables, without the notion of space time and its geodesics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2667] **viXra:1711.0408 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-25 05:58:47*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We are describing a new and potentially important paradox related to Einstein’s theories of special relativity and relativity of simultaneity.1 We fully agree on all of the mathematical derivations in Ein- stein’s special relativity theory and his result of relativity of simultaneity when using Einstein-Poincar ́e synchronized clocks. The paradox introduced shows that Einstein’s special relativity theory leads to a motion paradox, where a train moving relative to the ground (and the ground moving relative to the train) must stand still and be moving at the same time. We will see that one reference frame will claim that the train is moving and that the other reference frame must claim that the train is standing still in the time window “between” two distant events. This goes against common sense and logic. However, looking back at the history of relativity theory, even time dilation was going against common sense and a series of academics attempted to refute it.2 Still, based on this new paradox we have to ask ourselves if the world really can be that bizarre, or if Einstein’s special relativity could be incomplete in some way? We are not going to give an answer to the second question in this paper, but we will simply present the new paradox.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2666] **viXra:1711.0406 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-23 12:24:26*

**Authors:** Igore Elkin

**Comments:** 10 Pages. -

The theory of Einstein's gravity actually gives only a change in the metric. This change, when using the principle of least action, leads to a convergence of material massive bodies. This is perceived as a gravitational interaction. In fact, the principle of least action can not force bodies to move, but only describes their motion. That is, there is an interaction that forces the bodies to move according to the principle of least action. That is, Einstein's theory is far from describing the gravitational interaction. The reason for the appearance of this interaction is written here and the basis of this interaction is the electrical interaction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2665] **viXra:1711.0404 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-23 13:51:43*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

A simple, parameter-free conformal approach to gravity is presented based on the the square of the quadratic Ricci scalar R alone. It is shown that when R is a non-zero constant, the associated action is fully conformal and leads to the usual equations of motion associated with the standard Einstein-Hilbert action. To demonstrate the approach, we derive the Schwarzschild metric, the field of a charged particle and the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2664] **viXra:1711.0400 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-23 22:34:13*

**Authors:** Robert L. Oldershaw

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Given the near universality of the Benford/Newcomb Law of First Digits, and the ubiquity of fractal self-similarity observed throughout nature from the smallest to largest scales, it is argued that nature’s most fundamental geometry may be conformal geometry, which is universally present in full, partial, and discrete/broken forms. As a consequence, the assumption of absolute scale may apply only in restricted contexts, whereas relative scale may be the more dominant principle for the cosmos as a whole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2663] **viXra:1711.0396 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-24 04:56:28*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The unified theory of dynamic space describes the first force of Nature
as the Universal antigravity one, because of which the galaxies follow an accelerated
centrifugal motion. Therefore, what the great astronomer Edwin Hubble observed is
not due to the Universe expansion as a result of the Big Bang, but to the relative
motion of galaxies and their centrifugal antigravity motion. The Cosmic journey of the
matter (the galaxies) takes place at the constant timeless speed towards the Universe
periphery, while the smallest Pythagorean Triple (3, 4, 5) reveals the harmony of
Universal antigravity motion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2662] **viXra:1711.0390 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-22 16:34:54*

**Authors:** Piscedda Giampaolo

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In the Experiment conducted at temperature 5.8Kelvin by scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optic they got the following measure for the charge radius of proton: 0,8335(95)fm. We deduce that the ether is function of temperature
See Vixra: 1711.0299, 1711.0362 Relativity and Cosmology; Vixra: 1711.0334 Nuclear and Atomic Physics

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2661] **viXra:1711.0387 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-23 04:51:16*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 87 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

“The Gravitons are faster than light”
Adrian Ferent
“The gravitational redshift is the proof that the gravitons are faster than light”
Adrian Ferent
Because:
“The gravitons emitted after the photons are emitted, will not interact with the photons if they have only the speed of light”
Adrian Ferent
“I am the first who explained the gravitational redshift”
Adrian Ferent
Ferent equation for photon – graviton interaction:
E = h × f + a × f - a × ν
where - a × ν is the negative energy of the graviton
ν is the frequency of the interaction graviton
This is another proof that my Gravitation theory is right.
Only my Gravitation theory explains the gravitational redshift.
Another proof that the gravitons must be faster than light:
I am the first who understood and explained that gravitons with the speed of light are too slow to keep constellations together.
“If gravitons have only the speed of light will not be able to keep constellations together.“
A graviton needs less then one second to travel between stars located within 10 light-years.
Another proof that the gravitons must be faster than light:
If the gravitons have only the speed of light, the light, the electromagnetic waves, the photons can escape from a black hole.
This means the gravitons must be faster than light.
You learned from your professors that nothing can travel faster than light; I explained that the gravitons are faster than light.
This is another proof that my Gravitation theory is right and Einstein Gravitation theory is wrong.
This is another proof that LIGO is a fraud, because gravitational waves are faster than light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2660] **viXra:1711.0377 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-20 10:14:31*

**Authors:** A.V. Antipin

**Comments:** 4 Pages. ЭТО СТАТЬЯ НА РУССКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ.

Замечания к идее ВАРП двигателя. А.Антипин a1_mail@inbox.ru
В работе приведены общие соображения, которые показывают, что ВАРП устройства не смогут обеспечить ожидаемой сверхсветовой скорости перемещения объектов. Реальная скорость перемещения объектов с помощью ВАРП не превысит (с/2), т.е. ПОЛОВИНЫ скорости света.
=========
Comments to the idea of a WARP drive Antipin Alexandr Veniaminovich a1_mail@inbox.ru
The paper presents general considerations, that show that the WARP devices will not be able to provide the expected superluminal velocity of moving objects. The actual speed of the moving objects using WARP will not exceed (c/2), i.e. HALF the speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2659] **viXra:1711.0376 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-20 10:34:35*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It is shown that a precise characterization of the class of pfs is out of grasp. Moreover, the problem is totally useless physically.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2658] **viXra:1711.0363 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-19 12:35:51*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this short note we are looking into a few interesting details about relativistic kinetic energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2657] **viXra:1711.0362 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-19 17:33:57*

**Authors:** Piscedda Giampaolo

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In the theory "The Proton Charge radius of Muonic-Hydrogen (Vixra:1711.0229;Author: Piscedda Giampaolo; Category: Relativity and Cosmology) we have deduced the existence of ether and explaining why Michelson-Morley's experiment failed. So, the concept of ether allows us to calculate the Proton Charge radius of Muonic-Hydrogen: 0,840935•10^(-15) meters (Vixra:1711.0229) and the Charge radius of Muonic-Deuterium:2.12567•10^(-15)meters (Vixra:1711.0333; Author: Piscedda Giampaolo; Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2656] **viXra:1711.0354 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-19 03:04:27*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Two inertial reference frames moving at identical velocity can be
seperated if one of them
is put under acceleration for a duration. The coordinates of both
inertial reference frames are
related by this acceleration and its duration. An immediate property of
such coordinate transformation is the conservation of distance and length across reference frames. Therefore, the concept of
length contraction from Special Relativity is impossible in
reality and physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2655] **viXra:1711.0350 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-19 07:15:39*

**Authors:** Alama Ekabal Ansari

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Time dilation is a well-known phenomenon for special theory of relativity and general relativity theory.
The present technology is not advanced enough to implement these theories practically.
Time dilation is a difference of elapsed time between two events as measured by observers either moving relative to each other or differently situated from a gravitational mass. The time dilation is caused by differences in either gravity or relative speed. The time dilation is explained by working of two clocks reporting different times for different speed According to Einstein relativity (E=mc2), we know that an object with a non- zero rest mass cannot achieve the speed of light. According to relativistic theory, as the speed of the object increases, effective mass of the object also increases. The increase in effective mass makes more difficult to accelerate the object. Hence, more energy is required to increase the speed of the object.
Achieving the speed of light for the object, the effective mass become almost infinite. Hence, lot of energy is required to accelerate the object with the speed of light.
There is no such technology developed as on date through which speed of light can be achieved without consuming humongous energy.
Therefore, there is a need to provide a system which can overcome the limitation of existing technology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2654] **viXra:1711.0349 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-17 10:47:28*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We derive the element of spatial distance in terms
of the time coordinate and a new tensor related to the Kronecker delta.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2653] **viXra:1711.0325 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-15 11:04:24*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Abstract: Using simple methods of analysis I conclude that our present broken E8 symmetry epoch without antimatter means that Majorana neutrinos cannot exist: this results, however, in neutrinos having masses and small electric charges of 3 different amounts. The charges probably aid in neutrino detection. Masses of the leptons are derived.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2652] **viXra:1711.0324 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-15 13:57:25*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Theories of gravity are incomplete when we neglect quantum phenomena and the internal structure of spacetime described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). SST shows that the grainy two-component spacetime is a mix of non-locality and locality that leads to a conceptual error about gravitational waves, to different theories of gravitation and to the matter-antimatter asymmetry. Within the General Theory of Relativity (GR) we can not justify whether the metric is local or non-local. Here we described a conceptual error in obtaining the local (speed = c = 299,792,458 m/s) wave-like solutions by solving the non-local/superluminal vacuum field equations of general relativity - we express the opinion that non-locality cannot lead directly to locality. SST, which is the lacking fundamental part of Theory of Everything, shows that spacetime is a mixture of two fields i.e. of the Higgs field (it is non-gravitating, imaginary, non-local and geodesic/metric) and of the Einstein spacetime (it is gravitating, real, local, dynamical and practically-flat/non-geodesic i.e. the total energy-momentum crossing the hypersurface vanishes). Such structure of spacetime causes that there are different theories of gravitation, for example, the GR, which binds the curvature of the non-local Higgs field with the local energy-momentum tensor, the YARK theory, which binds the local Einstein spacetime (ES) with the energy-momentum tensor or the SST which shows the origin of gravitation. Within GR it is easier to describe the non-local phenomena in spacetime (for example, the Kasner solutions describe such phenomena) whereas within YARK theory it is easier to describe the local phenomena in spacetime such as dark energy or “gravitational waves” discovered by LIGO-Virgo Collaborations (which, in reality, are the flows in ES) or the observed energy dependence of gravitational bending which is incomprehensible within the framework of GR. SST shows that we should observe the same speed of propagation of both the “gravitational waves” and electromagnetic waves - there should be high correlation between their intensity for active binary systems of neutron stars or neutron “black holes”. The matter-antimatter asymmetry follows from infinitesimal imaginary spin of the Higgs-field components so we must use SST to solve the problem.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2651] **viXra:1711.0299 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-13 19:18:11*

**Authors:** Piscedda Giampaolo

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

From Einstein's theory of general relativity we can calculate the proton radius of muonic-hydrogen.
The value obtain is 0,840935×10^(-15) meter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2650] **viXra:1711.0281 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-13 03:24:40*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A lot has been philosophized and written about the phenomenon ‘time dilation’. This article shows the consequences applying this phenomenon to a photon, traveling with velocity c, relative to whichever observer, as the Special Theory of Relativity prescribes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2649] **viXra:1711.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 04:48:43*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Shevchenko, Vladimir V. Tokarevsky

**Comments:** Pages.

In this paper a more detailed consideration in framework of the “The
Information as Absolute” conception of the Space and Time problems “is presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2648] **viXra:1711.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-06 04:15:13*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This paper reports on the large round trip time variations observed in the Shapiro delay experiments, as reported by Bryan G Wallace , whose claim will be confirmed according to Apparent Source Theory. The 'anomalous' variations in the measured round trip time could be larger than the reported gravitational time dilation effect, typically by a factor of about five to ten. Such large anomalous variations in the round trip time that could be attributed to either the ether theory or the emission theory may have been discarded from the raw data to arrive at the relativistic prediction. The argument in this paper is that Apparent Source Theory predicts that there must have been large variations in the round trip time in the Shapiro delay experiments. And this claim is supported by the reports of Bryan G Wallace. All this casts doubts on the integrity of the experimenters. Therefore, not only did they discard data showing large variations in round trip time, they must also have manipulated the remaining data in order to 'prove' gravitational time dilation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2647] **viXra:1711.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-06 07:02:12*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 12 Pages. This paper represents the third essay of the "Trilogy on the knowable Universe"

This paper represents the third essay of the "Trilogy on the Knowable Universe". Here a scientific hypothesis on the origin of the Universe is presented and that hypothesis is described through a succession of stages, in concordance with the Theory of Reference Frames. According to this interpretation the Universe isn't a closed and finite system, as it considered in present prevailing models. The Universe, here supposed, is an unlimited system whose origin is characterized by numerous nanobigbangs in the order of a series of subsequent stages rather than by an unique central explosive bigbang. Because the experimental science can give reliable answers to all questions unless the first question on the origin of the Universe and the last question on its final future, the interpretation of this essay on the origin of the Universe is only a scientific hypothesis that doesn't pretend to represent the truth on the origin of the Universe. Besides this hypothesis is in conflict neither with the religious narration of the Genesis nor with the philosophical speculation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2646] **viXra:1711.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-01 20:46:41*

**Authors:** Jose P. Koshy

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Submitted to MNRAS, but rejected on the basis that the theory behind speed-dependent gravity is not well explained. However, explaining that part in detail renders it unsuitable for MINRAS.

The alternate model put forth in my previous papers visualize that gravity is finite and G depends on the square of the speed. A higher G implies that less matter is required in galaxies for satisfying Kepler's laws of orbiting motion. A finite gravity implies that distance between bodies depend on mass, and so the distribution of bodies in galaxies is nearly uniform; this in turn gives flat rotation curves. The gravitational lensing maps of Bullet Cluster is in perfect agreement with speed-dependent gravity. Speed-dependent gravity thus resolves the anomaly of missing matter, and completely rules out the existence of any dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2645] **viXra:1711.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-05 07:51:23*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

As Haug has shown in a long series of papers, Newton's gravitational constant is almost for sure a composite constant. What is this exotic animal that is meters cubed divided by kg and seconds squared? It is difficult to get any intuition from the gravitational constant alone, except from understanding that it is a constant we can measure empirically and use to get Newton's formula to match actual observations. Newton's gravitational constant is a composite constant that consists of the more fundamental constants.
This means we also can rewrite Einstein's constant in a more intuitive form where it becomes independent of big G.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2644] **viXra:1711.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-04 23:37:12*

**Authors:** Kenneth Dalton

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A black hole model is proposed in which a neutron star is
surrounded by a neutral gas of electrons and positrons. The gas is in a completely degenerate quantum state and does not radiate. The pressure and density in the gas are found to be much less than those in the neutron star. The radius of the black hole is far greater than the Schwarzschild radius.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2643] **viXra:1711.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-03 01:03:01*

**Authors:** John Malcolm Newell

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the century since Einstein's general relativity we have translated all of our solutions for relativity and quantum mechanics back into clock time, despite that dimension being too limited and too localised to describe those relationships. If we accept that clock time can have a natural complex conjugate, we can resolve quantum mechanics by appreciating the photon as a quantum without extension in its own time. We can then unify gravity and inertia with electromagnetic action, without paradox, in a Machian universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2642] **viXra:1711.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 13:03:12*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

Using fourth order polynomial in the mass of the higgs boson, to interpolate basic properties, including the possible modification of one of the DM models.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1846] **viXra:1801.0077 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-10 02:18:28*

**Authors:** Peter C Morris

**Comments:** 11 Pages, 11 Figures

We have obtained new evidence for dynamical space by applying correlation analysis to a year of data from a Random Event Generator (REG) device located in Perth, Australia and from another in Muenster, Germany, recorded between July 1, 2012 and June 30, 2013. The results obtained are consistent with results obtained earlier by applying the same analysis to data obtained from a REG located in Manchester UK and the REG in Perth. Consequently evidence for dynamical space is mounting.
For each day we applied correlation analysis to determine travel times for putative waves. Then wave speed and direction, over each 24 hour period, were determined by fitting to the observed travel times, theoretical curves of how travel times would vary with Earth rotation. We thereby derived an average incoming RA, declination and speed for the waves of each day.
A probability density plot of the incoming directions exhibited a peak near RA = 4.5 h, consistent with previous determinations of incoming 3-space flow direction by Cahill and Dayton Miller. Moreover, removing Earth orbital and gravitational inflow velocities from the observed velocities allowed a peak of higher density to be obtained, which is consistent with predictions of Dynamical 3-Space theory. The peak indicated a most probable average galactic flow direction of RA = 4.49 h, dec = -80.4 deg, and wave speed of 508 km/s.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1845] **viXra:1801.0040 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-04 11:44:23*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

This consciousness theory of everything (TOE) also called Quantum FFF Theory, (FFF = Function Follows Form) is a semi classical theory.
Quantum FFF Theory is a semi classical theory because it describes reality by the real collision and shape transformation processes of real sub quantum rigid stringy fully entangled particles.
Each particle is supposed to be entangled with 8 or 12 CP symmetric particles located inside 8 or 12 universal bubbles at long distance.
Those particles are supposed to be based on only one original transformable ring shaped massless virgin particle called the Axion/Higgs particle assumed to be the product of the symmetric cyclic big bang nucleus as the creation of a limited symmetrical multiverse equipped with an even number of material and anti material universal bubbles.
The Q-FFF theory is called Semi classical because in addition to the ring shaped transformable rigid string particles, all universal bubbles are assumed to be each others Charge Parity (CP) mirror symmetric universal bubbles which are assumed to be instant entangled down to each individual string particle created out of the Axion Higgs splitting cold Big Bang.
The sheer simplicity of such a system is perhaps the reason that I could not find comparable proposals for theories of everything.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1844] **viXra:1801.0003 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-03 17:49:14*

**Authors:** Philip J. Carter

**Comments:** Version 2 adds a step to the derivation on page 10.

With scant regard for conventional paradigms we look squarely at the evidence and derive a space-time framework accounting for quantum non-locality and retro-causality. On this basis we gather insight into the origins of time, space and mass. We derive the mass-transformation formula according to Special Relativity and provide a context for the internal symmetries of the Standard Model. To provide a philosophical context we derive the central structure of the esoteric cosmological model from first principles while demonstrating its consistency with the framework. As a result of this unification, consciousness enters physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1843] **viXra:1712.0673 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-07 08:29:27*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Shevchenko, Vladimir V. Tokarevsky

**Comments:** A little upgraded version V1 and now contains two versions: Engl., pages 1-13; and Rus. Pages 14-28

In this paper the “conventions problem” in physics is considered, first of all in application to mechanics .
Key words: Space, Time, mechanics, Lorentz transformations, relativity theories, conventions

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1842] **viXra:1712.0598 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-04 11:18:29*

**Authors:** Jonathan W. Tooker

**Comments:** 283 Pages. 96 figures, solid

The modified cosmological model (MCM) has been an active research program
since 2009 and here we summarize the highlights while providing background and
insights as they demonstrate mathematical merit. The main ``modification'' that
underpins this work is to consider the principle of greatest action, not least,
but cosmological energy functions do not appear. To accommodate infinite action
we develop a transfinite analytical framework $^\star\mathbb{C}$. In the first
chapter we define the MCM system as the union of two Kaluza--Klein theories
disconnected by a topological obstruction. We identify a detail overlooked by
Feynman in his ``many double slits'' thought experiment with which we directly
motivate the principle of maximum action. Chapter two is mostly a review of
fundamental concepts including twistors and quaternions. Much attention in
chapter three is given to what are perceived as criticisms of the MCM mechanism
for the unification of the theories of gravitation and quanta, and we closely
examine the derivation of Einstein's equation from unrelated MCM concepts. The
main technical result in chapter three is to demonstrate that dark energy and
expanding space are inherent to the MCM metric and we examine the role of the
advanced electromagnetic potential in ``hyperspacetime.'' Chapter four is a
tour de force starting with a review of the foundations of the MCM. We extend
Dirac's bra-ket to an MCM inner product for $^\star\mathbb{C}$. We continue
with a study of conformal infinity and the transfinite extension into the
region ``beyond conformal infinity.'' The double slit experiment gives an
example of the empirical/philosophical utilities of the MCM principles and we
examine their extension into the realm of numerical analysis before deriving
the main result: a new formulation for the mass-energy budget of the universe
that agrees perfectly with $\Lambda$CDM.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1841] **viXra:1712.0527 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-22 03:17:59*

**Authors:** Wan-Chung Hu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Angle change is not fully explained in special relativity. This article is focusing on angle change in special relativity and to derive spinity by the concept of additive angular velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1840] **viXra:1712.0489 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-28 02:49:35*

**Authors:** John Lawrence Duval

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The only way to comprehensively refute Einstein's SRT Time Dilation idea, is to reveal the errors - both logical and trigonometric - in the thought experiment upon which it is based. This work does just that.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1839] **viXra:1712.0480 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-30 22:11:02*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 24 Pages. There are many dynamics in STR, and not one, it is believed.

The article presents our innovative method of deriving dynamics in the Special Theory of Relativity. This method enables to derive infinitely dynamics in relativistic mechanics. We have shown five examples of these derivations. In this way, we have shown that the dynamics known today as the dynamics of Special Theory of Relativity is only one of infinitely possible. There is also no reason to treat this relativistic dynamics as exceptional, either for experimental or theoretical reasons. Therefore, determination of which possible dynamics of relativistic mechanics is a correct model of reality remains an open problem of physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1838] **viXra:1712.0470 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-16 14:59:22*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Fixed several typos

We show that the Kerr metric for de Sitter spacetime is consistent with the demand that the associated Einstein field equations be derived from a simple conformally invariant Lagrangian.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1837] **viXra:1712.0387 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-30 22:18:03*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 23 Pages. There are many dynamics in STR, and not one, it is believed. (in Polish)

W artykule przedstawiliśmy naszą nowatorską metodę wyprowadzania dynamik w Szczególnej Torii Względności. Metoda ta pozwala na wyprowadzenie w mechanice relatywistycznej nieskończenie wielu dynamik. Pokazaliśmy pięć przykładów takich wyprowadzeń. Wykazaliśmy w ten sposób, że dynamika znana dzisiaj jako dynamika Szczególnej Teorii Względności jest tylko jedną z nieskończenie wielu możliwych. Nie ma także żadnej podstawy, aby tą obowiązującą dynamikę relatywistyczną traktować jako wyjątkową, ani z powodów eksperymentalnych, ani z powodów teoretycznych. W związku z tym rozstrzygnięcie, która z możliwych dynamik mechaniki relatywistycznej jest prawidłowym modelem rzeczywistości pozostaje otwartym problemem fizyki.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1836] **viXra:1712.0387 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-17 04:25:57*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 23 Pages. Method of deriving numerous dynamics in the Special Theory of Relativity (in Polish)

W artykule przedstawiliśmy naszą nowatorską metodę wyprowadzania dynamik w Szczególnej Torii Względności. Metoda ta pozwala na wyprowadzenie w mechanice relatywistycznej nieskończenie wielu dynamik. Pokazaliśmy pięć przykładów takich wyprowadzeń. Wykazaliśmy w ten sposób, że dynamika znana dzisiaj jako dynamika Szczególnej Teorii Względności jest tylko jedną z nieskończenie wielu możliwych. Nie ma także żadnej podstawy, aby tą obowiązującą dynamikę relatywistyczną traktować jako wyjątkową, ani z powodów eksperymentalnych, ani z powodów teoretycznych. W związku z tym rozstrzygnięcie, która z możliwych dynamik mechaniki relatywistycznej jest prawidłowym modelem rzeczywistości pozostaje otwartym problemem fizyki.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1835] **viXra:1712.0133 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-17 23:26:34*

**Authors:** Capt. Joseph H. Forrington

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

General Relativity is solely dependent on the apparent difference in the rate of time between frames. This theory therefore attempts to explain what we are seeing in the galactic rotational velocities through relativistic effects in time rather than through Dark Matter. Properly understood, Einstein’s field equations can explain the rotational velocities within flattened spiral galaxies. To that end, this paper clarifies how General Relativity describes the evolution of events and spaces within the continuum, rather than the movement of particles through pre-existing, static, spaces. Gravitational fields, (dilation gradients), have different shapes around different shaped masses. Stellar systems are spherical and events appear to evolve forward at an increasingly accelerated rate as the dilation gradient deepens approaching the center of the system. In flattened spiral galaxies, the gradients act across the broad flat surface of the disk from above and below, evolving objects forward at ~ the same rate of time and hence the same velocity. Because the mass is concentrated in the spiral arms, there is a deeper gradient and particles appear to be accelerated faster than particles between the arms, even though the rate of time is faster between the arms, just as in stellar systems. IBEX failing to find a shock wave at the edge of the heliopause as expected is a proof of the concepts regarding the evolution and nature of the continuum explained here-in, as also might be the “dead zone” discovered by Pioneer 1.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1834] **viXra:1712.0017 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-30 06:45:17*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 25 Pages. Typos corrected. Comments welcome.

After a brief recall of the widely known, and still unsolved problems of the coupling of gravity to matter and the non-linear transport of mass-energy (equivalent to “200 solar masses per second”) by gravitational waves (GWs), it is concluded (p. 19) that the alleged “detection” of GWs and black holes on 14 September 2015, dubbed GW150914, is impossible, and therefore is FRAUD. I also provide various conditions under which the conclusion can be proven false and refuted. For example, regarding the origin of GW energy, if the so-called “mixed procedure” (Jose Pereira) can be derived from non-linear GW effects (MTW p. 968) due to arbitrary GW amplitude (Michele Maggiore) inducing stresses in matter (Robert Wald), say, in a plastic bottle (p. 21) at distance 1 AU from GW150914, the conclusion by Hermann Weyl on the linearized approximation of GR (p. 19) will be refuted. Then all projects in GW astronomy, including Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), will be duly vindicated, and I’ll eat my hat.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1833] **viXra:1712.0017 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-25 11:15:17*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 25 Pages. Text expanded and typos corrected. Comments welcome.

After a brief recall of the widely known, and still unsolved problems of the coupling of gravity to matter and the transport of mass-energy (e.g., equivalent to “200 solar masses per second”) by gravitational waves (GWs), it is concluded (p. 19) that the “detection” of GWs and black holes on 14 September 2015, dubbed GW150914, is impossible, and therefore is FRAUD. I also provide various conditions under which the conclusion can be proven false and refuted. For example, if the so-called “mixed procedure” (Jose Pereira) can be derived from non-linear GW effects (MTW p. 968) due to arbitrary GW amplitude (Michele Maggiore) which can induce stresses (Robert Wald) in matter, say, in a plastic bottle (p. 21) at distance 1 AU from GW150914, the conclusion by Hermann Weyl on the linearized approximation of GR (p. 19) will be refuted and all projects in GW astronomy, including Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), will be duly vindicated, and I’ll eat my hat.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1832] **viXra:1712.0017 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-23 05:04:09*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 25 Pages. Final version. Comments welcome.

After a brief recall of the widely known, and still unsolved problems of the coupling of gravity to matter and the transport of energy by gravitational waves (GWs), it is concluded (p. 19) that the alleged detection of GWs and black holes on 14 September 2015 (GW150914) is impossible, and can only be FRAUD. At the end of the paper, I provide various conditions under which the conclusion can be refuted. For example, if the so-called "mixed procedure" (Jose Pereira) can be derived from non-linear GW effects (MTW p. 968) due to arbitrary GW amplitude (Michele Maggiore), which will induce stresses (Robert Wald) in empty plastic bottle (p. 21) at distance 1 AU from GW150914 dated 14 September 2015, the conclusion (p. 19) will be refuted and all projects in GW astronomy, including Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), will be duly vindicated, and I'll eat my hat.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1831] **viXra:1712.0017 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-19 14:24:37*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 24 Pages. Text expanded and typos corrected. Comments welcome.

After a brief recall of the widely known, and still unsolved problems of the coupling of gravity to matter and the transport of energy by gravitational waves (GWs), it is concluded (p. 19) that the alleged detection of GWs and black holes on 14 September 2015 (GW150914) is impossible, and can only be FRAUD. At the end of the paper, I provide the conditions under which my conclusion can be refuted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1830] **viXra:1712.0017 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-15 06:37:15*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 24 Pages. Comments welcome.

After a brief recall of the widely known, and still unsolved problems of the coupling of gravity to matter and the transport of energy by gravitational waves (GWs), it is suggested (p. 19) that the alleged detection of GWs and black holes on 14 September 2015 (GW150914) is scientifically impossible, and can only be FRAUD. At the last section of the paper (pp. 20-23), I provide the conditions under which my conclusion can be refuted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1829] **viXra:1712.0017 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-12 11:52:55*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 23 Pages. Final version. Comments welcome.

After a brief recall of the widely known, and still unsolved problems of the coupling of gravity to matter and the transport of energy by gravitational waves (GWs), it is suggested (p. 19) that the alleged detection of GWs and black holes on 14 September 2015 (GW150914) is scientifically impossible, and can only be FRAUD. At the last section of the paper (pp. 20-23), I provide the conditions under which my conclusion can be refuted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1828] **viXra:1712.0017 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-08 06:35:03*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 21 Pages. Comments welcome.

After a brief recall of the widely known, and still unsolved problems of the coupling of gravity to matter and the transport of energy by gravitational waves (GWs), it is suggested (p. 19) that the alleged detection of GWs and black holes on 14 September 2015 (GW150914) is scientifically impossible, and can only be FRAUD. At the last section of the paper (pp. 20-21), I provide the conditions under which my conclusion can be refuted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1827] **viXra:1712.0017 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-07 08:24:19*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 21 Pages. Text expanded. Comments welcome.

After a brief recall of the widely known, and still unsolved problems of the coupling of gravity to matter and the transport of energy by gravitational waves (GWs), it is suggested (p. 19) that the alleged detection of GWs and black holes on 14 September 2015 (GW150914) is scientifically impossible, and can only be FRAUD. At the last section of the paper, I provide the conditions under which my conclusion can be refuted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1826] **viXra:1712.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-06 05:56:21*

**Authors:** Jean Pierre Rukundo

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper, a general spacetime transformation from biquaternion left and right multiplications is introduced. First, it is shown that the transformation leaves the spacetime length invariant. Furthermore, the Lorentz transformation is derived as a special case of the general biquaternion transformation. Surprisingly, some commutation and anticommutation properties generally found in quantum mechanics are manifested by the biquaternion transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1825] **viXra:1711.0451 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-12 10:52:19*

**Authors:** Per Hokstad

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Abstract. We introduce a new approach to simultaneity in the special theory of relativity (STR), considering two reference frames (RFs) moving relative to each other at constant speed, v. The two clocks at the origins play a crucial role. We synchronize these at time 0, and refer to this event as the ‘point of initiation’. Due to the symmetry we conclude that identical readings of these two ‘basic clocks’ represent a strong sense of simultaneity. The second element of the approach is a modified version of the Lorentz transformation. We combine the two (clock, space) observations of each RF at a specific position, giving a vector of two orthogonal components. The absolute value of this time vector provides a measure for ‘distance in time’ from the ‘point of initiation’, and events with the same ‘distance’ exhibits a sense of simultaneity. There is a rather close relation to the Minkowski distance. We can also present the time vector as a complex variable. The given description of simultaneity is well suited to analyse and conclude regarding the travelling twin case.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1824] **viXra:1711.0451 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-21 11:11:44*

**Authors:** Per Hokstad

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Abstract. Simultaneity is a key concept in the special theory of relativity (STR), considering two reference frames (RFs) moving relative to each other at constant speed, v. We introduce a new approach to simultaneity and its relation to the clock reading and position along the x –axis. The two clocks at the origins play a crucial role. We synchronize these at time 0, and refer to this event as the ‘point of initiation’. Due to the symmetry we conclude that identical readings of these two ‘basic clocks’ represent a strong sense of simultaneity. The second element of the approach is a new version of the Lorentz transformation. We combine the two (clock, space) observations of each RF at a specific position, giving a time vector of two orthogonal components. The absolute value of this time vector provides a measure for ‘distance in time’ from the ‘point of initiation’, and events with the same ‘distance’ are simultaneous in some sense. We can further present the time vector as a comple x variable. The given description of simultaneity is well suited to analyse and conclude regarding the travelling twin case.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1823] **viXra:1711.0451 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-13 11:39:41*

**Authors:** Per Hokstad

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Abstract. Simultaneity is a key concept in the special theory of relativity (STR), when two reference frames (RFs) are moving relative to each other at constant speed, v. We introduce a new approach to simultaneity and its relation to the clock reading and position along the x –axis. The two clocks at the origins play a crucial role. We synchronize these at time 0, and refer to this event as the ‘point of initiation’. From symmetry reasons, we conclude that identical readings of these two ‘basic clocks’ – at least in some sense – represent simultaneity. The second element of our approach is a new version of the Lorentz transformation. We combine the two (clock, space) variables of both RFs at a specific position, giving a state variable of two orthogonal components. The absolute value of this two-dimensional time vector provides a measure for ‘distance in time’ from the ‘point of initiation’. We utilise this distance to specify simultaneity of events; i.e. time vectors having same absolute value (=‘total distance’) will correspond to simultaneous events. We can also give the time vector as a complex variable, where the real part equals the clock reading of the ‘basic clocks’ at the relevant position. The given description of simultaneity is well suited to analyse and conclude regarding the travelling twin case.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1822] **viXra:1711.0428 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-11 10:56:32*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Where standard physics runs into infinite challenges, atomism predicts exact limits. We summarize the mathematical results briefly in a table in this note and also revisit the energy-momentum relationship based on this view.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1821] **viXra:1711.0428 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-10 15:33:10*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Where standard physics runs into infinite challenges, atomism predicts exact limits. We summarize the mathematical results briefly in a table in this note and also revisit the energy-momentum relationship based on this view.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1820] **viXra:1711.0428 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-28 09:27:00*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Where standard physics runs into infinite challenges, atomism predicts exact limits. We summarize the mathematical results briefly in a table in this note and are also revisiting the energy momentum relationship based on this view.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1819] **viXra:1711.0404 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-28 14:49:14*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Several typos fixed, and a less restrictive derivation of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation is presented.

A simple, parameter-free conformal approach to gravity is presented based on the the square of the quadratic Ricci scalar R alone. It is shown that when R is a non-zero constant, the associated action is fully conformal and leads to the usual equations of motion associated with the standard Einstein-Hilbert action. To demonstrate the approach, we derive the Schwarzschild metric, the field of a charged particle and the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1818] **viXra:1711.0363 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-03 16:41:54*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this short note we are looking into a few interesting details about relativistic kinetic energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1817] **viXra:1711.0363 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-25 07:43:51*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this short note we are looking into a few interesting details about relativistic kinetic energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1816] **viXra:1711.0363 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-23 13:38:04*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1815] **viXra:1711.0352 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-26 12:53:10*

**Authors:** R.I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Gravitation and Cosmology, 20, 4 (2014), p. 264.

The operational and canonical definitions of an energy-momentum tensor (EMT) are considered as well as the tensor and nontensor conservation laws. It is shown that the canonical EMT contradicts the experiments and the operational definition, the Belinfante-Rosenfeld procedure worsens the situation, and the nontensor “conservation laws” are meaningless. A definition of the 4-momentum of a system demands a translator since integration of vectors is meaningless. The mass of a fluid sphere is calculated. It is shown that, according to the standard energy-momentum pseudotensor, the mass-energy of a gravitational field is positive. This contradicts the idea of a negative gravitational energy and discredits the pseudotensor. And what is more, integral 4-pseudovectors are meaningless in general since reference frames for their components are not determined even for coordinates which areMinkowskian at infinity

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1814] **viXra:1711.0345 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-17 23:24:01*

**Authors:** Capt. Joseph H. Forrington

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

General Relativity is solely dependent on the apparent difference in the rate of time between frames. This theory therefore attempts to explain what we are seeing in the universe through relativistic effects in time rather than through the Big Bang, Dark Energy and Dark Matter. Properly understood, Einstein’s field equations can explain the rotational velocities within flattened spiral galaxies. To that end, this paper clarifies how General Relativity describes the evolution of events and spaces within the continuum, rather than the movement of particles through pre-existing, static, spaces. Gravitational fields, (dilation gradients), have different shapes around different shaped masses. Stellar systems are spherical and events appear to evolve forward at an increasingly accelerated rate as the dilation gradient deepens approaching the center of the system. In flattened spiral galaxies, the gradients act across the broad flat surface of the disk from above and below, evolving objects forward at ~ the same rate of time and hence the same velocity. Because the mass is concentrated in the spiral arms, there is a deeper gradient and particles appear to be accelerated faster than particles between the arms, even though the rate of time is faster between the arms, just as in stellar systems. IBEX failing to find a shock wave at the edge of the heliopause as expected is a proof of the concepts regarding the evolution and nature of the continuum explained here, as also might be the “dead zone” discovered by Pioneer 1. This theory also describes the dynamics in time by which the CMB is generated, accelerated, and concentrated, converting the potential energy of the spacetime continuum into real energy and mass. A proof of the dynamic developed here is LIGO’S Sept. 14, 2015 detection of a “gravity wave”; a distortion in the rate of time, an acceleration in the rate, travelling at c through space and distorting space in the physical form of the antenna. The theory also explains black holes and why our limits of perception within a black hole, and at ~ 13.8 Gly, are due to the limit of relativity, where our perception transitions from time-like to space-like. This is where ∆D, the difference in the rate of time between frames, = 1 s/s, which occurs both at the event horizon of a black hole and looking outward to the limits of perception. It occurs looking outward because events are being constantly accelerated in the rate of time, giving older frames progressively slower rates the older they are. This creates a time dilation gradient and the Hubble shift.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1813] **viXra:1711.0137 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-03 19:01:37*

**Authors:** Kenneth Dalton

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A black hole model is proposed in which a neutron star is
surrounded by a neutral gas of electrons and positrons. The gas is in a completely degenerate quantum state and does not radiate. The pressure and density in the gas are found to be much less than those in the neutron star. The radius of the black hole is far greater than the Schwarzschild radius.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1812] **viXra:1711.0115 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-06 23:08:21*

**Authors:** John Malcolm Newell

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the century since Einstein's general relativity we have translated all of our solutions for relativity and quantum mechanics back into clock time, despite that dimension being too limited and too localised to describe those relationships. If we accept that clock time can have a natural complex conjugate, we can resolve quantum mechanics by appreciating the photon as a quantum without extension in its own time. We can then unify gravity and inertia with electromagnetic action, without paradox, in a Machian universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology