**Previous months:**

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2018 - 1801(35) - 1802(41) - 1803(45) - 1804(45) - 1805(38) - 1806(40) - 1807(48) - 1808(29) - 1809(21) - 1810(38) - 1811(54) - 1812(43)

2019 - 1901(36) - 1902(30) - 1903(37) - 1904(42)

Any replacements are listed farther down

[3319] **viXra:1904.0339 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-17 21:10:40*

**Authors:** Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 27 Pages. Discussion about the basics of the Special Theory of Relativity.

The article shows that there are infinitely many kinematics in which one-way speed of light is always equal to c. The kinematics of Special Theory of Relativity (STR) is only one of those infinitely many kinematics.
It presents that mathematics on which STR kinematics is based can be interpreted differently and this leads to other conclusions on the properties of this kinematics.
In this article, the whole class of linear coordinate and time transformations was derived. Transformations were derived on the assumption that conclusions from Michelson-Morley’s and Kennedy-Thorndikea’s experiments are met for the observer from each inertial frame of reference, i.e. that the mean velocity of light in the vacuum flowing along the way back and forth is constant. It was also assumed that there is at least one inertial frame of reference, in which the velocity of light in a vacuum in each direction has the same value c, and the space is isotropic for observers from this distinguished inertial frame of reference (universal frame of reference).
Derived transformations allow for building many different kinematics according to Michelson-Morley’s and Kennedy-Thorndikea’s experiments.
The class of transformations derived in the study is a generalization of transformations derived in the paper [10], which consists in enabling non-zero values of parameter e(v). The idea of such a generalization derives from the person, who gave me this extended transformations class for analysis and publication.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3318] **viXra:1904.0337 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-17 23:26:26*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Thank you for reading

We find Einstein’s notational equation of the electro-magnetic field equation and the
electro-magnetic field in Rindler space-time. Because, electromagnetic fields of the
accelerated frame include in general relativity theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3317] **viXra:1904.0331 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-16 07:31:44*

**Authors:** Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Author's Email: yahya-sharif@hotmail.com

The article aims to provide a mathematical equation for my new discovery .
Link to my new discovery : http://vixra.org/abs/1904.0013

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3316] **viXra:1904.0330 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-16 10:03:58*

**Authors:** Marc J. Meurens

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The fundamental particle is the elementary particle of which the active mass corresponds to the fundamental quantum of action and to the fundamental time unit equal to the number 1. The universal temporality is the relation between the unit, the course and the duration of the Universe expansion time. The identification of the fundamental particle in the Planck’s constant and its integration in the Newton’s constant reveal that its interaction simultaneously causes the expansion and the gravitation. The mechanical modelling of this primordial interaction with the Newton’s cradle completes the general relativity with the cosmological relativity and the quantum mechanics with the primordial mechanics. In relating the notions of mass, space and time, the discovery of the fundamental particle and its primordial interaction links the mechanics with the relativity. In relating the unit, the course and the duration of the universal time, the theory of the universal temporality demystifies the black energy as well as the black matter. The spectral time signature is the gravitation weakening hidden behind the expansion acceleration in the spectrum of the universal temporality. The Moon distancing measured since 50 years in the Lunar Laser Ranging experiment is a spectral time signature which allows calculate the Universe age with the Newton’s constant more easily and precisely than with the Hubble’s constant. Together the theory of the universal temporality and the Lunar Laser Ranging experiment unveil the time nature and demonstrates that in its unit, its course and its duration the universal time is an energy ratio between the Universe and the fundamental particle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3315] **viXra:1904.0314 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-16 15:28:51*

**Authors:** Mohamed Ahmed Abouzeid

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Assume mass is the fifth dimension in Special Relativity and Redefinition of the point as a circle. According to Einstein's first hypothesis only, it can be reached to transfer formats between reference frames in the special theory of relativity and find the mass limit for any body is moves

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3314] **viXra:1904.0309 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-17 01:53:42*

**Authors:** Bhaskar

**Comments:** 41 Pages. None

New concepts of physics

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3313] **viXra:1904.0297 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-15 08:28:04*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 43 Pages.

Scientists believe that time is continuous, not discrete—roughly speaking, they believe that it does not progress in "chunks," but rather "flows," smoothly and continuously. [27] Physicists theorize that this time-reversal violation is the key ingredient needed to unravel the cosmic mystery of the missing antimatter. [26] The arrow of time and the accelerated expansion are two fundamental empirical facts of the universe. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19] Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18]

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3312] **viXra:1904.0288 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-15 14:58:20*

**Authors:** Mohamed Ababou

**Comments:** 02 Pages.

the news about capturing a black hole are spreading quickly all over the globe, but it is clear and according to physical and Mathematical evidences that it can't be a black hole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3311] **viXra:1904.0265 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-14 11:27:30*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Abstract: A forward-time, reverse-time cycle of the 4th cycle of an MHCE8S universe emphasizing 2 new neutron quarks and holography extending back to at least the 3rd cyclic universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3310] **viXra:1904.0251 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-13 13:09:32*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Causality and Information are linked variables characterizing atomic matter, bridging the conceptual gap between Quantum Mechanics and Relativity theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3309] **viXra:1904.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-13 17:27:15*

**Authors:** Leonardo Rubino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper I show that the universe is a perfect sphere and provide a theoretical calculation of the TCMBR.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3308] **viXra:1904.0245 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-14 03:28:58*

**Authors:** Antoine Balan

**Comments:** 3 pages, written in french

We define Einstein spinors and Einstein equations for spin geometry.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3307] **viXra:1904.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-12 09:09:45*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

1.the distance at 3*10^8 m is independent of time
2.any amount of time is independent of the distance 3*10^8 m
1.this means that the distance 3*10^8 m is the distance that you cant add more time more than 1 second
2.this means that no matter how much time you add or take the distance 3*10^8 is the same in all casesv

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3306] **viXra:1904.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-12 18:22:15*

**Authors:** Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Einstein's theory of relativity is based on Ether. Einstein's statements that there is no Ether and that all systems are equal are just an attempt to hide the fact that Einstein's Theory of Relativity and the Poincare Principle are one and the same.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3305] **viXra:1904.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-11 17:12:55*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 343 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

The Wrong ‘EHT Black Hole image’ and money; the Ferent image. Einstein and all the scientists did not understand Gravitation
“Einstein supermassive Black Hole image is Black; Ferent supermassive Black Hole image is White”
Adrian Ferent
“In Ferent Quantum Gravity the supermassive Black Hole image is white because around it there are a lot of collisions between stars and planets. The large luminosity is the result of gas and matter being accreted by the supermassive Black Hole.”
Adrian Ferent
“Einstein supermassive Black Hole is a Singularity; Ferent supermassive Black Hole has very small volume”
Adrian Ferent
“In Ferent Quantum Gravity the Event Horizon doesn’t exist, at the Event Horizon there are Gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
The first Black Hole image of the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) is Wrong, it is a Fraud. The image of the supermassive Black Hole that lies at the centre of the huge Messier 87 galaxy is Einstein Black Hole image, it is Einstein description of gravity!
EHT image is Einstein Black Hole image:
Galaxy image and Ferent Black Hole image:
“Black holes are Dark Matter”
Adrian Ferent
85% of the matter in the universe is Dark Matter.
More accurate:
“Black Holes are Ferent Matter”
Adrian Ferent
“Ferent Matter is Dark Matter with density higher than Planck density”
Adrian Ferent
Ferent Matter is high density Dark Matter:
Ferent density ≥ Ferent matter density > Planck density
“Supermassive Black Holes have very small mass: md = m × c^2 / vp^2”
Adrian Ferent
“I am the first who calculated the mass and the energy of a Black Hole”
Adrian Ferent
“Everything what you learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists…about Dark Matter and Black Holes is wrong”
Adrian Ferent
We do not need to look for Black Holes in another galaxy.
Sagittarius A* is the location of the supermassive Black Hole in the center of the Milky Way galaxy.
Milky Way galaxy has a supermassive Black Hole, 4.1 million solar masses, at its center, 26000 light-years from the Solar System.
Einstein supermassive Black Hole is a Singularity!
Ferent supermassive Black Hole has very small volume!
The Planck density = 5.155 × 10^96 kg/m^3
At Planck wall the volume of the Black Hole:
V = 1.59 × 10^(-60) m^3
“The volume of this supermassive Black Hole is much smaller than V = 1.59 × 10^(-60) m^3”
Adrian Ferent
“Einstein supermassive Black Hole is a Singularity; Ferent supermassive Black Hole has very small volume”
Adrian Ferent
“Einstein bent the space, Ferent unbent the space”
Adrian Ferent
Einstein supermassive Black Hole image is Black!
Ferent supermassive Black Hole image is White!
“In Ferent Quantum Gravity the supermassive Black Hole image is white because around it there are a lot of collisions between stars and planets. The large luminosity is the result of gas and matter being accreted by the supermassive Black Hole.”
Adrian Ferent
“Einstein supermassive Black Hole image is Black; Ferent supermassive Black Hole image is White”
Adrian Ferent
“Because inside the Black Holes, the Gravitational force is much stronger than the Strong nuclear force, nobody was able to explain Gravitation”
Adrian Ferent
“The energy of the Gravitons inside a Black Hole, is much higher than the energy of the gluons”
Adrian Ferent
That is why:
“Gravitational radiation is the most penetrating type of radiation”
Adrian Ferent
“Gravitons change Matter in Dark Matter, inside a Black Hole”
Adrian Ferent
“Gravitons emitted by Black Holes kill people”
Adrian Ferent
But you see on TV, YouTube wrong things about Wormholes, how scientists like Michio Kaku, Kip Thorne… can travel trough a Black Hole!
“Newton and Einstein did not understand Gravitation, they calculated Gravitation”
Adrian Ferent
Money and Fraud!
Living in Romania, the most corrupt country, I understand very well the corruption in science.
Like LIGO and the discovery of Higgs boson, the ‘EHT Black Hole image’ is another Fraud!
LIGO: “Einstein’s gravitational waves do not exist, how they can detect them?”
Adrian Ferent
“The reaction of the Swedish Academy to Higgs boson discovery appears to be a result of being beguiled by CERN’s attempts to justify the billions of dollars of public money being spent.“
This is another proof that Ferent Quantum Gravity theory is right and Einstein Gravitation theory, String theory, LQG… are wrong theories.
“Scientists who are not capable to work with Planck units, they can work with atoms in chemistry, medicine, biology, technology, they can work in mathematics to build wrong models, they can work in economics, they can work in AI…”
Adrian Ferent
“In Ferent Quantum Gravity the Event Horizon doesn’t exist, at the Event Horizon there are Gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
198. I am the first who explained why Einstein supermassive Black Hole image is Black; Ferent supermassive Black Hole image is White
199. I am the first who explained why Einstein supermassive Black Hole is a Singularity; Ferent supermassive Black Hole has very small volume
200. I am the first who discovered that in Ferent Quantum Gravity the Event Horizon doesn’t exist, at the Event Horizon there are Gravitons

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3304] **viXra:1904.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-12 00:40:17*

**Authors:** Ulrich Berger

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Abstract:
As described previously, the concept of a “Net Charged Universe” (NCU) assumes that the expansion of the universe is driven by a slight excess of positive charge in the universe’s matter. This excess charge comes into being by means of quantum fluctuations at the universe’s horizon. Excess protons experience electrostatic acceleration and therefore gain high relativistic mass, which is the source of the creation of neutral matter at the universe’s horizon.
Based on the NCU model, the present article aims to explain the observed fraction of Helium (approximately 7%) in the universe’s baryonic matter. For this purpose, calculations on collision rates of excess protons are performed and applied to determine the Helium fraction in the universe’s matter.
The results of these calculations correspond very well to the observations and thus, they further support the NCU model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3303] **viXra:1904.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-10 12:50:06*

**Authors:** R. Wayte

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Repulsive gravity at large distances has been included in the universal solution of Einstein’s equations by introducing a cosmological constant, excluding the dark energy interpretation. For a new cosmological model, the big-bang singularity has been replaced by a granular primeval particle and expansion is controlled by the velocity of light. Subsequently, well known problems inherent in the standard model of cosmology do not arise.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3302] **viXra:1904.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-10 16:25:47*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 16 Pages. The new physical theory called the Special Theory of Ether (in Polish).

Celem artykułu jest pokazanie, że eksperymenty Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a nie są wystarczające do uzasadnienia Szczególnej Teorii Względności. Możliwe jest bowiem wyjaśnienie tych eksperymentów przy pomocy innej teorii, w której występuje uniwersalny układ odniesienia.
W artykule wyprowadzamy nową teorię kinematyki ciał z uniwersalnym układem odniesienia, którą nazwaliśmy Szczególną Teorią Eteru (STE).
W artykule wyjaśniono dlaczego eksperymenty Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a nie były w stanie wykryć uniwersalnego układu odniesienia.
W artykule wyprowadzamy na podstawie geometrycznej analizy eksperymentów Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a inną transformację czasu i położenia niż transformacja Lorentza. Wyprowadzona została także transformacja prędkości, wzór na sumowanie prędkości dla prędkości bezwzględnej, wzór na skrócenie długości oraz wzór na dylatację czasu.
Cały artykuł zawiera tylko oryginalne badania autorów publikacji.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3301] **viXra:1904.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-11 01:33:29*

**Authors:** Henry-Couannier Frederic

**Comments:** 64 Pages.

Dark Gravity (DG) is a background dependent bimetric and semi-classical extension of General Relativity with an anti-gravitational sector. The foundations of the theory are reviewed. The main theoretical achievement of DG is the avoidance of any singularities (both black hole horizon and cosmic initial singularity) and an ideal framework to understand the cancellation of vacuum energy contributions to gravity and hopefully solve the old cosmological constant problem. The main testable predictions of DG against GR are on large scales as it provides an acceleration mechanism alternative to the cosmological constant. The detailed confrontation of the theory to SN-Cepheids, CMB and BAO data is presented. The Pioneer effect, MOND phenomenology and Dark Matter are also investigated in the context of this new framework.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3300] **viXra:1904.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-09 11:32:13*

**Authors:** David Colasante

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Euclidean interval-time coordinates reveal a surprisingly simple explanation of gravity. From this, gravitational mass, inertial mass and energy inextricably arise with inherent duality.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3299] **viXra:1904.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-09 17:28:04*

**Authors:** Pablo Hernan Pereyra

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Is shown the field and energy momentum tensor solutions of the Total Relativity equations for a discretized distribution of point-particle energy with a shell in spherical symmetry. A generalization of the Schwarzschild and Reissner Nordström solutions with an equivalent of the spherical atomic model with shell, mass and electric charge in radial static distribution is obtained. An equivalence between mass, radial distance and electric charge is observed. The solution is vacuum with no singularities and points to incompleteness and error in the Schwarzschild Vacuum Solution due to the problem of total energy conservation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3298] **viXra:1904.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-10 05:58:06*

**Authors:** Per Hokstad

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Abstract. The concept of ‘basic clocks’ was introduced in Hokstad (2018b). These are moving clocks to be applied in the theory of special relativity (TSR). They experience an initial synchronization at a common location, and provide the basis for defining time and simultaneity. Here we elaborate and motivate the concept somewhat further, also utilizing symmetry. We further allow having a successive chain of initial synchronizations. This is required in the ‘travelling twin’ example, in order to handle the turning of the twin. Finally, the approach is used to discuss the interpretation of the case of the µ-mesons.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3297] **viXra:1904.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-08 10:46:02*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: The starting energy for the 4th cyclic universe came from Bekenstein collapse energy produced by the 3rd cyclic universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3296] **viXra:1904.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-08 22:57:13*

**Authors:** Tom Fuchs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

I show an issue with an experiment involving the event horizon of a black hole, and use it to solve the black hole information paradox.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3295] **viXra:1904.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-07 09:10:07*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 2 Pages. -

Space is quantized. The Hubble extension makes all these areas non-inertial. Limit speeds in these areas will be different. Because of this, there is some extra force.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3294] **viXra:1904.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-06 08:34:40*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

in our previous paper we noted that space is the envelope of masses and that time is the effects done till the rupture of time now we will study how masses interact with space time lets study first why masses accelerate in space now imagine having three types of masses in the universe a mass that is sprinkled in the universe in the form of electromagnetic waves and masses that are agglomerated together in groups and masses that are in blackholes now when we look at the first case we find that electromagnetic waves are taking the whole volume of the universes space and that means that they cover the whole space and so the effect of time of space time is not much and cannot make it accelerate now in masses agglomerated together in groups we find that masses do not take the whole space and so time of spacetime effects starts to happen much intensively and so the agglomerated mass start to escape its own domain shared with other masses and thus they accelerate away from each other now in blackholes the effect of time of spacetime on black holes is left to conclude that they only happen because of the expansion of the agglomerated masses

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3293] **viXra:1904.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-07 05:52:10*

**Authors:** Fabien Sabinet

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Pioneer 10 anomaly, discovered at the end of the 70's by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is a supplemental acceleration, in addition to the normal gravity from the solar system, acting on the probe with a magnitude of 8.7×10-10 m/s².
I calculated here that the value of this anomaly is surprisingly exactly equal to the difference between the result given by the Doppler relativistic formula based on the Einstein's second postulate (used by JPL), and the result given by the Doppler classic Galilean velocity addition formula.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3292] **viXra:1904.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-05 09:22:14*

**Authors:** Kamran Derakhshani

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

The problem of black body radiation when measured by a moving
observer has a pivotal role in relativistic thermodynamics. Mutually, it
depends on the thermodynamical definition of the thermal equilibrium
and temperature of moving bodies, i.e. under a Lorentz transformation,
and also in a gravitational field. Surprisingly, even after more than a
century, relativistic thermodynamics is not a mature theory and is still
an open problem without a consensus. This article is a brief review of the
evolution of this theory with a special focus on the black body radiation
in moving frames. As an application, we use the results in the most
interesting topics of the quantum field theory in curved space: Hawking
radiation, and Unruh effect.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3291] **viXra:1904.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-05 12:08:38*

**Authors:** Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis

**Comments:** 5 pages, 2 figures

In contemporary physics the relativity theory states that the length of moving bodies contracts and the local time of a moving system dilates. This paper discloses an analysis of basic relativity equations which show that length contraction and time dilatation are apparent.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3290] **viXra:1904.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-05 17:38:09*

**Authors:** J Mark Morris

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A neoclassical model of nature is proposed, based upon two equal and opposite fundamental particles. These particles may also be considered as conserved excitations.
This model is derived from thought experiment and re-interpretation of modern physics and cosmology.
A parsimonious neoclassical model of nature is proposed where the electrino ε- and positrino ε+ are the basis of all matter, the carriers of all energy, and form a superfluid gas which permeates most of the universe. At high energies matter and gas change phase to plasma wherein general relativity does not apply. Neither general relativity nor quantum mechanics include the electrino, positrino, nor graviton particles. The neoclassical model informs solutions to many open problems in physics and cosmology. A new narrative emerges that requires recasting and reframing the interpretations of experimental results and theory from physics, cosmology, and astronomy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3289] **viXra:1904.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-05 20:54:25*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this work we discuss a possibility to resolve Olbers paradox that states that if the universe is static, infinite and distributed over with an infinite number of stars then the sky should always be brightly illuminated, and obviously, this contradicts with the observed darkness of the night. Our discussion is based on the observation that matter seems to be distributed mainly on the boundaries of geometric and topological structures in the spatiotemporal continuum, which can be formulated in terms of a CW complex composed of n-cells. And in the case of the three-dimensional observable universe the observation can be justified from our work on the spacetime transcription of physical fields that shows that massive matter can only be formed as three-dimensional objects and all four-dimensional physical fields must have the structure of a static electromagnetic field. From the analysis of the possibility of physical creation from spacetime through the process of transcription we may conclude that most of the observable massive matter are formed and distributed on the boundary, which may be composed of 3D balls, of a 3-sphere and therefore the Oblers paradox can be resolved.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3288] **viXra:1904.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-04 07:00:53*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

in einsteins theory of relativity there is the concept of time dilation its an effect that happens when you tend to reach the speed of light in this paper we will study why does time dilation happens in our previoud paper on einsteins spacetime we have seen how mass inside space acts up now when we move a mass that means that we are moving it from one space domain to the other and since we are moving it from one domain to the other we could assume that space is excluding the mass and accepting new masses which is perfectly normal but then the time part of spacetime starts to act up when you add mass from space domain to the other at high speeds you end up having masses that are passing through lots of space and when you pass through much space thtough much speeds(near the speed of light) you end up passing through lots of time pressing effects and then time starts to increase and then time dilates

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3287] **viXra:1904.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-04 17:05:21*

**Authors:** Lahcen Aderras

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

By adjoining the local time to the Newtonian mechanics together with the constancy of the speed of light;a new unprecedented and insightful derivation of the Lorentz transformation (LT) is proposed. The procedure consist of elementary arguments and simple but rigorous mathematical techniques. The usually assumptions concerning the linearity and homogeneity in the standard derivations of the LT are obtained as results. Moreover, an other, entirely new, transformation is established. As expected, a new special relativity theory ensue from this new transformation. Unlike the special relativity theory (SRT), with this new theory we can tame superluminal velocities.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3286] **viXra:1904.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-03 14:15:19*

**Authors:** Sunil Thakur

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this paper, we have examined some important proposals of the big bang theory. We have also examined a few important interpretations of the quantum mechanics. We have shown that these proposals are not correct but not too far from the reality.
We have explained the mechanism of the quantum jump and quantum tunneling. We have also analyzed the peculiar motion of the galaxies.
We have shown that the singularity did appear everywhere and that the space emerged from the singularity has been expanding ever since the big bang. However, we have explained that the physical world is only a projection. The concept of multiverse or the principle of holographic universe are not correct, because the fact is that the universe is still being projected from each of the singularity. Every singularity projects the same universe because every singularity is a hologram, but this hologram is changing constantly because the information is being created continuously in the universe. We have also explained the mechanism that ensures that the hologram is updated constantly to ensure that at any given time, all the singularities project the same universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3285] **viXra:1904.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-03 17:24:44*

**Authors:** Leonardo Rubino

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Matter and antimatter are in a perfect balance in the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3284] **viXra:1904.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-02 11:50:56*

**Authors:** Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The article aims to prove gravity spread out with the speed of light c using relativistic mass equation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3283] **viXra:1904.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-02 15:27:24*

**Authors:** Anamitra Palit

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The article in the first two sections proves decisively that the Ricci scalar and the norm of the Ricci tensor are constants on the manifold. In the subsequent sections Ricci tensor and Riemannian curvature tensor turn out to be null tensors. The Ricci scalar works out to zero.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3282] **viXra:1904.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-01 11:42:01*

**Authors:** Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The article aims to prove the non-existence of gravity at infinite distances and prove
gravity has a limited range this range is extendable by the speed of light c.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3281] **viXra:1904.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-01 18:01:18*

**Authors:** Thanh Nguyen

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This argument is a section in my book, Beyond the World of Relativity to the World of Invariance. In this argument, we are going to analyze the light aberration to show that the special theory of relativity is inconsistent with the constancy of the speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3280] **viXra:1904.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-04-02 04:47:18*

**Authors:** Fumitaka Inuyama

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Published studies in the literature have stated that the mass of dark matter and the mass of dark energy are approximately five times and 14 times greater in mass, respectively, than ordinary substances such as atoms. However, the detection and thus proof of the existence of dark matter and dark energy have not been successfully realized to date. I believe that there are some fundamental problems that must be addressed and that the universal space-time itself has its own hidden characteristics. In this work, I have estimated the universal space-time based on the special theory of relativity i.e. the combined velocity and the increasing mass. Based on this estimate, it can be concluded that “the ternary space-times” exist in the modern universe and that each of these space-times has its own specific light velocity. And the ternary space-times were created in inflationary epoch of the immediate early universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3279] **viXra:1903.0570 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-31 08:32:46*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

In the resulting footage, photons clearly streak through the milk in a blue blur as the laser travels across the screen from left to right. [30]
Light-by-light scattering is a very rare phenomenon in which two photons interact, producing another pair of photons. [29]
The ATLAS collaboration has released its very first result utilising its entire Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Run 2 dataset, collected between 2015 and 2018. [28]

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3278] **viXra:1903.0567 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-31 15:00:17*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

Einstein discovered the theory of relativity with the notion of space and time or spacetime he said that masses where making a curvature in spacetime its time to understand more about how space works and much importantly how time works space is the envelope of messages the larger the envelope the more messages you can put and the more the envelope can withstand rupture the more time it offers now this means that space is taking a limit of masses inside of it that it cant take more than without any more effects but if you add more masses inside space the spacetime effects start to appear spacetime starts to press on masses and they get compressed as in the form of the blackholes through gravity in other words there is much more mass than there is space and time acts up and gravity occurs because and so forget about dark matter and dark energy and that’s simply how the big bang started simply by existence of masses than the ability of universes space to contain and so the masses started to compress through time and so the curvature of spacetime is not towards the mass but enveloping the mass in a ball and since space is not simply a volume its space then I could assume this theory to be true

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3277] **viXra:1903.0549 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-30 10:07:47*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, we discover formulas that the super accelerated matter
moves with the acceleration a' about Rindler space-time. We can represent the super accelerated motion about coordinates x,ct.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3276] **viXra:1903.0547 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-30 14:18:47*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: If the digit count of a particle's mass is four or less the count indicates in which of the 4 cyclic universes the particie first appeared

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3275] **viXra:1903.0533 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-29 10:17:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

The GRAVITY Collaboration, a team of researchers at several renowned institutes including the Max Planck Institute, LESIA Paris Observatory and the European Southern Observatory, has recently tested part of the Einstein Equivalence Principle, namely the local positon invariance (LPI), near the galactic center supermassive black hole. [12]
A key aspect of Einstein’s general theory of relativity (GR) has been tested using the strongest gravitational field so far. The measurement was made by observing changes in optical absorption lines of a star orbiting close to Sagittarius A* – the supermassive black hole at the centre of the Milky Way. [11]

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3274] **viXra:1903.0511 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-28 15:38:22*

**Authors:** Savior F. Eason

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

An examination of our universe's history and future, based on the theory of eternal infinity, and an examination of the evidence of this theory of cosmology. Additionally, also examining the new data from SIAII labs that adds now unquestionable support for the theory of "Quantum Pixels".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3273] **viXra:1903.0500 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-27 08:38:01*

**Authors:** Alan M. Kadin

**Comments:** 36 Pages. Poster presented at American Physical Society meeting, Boston, Mass., Mar. 7, 2019

The unity of classical physics was broken by quantum uncertainty on the micro level and curved spacetime on the cosmic level. In contrast, a novel neoclassical picture is presented*, which incorporates key aspects of quantum and relativistic physics, while maintaining deterministic local reality at all levels. This is based on the following principles:
1) Real rotating vector fields self-organize into soliton-like wave packets with quantized spin; these represent elementary particles.
2) Characteristic frequency and wavelength of these wave packets define time and space, and are modulated by gravity.
3) Wave packets maintain constant frequency for both massive and massless particles, reproducing relativistic trajectories.
4) Transitions are due to continuous interactions between wave packets that conserve total frequency, wavevector, and spin.
This approach maintains quantum discreteness without Hilbert space, and reproduces curved light without spacetime. But this also predicts sharp deviations from some simple predictions of orthodox quantum theory, such as the two-stage Stern-Gerlach experiment.
*A.M. Kadin, “Fundamental Waves and the Reunification of Physics”, Foundational Questions Institute Essay Contest, 2017, available online at https://fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/2972.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3272] **viXra:1903.0492 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-27 14:06:22*

**Authors:** Sunil Thakur

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this article, we have analyzed the structure of ice and the behavior of electromagnetic and sound waves in the ice to show that the apparent emptiness is not really empty. The matter exists in imperceptible form as part of all the physical entities.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3271] **viXra:1903.0490 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-27 16:17:14*

**Authors:** Eran Sinbar

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Planck’s length is the scale in which the classical ideas of gravity and space-time cease to be valid and where uncertainty dictates the rules. This is the size of the information bits on the black holes event horizon and there is a good reason to assume that it is the size of the basic building blocks of the fabric of space. This article assumes three leading assumptions: 1. the quantization of space into a lattice (grid) of unit cells, which I will refer to as 3D voxels of space (voxels) in the size of Planck’s length in each dimension. 2. The quantization of time into Planck’s time sequences (pulses). 3. Light travels one space voxel for each time pulse. Based on these three assumptions, this article will show that the Newton gravitational constant (G) increases as the universe expands. This increase in the gravitational constant can illuminate some light on the mysterious dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3270] **viXra:1903.0469 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-26 19:42:42*

**Authors:** Christopher Pilot

**Comments:** 29 Pages. already published 26.Pilot, C, 2017, Modeling Cosmic Expansion, and Possible Inflation, as a Thermodynamic Heat Engine, https://arxiv.org/abs/1705.04743 Zeitschrift fuer Naturforschung A (ZNA) ZNA Vol:74 (2019) iss:01

If we assume a closed universe with slight positive curvature, cosmic expansion can modeled as a heat engine where we define the “system”, collectively, as those regions of space within the observable universe, which will later evolve into voids/ empty space. We identify the “surroundings”, collectively, as those pockets of space, which will eventually develop into matter-filled galaxies, clusters, super-clusters and filament walls. Using this model, we can find the energy needed for cosmic expansion using basic thermodynamic principles, and prove that cosmic expansion had as its origin, a finite initial energy density, pressure, volume, and temperature. Inflation in the traditional sense, with the inflaton field, may also not be required. We will argue that homogeneities and in-homogeneities in the WMAP temperature profile is attributable to quantum mechanical fluctuations about a fixed background temperature in the initial isothermal expansion phase. Fluctuations in temperature can cause certain regions of space to lose heat. Other regions will absorb that heat. The voids are those regions which absorb the heat forcing, i.e., fueling expansion of the latter and creating slightly cooler temperatures in the former, where matter will later congregate. Upon freeze-out,
2
this could produce the observed WMAP signature with its associated CBR fluctuation in magnitude. Finally, we estimate that the freeze-out temperature and the freeze-out time for WMAP in-homogeneities, occurred at roughly 3.02 * 1027 K and 2.54 * 10-35 s, respectively, after first initiation of volume expansion. This is in line with current estimates for the end of the inflationary epoch. The heat input in the inflationary phase is estimated to be Q = 1.81 * 1094 J, and the void volume increases by a factor of only 5.65. The bubble voids in the observable universe increase, collectively, in size from about .046 m3 to .262 m3 within this inflationary period.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3269] **viXra:1903.0468 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-26 19:47:48*

**Authors:** Christopher Pilot

**Comments:** 38 Pages. already published;Pilot, C, 2018, Is Quintessence an Indication of a Time-Varying Gravitational Constant?, https://arxiv.org/abs/1803.06431 , Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology (JHEPGC) JHEPGC Vol 5 No 1 (2019)

A model is presented where the quintessence parameter, w, is related to a time-varying gravitational constant. Assuming a present value of w = -.98, we predict a current variation of Ġ/G = - .06 H0, a value within current observational bounds. H0 is Hubble’s parameter, G is Newton’s constant and Ġ is the derivative of G with respect to time. Thus, G has a cosmic origin, is decreasing with respect to cosmological time, and is proportional to H0, as originally proposed by the Dirac-Jordan hypothesis, albeit at a much slower rate. Within our model, we can explain the cosmological constant fine-tuning problem, the discrepancy between the present very weak value of the cosmological constant, and the much greater vacuum energy found in earlier epochs (we assume a connection exists). To formalize and solidify our model, we give two distinct parametrizations of G with respect to “a”, the cosmic scale parameter. We treat G-1 as an order parameter, which vanishes at high energies; at low temperatures, it reaches a saturation value, a value we are close to today. Our first parametrization for G-1 is motivated by a charging capacitor; the second treats G-1(a) by analogy to a magnetic response, i.e., as a Langevin function. Both parametrizations, even though very distinct, give a remarkably similar tracking behavior for w(a), but not of the conventional form, w(a) = w0 + wa (1-a), which can be thought of as only holding over a limited range in “a”. Interestingly, both parametrizations indicate the onset of G formation at a temperature of approximately 7 *1021 degrees Kelvin, in contrast to the ΛCDM model where G is taken as a constant all the way back to the Planck temperature, 1.42 * 1032 degrees Kelvin. At the temperature of formation, we find that G has increased to roughly 4*1020 times its present value. For most of cosmic evolution, however, our variable G model gives results similar to the predictions of the ΛCDM model, except in the very early universe, as we shall demonstrate. In fact, in the limit where w approaches -1, Ġ/G vanishes, and we are left with the concordance model. Within our framework, the emergence of dark energy over matter at a scale of a ≈ .5 is that point where G-1 increases noticeably to its current value G0-1. This weakening of G to its current value G0 is speculated as the true cause for the observed unanticipated acceleration of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3268] **viXra:1903.0465 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-26 22:04:54*

**Authors:** Tom Fuchs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

I show how stars can accelerate away from us in the absence of dark energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3267] **viXra:1903.0456 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-25 11:55:19*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

A key aspect of Einstein’s general theory of relativity (GR) has been tested using the strongest gravitational field so far. The measurement was made by observing changes in optical absorption lines of a star orbiting close to Sagittarius A* – the supermassive black hole at the centre of the Milky Way. [11]
Scientists at the University of British Columbia have proposed a radical new theory to explain the exponentially increasing size of the universe. [10]

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3266] **viXra:1903.0454 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-25 13:04:26*

**Authors:** Witold Nawrot

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A new, incredibly simple justification of the Hubble’s law, which results from the recently published alternative model of reality, suggests that the shape of reality can be different than it has been assumed until now.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3265] **viXra:1903.0448 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-26 04:07:54*

**Authors:** Manjunath.R

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

The universe is made of stories, not of atoms.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3264] **viXra:1903.0407 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-22 13:21:21*

**Authors:** D.H.W. Reffer

**Comments:** 4 Pages. The General Theory of Relativity now retires to history.

Henceforth the fact is admitted as an axiom that all bodies in the universe set up gravitationally the universe’s optical medium, named gravitational ether, whose strength is the sum of all relative-velocity dependent gravitational potentials, from which we derive its index of refraction, that
therefore is both nonuniform in space and changes in time as bodies move.
Keywords: gravitational ether; ether refraction index.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3263] **viXra:1903.0392 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-21 22:01:37*

**Authors:** Tom Fuchs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Herein I derive a new metric for Schwarzschild geometry that doesn't predict black holes, thus is compatible with quantum mechanics re black holes and their singularities.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3262] **viXra:1903.0389 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-21 23:24:17*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

An isolated physical system of elastic collision between two identical
objects is chosen to verify the
conservation of momentum in two inertial reference frames. In the
first reference frame,
the center of mass (COM) is stationary. In the second reference frame, the center of mass
moves at a constant velocity. By applying
Lorentz transformation to the velocities of both objects, total momentum before and
during the collision in the second reference frame can be compared. The comparison
shows that conservation of momentum fails to hold
when both objects move together at the same velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3261] **viXra:1903.0373 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-20 17:13:08*

**Authors:** Hristu Culetu

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A correlation between mass and a compact 5th dimension is proposed. The 5th coordinate appears to represent the gravitational radius of the black hole. The source of curvature of the spacetime turns out to be an anisotropic null fluid with no energy density and isotropic pressure but nonzero energy flux and anisotropic pressures.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3260] **viXra:1903.0357 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-19 10:55:21*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page. See recent paper by Bruce Wallman in ViXra cosmology and relativety

Abstract: The problem of the Hubble constant being so large that the universe is seemingly in danger of collapse is solved by the heavy Majorana neutrino proposed in MHCE8S theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3259] **viXra:1903.0356 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-19 10:44:34*

**Authors:** Nathaniel Julian

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

While general relativity provides an accurate description of spacetime and gravitational forces and effects, it does not provide a mechanism for gravity itself. By explaining the mechanism of gravitational force as a resistance of massive and high energy objects to the observed accelerating expansion of the universe, we simplify and provide a model that does not rely on unobserved particles or other hypothetical factors while staying in agreement with general relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3258] **viXra:1903.0318 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-17 17:15:00*

**Authors:** Bruce Wallman

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The value for the “Hubble constant” is referred to as the Hubble value in this paper. Hv is dealt with herein just as Edwin Hubble developed it in the 1920’s. However, Hubble drew a straight line through his points assuming that there might be a straight line relationship between expansion or recessional velocity and proper distance. This assumption is no longer correct since Riess and Perlmutter showed with better data that there is a slight acceleration or increase in the velocity of expansion especially in the past several billion light-years. Given the data available today this paper does not assume a straight line relationship between recessional velocity and distance. It proves that this relationship is a power series with a slight downward bend. There is an open question in cosmology as of 2018 about the significance of the difference between the 2016 Planck collaboration value H0=66.93±0.62 km/s/Mpc and the 2016 Riess et al value H0=73.24±1.74 km/s/Mpc. This paper shows that both the Planck collaboration and Riess et al values are likely correct. Tracing the cosmological redshift z from SN1a several thousand megaparsecs in the past to those that exploded closer to today describes an increase in our perception of Hv as distance to us lessens. A best fit power function of vr=73.586*Dp-0.9909 (where vr is recessional velocity and Dp is proper distance) for recessional velocity versus distance is derived connecting these two values of H0 using 1836 SN1a data points in the NED database3. Taking a Hubble derivative of this formula gives the power function Hv=dvr/dDp= 72.85014*Dp -0.01. This formula describes a change of over 5 km/s/Mpc in the Hubble value for the observable universe increasing smoothly from 66.8 to over 71.6 km/s/Mpc as the universe expands with most of the increase occurring in the last 1000 Mpc. This is consistent with the ΛCDM cosmology which gives an expansion to the observable universe that accelerates in the most recent several billion light-years4. The values 66.8 and 71.6 km/s/Mpc derived in this paper are affected by assumptions for the values of omega matter and omega lambda and are not meant to be taken as final numbers. They are calculated to show that there is a legitimate connection between the Planck collaboration and Riess et al values for H0. Furthermore, by converting distance in megaparsecs to light-seconds, it is possible to show Hv is an acceleration that varies from 6.47 angstrom/s/s at the distance of the CMB to 6.93 angstrom/s/s in the local vicinity of the visible universe (approximately 8 Mpc) where the Hubble flow breaks down due to local gravity. This depiction of Hv as an acceleration is helpful in envisioning what we have learned from the Riess and Perlmutter SN1a studies versus the WMAP and Planck probes dating from 1998 to today.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3257] **viXra:1903.0312 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-16 14:17:14*

**Authors:** Pablo Hernan Pereyra

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The Cyclic Cosmological Theorem is established based on Total Relativity and the total energy conservation of nature, using the testable consequences of the cosmological principle of isotropy and homogeneity and incorporating a new
testable consequence, the redshift temporal on a large scale.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3256] **viXra:1903.0301 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-15 11:16:54*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: The mass of the neutron can be calculated simply yet accurately in MHCE8S theory by a method I outline in this note.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3255] **viXra:1903.0286 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-14 08:22:56*

**Authors:** Ho Dong Jo, Chol Song Kim

**Comments:** 60 Pages.

We presented the difficulties of Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory and Einstein’s gravitational theory in detail, established a new unified theory of field including consistent electromagnetic theory and gravitational theory on the basis of new starting postulates, and applied these theoretical methods to quantum electrodynamics. We accepted a new geometrical space in which metric tensor and all main physical functions become implicit functions, called “KR space” consistent to our starting postulates, and normalization of implicit functions in order to give physical meanings to all physical functions of implicit forms defined in this space. As a result, we naturally unraveled problem of radiation reaction, a historical difficult problem of Maxwell-Lorentz electromagnetic theory, built new quantum electrodynamics without renormalization procedure followed by quantum gravitational theory and also predicted new theoretical results which could not find in traditional theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3254] **viXra:1903.0282 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-14 10:41:54*

**Authors:** Lluís Bel

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A bi-metric formalism is introduced to describe two bodies gravitational interaction using Whitehead's version of Schwarzschhild's original solution.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3253] **viXra:1903.0276 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-14 16:02:21*

**Authors:** John Hodge

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The Quasi-Steady State Cosmology (QSSC) posits a continuous creation at the center of galaxies. The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) posits the components of the universe have a creation and an end. A Sink at the center of elliptical galaxies is added to the Source of the QSSC at the center of Spiral galaxies. This allows the explanation of many more anomalous cosmological observations and allows correspondence with quantum mechanics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3252] **viXra:1903.0248 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-14 04:13:07*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The accelerated expansion of Universe is caused by the Universal antigravity force, with which the Hubble’s Law is proved. The black holes are
sustainable matter forms of the dynamic space that cannot disappear, because of the particulate antigravity force that prevents the further gravitational collapse. The inverse electric-nuclear field causes the nuclear forces, namely the strong nuclear force and the nuclear antigravity one, on which the architecture of the nuclei model is based.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3251] **viXra:1903.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-11 11:12:05*

**Authors:** Timoteo Briet Blanes

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

If you want to explain how the Universe works, it is necessary to know how the clusters of matter that originate the galaxies and the clusters of galaxies that originate the large-scale geometry of the Universe are formed. On the other hand, it is also necessary to know the mechanisms by which galaxies evolve and interact among them, and also, what the process for mater aggregation are. Finally, it is also necessary, therefore, an explanation of dark matter in terms of properties and not its composition, since it is a majority part of the matter of the Universe. A series of mechanisms and numerical models are established, which explain all this.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3250] **viXra:1903.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-10 12:45:13*

**Authors:** Attilio Colombo

**Comments:** Pages.

The intent of this work is to present a discussion of the Galilean Principle of Relativity and of its implications for what concerns the characteristics of light propagation and the nature of simultaneity. It is shown that by using a clock synchronization procedure that makes use of isotropically propagating signals of generic nature, the simultaneity of distinct events can be established in a unique way by different observers, also when such observers are in relative motion between themselves. Such absolute nature of simultaneity is preserved in the passage from a stationary to a moving reference frame also when a set of isochronous generalized coordinates is introduced. These transformations of coordinates can be considered as a generalization of the Lorentz transformations to the case of synchronization signals having characteristic speed different from the speed of light in vacuum. The specific invariance properties of these coordinate transformations with respect to the characteristic speed of propagation of the synchronization signals and of the corresponding constitutive laws of the underlying physical phenomenon are also presented, leading to a different interpretation of their physical meaning with respect to the commonly accepted interpretation of the Lorentz transformation as a space-time distortion. On the basis of these results, the emission hypothesis of W. Ritz, that assumes that light is always emitted with the same relative speed with respect to its source and that is therefore fully consistent with the Galilean Principle of Relativity, is then applied to justify the outcomes of the Michelson-Morley and Fizeau interferometric experiments by introducing, for the latter case, an additional hypothesis regarding the possible influence of turbulence on the refractive index of the fluid. Finally, a test case to verify the validity of either the Galilean or the Relativistic velocity composition rule is presented. The test is based on the aberration of the light coming from celestial objects and on the analysis of the results obtained by applying the two different formulas for the resultant velocity vector to process the data of the observed positions, as measured by a moving observer, in order to determine the actual un-aberrated location of the source.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3249] **viXra:1903.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-10 22:05:00*

**Authors:** Gaurav kumar

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This pdf file is in hindi language

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3248] **viXra:1903.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-08 14:23:31*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: The mysterious dimensionless constant 273.55488 signals that two new up and down quarks exist which accurately form neutrons: this makes 8 types of quark in all.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3247] **viXra:1903.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-09 05:00:16*

**Authors:** Wikipedia

**Comments:** 19 Pages. In Russian

String theory is a branch of theoretical physics that studies the dynamics of interaction not of point particles, but of one-dimensional extended objects, the so-called quantum strings. String theory combines the ideas of quantum mechanics and the theory of relativity, so it may be based on the future theory of quantum gravity.
Тео́рия струн — направление теоретической физики, изучающее динамику взаимодействия не точечных частиц, а одномерных протяжённых объектов, так называемых квантовых струн. Теория струн сочетает в себе идеи квантовой механики и теории относительности, поэтому на её основе, возможно, будет построена будущая теория квантовой гравитации.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3246] **viXra:1903.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-05 07:24:07*

**Authors:** Warren Tancock

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

General Relativity describes gravity as objects following straight paths through curved spacetime but this could equally be applied to acceleration in the absence of gravity. An object following a straight path through curved spacetime is physically equivalent to an object following a curved path through flat spacetime, either way the object is following a curved path through spacetime. Energy causes an outward negative curvature and mass causes an inwards positive curvature and because of the high energy to mass equivalence ratio, gravity is a comparatively weak force.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3245] **viXra:1903.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-04 02:45:32*

**Authors:** Özgen Ersan

**Comments:** 4 Pages. If some factors are neglected, analyses may generate mystic inferences.

The present scientific paradigm does not allow cosmological analysis because of the non-simultaneity of data. However, a cosmological analysis was realized through a new method (the concept of Light Coordinate System). This new method also indicates that the theory of special relativity and light kinematics can be revised and improved to become more functional and useful. In this article, the essence and details of important/supplement factors (especially considering: the types of relativity, sequential chain of reference systems, prioritizing the method of co-reference frame, and relational holism) are explained.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3244] **viXra:1903.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-02 12:00:36*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

At least one observational study has claimed that Newton's gravitational constant seems to vary with the direction relative to the fixed stars, see [1]. We think this is unlikely, but such experiments should be repeated or at least investigated further. If it is the case that gravity is directionally dependent, then how could this be explained, and how could/should our gravity formulas be modified?
In this paper, we introduce an anisotropic big G that is dependent on the direction relative to the fixed stars, and therefore on a given location on Earth, dependent on the Earth's rotation. A series of experiments claim to have found the anisotropic one-way speed of light when getting around Einstein-Poincare synchronization, although they have not received a great deal of attention. We do not question that the one-way speed of light is isotropic when measured with Einstein-Poincare synchronized clocks. We hypothesize here that gravity moves with the speed of light and that the true one-way speed of gravity is anisotropic. Based on this, we get an anisotropic gravitational ``constant," which, if calibrated to one-way light experiments, is inside two standard deviations of error as given by CODATA.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3243] **viXra:1903.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-03 05:25:27*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In special relativity, we operate with length contraction and length transformation; these are not the same thing even though they are related. In addition, we have time dilation and time transformation. However, when it comes to mass, we have only relativistic mass and no mass transformation. We will suggest here, based on a better understanding of mass at the quantum level, that there must also be a Lorentz mass transformation. Recent research strongly indicates that mass is directly linked to the Compton wavelength of the particle in question and since we can operate with both length contraction and length transformation, this means we should have corresponding masses. Length contraction of the Compton wavelength corresponds to what is known today as relativistic mass, while length transformation means we also need mass transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3242] **viXra:1902.0504 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-28 08:19:09*

**Authors:** Friedrich-Karl Boese

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

It will be shown that Newton’s theory already implies a maximum velocity with which a massive particle can travel if the universe is included into the consideration (according to Mach’s principle). The resulting formulas for the velocity dependence of the particle’s mass and it’s energy are identical with those of SR. The constancy of the speed of light does not have to be postulated for this purpose, but comes rather as one of the results. The results suggest also that the speed of light (in “vacuum”) is not a natural constant. One can also conclude that the “action at a distance” – property of Newton’s law of gravity is not in contradiction to the non-local character of the theory of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3241] **viXra:1902.0498 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-28 10:12:43*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: Reviewing my recent work concerning the mass of the neutron, it is becoming evident that both the up and the down quark of the neutron have been revised: both have been slightly altered in mass to accurately produce the observed mass of the neutron. This means that 8 quark types exist instead of 6, as expected for E8 symmetry

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3240] **viXra:1902.0452 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-26 21:51:47*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The parity symmetry in physics connects the motions in two different reference frames.
By examining the displacements in both reference frames, the length of the displacement can be shown to
be conserved in both reference frames. For two frames in relative inertial motion, the displacement is
conserved in all inertial reference frames. For two frames free
to accelerate, the displacement is conserved in all
non-inertial reference frames. The length of a displacement is conserved in all reference frames.
The wavelength of a wave is conserved in all reference frames.
The frequency varies with reference frame in Doppler effect.
Therefore, the speed of light varies with reference frame.
Light travels at different speed in different reference frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3239] **viXra:1902.0435 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-25 15:55:34*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Thank you for reading

We studied only about Rindler space-time in long time. This knowledge lead that we can combine Schwarzschild solution and an accelerated frame. Our article’s aim is that we find the general Schwarzschild solution include an uniformly accelerated frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3238] **viXra:1902.0412 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-24 16:44:56*

**Authors:** Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 26 Pages. Discussion about the basics of the Special Theory of Relativity (in Polish).

W artykule pokazane zostało, że istnieje nieskończenie wiele kinematyk, w których jednokierunkowa prędkość światła jest zawsze równa c. Kinematyka Szczególnej Teoria Względności (STW) jest tylko jedną z tych nieskończenie wielu kinematyk.
W artykule pokazane zostało, że matematykę, na której oparta jest kinematyka STW można inaczej interpretować i prowadzi to do innych wniosków na temat własności tej kinematyki.
W artykule wyprowadzona została cała klasa liniowych transformacji czasu i położenia. Transformacje zostały wyprowadzone przy założeniu, że dla obserwatora z każdego inercjalnego układu odniesienia spełnione są wnioski z eksperymentu Michelsona-Morleya oraz Kennedyego-Thorndikea, czyli, że średnia prędkość światła w próżni przepływającego po drodze tam i z powrotem jest stała. Założone zostało także, że istnieje przynajmniej jeden inercjalny układ odniesienia, w którym prędkość światła w próżni w każdym kierunku ma tą samą wartość c oraz dla obserwatorów z tego wyróżnionego inercjalnego układu odniesienia przestrzeń jest izotropowa.
Wyprowadzone transformacje pozwalają na zbudowania wielu różnych kinematyk zgodnych z eksperymentami Michelsona-Morleya oraz Kennedyego-Thorndikea.
Wyprowadzona w artykule klasa transformacji jest uogólnieniem transformacji wyprowadzonych w pracy [10] polegającym na dopuszczeniu innych metod synchronizacji zegarów niż synchronizacja zewnętrzna. Pomysł takiego uogólnienia pochodzi od osoby, która przekazała mi tą rozszerzoną klasę transformacji do analizy i publikacji.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3237] **viXra:1902.0361 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-21 18:01:27*

**Authors:** Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This article shows that using the Poincaré concept of time dilation, the Poincaré Principle of Relativity cannot be proved.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3236] **viXra:1902.0338 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-20 15:06:16*

**Authors:** Jeremy Fiennes

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

The existence of the electromagnetic aether is argued from two standpoints. Conceptual, based on the nature of physical waves. And practical: the various experiments that demonstrate it. Possible explanations for the strange nullific¬ation of the 1887 Michelson-Morley aether-wind result are discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3235] **viXra:1902.0337 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-20 15:10:36*

**Authors:** Jeremy Fiennes

**Comments:** 67 Pages.

Einstein's Special Relativity is based on two fundamental assumptions, the so-called Einstein postulates. The 'constant speed of light' postulate predicts that two inertial observers – for instance twins in spaceships free-floating in outer space – will each see the other's clock running slower than his own. The 'no absolute at-rest' postulate says that both perceptions are equally valid. The logical incoherence of this makes a nonsense of the postulates, and by exten¬sion of Special Relativity itself. The positive 1887 Michelson-Morley result confirms this, falsifying both postulates. In spite of which, more than a century later Special Relativity is still an official scientific doctrine, and its creator Albert Einstein is a scientific genius. The first part of the article looks at the technical aspects of Relativity. The second discusses the historical, political, social and per¬sonal factors that led up to the present situation. The approach is conceptual and 98% non-mathematical.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3234] **viXra:1902.0336 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-20 15:14:25*

**Authors:** Jeremy Fiennes

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

The first part of the article looks at the concepts of 'space' and 'time' in general, suggesting workable definitions. The second develops diagrammatic representations for 1-, 2- and 3-d static and expanding universes. It ends with a discussion of the related topics of gravity and time travel.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3233] **viXra:1902.0335 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-21 00:02:51*

**Authors:** Temur Z. Kalanov

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

The critical analysis of the foundations of cosmology is proposed. The unity of formal logic and rational dialectics is the correct methodological basis for the analysis. The main results of the analysis are as follows: (1) the Hubble law represents the formal-logical error because the Hubble formula contradicts to the correct definition of the speed of motion of the material object; (2) the Doppler effect represents the physical error because the speed of motion of the photon does not depend on the speed of motion of the radiating atom. The correct explanation of the red shift is that the frequency shift of the radiation is the result of a shift in the energy spectrum of the radiating atom; (3) the theory of “hot” Universe represents the physical error because the Universe is the “cold” Universe at any point of time. The correct explanation is that the background radiation is described by the Planck function (Planck's formula). The Planck function (Planck's formula) characterizes the equilibrium state of the isolated and closed macroscopic system “photon gas + gas of radiating atoms” (where temperature is the statistical temperature of the radiating atom). Consequently: (a) the Universe represents the isolated and closed system at any point of time; (b) the total energy of the Universe is a conserved quantity at any point of time; (c) the low temperature of substance in the Universe is a conserved quantity at any point of time.
These results signify that the correct physical theory of the Universe cannot be created.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3232] **viXra:1902.0327 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-19 05:13:11*

**Authors:** Sandro Antonelli

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We expound the gradient of Vorticity tensor formula in general coordinates as treated in relativistic mechanics .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3231] **viXra:1902.0295 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-18 03:33:11*

**Authors:** Ragil Brand Ndongmo Tsafack, Saleh Mahamat, Thomas Bouetou Bouetou, Timoleon Crepin Kofane

**Comments:** 4 Pages. 1 figure, comments welcome

We purpose a new approach of black hole mass decreasing, which takes into account thermodynamics and hydrodynamics processes, in the presence of quintessence and phantom dark energies. Accordingly, we insert some terms into the Schwarzschild metric in order to obtain a new expression of the black hole mass. Further, we show that by the thermodynamics process, the second-order phase transition does not occur when we take into account phantom energy, except for complex entropies or relativistic time. At the end, we show a new principle to analyze black holes coalescence into a space-time, dilated by dark energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3230] **viXra:1902.0286 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-16 11:34:11*

**Authors:** Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Using gravitational field lag effect we can explain why the Milky Way galaxy has a curved shape of a “Chair”. Galaxies what having the form of a flat disk due to the effect of the field lag have an increased energy of gravitational interaction, to reduce this energy, galaxies take a curved shape of the “Galaxy-Chair”. This phenomenon resembles a decrease in energy in the cyclohexane molecule, where the most stable conformation is also the “Chair” conformation, which is almost identical in shape to the curved Milky Way.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3229] **viXra:1902.0285 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-16 14:08:54*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

Michelson and Morley carried out an experiment in 1887 to determine if the theory of ether is correct. The experiment shows that the speed of light is constant
in all directions. However, an error in this experiment was introduced by the calculation of the elapsed time for light to travel between two moving mirrors
in the rest frame of ether. Both Michelson and Morley assumed that the speed of light is not altered upon
reflection by a moving mirror. This critical error produced a small variation in the distance traveled by
the light between mirrors in the rest frame of ether. As a result, Lorentz transformation was proposed to explain the concept of length contraction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3228] **viXra:1902.0253 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-14 11:04:26*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 4 Pages. I may not have much more to add to MHCE8S theory: others need to carry on!

Abstract: A forward- time, reverse-time cycle of the 4th cycle of an MHCE8S universe emphasizing peculiar Z-boson dating phenomena and one new quark making 7 in all.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3227] **viXra:1902.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-14 11:53:23*

**Authors:** Pablo Hernan Pereyra

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The meaning of the 5th Dimension is demonstrated as a variable of measure exclusive of the continuous medium for Stress and its relation with the conservation of Energy of the internal forces of matter. The Stress tensor of the continuum medium is obtained using the properties of the Quantum tensor according to the Theory of Total Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3226] **viXra:1902.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-14 01:46:18*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This article begins with “vector-tensor-scalar geometry” interacting photons and gravitons to produce the quantum spins of matter particles, the Higgs boson, plus the particles of the weak and strong nuclear forces. It then proposes the universe uses base-2 mathematics (a.k.a. electronics’ binary digits), the topology of Mobius strips and figure-8 Klein bottles, plus the geometry mentioned before, to produce photons and still hypothetical gravitons and non-hypothetical mass. It’s then proposed that the three-dimensional figure-8 Klein bottles composing the universe possess space-time's four dimensions (3 of space + 1 of time) when Wick rotation is programmed into them. This programming is adaptive, depending on the strength of gravity and electromagnetism (in Special Relativity, time slows in intense gravity and on approaching c, the speed of light). Because of the rotating between the x- and y-axes in Wick rotation, there’s a space-time we call imaginary or higher dimensional that is just as real as ordinary space-time. Gravity also leads to mass here - “dark” matter – and that matter’s associated “dark” energy. Back in this dimension, the Big Bang is regarded as dispensable due to the quantum-mechanical entanglement of microwave photons. And the speed of light becomes a duality – simultaneously having the two velocities of approx. 300 000, and approx. zero, km/s.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3225] **viXra:1902.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-12 15:09:13*

**Authors:** Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Modern physics is built and based on the concept of time, developed by Poincare.
This article shows what Poincare’s concept of time is. And as based on the Poincaré concept of time, the The theory of relativity of Poincaré was built.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2325] **viXra:1904.0254 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-04-15 09:41:12*

**Authors:** Bhaskar

**Comments:** 41 Pages. pass

Improvement of physics

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2324] **viXra:1904.0252 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-04-15 09:48:57*

**Authors:** Bhaskar Yadav

**Comments:** 5 Pages. pass

Some new concepts of physics

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2323] **viXra:1904.0251 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-04-16 17:33:32*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Causality and Information are linked variables characterizing atomic matter, bridging the conceptual gap between Quantum Mechanics and Relativity theory. A brief summary of a Unified Field Theory is included.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2322] **viXra:1904.0217 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-04-13 09:42:13*

**Authors:** Ulrich Berger

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Abstract:
As described previously, the concept of a “Net Charged Universe” (NCU) assumes that the expansion of the universe is driven by a slight excess of positive charge in the universe’s matter. This excess charge comes into being by means of quantum fluctuations at the universe’s horizon. Excess protons experience electrostatic acceleration and therefore gain high relativistic mass, which is the source of the creation of neutral matter at the universe’s horizon.
Based on the NCU model, the present article aims to explain the observed fraction of Helium (approximately 7%) in the universe’s baryonic matter. For this purpose, calculations on collision rates of excess protons are performed and applied to determine the Helium fraction in the universe’s matter.
The results of these calculations correspond very well to the observations and thus, they further support the NCU model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2321] **viXra:1904.0109 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-04-09 12:13:38*

**Authors:** J Mark Morris

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A neoclassical model of nature is proposed, based upon two equal and opposite fundamental particles. These particles may also be considered as conserved excitations.
This model is derived from thought experiment and re-interpretation of modern physics and cosmology.
A parsimonious neoclassical model of nature is proposed where the electrino ε- and positrino ε+ are the basis of all matter, the carriers of all energy, and form a superfluid gas which permeates most of the universe. At high energies matter and gas change phase to plasma wherein general relativity does not apply. Neither general relativity nor quantum mechanics include the electrino, positrino, nor graviton particles. The neoclassical model informs solutions to many open problems in physics and cosmology. A new narrative emerges that requires recasting and reframing the interpretations of experimental results and theory from physics, cosmology, and astronomy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2320] **viXra:1904.0031 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-04-18 17:54:54*

**Authors:** Anamitra Palit

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The article in the first two sections proves decisively that the Ricci scalar and the norm of the Ricci tensor are constants on the manifold. In the subsequent sections Ricci tensor and Riemannian curvature tensor turn out to be null tensors. The Ricci scalar works out to zero.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2319] **viXra:1903.0389 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-03-23 14:55:13*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

An isolated physical system of elastic collision between two identical
objects is chosen to verify the
conservation of momentum in two inertial reference frames. In the
first reference frame,
the center of mass (COM) is stationary. In the second reference frame, the center of mass
moves at a constant velocity. By applying
Lorentz transformation to the velocities of both objects, total momentum before and
during the collision in the second reference frame can be compared. The comparison
shows that conservation of momentum fails to hold
when both objects move together at the same velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2318] **viXra:1903.0312 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-03-17 19:06:59*

**Authors:** Pablo Hernan Pereyra

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The Cosmology Fundamental Theorem is established based on Total Relativity and the total energy conservation of nature, using the testable consequences of the cosmological principle of isotropy and homogeneity and incorporating a new testable consequence, the redshift temporal on a large scale. It is shown that Cosmology must be cyclical.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2317] **viXra:1903.0093 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-04-07 05:22:18*

**Authors:** Warren Tancock

**Comments:** 7 Pages. warren.tancock@gmail.com

A unified description of acceleration that doesn't distinguish between straight geodesic worldlines in curved spacetime and curved worldlines in flat spacetime, thereby simplifying and unifying the special and the general theories of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2316] **viXra:1902.0435 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-03-04 12:28:25*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We studied only about Rindler space-time in long time. This knowledge lead that we can combine Schwarzschild solution and an accelerated frame. Our article’s aim is that we find the general Schwarzschild solution include an uniformly accelerated frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2315] **viXra:1902.0412 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-04-17 21:06:16*

**Authors:** Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 27 Pages. Discussion about the basics of the Special Theory of Relativity (in Polish).

W artykule pokazane zostało, że istnieje nieskończenie wiele kinematyk, w których jednokierunkowa prędkość światła jest zawsze równa c. Kinematyka Szczególnej Teoria Względności (STW) jest tylko jedną z tych nieskończenie wielu kinematyk.
W artykule pokazane zostało, że matematykę, na której oparta jest kinematyka STW można inaczej interpretować i prowadzi to do innych wniosków na temat własności tej kinematyki.
W artykule wyprowadzona została cała klasa liniowych transformacji czasu i położenia. Transformacje zostały wyprowadzone przy założeniu, że dla obserwatora z każdego inercjalnego układu odniesienia spełnione są wnioski wynikające z eksperymentu Michelsona-Morleya oraz Kennedyego-Thorndikea czyli, że średnia prędkość światła w próżni przepływającego po drodze tam i z powrotem jest stała. Założone zostało także, że istnieje przynajmniej jeden inercjalny układ odniesienia, w którym prędkość światła w próżni w każdym kierunku ma tą samą wartość c oraz dla obserwatorów z tego wyróżnionego inercjalnego układu odniesienia przestrzeń jest izotropowa.
Wyprowadzone transformacje pozwalają na zbudowania wielu różnych kinematyk zgodnych z eksperymentami Michelsona-Morleya oraz Kennedyego-Thorndikea.
Wyprowadzona w artykule klasa transformacji jest uogólnieniem transformacji wyprowadzonych w pracy [10] polegającym na dopuszczeniu niezerowych wartości parametru e(v). Pomysł takiego uogólnienia pochodzi od osoby, która przekazała mi tą rozszerzoną klasę transformacji do analizy i publikacji.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2314] **viXra:1902.0412 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-03-18 14:26:55*

**Authors:** Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 27 Pages. Discussion about the basics of the Special Theory of Relativity (in Polish).

W artykule pokazane zostało, że istnieje nieskończenie wiele kinematyk, w których jednokierunkowa prędkość światła jest zawsze równa c. Kinematyka Szczególnej Teoria Względności (STW) jest tylko jedną z tych nieskończenie wielu kinematyk.
W artykule pokazane zostało, że matematykę, na której oparta jest kinematyka STW można inaczej interpretować i prowadzi to do innych wniosków na temat własności tej kinematyki.
W artykule wyprowadzona została cała klasa liniowych transformacji czasu i położenia. Transformacje zostały wyprowadzone przy założeniu, że dla obserwatora z każdego inercjalnego układu odniesienia spełnione są wnioski wynikające z eksperymentu Michelsona-Morleya oraz Kennedyego-Thorndikea czyli, że średnia prędkość światła w próżni przepływającego po drodze tam i z powrotem jest stała. Założone zostało także, że istnieje przynajmniej jeden inercjalny układ odniesienia, w którym prędkość światła w próżni w każdym kierunku ma tą samą wartość c oraz dla obserwatorów z tego wyróżnionego inercjalnego układu odniesienia przestrzeń jest izotropowa.
Wyprowadzone transformacje pozwalają na zbudowania wielu różnych kinematyk zgodnych z eksperymentami Michelsona-Morleya oraz Kennedyego-Thorndikea.
Wyprowadzona w artykule klasa transformacji jest uogólnieniem transformacji wyprowadzonych w pracy [10] polegającym na dopuszczeniu niezerowych wartości parametru e(v). Pomysł takiego uogólnienia pochodzi od osoby, która przekazała mi tą rozszerzoną klasę transformacji do analizy i publikacji.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2313] **viXra:1902.0412 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-02-28 20:27:49*

**Authors:** Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 26 Pages. Discussion about the basics of the Special Theory of Relativity (in Polish).

W artykule pokazane zostało, że istnieje nieskończenie wiele kinematyk, w których jednokierunkowa prędkość światła jest zawsze równa c. Kinematyka Szczególnej Teoria Względności (STW) jest tylko jedną z tych nieskończenie wielu kinematyk.
W artykule pokazane zostało, że matematykę, na której oparta jest kinematyka STW można inaczej interpretować i prowadzi to do innych wniosków na temat własności tej kinematyki.
W artykule wyprowadzona została cała klasa liniowych transformacji czasu i położenia. Transformacje zostały wyprowadzone przy założeniu, że dla obserwatora z każdego inercjalnego układu odniesienia spełnione są wnioski wynikające z eksperymentu Michelsona-Morleya oraz Kennedyego-Thorndikea czyli, że średnia prędkość światła w próżni przepływającego po drodze tam i z powrotem jest stała. Założone zostało także, że istnieje przynajmniej jeden inercjalny układ odniesienia, w którym prędkość światła w próżni w każdym kierunku ma tą samą wartość c oraz dla obserwatorów z tego wyróżnionego inercjalnego układu odniesienia przestrzeń jest izotropowa.
Wyprowadzone transformacje pozwalają na zbudowania wielu różnych kinematyk zgodnych z eksperymentami Michelsona-Morleya oraz Kennedyego-Thorndikea.
Wyprowadzona w artykule klasa transformacji jest uogólnieniem transformacji wyprowadzonych w pracy [10] polegającym na dopuszczeniu niezerowych wartości parametru e(v). Pomysł takiego uogólnienia pochodzi od osoby, która przekazała mi tą rozszerzoną klasę transformacji do analizy i publikacji.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2312] **viXra:1902.0327 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-03-18 06:31:53*

**Authors:** Sandro Antonelli

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We expound the gradient of Vorticity tensor formula in general coordinates as treated in relativistic mechanics

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2311] **viXra:1902.0252 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-02-16 09:18:45*

**Authors:** Pablo Hernan Pereyra

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The significance of the 5th Dimension is demonstrated as a variable related to the Stress material medium and its relation with the conservation of energy of the internal forces of
matter. The Stress tensor of the continuous medium is obtained using the properties of the Quantum tensor according to Total Relativity Theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2310] **viXra:1902.0237 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-02-15 01:05:58*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Abstract
This article begins with “vector-tensor-scalar geometry” interacting photons and gravitons to produce the quantum spins of matter particles, the Higgs boson, plus the particles of the weak and strong nuclear forces. It then proposes the universe uses base-2 mathematics (a.k.a. electronics’ binary digits), the topology of Mobius strips and figure-8 Klein bottles, plus the geometry mentioned before, to produce photons and still hypothetical gravitons and non-hypothetical mass. It’s then proposed that the three-dimensional figure-8 Klein bottles composing the universe possess space-time's four dimensions (3 of space + 1 of time) when Wick rotation is programmed into them. This programming is adaptive, depending on the strength of gravity and electromagnetism (in Special Relativity, time slows in intense gravity and on approaching c, the speed of light). Because of the rotating between the x- and y-axes in Wick rotation, there’s a space-time we call imaginary or higher dimensional that is just as real as ordinary space-time. Gravity also leads to mass here - “dark” matter – and that matter’s associated “dark” energy. Back in this dimension, the Big Bang is regarded as dispensable due to the quantum-mechanical entanglement of microwave photons. And the speed of light becomes a duality – simultaneously having the two velocities of approx. 300 000, and approx. zero, km/s.
Introduction -
The abstract of a review article in the journal “Science” states, “Both dark matter and dark energy require extensions to our current understanding of particle physics or point toward a breakdown of general relativity on cosmological scales.” Could it be that understanding dark matter and dark energy doesn’t require modification of general relativity, but needs Einstein’s 1905 masterpiece of special relativity? Nevertheless, modification of general relativity – and its unification with quantum mechanics – might be accomplished with the hidden variables of base 2 mathematics, Mobius strips, figure-8 Klein bottles, and Wick rotation. The greatest obstacle to understanding the dark universe, and beginning the journey to quantum gravity, will be the human reluctance to accept a paradigm shift to determinism.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology