**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(19) - 0703(4) - 0704(2) - 0706(1) - 0708(1) - 0709(1) - 0711(1) - 0712(2)

2008 - 0801(3) - 0802(1) - 0804(1) - 0805(1) - 0807(5) - 0810(2)

2009 - 0901(1) - 0902(3) - 0903(3) - 0907(7) - 0908(17) - 0909(28) - 0910(19) - 0911(13) - 0912(10)

2010 - 1001(3) - 1002(26) - 1003(26) - 1004(9) - 1005(10) - 1006(11) - 1007(9) - 1008(19) - 1009(9) - 1010(17) - 1011(23) - 1012(7)

2011 - 1101(36) - 1102(14) - 1103(35) - 1104(10) - 1105(4) - 1106(12) - 1107(14) - 1108(5) - 1109(11) - 1110(19) - 1111(23) - 1112(15)

2012 - 1201(37) - 1202(22) - 1203(18) - 1204(22) - 1205(21) - 1206(14) - 1207(16) - 1208(30) - 1209(17) - 1210(19) - 1211(17) - 1212(30)

2013 - 1301(33) - 1302(22) - 1303(42) - 1304(28) - 1305(24) - 1306(28) - 1307(21) - 1308(27) - 1309(21) - 1310(29) - 1311(21) - 1312(44)

2014 - 1401(34) - 1402(27) - 1403(32) - 1404(31) - 1405(38) - 1406(33) - 1407(45) - 1408(32) - 1409(25) - 1410(40) - 1411(30) - 1412(30)

2015 - 1501(39) - 1502(27) - 1503(24) - 1504(27) - 1505(33) - 1506(32) - 1507(24) - 1508(33) - 1509(38) - 1510(40) - 1511(51) - 1512(46)

2016 - 1601(31) - 1602(46) - 1603(39) - 1604(32) - 1605(30) - 1606(43) - 1607(23) - 1608(39) - 1609(45) - 1610(31) - 1611(46) - 1612(32)

2017 - 1701(27) - 1702(27) - 1703(43) - 1704(45) - 1705(32) - 1706(30) - 1707(28) - 1708(29) - 1709(41) - 1710(34) - 1711(41) - 1712(47)

2018 - 1801(35) - 1802(41) - 1803(45) - 1804(46) - 1805(38) - 1806(40) - 1807(48) - 1808(29) - 1809(23) - 1810(38) - 1811(54) - 1812(43)

2019 - 1901(36) - 1902(26)

Any replacements are listed farther down

[3242] **viXra:1902.0361 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-21 18:01:27*

**Authors:** Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This article shows that using the Poincaré concept of time dilation, the Poincaré Principle of Relativity cannot be proved.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3241] **viXra:1902.0338 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-20 15:06:16*

**Authors:** Jeremy Fiennes

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

The existence of the electromagnetic aether is argued from two standpoints. Conceptual, based on the nature of physical waves. And practical: the various experiments that demonstrate it. Possible explanations for the strange nullific¬ation of the 1887 Michelson-Morley aether-wind result are discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3240] **viXra:1902.0337 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-20 15:10:36*

**Authors:** Jeremy Fiennes

**Comments:** 67 Pages.

Einstein's Special Relativity is based on two fundamental assumptions, the so-called Einstein postulates. The 'constant speed of light' postulate predicts that two inertial observers – for instance twins in spaceships free-floating in outer space – will each see the other's clock running slower than his own. The 'no absolute at-rest' postulate says that both perceptions are equally valid. The logical incoherence of this makes a nonsense of the postulates, and by exten¬sion of Special Relativity itself. The positive 1887 Michelson-Morley result confirms this, falsifying both postulates. In spite of which, more than a century later Special Relativity is still an official scientific doctrine, and its creator Albert Einstein is a scientific genius. The first part of the article looks at the technical aspects of Relativity. The second discusses the historical, political, social and per¬sonal factors that led up to the present situation. The approach is conceptual and 98% non-mathematical.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3239] **viXra:1902.0336 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-20 15:14:25*

**Authors:** Jeremy Fiennes

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

The first part of the article looks at the concepts of 'space' and 'time' in general, suggesting workable definitions. The second develops diagrammatic representations for 1-, 2- and 3-d static and expanding universes. It ends with a discussion of the related topics of gravity and time travel.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3238] **viXra:1902.0335 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-21 00:02:51*

**Authors:** Temur Z. Kalanov

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

The critical analysis of the foundations of cosmology is proposed. The unity of formal logic and rational dialectics is the correct methodological basis for the analysis. The main results of the analysis are as follows: (1) the Hubble law represents the formal-logical error because the Hubble formula contradicts to the correct definition of the speed of motion of the material object; (2) the Doppler effect represents the physical error because the speed of motion of the photon does not depend on the speed of motion of the radiating atom. The correct explanation of the red shift is that the frequency shift of the radiation is the result of a shift in the energy spectrum of the radiating atom; (3) the theory of “hot” Universe represents the physical error because the Universe is the “cold” Universe at any point of time. The correct explanation is that the background radiation is described by the Planck function (Planck's formula). The Planck function (Planck's formula) characterizes the equilibrium state of the isolated and closed macroscopic system “photon gas + gas of radiating atoms” (where temperature is the statistical temperature of the radiating atom). Consequently: (a) the Universe represents the isolated and closed system at any point of time; (b) the total energy of the Universe is a conserved quantity at any point of time; (c) the low temperature of substance in the Universe is a conserved quantity at any point of time.
These results signify that the correct physical theory of the Universe cannot be created.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3237] **viXra:1902.0327 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-19 05:13:11*

**Authors:** Sandro Antonelli

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We expound the gradient of Vorticity tensor formula in general coordinates as treated in relativistic mechanics .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3236] **viXra:1902.0295 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-18 03:33:11*

**Authors:** Ragil Brand Ndongmo Tsafack, Saleh Mahamat, Thomas Bouetou Bouetou, Timoleon Crepin Kofane

**Comments:** 4 Pages. 1 figure, comments welcome

We purpose a new approach of black hole mass decreasing, which takes into account thermodynamics and hydrodynamics processes, in the presence of quintessence and phantom dark energies. Accordingly, we insert some terms into the Schwarzschild metric in order to obtain a new expression of the black hole mass. Further, we show that by the thermodynamics process, the second-order phase transition does not occur when we take into account phantom energy, except for complex entropies or relativistic time. At the end, we show a new principle to analyze black holes coalescence into a space-time, dilated by dark energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3235] **viXra:1902.0286 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-16 11:34:11*

**Authors:** Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Using gravitational field lag effect we can explain why the Milky Way galaxy has a curved shape of a “Chair”. Galaxies what having the form of a flat disk due to the effect of the field lag have an increased energy of gravitational interaction, to reduce this energy, galaxies take a curved shape of the “Galaxy-Chair”. This phenomenon resembles a decrease in energy in the cyclohexane molecule, where the most stable conformation is also the “Chair” conformation, which is almost identical in shape to the curved Milky Way.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3234] **viXra:1902.0285 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-16 14:08:54*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

Michelson and Morley carried out an experiment in 1887 to determine if the theory of ether is correct. The experiment shows that the speed of light is constant
in all directions. However, an error in this experiment was introduced by the calculation of the elapsed time for light to travel between two moving mirrors
in the rest frame of ether. Both Michelson and Morley assumed that the speed of light is not altered upon
reflection by a moving mirror. This critical error produced a small variation in the distance traveled by
the light between mirrors in the rest frame of ether. As a result, Lorentz transformation was proposed to explain the concept of length contraction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3233] **viXra:1902.0253 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-14 11:04:26*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 4 Pages. I may not have much more to add to MHCE8S theory: others need to carry on!

Abstract: A forward- time, reverse-time cycle of the 4th cycle of an MHCE8S universe emphasizing peculiar Z-boson dating phenomena and one new quark making 7 in all.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3232] **viXra:1902.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-14 11:53:23*

**Authors:** Pablo Hernan Pereyra

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The meaning of the 5th Dimension is demonstrated as a variable of measure exclusive of the continuous medium for Stress and its relation with the conservation of Energy of the internal forces of matter. The Stress tensor of the continuum medium is obtained using the properties of the Quantum tensor according to the Theory of Total Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3231] **viXra:1902.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-14 01:46:18*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This article begins with “vector-tensor-scalar geometry” interacting photons and gravitons to produce the quantum spins of matter particles, the Higgs boson, plus the particles of the weak and strong nuclear forces. It then proposes the universe uses base-2 mathematics (a.k.a. electronics’ binary digits), the topology of Mobius strips and figure-8 Klein bottles, plus the geometry mentioned before, to produce photons and still hypothetical gravitons and non-hypothetical mass. It’s then proposed that the three-dimensional figure-8 Klein bottles composing the universe possess space-time's four dimensions (3 of space + 1 of time) when Wick rotation is programmed into them. This programming is adaptive, depending on the strength of gravity and electromagnetism (in Special Relativity, time slows in intense gravity and on approaching c, the speed of light). Because of the rotating between the x- and y-axes in Wick rotation, there’s a space-time we call imaginary or higher dimensional that is just as real as ordinary space-time. Gravity also leads to mass here - “dark” matter – and that matter’s associated “dark” energy. Back in this dimension, the Big Bang is regarded as dispensable due to the quantum-mechanical entanglement of microwave photons. And the speed of light becomes a duality – simultaneously having the two velocities of approx. 300 000, and approx. zero, km/s.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3230] **viXra:1902.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-12 15:09:13*

**Authors:** Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Modern physics is built and based on the concept of time, developed by Poincare.
This article shows what Poincare’s concept of time is. And as based on the Poincaré concept of time, the The theory of relativity of Poincaré was built.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3229] **viXra:1902.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-12 18:30:41*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Robert Neil Boyd, Yunita Umniyati, Daniel Chandra

**Comments:** 208 Pages. This book is distributed freely. Published by Divine Publishing, see also: www.sci4God.com

This book took an unconventional theme because we submit an unorthodox theme too. Karl Popper’s epistemology suggests that when the theory is refuted by observation, then it is time to look for a set of new approaches. In the first chapter, it is shown that Hilbert’s axiomatic program has failed not only by experiment (Mie theory does not agree with experiment) but also in terms of logic (Gödel theorem). Therefore we set out a new approach, starting from an old theory of Isaac Newton. Dilbert cartoon series often offer surprising for old problems, especially in this era of corporatocracy. Now we would call such an out-of-the-box solution to the old Hilbert axiomatic program as Dilbert way (or Dilbertian, if you wish). Readers may ask : but what can physicists learn from Dilbert cartoons? While it seems not obvious at first glance, yes we believe there is a great character of Dilbert cartoon, i.e. to put it in one phrase: “out-of-the box and brutally honest.”
We do think that such a brutal honesty is also needed in many fields of physics: from theoretical physics to applied physics, as will be discussed throughout this book.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3228] **viXra:1902.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-12 08:15:25*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Reconsideration of overlooked considerations about the Equivalence Principle leads to Covariant Energy-Momentum conservation law in General Theory of Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3227] **viXra:1902.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-12 13:32:12*

**Authors:** Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This article shows how Poincare solved the problem of the crisis in physics. And it is shown what the Poincare principle of relativity is.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3226] **viXra:1902.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-12 03:29:39*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Recent discussions about the need for a successor of the Large Hadron Collider called the FCC Future Circular Collider (Cern), is reason to search for “Tweaks” or extensions of the current paradigms about Wimps (Weak Interacting Massive Particles) and Super Symmetric particles.
Example: Nima Arkani-Hamed: “where in the world are SuSy and Wimps?
Quantum FFF Theory ( Function Follows Form) seems to be able to fill in those questions by an adapted paradigm about special relativity, the SuSy multiverse based on instant entangled super symmetric particles and the suggestion for monopole photon based microscopic Wimps and Dark Matter Black Holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3225] **viXra:1902.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-09 11:51:31*

**Authors:** M. U. E. Pohl

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Althougth the concept of time was discussed intensively by authors over centuries the „problem of time“ is prominent today again in quantum gravity. As quantum physicists believe a more detailed understanding of the entaglement of time could lead to a unification of quantum-mechanics with general relativity, the author solves the „problem of time“ final in a deductive approach. Upon the solution of the problem of time, unified principles of nature are then postulated to integrate Newtonian laws, general relativity and quantum mechanics into one framework, offering a perspective to a new world model and a framework for the TOE.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3224] **viXra:1902.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-09 02:15:11*

**Authors:** Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis

**Comments:** 5 pages, 3 figures

This paper discloses a hypothesis how four Universes can emerge from one photon. Two of them contain ordinary matter and antimatter. The other two contain matter of magnetic monopoles and antimonopoles. In magnetic matter atoms are bound together by magnetic forces, the electric field can be only solenoidal and electric charges cannot be separated from one another.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3223] **viXra:1902.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-06 08:17:34*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 20 Pages. This paper has been submitted to SciGod journal. Comments are welcome

It is known that the Big Bang theory was based on the concept of creation ex nihilo, after ancient Greek philosophers. In this paper, we will make few remark on the concept of creatio ex nihilo (as a commentary to a recent paper by Kalachanis, Athanasios Anastasiou, Ioannis Kostikas, Efstratios Theodossious and Мilan S. Dimitrijevi), as well as two other approaches, i.e. Intelligent Design and Emergence Theory by Clayton/Yong. As continuation of our recent paper to appear in forthcoming issue of J. Asia Mathematika, we argue that beside the above three approaches, a new concept called creatio ex-rotatione offers a resolution to the long standing disputes between beginning and eternity of the Universe. In other words, in this respect we agree with Vaas, i.e. it can be shown: “how a conceptual and perhaps physical solution of the temporal aspect of Immanuel Kant’s „first antinomy of pure reason“ is possible, i.e. how our universe in some respect could have both a beginning and an eternal existence. Therefore, paradoxically, there might have been a time before time or a beginning of time in time.” By the help of computational simulation, we also show how a model of early Universe with rotation can fit this new picture.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3222] **viXra:1902.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-05 14:47:45*

**Authors:** Jozef Radomanski

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The article compiles the existing information on complex space-time, from which a sketch of its mathematical structure can be outlined. We divided space-time into geometric and physical layers. The elements of the geometric layer are any four-vectors because, although it is an orthogonal space, it does not have a metrics. The physical layer is created by objects having energy, whose state coordinates are proper or singular paravectors, therefore it is posible to define a metrics for these objects. However, this metrics has no classic properties and it is not a pseudometric of the Minkowski space-time either, so we called it para-metrics. In the physical complex space-time the triangle inequality and the Cauchy inequality have been proved but, however, they have the opposite directions as their equivalents known from Euclidean geometry. At the end, we give a few tips on how to simplify the idea of a complex space-time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3221] **viXra:1902.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-04 07:29:19*

**Authors:** Alexander L. Kholmetskii, Tolga Yarman, Ozan Yarman, Metin Arik

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We show that the attempt by Corda to explain the results of the Mössbauer rotor experiments via introducing the effect of synchronization of clock in the origin of a rotating system and a laboratory clock contains mathematical error and must be rejected.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3220] **viXra:1902.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-04 07:32:12*

**Authors:** Alexander Kholmetskii, Tolga Yarman2, Ozan Yarman, Metin Arik

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We argue in favor of the physical basis of YARK theory of gravity and show that the major part of recent criticism by Corda (Corda, C. Symmetry 2018, 10, 558-559) is based on either irrelevant or erroneous claims. We highlight a perfect agreement of YARK theory with the results of the Mössbauer experiments in a rotating system and demonstrate that the so-called “synchronization effect” proposed by Corda to account for the outcome of these experiments stems from an elementary mathematical error and must be rejected. Finally, we show that YARK theory provides a consistent alternative explanation of the origin of the LIGO signals beyond the hypothesis about gravitational waves.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3219] **viXra:1902.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-04 07:49:43*

**Authors:** J.Foukzon, S.A.Podosenov, A.A.Potapov, E.Menkova

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The Mössbauer experiment in a rotating system and the extraenergy shift between emission and absorption lines using Bimetric theory of gravitational-inertial field in Riemannian approximation explained.Bimetric theory of gravitational-inertial field is considered for the case when the gravitational-Inertial field is governed by either a perfect magnetic fluid.In a series of papers published during the past decade with respect to Mössbauer experiments in a rotating system [71]-[75],it has been experimentally shown that the relative energy shift ΔE/E between the source of resonant radiation (situated at the center of the rotating system) and the resonant absorber (located on the rotor rim) is described by the relationship ΔE/E=−ku 2 /c 2 , where u is the tangential velocity of the absorber, c the velocity of light in vacuum, and k some coefficient, which -- contrary to what had been classically predicted equal 1/2 (see for example [35]) -- turns out to be substantially larger than 1/2. It cannot be stressed enough that the equality k=1/2 had been predicted by general theory of relativity (GTR) on account of the special relativistic time dilation effect delineated by the tangential displacement of the rotating absorber, where the "clock hypothesis" by Einstein (i.e., the non-reliance of the time rate of any clock on its acceleration [35]) was straightly adopted. Hence, the revealed inequality k>1/2 indicates the presence of some additional energy shift (next to the usual time dilation effect arising from tangential displacement alone) between the emitted and absorbed resonant radiation. By using Bimetric Theory of Gravitational-Inertial Field [76] we obtain k=0.75 in a good agreement with experimental result k=0.69+(-)0.03 [75].

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3218] **viXra:1902.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-04 11:49:09*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

In this paper we will attempt to make a calculation model for the paper
http://vixra.org/abs/1901.0357 The Universes Components Effects in Space Time now when we look at a star that is effected by the expanding universe we find that the star becomes smaller to the viewer now when we look at the star after c seconds or 299729458 seconds we find that the star should become 299792458 smaller but this model says that the star should produce the rest mass as an electromagnetic radiation

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3217] **viXra:1902.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-01 01:19:51*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The parity symmetry in physics shows that the motions in two different reference frames are related to each other.
By comparing the displacement and the velocity from two reference frames, the elapsed time can be shown to
be conserved in both reference frames. For two frames in relative inertial motion, the elapsed time is
conserved in all inertial reference frames. If both frames are in circular motion, then the
elapsed time is conserved in all local reference frames on the same circle. If both frames are free
to move in any direction at any speed, then the elapsed time is conserved in all
non-inertial reference frames. Two simultaneous events are simultaneous in all reference frames.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3216] **viXra:1901.0475 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-31 15:56:59*

**Authors:** Tony Collins

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The force you feel as you accelerate otherwise known as inertia, is “time” - temporal energy. As you accelerate, your mass increases and subsequently your gravitational field and the amount of time dilation you experience. Because of this your clock and the field around you exists further in the future relative to any outside non-moving clocks which are now in the past. As a result, these past clocks are attracted to you, due to the 2nd law of thermal dynamics and pull on you like a drag. Thus in this paper, we will show how and why inertial and gravitational masses are equivalent, what gravity is, and how temporal energy - time, is the underlining mechanism which links and governs them.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3215] **viXra:1901.0466 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-31 10:20:09*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: Agreement with Planck Collaboration critical density data and assumption of 10^27 galaxy count verifies the importance of holography in MHCE8S theory

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3214] **viXra:1901.0454 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-30 07:14:21*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 45 Pages.

Dark matter, which is thought to account for nearly a quarter of matter in the universe (but has yet to be observed), has perplexed physicists for decades. [28]
Almost 20 years ago, the DAMA/LIBRA experiment at Italy's Gran Sasso National Laboratory—LNGS began publishing data showing that it had detected a signal modulation produced by an interaction with the Milky Way's dark matter halo. [27]
This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/detector/" detector . [26]
If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25]

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3213] **viXra:1901.0451 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-30 09:21:29*

**Authors:** Lindsay Forbes

**Comments:** 10 Pages. lforbes174@gmail.com

The accepted view is that the universe is totally self-contained. All of its dynamics are governed purely by its interior contents. In this hypothesis I challenge this view and offer a simple explanation for Dark Energy and provide a model of the cosmos which may simplify much more.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3212] **viXra:1901.0437 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-29 09:56:43*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 25 pages

This work presents an indisputable mathematical demonstration revealing the Special Relativity equations are fudged. It also shows that the actual equations resulting from Einstein’s assumptions are inconsistent, and lead to mathematical contradictions, falsifying the special relativity predictions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3211] **viXra:1901.0429 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-29 02:43:37*

**Authors:** John Malcolm Newell

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The human perspective is incomplete, we see only outward from a point and cannot resolve the sequence of quantum action because Euclidean geometry is used to define relativity. A geometry indicated by special relativity defining separation not by distance but as separation in the constant proper time of the observer, allows distinction between electrical and quantum action. The proper time of the observer then has a natural complex conjugate when multiplied by the subjects relative velocity as a proportion of the velocity of light and a single equation describes relativity between charges without assuming geometry for empty space. Time dilation and divergence between charges then constitute a mechanism for all interaction, providing a common explanation for gravity, inertia and electromagnetism.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3210] **viXra:1901.0419 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-28 10:24:29*

**Authors:** Friedhelm Jöge

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The rudiments of a theory of dark energy. The theoretical result is confronted with the numerical value calculated from the available data. Excellent matching of the numerical values resulting in three independent paths makes the approach plausible. The work at hand is analogous to Kepler's laws of planetary orbits. Only Isaac Newton put Kepler's laws on a theoretical basis, which is provided here by Thomas Görnitz [1]. The empirical Balmer formula for the frequencies of the spectral lines in the arc spectrum of hydrogen was also theoretically justified by Niels Bohr, who calculated the energy levels of the hydrogen atom and the frequencies of spectral lines.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3209] **viXra:1901.0402 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-26 15:37:43*

**Authors:** Emil Gigov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A new experiment for registration of variable speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3208] **viXra:1901.0391 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-26 05:35:32*

**Authors:** Thomas Heiko Günther

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Recently, anti-de Sitter spaces are used in promising theories of quantum gravity like the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence. The latter provides an approach to string theorie, which includes more than four dimensions. Unfortunately, the anti-de Sitter model contains no mass and is not able to describe our universe adequately. Nevertheless, the rising interest in higherdimensional theories motivates to take a deeper look at the n-dimensional AdS Spacetime. In this paper, a solution of Einstein's field equations is constructed from a modified anti-de Sitter metric in n dimensions. The idea is based on the connection between Schwarzschild- and McVittie metric: McVittie's model, which interpolates between a Schwarzschild Black Hole and an expanding global Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker spacetime, can be constructed by a simple coordinate replacement in Schwarzschild's isotropic intervall, where radial coordinate and it's differential is multiplied by a time dependent scale factor a(t). In a previous work I showed, that an exact solution of Einstein's equations can analogously be generated from a static transformation of de Sitter's metric. The present article is concerned with the application of this method on an AdS (Anti de Sitter) related spacetime in n dimensions. It is shown that the resulting isotropic intervall is a solution of the n-dimensional Einstein equations. Further, it is transformed into a spherical symmetric but anisotropic form, analogously to the transformtion found by Kaloper, Kleban and Martin for McVittie's metric.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3207] **viXra:1901.0357 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-24 06:47:25*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty this is my best paper ever and hopefully the best paper ever

The universe has a volume and we can say it has other three components the universe has masses space and time now since we denote space as nothing then if we say that the universe is composed of two things masses and time then we should say that the universe is split up into two stuff masses and time and if so we can say that mass and time occupy the volume of the universe fully now if we actually look at the night sky we could see that the stars are less than half the volume of the universe and that is because masses consumed themselves to move and consume themselves as time pass in other words time didn't want its half of the volume of the universe only it also zombied(from the word zombie) up the masses half or turned the masses into moving masses that consumed their mass as time passed by now we have the c constant we have cosmology we can look at the sky and know how much volume of the stars compared to half the volume of the universe is still existent and we can calculate everything till the pi value of mathematical circles now I don't know how to do it but it seems other people can take time and calculate everything with mathematics

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3206] **viXra:1901.0345 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-23 09:19:20*

**Authors:** Pablo Hernan Pereyra

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

An approach to Total Relativity Theory as a comparative between scalar and tensorial equations of Fluid Dynamics Theory, pointing to the failure of interpretation in General Relativity Theory, which does not contemplate the energy conservation of the observables of nature.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3205] **viXra:1901.0339 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-23 01:08:16*

**Authors:** Harvey Scribner

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

Abstract—In [1] an observer at rest and perpendicular to moving source will detect a difference in the time of arrival of the initial τ0 and final τ' waves as τ' > τ0 a transverse relative time shift. The position of the observer in [1] for source velocities near the speed of light has the disadvantage of having to wait a long time to detect τ'. The observer cannot detect τ' for velocities equal to or greater than the speed of light. This work shows that moving the observer to a strategic position downstream from the τ' signal has the advantage of introducing observability of τ'. The transverse relative time shift formulas are derived for the stationary observer perpendicular to and also on the path axis for velocities less than and much greater than c. Also, a method to calculate transverse relative length is proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3204] **viXra:1901.0258 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-17 23:47:45*

**Authors:** Henrich Leonidovich Arutyunov

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This article shows that clocks in a moving reference frame cannot be slowed down, as this leads to double the time in a moving frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3203] **viXra:1901.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-17 13:35:26*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A proper derivation of the FLRW metric shows the Ricci curvature scalar to be embedded in the metric's constant k (0, -1 or +1) that largely determines the fate of the universe. But in general R is not a constant, and the consequence of this issue is briefly presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3202] **viXra:1901.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-16 06:13:59*

**Authors:** Peter V. Raktoe

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The muon paradox and the twin paradox are the result of time dilation, but time itself doesn't dilate.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3201] **viXra:1901.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-16 10:14:59*

**Authors:** R. I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 4 Pages. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering Vol:12, No:8, 2018

As is known, the role of the energy-momentum pseudotensors of the gravitational field is to extend the conservation law to the gravitational interaction by taking into account the energy and momentum of the gravitational field. We calculated the contribution of the Einstein pseudotensor to the total mass of a stationary material body and its gravitational field. It turned out that this contribution is positive, despite the fact that the mass-energy of a stationary gravitational field is negative. We concluded that the pseudotensor incorrectly describes the energy of the gravitational field. Nevertheless this pseudotensor has been used in a large number of scientific works for 100 years. We explain this by the fact that the covariant component of the pseudotensor was regarded as the mass-energy. Besides, we prove the advantage of the covariant energy-momentum conservation law for matter in the Minkowski space-time

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3200] **viXra:1901.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-15 16:43:30*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: An increase of 10 million years for the very hot period of the universe and increasing the universe's radius to be exactly c/ fine-structure constant alpha produce full 3-digit agreement with Planck Collaboration critical density data.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3199] **viXra:1901.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-14 14:00:49*

**Authors:** Bryn.s.Cat

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Charge,Parity,Time Symmetry

How special relativity can be reinterpreted
with Charge,Parity,Time Symmetry.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3198] **viXra:1901.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-14 05:57:21*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the general relativity theory, we find electro-magnetic wave functions of Cosmic Microwave Background and Schwarzschild space-time. Specially, this article is that electromagnetic wave equations are treated by gauge fixing equations in RobertsonWalker space-time and Schwarzschild space-time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3197] **viXra:1901.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-12 11:14:27*

**Authors:** Walter Orlov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The flexibility of time in the theory of relativity is achieved by unnatural behavior of the clock. Einstein assumes the existence of such a clock, which indicates more time than would have passed according to its speed. In nature there is no such clock. Therefore his assumptions should be reconsidered anew.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3196] **viXra:1901.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-11 18:08:02*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The application of reflection symmetry to two inertial reference frames shows that
the elapsed time is conserved in all inertial reference frames. The conservation of the
elapsed time indicates that the reflection of light between a pair of stationary mirrors should take the same elapsed time
in all inertial reference frames. In one reference frame, both mirrors are stationary. In other reference
frames, both mirrors are moving. The distance traveled by the light between the moving mirrors
depends on the direction. The conservation law
shows that the light travels at a different speed upon reflection by a moving mirror.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3195] **viXra:1901.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-11 23:49:00*

**Authors:** Jebin larosh

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This theoretical framework shows an entropy model of FRW universe and describes the behaviour of Lambda-CDM. The possibility that the Dark photon in a hidden sector is a Maxwell demon.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3194] **viXra:1901.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-11 09:49:04*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The FLRW metric is derived for a constant curvature scalar, showing that pressure and density obey two distinct equations of state.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3193] **viXra:1901.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-10 09:23:48*

**Authors:** Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis

**Comments:** 3 pages

The article discusses the circumstances before the Big Bang. Only a photon can exist in such conditions. This article discloses a variant how the Universe can emerge from “nothing”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3192] **viXra:1901.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-09 11:23:26*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

The c constant is as we know the speed of light and when large masses move at a speed near the speed of light its known that time should dilate till time passing actually ends up being zero now if we look at photons moving at the speed of light we could say that it has a c constant however there should be more to that because photons should time dilate too now when we look at the photons that should time dilate and it doesn't we could say that its because it’s the smallest mass or maybe even because its massless now when we look at bigger masses we find that the masses actually time dilate maybe because the masses have larger mass than photons so assuming that the photon is the base of all masses we could assume that particles having mass are the only ones that time dilate but the photon being the base of all masses we could say that a photon moves 1 m/s if the time increases to c or 3*10^8 s now when we look again we find that photons never change the distance it takes in one sec that is c more over time never dilates for photons because again it has a c constant meaning that if you dilate time you would end up increasing the distance by which the photon moves in one sec so if we look again we could say that photons do not experience time dilation but then this effects larger masses than the base of a photon now lets see the photon equations:
C=3*10^8/1=3*10^8 m/s and c=3*10^8/3*10^8=1 m/s if time dilates for photons and if we take the c=1 or the second equation we could throw it onto the masses as we say that as the 1 kg mass moves at a distance of 1 m/s we would find that it takes the force that pushed the photon now imagine we give 3*10^8 the force that pushed the photon we get to the 1 kg moving at the speed of light and maximum time dilation now suppose we look at the largest mass in the universe at the middle of the universe it could be estimated to be of c*c*c=(3*10^8)^3 where the first c is the force and the second c the inertia the the last c the time dilation refutation

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3191] **viXra:1901.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-10 02:14:53*

**Authors:** Lluís Bel

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Whitehead's description of the gravitational field of a static point mass source is equivalent to Schwarzshild's solution of Einstein's equations. Conveniently generalized in the framework of Special relativity, I proved that it leads to a new description of the linear approximation of General relativity with a color gage group symmetry. Here I introduce a new line of thought to discuss the problem of spacecrafts orbiting a planet taking into account its motion around the Sun or its proper rotation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3190] **viXra:1901.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-08 08:19:13*

**Authors:** Karl De Paepe

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We consider a system of a gravitational wave coming from infinity that collides with a mass M. The metric of the system approaches the metric of a gravitational plane wave pulse as the mass of M goes to zero. The metric of the gravitational plane wave pulse having a specific form. We show there is a limiting curve of M, as mass and size of M go to zero, that is not a geodesic curve. We show conservation of energy-momentum does not hold and there is no solution to the Einstein field equations for this system.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3189] **viXra:1901.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-07 06:56:49*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

in this paper we will propose two laser experiments the first is to spin the laser at the speed of light and see whether the photons coming out of it still have the speed of light and the second experiment to make photons coming out of laser go for a long distance hitting mirrors for a very long distance probably good to do in cern and see whether the photons move at the speed of light while
measuring with time the photons take to reach a distance of c or the speed of light

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3188] **viXra:1901.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-07 17:38:49*

**Authors:** Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay

**Comments:** 38 Pages.

In this work, we aim to unify statistical physics with relativity. As such, we construct a system of statistical physics under an appropriate equilibrium condition such that its Lagrange multipliers imply, instead of the usual uniform constant temperature, a uniform constant speed: the speed of light. With it, both special and general relativity are emergent from its equation of state and the system describes the statistical physics of space-time events as measured by observers. We show, as the main result, that the entropy dynamics of the system admits a plausible mechanism for the notoriously stubborn quantum measurement problem by proving that light traces a surface in space-time along which all observers agree on the results of all random measurements within the system. Finally, we make the case that the role normally taken by the uniform temperature is, in a statistical system of space-time events, replaced by the uniform speed of light, and we re-formulate the three laws of thermodynamics within this optic.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3187] **viXra:1901.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-07 23:15:06*

**Authors:** David Colasante

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The particle aspects of light are accommodated so well by the photon model that alternative models are rarely considered. Interval-time coordinates provide a Euclidean lens, through which light quanta are seen to exchange by direct, physical contact. The ALPHA collaboration at CERN is uniquely positioned to experimentally distinguish between the models.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3186] **viXra:1901.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-08 01:43:04*

**Authors:** Francesco Ferrara

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The document presents a model for the electron, different from the conventional one. The electron is represented as a current loop of 19.79 A. The document also explains the electrical nature of the inertia of a physical body

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3185] **viXra:1901.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-06 22:37:07*

**Authors:** J Foukzon, E R Men’kova, A A Potapov

**Comments:** 56 Pages.

The cosmological constant problem arises because the magnitude of
vacuum energy density predicted by quantum field theory is about 120 orders of
magnitude larger than the value implied by cosmological observations of accelerating
cosmic expansion. We pointed out that the fractal nature of the quantum space-time
with negative Hausdorff- Colombeau dimensions can resolve this tension. The canonical
Quantum Field Theory is widely believed to break down at some fundamental
high-energy cutoff and therefore the quantum fluctuations in the vacuum can be
treated classically seriously only up to this high-energy cutoff. In this paper we argue that
Quantum Field Theory in fractal space-time with negative Hausdorff-Colombeau
dimensions gives high-energy cutoff on natural way. In order to obtain disered physical
result we apply the canonical Pauli-Villars regularization up to . It means that there exist
the ghost-driven acceleration of the univers hidden in cosmological constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3184] **viXra:1901.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-04 13:46:40*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

The clockwise spin in electrons and protons is probably the reason why they have attracting charges because when we look at a bigger scale we find that electrons spin around the protons in clockwise direction too and when we look at a bigger scale we find that planets spin clockwise too around themselves also when we look at a bigger scale we find that moons spin around planets in clockwise direction probably the reason this happens is because there are two interacting masses here namely the electrons and protons or the planet and moons those two masses spinning in the clockwise direction while one is spinning in clockwise direction around the other only and the bigger mass is not meaning that the bigger one is not spinning around the other while the smaller mass is spinning for example if we look at two masses that are equal in mass as two neutron stars we would find that both of them is spinning around the other leading to higher spin velocity around the other but with distance or radius around each other loss but in other systems where the two masses are not equal we find that the radius is kept under time easily
i actually have the ability to write better physics paper now and sine i do not remember my last account password i will not delete papers anymore so all papers from now are not garbage except ofcourse for the method to find pi paper

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3183] **viXra:1901.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-05 04:31:26*

**Authors:** Moninder Singh Modgil

**Comments:** 2 pages

Existence of a Cosmic String, going vertically upwards from the north pole, can be verified by flying around it in circles and measuring the associated Aharonov-Bohm effect \cite{Belluci 2014}. The cosmic string plays a pivotal role in rotation of universe around/over the stationary earth \cite{Modgil 2018 c}. Anthropogenic thermal up currents over the north pole, would interact with the cosmic string - winding around it and effecting its rotational state. Such up currents can be generated by the heat from the nuclear reactors on north pole \cite{Modgil 2002, Modgil 2008, Modgil 2011}. This gives an anthropic engineering control over the cosmological rotation reversals. Nuclear submarines surfacing by breaking through the polar ice cap, - heating sea water, - converting it into steam - and releasing it into the polar atmosphere - are a possible way to achieve this.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3182] **viXra:1901.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-03 12:10:02*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We show how one can measure the speed of gravity only using gravitational phenomena. Our approach offers several ways to measure the speed of gravity (light) and checks existing assumptions about light in new types of experiments. The speed of light is included in several well-known gravitational formulas. However, if we can measure this speed from gravitational phenomena alone, then is it then the speed of light or the speed of gravity we are measuring? We think it is more than a mere coincidence that they are the same. In addition, even if it is not possible to draw strong conclusions now, our formulations support the view that there is a link between electromagnetism and gravity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3181] **viXra:1901.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-01 02:09:00*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The application of symmetry to physics leads to conservation law and conserved quantity.
For inertial reference frames, the reflection symmetry generates not only conservation but also transformation.
Under reflection symmetry, the elapsed time is conserved in all inertial reference frames. The displacement in space is also conserved in all inertial reference frames.
From the conservation of the elapsed time and the displacement, the coordinate transformation between inertial reference frame is derived.
Based on the coordinate transformation, both the time transformation and the velocity transformation are also derived.
The derivation shows that all three transformations are dependent exclusively on the relative motion
between inertial reference frames.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3180] **viXra:1812.0491 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-30 09:23:35*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

We find that the force of inertia acting on an accelerated body is the result of the action of the gravitational induction force produced by the relative movement of the Universe as a whole, which fully confirms the Mach's Principle. The calculations are developed with the linearized theory of General Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3179] **viXra:1812.0487 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-30 12:48:10*

**Authors:** George R. briggs

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract: A MHCE8S theory value for the critical fermion density of the universe is found in better agreement with that published thanks to holography

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3178] **viXra:1812.0475 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-29 12:49:24*

**Authors:** Francesco Ferrara

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

pdf document

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3177] **viXra:1812.0461 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-28 15:37:25*

**Authors:** Ramon Isasi

**Comments:** 16 Pages. None

In the present essay, we consider the origin of the dark energy, cosmological constant and the dark matter. The dark energy, is consequence of the annihilation of the matter - antimatter at the very beginning of the big bang. This dark energy was the origin and cause of the cosmological expansion and the past and present creation of the whole space. We consider the presence of the call “dark" matter as consequence of highly exited hydrogen and helium Ridberg's atoms in perfect equilibrium with the CMB radiation. The cosmological constant is considered as an arbitrary ad hoc anti gravitational entity. Finally, we consider the Casimir effect, as a suitable and truly efficient physical method and a reliable resource in the experimental determination of the dark energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3176] **viXra:1812.0456 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-28 21:40:42*

**Authors:** Yaseen Ali Mohamed Al Azzam

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This paper is to show how wrong derivations were used to conclude the formulas for time dilation, length contraction and relativistic mass .
When dealing with such a theory which is never proved experimentally, its mathematical origin and compliance with fundamentals of physics should be checked before starting to struggle in imagining what observers observe from different frames of reference or how behaviors change at this speed of that.
If the mathematical failure which will be discussed in this paper is added to the failure in proving this theory experimentally for decades, we conclude only one result which is that this theory is wrong.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3175] **viXra:1812.0442 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-27 10:48:39*

**Authors:** Pablo Hernan Pereyra

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

It is shown that Schwarzschild's 2nd exact solution to the General Relativity Theory is not physically plausible due to the violation of energy conservation in the 5th dimension interpreted as mass. A physically plausible realistic solution of Fluid is given according to the Total Relativity Theory where density and pressure are directly proportional to the gravitational force within the fluid distribution.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3174] **viXra:1812.0430 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-26 18:48:16*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We suggest that momentum should be redefined in order to help make physics more consistent and more logical. In this paper, we will propose that there is a rest-mass momentum, a kinetic momentum, and a total momentum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3173] **viXra:1812.0425 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-25 14:36:31*

**Authors:** Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

A new theory is proposed here a cosmological gamma ray bursts. In black holes, the matter annihilates with the formation of virtual photons (bosons), due to the lag of the gravitational field effect. The effect of the lag of the gravitational field leads to an increase in the speed of rotation of the black hole. But, since the rotation speed cannot exceed the speed of light in a vacuum, then at a certain “deformation” of the space-time continuum, inevitably begins the annihilation of matter with the formation of virtual photons (at the first stage). After complete annihilation, all virtual photons are one-momentally radiated and a become a real photons, therefore, we see a cosmological gamma-ray burst, early radiation did not occur due to the slowing down (actually stopping) of time in a black hole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3172] **viXra:1812.0424 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-25 16:17:28*

**Authors:** Edwin Eugene Klingman

**Comments:** 57 Pages.

The special theory of relativity has confused physicists for over a century, demolishing our intuitive understanding of time. Its success depends on two facts: 1) Einstein hid his false premise in the definition of inertial reference frame and then based all axioms on this, and 2) the proofs of time dilation, from muon to Hafele-Keating time differentials. Unlike quantum mechanics – with its Bohr, Bohm, Everett, and other interpretations – special relativity has only one interpretation: that of space-time symmetry. Herein I develop an energy-time conjugation interpretation offering a new way to interpret time dilation proofs.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3171] **viXra:1812.0416 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-24 09:15:40*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 11 Pages. This paper has been accepted by Asia Mathematika journal. To appear next year, 2019. Comments are welcome

Questions regarding the formation of the Universe and what was there before the existence of Early Universe have been great interest to mankind of all times. In recent decades, the Big Bang as described by the Lambda CDM Standard Model Cosmology has become widely accepted by majority of physics and cosmology communities. Among other things, we can cite A.A. Grib & Pavlov who pointed out some problems of heavy particles creation out of vacuum and also other proposal of Creatio ex nihilo theory (CET). But the philosophical problems remain, as Vaas pointed out: Did the universe have a beginning or does it exist forever, i.e. is it eternal at least in relation to the past? This fundamental question was a main topic in ancient philosophy of nature and the Middle Ages, and still has its revival in modern physical cosmology both in the controversy between the big bang and steady state models some decades ago and in the contemporary attempts to explain the big bang within a quantum cosmological (vacuum ﬂuctuation) framework. In this paper we argue that Neutrosophic Logic oﬀers a resolution to the long standing disputes between beginning and eternity of the Universe. In other words, in this respect we agree with Vaas, i.e. it can be shown: “how a conceptual and perhaps physical solution of the temporal aspect of Immanuel Kant’s ” ﬁrst antinomy of pure reason“ is possible, i.e. how our universe in some respect could have both a beginning and an eternal existence. Therefore, paradoxically, there might have been a time before time or a beginning of time in time.” By the help of computational simulation, we also show how a model of early Universe with rotation can ﬁt this new picture. Further observations are recommended.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3170] **viXra:1812.0415 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-24 09:29:47*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The FLRW metric is derived for a pure de Sitter universe, showing that the cosmological constant is proportional to the Ricci scalar. As in the standard FLRW model, the fate of such a universe depends on whether the cosmological constant is positive, negative or zero.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3169] **viXra:1812.0411 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-24 15:53:20*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

how the geometric phenomenon of Lense-Thirring relates to time and temporal elasticity

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3168] **viXra:1812.0404 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-23 21:43:27*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

4 associated essays combined: attribute spaces, temporal elasticity, causality and antigravity, and flat space scalar field gravitation

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3167] **viXra:1812.0381 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-21 23:56:16*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The reflection symmetry is a physical property for inertial reference frames.
It shows that the elapsed time in one inertial reference frame is identical to the elapsed time
in another inertial reference frame. The same symmetry also leads to the conservation of
the wavelength across inertial reference frames. The velocity of a wave is proportional to its
frequency. Doppler effect shows that both the velocity and the frequency depend on the reference frame. The higher the detected frequency is, the faster the wave travels toward the detector.
One example is the radar gun used by the traffic police. The reflected radio wave travels faster
than the emitted radio wave. This results in frequency difference between two waves. This
difference is used to calculate the velocity of a vehicle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3166] **viXra:1812.0378 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-22 01:14:03*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Aksaray University Journal of Science and Engineering, Vol. 2, Issue 2, pp. 0-0 (2018). doi: 10.29002/asujse.433947

Relations for the relativistic energy and metric are analyzed inside and outside the body in the framework of the covariant theory of gravitation. The methods of optimal energy gauging and equations for the metric are chosen. It is shown that for the matter inside the body a procedure is required to average the physical quantities, including the cosmological constant and the scalar curvature. For the case of the relativistic uniform system, the cosmological constant and the scalar curvature are explicitly calculated, which turn out to be constant values inside the body and are assumed to be equal to zero outside the body. Comparison of the cosmological constants inside a proton, a neutron star and in the observable Universe allows us to explain the cosmological constant problem arising in the Lambda-CDM model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3165] **viXra:1812.0372 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-20 06:04:56*

**Authors:** Ragil Brand Ndongmo Tsafack, Saleh Mahamat, Thomas Bouetou Bouetou, Timoleon Crepin Kofane

**Comments:** 2 Pages. This is the next work of our first paper viXra:1811.0097

Here we will determine the numerical values of 'a' and 'alpha' in order to determine with more
precisions the impact of dark energy in the vicinity of a black hole

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3164] **viXra:1812.0363 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-20 20:31:02*

**Authors:** Wei Xu

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

As an application of *Universal and Unified Physics**, the *Natural Cosmology* is harvested as a new theory prevailing over the current “*Physical Cosmology”* by transcending both *Einstein's* field equations and *Friedmann* equations with the *ontological field equations* and *horizon field equations. *Positioned at the third horizon of spacetime manifold*, *our *cosmological field equation has not only *substituted “general relativity”*, *but also extended the cosmological constant to the matrices of superphase modulations, dark energy waves and blackhole emissions.

Consequently, we are presented the *Christmas Gifs of 2018*, revealing exceptionally secrets of the *Natural Cosmology* with horizon infrastructure, superphase modulation, entropy of dark energy, and lightwave or gravitation fields in the forms of dispersive or non-dispersive wave-packets, which orchestrate all types of life events essential to the operations and processes of creation, annihilations, reproduction and communication for natural formations and evolutions.

-----

* Principles of《Universal and Unified Physics》 vixra:1811.0261

[3163] **viXra:1812.0336 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-19 23:57:10*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In Newtonian particle dynamics, time is invariant under inertial transformations, and speed has no upper bound. In special relativity, it is the observed particle's proper time, rather than the arbitrary observer's time, which is inertial-transformation invariant, and it is the particle's proper speed which has no upper bound. It is thus perhaps not surprising the Newton's Second Law is also valid in relativistic particle dynamics presented in terms of the particle's proper time. This follows from the special-relativistic dynamical principle that the time derivative of special relativistic momentum is equal to the applied force, provided proper force is defined to have an additional factor of gamma. The four-vector fully Lorentz-covariant completion of proper force is obliged to have zero contraction with the particle's proper four-velocity. A special-relativistic particle in either a scalar or a four-vector (electromagnetic) potential is verified to adhere to the proper-time Newton's Second Law, and when it is consistently taken into account that a metric (gravitational) potential's observed effect on a particle is to alter the rate of change of its proper time with observer time, that adherence is verified to hold for metric potentials as well.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3162] **viXra:1812.0303 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-17 12:02:35*

**Authors:** Mavriche Adrian

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The present document starts from the relative existence of the electromagnetic field,
reaching through mental experiments to its connection with the gravitational field, without the
necessity to resort to other space - time dimensions or supplementary "exotic" particles.
The main idea is: Generalized Relativity says, through the Equivalence Principle, that local we cannot distinguish between the effects of an accelerated movement (effects of an acceleration field) and the effects of a gravitational field. Knowing that an electron located in a field of acceleration (accelerated) will radiate in report to an observer outside of the acceleration field effect, then through the aforementioned equivalence, and an electron being at rest in a gravitational field, has to radiate in reference to an observer who is outside of that gravitational field.
In conclusion, it explain why we have expansion "super-accelerated" of the universe, without the necessity of dark energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3161] **viXra:1812.0294 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-18 02:58:57*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

an intuitive investigation of conventional GR and TET, temporal elasticity theory

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3160] **viXra:1812.0289 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-16 06:48:09*

**Authors:** Sai suman sutar

**Comments:** 1 Page. Its all about time

Its my assumption that time is abssolute

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3159] **viXra:1812.0264 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-15 10:51:20*

**Authors:** George R. briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: I have (October, 2017) first described a superfast photon, called the cosmophoton, which can traverse the maximum expanse of our holographic universe in 2000 seconds.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3158] **viXra:1812.0262 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-15 11:47:20*

**Authors:** Louai Hassan Elzein Bashier

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

This paper is prepared to show that a rigid body which accelerates curvilinearly from its center of mass relative to a fixed point must simultaneously accelerate angularly relative to its center of mass. Formulae which coupling of the angular momentum and kinetic energy due to induced spin motion in the rigid body to the angular momentum and kinetic energy due to rotational motion of the same spinning rigid body have been derived. The paper also bringing to light the nature of the forces which cause induction of spin motion in that rigid body and a formula which coupling of this highlighted forces to the force which causes rotation of the rigid body has been also derived.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3157] **viXra:1812.0261 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-15 12:34:44*

**Authors:** Jorma Jormakka

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

All elements of special relativity, like the Lorentz transform, time dilation, space contraction, moving mass and E=mc^2 are said to be verified empirically beyond any doubt. While checking a discrete model of space I was surprised to notice that these experiments cannot distinguish between the Lorentz transform and the coordinate transform in my discrete model. There were also a lack of clarity in what frame of reference the formula for moving mass is differentiated to give E=mc^2. In the discrete model E=mc^2 follows easily from basic concepts. My conclusion is that the special relativity theory is not tested well enough and the principle that there is no preferred frame of reference should be revised.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3156] **viXra:1812.0248 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-15 00:40:09*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The relative reflection symmetry exists for an isolated system of two stationary persons. The first person sees the second person in a distance away.
The second person sees the first person in the same distance away but in the opposite direction.
Such symmetry also exists for two mobile persons. Both persons see each other moving at the same speed but in opposite direction in their own rest frames.
From the definition of velocity, the time in the rest frame of the first person can be compared to the time in the rest frame of the second person.
The result shows that the time in the rest frame of the first person differs from the time in the rest frame of the second person by a constant.
Two simultaneous events in one inertial reference frame are also simultaneous in another inertial reference frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2295] **viXra:1902.0252 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-02-16 09:18:45*

**Authors:** Pablo Hernan Pereyra

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The significance of the 5th Dimension is demonstrated as a variable related to the Stress material medium and its relation with the conservation of energy of the internal forces of
matter. The Stress tensor of the continuous medium is obtained using the properties of the Quantum tensor according to Total Relativity Theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2294] **viXra:1902.0237 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-02-15 01:05:58*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Abstract
This article begins with “vector-tensor-scalar geometry” interacting photons and gravitons to produce the quantum spins of matter particles, the Higgs boson, plus the particles of the weak and strong nuclear forces. It then proposes the universe uses base-2 mathematics (a.k.a. electronics’ binary digits), the topology of Mobius strips and figure-8 Klein bottles, plus the geometry mentioned before, to produce photons and still hypothetical gravitons and non-hypothetical mass. It’s then proposed that the three-dimensional figure-8 Klein bottles composing the universe possess space-time's four dimensions (3 of space + 1 of time) when Wick rotation is programmed into them. This programming is adaptive, depending on the strength of gravity and electromagnetism (in Special Relativity, time slows in intense gravity and on approaching c, the speed of light). Because of the rotating between the x- and y-axes in Wick rotation, there’s a space-time we call imaginary or higher dimensional that is just as real as ordinary space-time. Gravity also leads to mass here - “dark” matter – and that matter’s associated “dark” energy. Back in this dimension, the Big Bang is regarded as dispensable due to the quantum-mechanical entanglement of microwave photons. And the speed of light becomes a duality – simultaneously having the two velocities of approx. 300 000, and approx. zero, km/s.
Introduction -
The abstract of a review article in the journal “Science” states, “Both dark matter and dark energy require extensions to our current understanding of particle physics or point toward a breakdown of general relativity on cosmological scales.” Could it be that understanding dark matter and dark energy doesn’t require modification of general relativity, but needs Einstein’s 1905 masterpiece of special relativity? Nevertheless, modification of general relativity – and its unification with quantum mechanics – might be accomplished with the hidden variables of base 2 mathematics, Mobius strips, figure-8 Klein bottles, and Wick rotation. The greatest obstacle to understanding the dark universe, and beginning the journey to quantum gravity, will be the human reluctance to accept a paradigm shift to determinism.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2293] **viXra:1902.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-02-02 13:30:33*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The parity symmetry in physics shows that the motions in two different reference frames are related to each other.
By comparing the displacement and the velocity from two reference frames, the elapsed time can be shown to
be conserved in both reference frames. For two frames in relative inertial motion, the elapsed time is
conserved in all inertial reference frames. If both frames are in circular motion, then the
elapsed time is conserved in all local reference frames on the same circle. If both frames are free
to move in any direction at any speed, then the elapsed time is conserved in all
non-inertial reference frames. Two simultaneous events are simultaneous in all reference frames.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2292] **viXra:1901.0475 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-02-05 14:01:29*

**Authors:** Tony Collins

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Inertia, the force you feel pulling on you as you accelerate and gravity - the force that attracts all objects with mass. Are two separate and distinct phenomena and yet they share an equivalence which has yet to be explained. In this paper, we will show how and why inertial and gravitational masses are equivalent and how time is the underlining mechanism which links and governs them.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2291] **viXra:1901.0475 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-02-04 05:57:29*

**Authors:** Tony Collins

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Inertia, the force you feel pulling on you as you accelerate and gravity - the force that attracts all objects with mass. Are two separate and distinct phenomena and yet they share an equivalence which cannot be explained. In this paper we will show how and why inertial and gravitational masses are equivalent and how temporal energy – time is the underlining mechanism which links and governs them.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2290] **viXra:1901.0475 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-02-03 07:56:50*

**Authors:** Tony Collins

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Inertia, the force you feel pulling on you as you accelerate and gravity - the force that attracts all objects with mass. Are two separate and distinct phenomena and yet they share an equivalence which cannot be explained. In this paper we will show how and why inertial and gravitational masses are equivalent and how temporal energy – time, is the underlining mechanism which links and governs them.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2289] **viXra:1901.0475 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-02-02 07:28:13*

**Authors:** Tony Collins

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The force you feel as you accelerate otherwise known as inertia is “time” – temporal energy. As you accelerate, your mass increases and subsequently your gravitational field and the amount of time dilation you experience. Because of this your clock and the field around you exists further in the future relative to any outside non-moving clocks which are now in the past. As a result, these past clocks are attracted to you, due to the 2nd law of thermal dynamics and pull on you like a drag. Thus in this paper, we will show how and why inertial and gravitational masses are equivalent, what gravity is, and how temporal energy – “time”, is the underlining mechanism which links and governs them.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2288] **viXra:1901.0475 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-02-01 06:01:05*

**Authors:** Tony Collins

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The force you feel as you accelerate otherwise known as inertia is “time” – temporal energy. As you accelerate, your mass increases and subsequently your gravitational field and the amount of time dilation you experience. Because of this your clock and the field around you exists further in the future relative to any outside non-moving clocks which are now in the past. As a result, these past clocks are attracted to you, due to the 2nd law of thermal dynamics and pull on you like a drag. Thus in this paper, we will show how and why inertial and gravitational masses are equivalent, what gravity is, and how temporal energy – “time”, is the underlining mechanism which links and governs them.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2287] **viXra:1901.0437 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-01-31 04:24:44*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 24 pages

This work presents an indisputable mathematical demonstration revealing that the Special Relativity equations are fudged. It also shows that the actual equations resulting from Einstein’s assumptions are inconsistent, and lead to mathematical inconsistency, falsifying the special relativity predictions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2286] **viXra:1901.0345 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-01-31 08:46:02*

**Authors:** Pablo Hernan Pereyra

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

An approach to Total Relativity Theory as a comparative between scalar and tensorial equations of Fluid Dynamics Theory, pointing to the failure of interpretation in General Relativity Theory, which does not contemplate the energy conservation of the observables of nature.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2285] **viXra:1901.0339 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-02-10 19:49:31*

**Authors:** Harvey Scribner

**Comments:** 32 Pages. Version 2 includes Section IX - "The Meaning of Area K3"

Abstract—In [1] an observer at rest and perpendicular to moving source will detect a difference in the time of arrival of the initial τ0 and final τ' waves as τ' > τ0 a transverse relative time shift. The position of the observer in [1] for source velocities near the speed of light has the disadvantage of having to wait a long time to detect τ'. The observer cannot detect τ' for velocities equal to or greater than the speed of light. This work shows that moving the observer to a strategic position downstream from the τ' signal has the advantage of introducing observability of τ'. The transverse relative time shift formulas are derived for the stationary observer perpendicular to and also on the path axis for velocities less than and much greater than c. Also, a method to calculate transverse relative length is proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2284] **viXra:1901.0032 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-01-06 12:17:18*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We show how one can measure the speed of gravity only using gravitational phenomena. Our approach offers several ways to measure the speed of gravity (light) and checks existing assumptions about light in new types of experiments. The speed of light is included in several well-known gravitational formulas. However, if we can measure this speed from gravitational phenomena alone, then is it the speed of light or the speed of gravity we are measuring? We think it is more than a mere coincidence that they are the same. In addition, even if it is not possible to draw strong conclusions now, our formulations support the view that there is a link between electromagnetism and gravity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2283] **viXra:1812.0475 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-01-04 02:41:56*

**Authors:** Francesco Ferrara

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The document assumes a model for the electron as a current loop and qualitatively demonstrates that the inertia of matter has an essentially electrical nature

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2282] **viXra:1812.0461 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-01-09 18:02:18*

**Authors:** Ramon Isasi

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Some typing errors were corrected

In the present essay, we consider the origin of the dark energy, cosmological constant and the dark matter. The dark energy, is consequence of the annihilation of the matter - antimatter at the very beginning of the big bang. This dark energy was the origin and cause of the cosmological expansion and the past and present creation of the whole space. We consider the presence of the call “dark” matter as consequence of highly excited hydrogen and helium Ridberg’s atoms in perfect equilibrium with the CMB radiation. The cosmological constant is considered as an arbitrary ad hoc anti gravitational entity. Finally, we consider the Casimir effect, as a suitable and truly efficient physical method and a reliable resource in the experimental determination of the dark energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2281] **viXra:1812.0456 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-01-29 17:46:11*

**Authors:** Yaseen Ali Mohamed Al Azzam

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

This paper is to show how wrong assumptions and derivations were used to conclude the formulas for time dilation, length contraction and relativistic mass.
When dealing with such a theory which was never been proved experimentally, its mathematical origin and compliance with fundamentals of physics should be checked before starting to struggle in imagining what observers observe from different frames of reference or how behaviors change as this speed or that.
The factor α which defines relativistic mass came from a misunderstanding of the nature of motion at the speed of light and as a correction factor to correct the mistake made in the second Lorentz transformation equation of special relativity generated by multiplying (vt) by the same factor used for ct`.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2280] **viXra:1812.0430 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-01-28 01:09:18*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

We suggest that momentum should be redefined in order to help make physics more consistent and more logical. In this paper, we propose that there is a rest-mass momentum, a kinetic momentum, and a total momentum. This leads directly to a simpler relativistic energy–momentum relation. As we point out, it is the Compton wavelength that is the true wavelength for matter; the de Broglie wavelength is mostly a mathematical artifact. This observation leads us to a new relativistic wave equation and a new and likely better QM.
Further, we show that Minkowski space-time is unnecessarily complex and that a simplified, special case of Minkowski space-time is more consistent with the quantum world. Also, we show how the Heisenberg principle breaks down at the Planck scale, which opens this area of physics up for hidden variable theories once again. Many of the mystical interpretations in modern QM are rooted in the development of an unnecessarily complex theory that drives much speculation and is therefore subject to many different and even conflicting interpretations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2279] **viXra:1812.0430 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-01-26 17:28:11*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

We suggest that momentum should be redefined in order to help make physics more consistent and more logical. In this paper, we propose that there is a rest-mass momentum, a kinetic momentum, and a total momentum. This leads directly to a simpler relativistic energy momentum relation. As we point out, it is the Compton wavelength that is the true wavelength for matter; the de Broglie wavelength is mostly a mathematical artifact. This observation also leads us to a new relativistic wave equation and a new and likely better QM, in terms of being much more consistent and simpler to understand from a logical perspective.
Further, we show that Minkowski space-time is unnecessarily complex and that a simplified, special case of Minkowski space-time is more consistent with the quantum world. Also, we show how the Heisenberg principle breaks down at the Planck scale, which opens this area of physics up for hidden variable theories once again. Many of the mystical interpretations in modern QM are rooted in the development of an unnecessarily complex theory that drives much speculation and is therefore subject to many different and even conflicting interpretations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2278] **viXra:1812.0430 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-01-13 16:59:33*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

\abstract{ We suggest that momentum should be redefined in order to help make physics more consistent and more logical. In this paper, we propose that there is a rest-mass momentum, a kinetic momentum, and a total momentum. This leads directly to a simpler relativistic energy momentum relation. As we point out, it is the Compton wavelength that is the true wavelength for matter; the de Broglie wavelength is mostly a mathematical artifact. This observation also leads us to a new relativistic wave equation and a new and likely better QM, in terms of being much more consistent and simpler to understand from a logical perspective.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2277] **viXra:1812.0430 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-01-12 06:14:53*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

We suggest that momentum should be redefined in order to help make physics more consistent and more logical. In this paper, we propose that there is a rest-mass momentum, a kinetic momentum, and a total momentum. This leads directly to a simpler relativistic energy momentum relation. As we point out, it is the Compton wavelength that is the true wavelength for matter; the de Broglie wavelength is mostly a mathematical artifact. This observation also leads us to a new relativistic wave equation and a new and possibly better QM. Better in terms of being much more consistent and simpler to understand from a logical perspective.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2276] **viXra:1812.0430 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-01-10 17:24:56*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

We suggest that momentum should be redefined in order to help make physics more consistent and more logical. In this paper, we propose that there is a rest-mass momentum, a kinetic momentum, and a total momentum. This leads directly to a simpler relativistic energy momentum relation. As we point out, it is the Compton wavelength that is the true wavelength for matter; the de Broglie wavelength is mostly a mathematical artifact. This observation also leads us to a new relativistic wave equation and a new and likely better QM. Better in terms of being much more consistent and simpler to understand from a logical perspective.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2275] **viXra:1812.0430 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-01-08 04:33:00*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

We suggest that momentum should be redefined in order to help make physics more consistent and more logical. In this paper, we propose that there is a rest-mass momentum, a kinetic momentum, and a total momentum. This leads directly to a simpler relativistic energy momentum relation. As we point out, it is the Compton wavelength that is the true wavelength for matter; the de Broglie wavelength is mostly a mathematical artifact. This observation also leads us to a new relativistic wave equation and a new and likely better QM. Better in terms of being much more consistent and simpler to understand from a logical perspective.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2274] **viXra:1812.0430 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-01-01 18:28:51*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

We suggest that momentum should be redefined in order to help make physics more consistent and more logical. In this paper, we propose that there is a rest-mass momentum, a kinetic momentum, and a total momentum. This leads directly to a simpler relativistic energy momentum relation. As we point out, it is the Compton wavelength that is the true wavelength for matter; the de Broglie wavelength is mostly a mathematical artifact. This observation also leads us to a new relativistic wave equation and a new and likely better QM. Better in terms of being much more consistent and simpler to understand from a logical perspective.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2273] **viXra:1812.0430 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-12-31 09:02:12*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2272] **viXra:1812.0430 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-12-29 17:43:18*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We suggest that momentum should be redefined in order to help make physics more consistent and more logical. In this paper, we propose that there is a rest-mass momentum, a kinetic momentum, and a total momentum. This leads directly to a simpler relativistic energy momentum relation. As we point out, it is the Compton wavelength that is the true wavelength for matter; the de Broglie wavelength is mostly a mathematical artifact. This observation also leads us to a new relativistic wave equation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2271] **viXra:1812.0430 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-12-28 17:44:17*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

We suggest that momentum should be redefined in order to help make physics more consistent and more logical. In this paper, we propose that there is a rest-mass momentum, a kinetic momentum, and a total momentum. This leads directly to a simpler relativistic energy momentum relation. As we point out, it is the Compton wavelength that is the true wavelength for matter; the de Broglie wavelength is mostly a mathematical artifact. This observation also leads us to a new relativistic wave equation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2270] **viXra:1812.0430 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-12-28 02:07:03*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We suggest that momentum should be redefined in order to help make physics more consistent and more logical. In this paper, we will propose that there is a rest-mass momentum, a kinetic momentum, and a total momentum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2269] **viXra:1812.0363 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-01-05 11:57:28*

**Authors:** Wei Xu

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

As an application of *Universal and Unified Physics**, the *Natural Cosmology* is harvested as a new theory prevailing over the current “*Physical Cosmology”* by transcending both *Einstein's* field equations and *Friedmann* equations with the *ontological field equations* and *horizon field equations. *Positioned at the third horizon of spacetime manifold*, *our *cosmological field equation has not only *substituted “general relativity”*, *but also extended the cosmological constant to the matrices of superphase modulations, dark energy waves and blackhole emissions.

Consequently, we are presented the *Christmas Gifts of 2018*, revealing exceptionally secrets of the *Natural Cosmology* with horizon infrastructure, superphase modulation, entropy of dark energy, and lightwave or gravitation fields in the forms of dispersive or non-dispersive wave-packets, which orchestrate all types of life events essential to the operations and processes of creation, annihilations, reproduction and communication for natural formations and evolutions.

____

* Principles of《Universal and Unified Physics》 vixra:1811.0261

[2268] **viXra:1812.0363 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-12-23 11:54:13*

**Authors:** Wei Xu

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

As an application of *Universal and Unified Physics**, the *Natural Cosmology* is harvested as a new theory prevailing over the current “*Physical Cosmology”* by transcending both *Einstein's* field equations and *Friedmann* equations with the *ontological field equations* and *horizon field equations. *Positioned at the third horizon of spacetime manifold*, *our *cosmological field equation has not only *substituted “general relativity”*, *but also extended the cosmological constant to the matrices of superphase modulations, dark energy waves and blackhole emissions.

Consequently, we are presented the *Christmas Gifts of 2018*, revealing exceptionally secrets of the *Natural Cosmology* with horizon infrastructure, superphase modulation, entropy of dark energy, and lightwave or gravitation fields in the forms of dispersive or non-dispersive wave-packets, which orchestrate all types of life events essential to the operations and processes of creation, annihilations, reproduction and communication for natural formations and evolutions.

____

* Principles of《Universal and Unified Physics》 vixra:1811.0261

[2267] **viXra:1812.0336 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-02-07 21:24:59*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In Newtonian single-particle dynamics, time is invariant under inertial transformations, and the particle's speed has no upper bound. In special relativity, it is the particle's proper time, rather than an arbitrary observer's time, which is inertial-transformation invariant, and it is the particle's proper-time speed which has no upper bound. Thus it is reasonable to surmise that the proper-time version of Newton's Second Law is implicit in special-relativistic single-particle dynamics. In fact, gamma times the usual special-relativistic force on a particle equals its rest mass times its proper-time acceleration, and gamma of course goes to unity in the nonrelativistic limit. Furthermore, we show that the scalar potential, the four-vector (electromagnetic) potential and all analogous such tensor potentials, as well as the metric (gravitational) potential, each produces a proper force on the particle equal to its rest mass times its proper-time acceleration. It is to be noted that the Lorentz-covariant four-vector completion of proper-time acceleration, as well as of proper force, has only three components which are mutually independent.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2266] **viXra:1812.0294 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-12-18 10:52:05*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

an intuitive investigation of conventional GR and TET, temporal elasticity theory

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2265] **viXra:1812.0262 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-02-08 23:25:41*

**Authors:** Louai Hassan Elzein Bashier

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

This paper is prepared to show that a rigid body which accelerates curvilinearly from its center of mass relative to a fixed point must simultaneously accelerate angularly relative to its center of mass. Formulae which coupling of the angular momentum and kinetic energy due to induced spin motion in the rigid body to the angular momentum and kinetic energy due to rotational motion of the same spinning rigid body have been derived. The paper also bringing to light the nature of the forces which cause induction of spin motion in that rigid body and a formula which coupling of this highlighted forces to the force which causes rotation of the rigid body has been also derived.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology