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2017 - 1701(28) - 1702(27) - 1703(43) - 1704(48) - 1705(31) - 1706(31) - 1707(28) - 1708(31) - 1709(45) - 1710(34) - 1711(23)

Any replacements are listed further down

[2667] **viXra:1711.0363 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-19 12:35:51*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this short note we are looking into a few interesting details about relativistic kinetic energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2666] **viXra:1711.0362 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-19 17:33:57*

**Authors:** Piscedda Giampaolo

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In the theory "The Proton Charge radius of Muonic-Hydrogen (Vixra:1711.0229;Author: Piscedda Giampaolo; Category: Relativity and Cosmology) we have deduced the existence of ether and explaining why Michelson-Morley's experiment failed. So, the concept of ether allows us to calculate the Proton Charge radius of Muonic-Hydrogen: 0,840935•10^(-15) meters (Vixra:1711.0229) and the Charge radius of Muonic-Deuterium:2.12567•10^(-15)meters (Vixra:1711.0333; Author: Piscedda Giampaolo; Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2665] **viXra:1711.0354 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-19 03:04:27*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Two inertial reference frames moving at identical velocity can be
seperated if one of them
is put under acceleration for a duration. The coordinates of both
inertial reference frames are
related by this acceleration and its duration. An immediate property of
such coordinate transformation is the conservation of distance and length across reference frames. Therefore, the concept of
length contraction from Special Relativity is impossible in
reality and physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2664] **viXra:1711.0352 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-19 04:22:17*

**Authors:** Radi Khrapko

**Comments:** 7 Pages. ICGRG 2018 : 20th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation

It is shown that the energy-momentum pseudotensors of the gravitation field, which were proposed by Einstein or Landau and Lifshitz, give a positive contribution to the expression of the total four-momentum for a gravitation field plus the matter located in it in the case of a quasi-static isolated system. However, as is well known, mass-energy of the gravitation field is negative. So, the pseudotensors incorrectly represent the gravitational field at least in this case.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2663] **viXra:1711.0350 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-19 07:15:39*

**Authors:** Alama Ekabal Ansari

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Time dilation is a well-known phenomenon for special theory of relativity and general relativity theory.
The present technology is not advanced enough to implement these theories practically.
Time dilation is a difference of elapsed time between two events as measured by observers either moving relative to each other or differently situated from a gravitational mass. The time dilation is caused by differences in either gravity or relative speed. The time dilation is explained by working of two clocks reporting different times for different speed According to Einstein relativity (E=mc2), we know that an object with a non- zero rest mass cannot achieve the speed of light. According to relativistic theory, as the speed of the object increases, effective mass of the object also increases. The increase in effective mass makes more difficult to accelerate the object. Hence, more energy is required to increase the speed of the object.
Achieving the speed of light for the object, the effective mass become almost infinite. Hence, lot of energy is required to accelerate the object with the speed of light.
There is no such technology developed as on date through which speed of light can be achieved without consuming humongous energy.
Therefore, there is a need to provide a system which can overcome the limitation of existing technology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2662] **viXra:1711.0349 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-17 10:47:28*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We derive the element of spatial distance in terms
of the time coordinate and a new tensor related to the Kronecker delta.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2661] **viXra:1711.0345 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-17 21:40:18*

**Authors:** Capt. Joseph H. Forrington

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

General Relativity is solely dependent on the apparent difference in the rate of time between frames. This theory therefore attempts to explain what we are seeing in the universe through relativistic effects in time rather than through the Big Bang, Dark Energy and Dark Matter. Properly understood, Einstein’s field equations can explain the rotational velocities within flattened spiral galaxies. To that end, this paper clarifies how General Relativity describes the evolution of events and spaces within the continuum, rather than the movement of particles through pre-existing, static, spaces. Gravitational fields, (dilation gradients), have different shapes around different shaped masses. Stellar systems are spherical and events appear to evolve forward at an increasingly accelerated rate as the dilation gradient deepens approaching the center of the system. In flattened spiral galaxies, the gradients act across the broad flat surface of the disk from above and below, evolving objects forward at the same rate and hence the same velocity. IBEX failing to find a shock wave at the edge of the heliopause as expected is a proof of the concepts regarding the evolution and nature of the continuum explained here, as also might be the “dead zone” discovered by Pioneer 1. This theory also describes the dynamics in time by which the CMB is generated, accelerated, and concentrated, converting the potential energy of the spacetime continuum into real energy and mass. A proof of the dynamic developed here is LIGO’S Sept. 14, 2015 detection of a “gravity wave”; a distortion in the rate of time, an acceleration in the rate, travelling at c through space and distorting space in the physical form of the antenna. The theory also explains black holes and why our limits of perception within a black hole, and at ~ 13.8 Gly, are due to the limit of relativity, where our perception transitions from time-like to space-like. This is where ∆D, the difference in the rate of time between frames, = 1 s/s, which occurs both at the event horizon of a black hole and looking outward to the limits of perception. It occurs looking outward because events are being constantly accelerated in the rate of time, giving older frames progressively slower rates the older they are. This creates a time dilation gradient and the Hubble shift.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2660] **viXra:1711.0325 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-15 11:04:24*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Abstract: Using simple methods of analysis I conclude that our present broken E8 symmetry epoch without antimatter means that Majorana neutrinos cannot exist: this results, however, in neutrinos having masses and small electric charges of 3 different amounts. The charges probably aid in neutrino detection. Masses of the leptons are derived.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2659] **viXra:1711.0324 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-15 13:57:25*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Theories of gravity are incomplete when we neglect quantum phenomena and the internal structure of spacetime described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). SST shows that the grainy two-component spacetime is a mix of non-locality and locality that leads to a conceptual error about gravitational waves, to different theories of gravitation and to the matter-antimatter asymmetry. Within the General Theory of Relativity (GR) we can not justify whether the metric is local or non-local. Here we described a conceptual error in obtaining the local (speed = c = 299,792,458 m/s) wave-like solutions by solving the non-local/superluminal vacuum field equations of general relativity - we express the opinion that non-locality cannot lead directly to locality. SST, which is the lacking fundamental part of Theory of Everything, shows that spacetime is a mixture of two fields i.e. of the Higgs field (it is non-gravitating, imaginary, non-local and geodesic/metric) and of the Einstein spacetime (it is gravitating, real, local, dynamical and practically-flat/non-geodesic i.e. the total energy-momentum crossing the hypersurface vanishes). Such structure of spacetime causes that there are different theories of gravitation, for example, the GR, which binds the curvature of the non-local Higgs field with the local energy-momentum tensor, the YARK theory, which binds the local Einstein spacetime (ES) with the energy-momentum tensor or the SST which shows the origin of gravitation. Within GR it is easier to describe the non-local phenomena in spacetime (for example, the Kasner solutions describe such phenomena) whereas within YARK theory it is easier to describe the local phenomena in spacetime such as dark energy or “gravitational waves” discovered by LIGO-Virgo Collaborations (which, in reality, are the flows in ES) or the observed energy dependence of gravitational bending which is incomprehensible within the framework of GR. SST shows that we should observe the same speed of propagation of both the “gravitational waves” and electromagnetic waves - there should be high correlation between their intensity for active binary systems of neutron stars or neutron “black holes”. The matter-antimatter asymmetry follows from infinitesimal imaginary spin of the Higgs-field components so we must use SST to solve the problem.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2658] **viXra:1711.0299 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-13 19:18:11*

**Authors:** Piscedda Giampaolo

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

From Einstein's theory of general relativity we can calculate the proton radius of muonic-hydrogen.
The value obtain is 0,840935×10^(-15) meter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2657] **viXra:1711.0281 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-13 03:24:40*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A lot has been philosophized and written about the phenomenon ‘time dilation’. This article shows the consequences applying this phenomenon to a photon, traveling with velocity c, relative to whichever observer, as the Special Theory of Relativity prescribes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2656] **viXra:1711.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 04:48:43*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Shevchenko, Vladimir V. Tokarevsky

**Comments:** Pages.

In this paper a more detailed consideration in framework of the “The
Information as Absolute” conception of the Space and Time problems “is presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2655] **viXra:1711.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-06 04:15:13*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This paper reports on the large round trip time variations observed in the Shapiro delay experiments, as reported by Bryan G Wallace , whose claim will be confirmed according to Apparent Source Theory. The 'anomalous' variations in the measured round trip time could be larger than the reported gravitational time dilation effect, typically by a factor of about five to ten. Such large anomalous variations in the round trip time that could be attributed to either the ether theory or the emission theory may have been discarded from the raw data to arrive at the relativistic prediction. The argument in this paper is that Apparent Source Theory predicts that there must have been large variations in the round trip time in the Shapiro delay experiments. And this claim is supported by the reports of Bryan G Wallace. All this casts doubts on the integrity of the experimenters. Therefore, not only did they discard data showing large variations in round trip time, they must also have manipulated the remaining data in order to 'prove' gravitational time dilation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2654] **viXra:1711.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-06 07:02:12*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 12 Pages. This paper represents the third essay of the "Trilogy on the knowable Universe"

This paper represents the third essay of the "Trilogy on the Knowable Universe". Here a scientific hypothesis on the origin of the Universe is presented and that hypothesis is described through a succession of stages, in concordance with the Theory of Reference Frames. According to this interpretation the Universe isn't a closed and finite system, as it considered in present prevailing models. The Universe, here supposed, is an unlimited system whose origin is characterized by numerous nanobigbangs in the order of a series of subsequent stages rather than by an unique central explosive bigbang. Because the experimental science can give reliable answers to all questions unless the first question on the origin of the Universe and the last question on its final future, the interpretation of this essay on the origin of the Universe is only a scientific hypothesis that doesn't pretend to represent the truth on the origin of the Universe. Besides this hypothesis is in conflict neither with the religious narration of the Genesis nor with the philosophical speculation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2653] **viXra:1711.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-01 20:46:41*

**Authors:** Jose P. Koshy

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Submitted to MNRAS, but rejected on the basis that the theory behind speed-dependent gravity is not well explained. However, explaining that part in detail renders it unsuitable for MINRAS.

The alternate model put forth in my previous papers visualize that gravity is finite and G depends on the square of the speed. A higher G implies that less matter is required in galaxies for satisfying Kepler's laws of orbiting motion. A finite gravity implies that distance between bodies depend on mass, and so the distribution of bodies in galaxies is nearly uniform; this in turn gives flat rotation curves. The gravitational lensing maps of Bullet Cluster is in perfect agreement with speed-dependent gravity. Speed-dependent gravity thus resolves the anomaly of missing matter, and completely rules out the existence of any dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2652] **viXra:1711.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-05 07:51:23*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

As Haug has shown in a long series of papers, Newton's gravitational constant is almost for sure a composite constant. What is this exotic animal that is meters cubed divided by kg and seconds squared? It is difficult to get any intuition from the gravitational constant alone, except from understanding that it is a constant we can measure empirically and use to get Newton's formula to match actual observations. Newton's gravitational constant is a composite constant that consists of the more fundamental constants.
This means we also can rewrite Einstein's constant in a more intuitive form where it becomes independent of big G.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2651] **viXra:1711.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-04 23:37:12*

**Authors:** Kenneth Dalton

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A black hole model is proposed in which a neutron star is
surrounded by a neutral gas of electrons and positrons. The gas is in a completely degenerate quantum state and does not radiate. The pressure and density in the gas are found to be much less than those in the neutron star. The radius of the black hole is far greater than the Schwarzschild radius.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2650] **viXra:1711.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-04 07:11:17*

**Authors:** John Eastmond

**Comments:** Pages.

It has been speculated that the universe is a zero-energy vacuum fluctuation. I attempt to show how matter might be continually created in the universe from quantum fluctuations using the uncertainty and holographic principles. I derive a unique linear cosmology with a scale R = ct where t is the age of the universe. I show that the annihilation time of a quantum fluctuation depends exponentially on R so that there is an effective cosmological horizon at that distance. Previously it has been found that a linear Big-Bang model fits the Hubble expansion data remarkably well. Additionally such a model does not suffer from the classical horizon and flatness problems and so does not require a period of cosmological inflation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2649] **viXra:1711.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-03 01:03:01*

**Authors:** John Malcolm Newell

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the century since Einstein's general relativity we have translated all of our solutions for relativity and quantum mechanics back into clock time, despite that dimension being too limited and too localised to describe those relationships. If we accept that clock time can have a natural complex conjugate, we can resolve quantum mechanics by appreciating the photon as a quantum without extension in its own time. We can then unify gravity and inertia with electromagnetic action, without paradox, in a Machian universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2648] **viXra:1711.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 13:03:12*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

Using fourth order polynomial in the mass of the higgs boson, to interpolate basic properties, including the possible modification of one of the DM models.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2647] **viXra:1711.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 06:21:17*

**Authors:** William Q Sumner

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Vacuum permittivity is the scalar in Maxwell’s equations that determines the speed of light and the strength of electrical fields. In 1907 Albert Einstein found that vacuum permittivity changes with gravity. Møller, Landau & Lifshitz, and Sumner found that it changes with spacetime curvature.
The wavelengths of both photons and atomic emissions decrease with vacuum permittivity but the photons emitted from atoms decrease more than photons themselves do. This changes the interpretation of gravitational redshift to one where blueshifted photons are compared to greater blueshifted atomic emissions.
For Schwarzschild geometry, redshifts can be calculated most accurately using the metric. The equation derived using time dilation and the one derived here are identical. Their weak field approximation is the same as the redshift derivation using special relativity with Doppler shift.
For Friedmann geometry, redshifts calculated by comparing blueshifted atomic emissions to those of photons flips the meaning of Hubble redshift. The universe is accelerating in collapse, a result confirmed by supernova redshift observations. The equations and logic used for Friedmann and Schwarzschild redshifts are identical. Only their vacuum permittivities are different.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2646] **viXra:1711.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-01 06:58:44*

**Authors:** leo Vuijk

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

According to Einstein’s relativity theory, the speed of light is supposed to be the same for every observer in all reference frames.
However, there seem to be incidental differences in the lightspeed if we observe the outliers of GPS satellite to CHAMP satellite distance measurements of 180m.
At the same time in the literature I found tiny structural but characteristic unexplained irregularities in Planetary radar-pulse reflection measurements, made by I.I. Shapiro in 1964, between the Earth and Venus.
Both observations support the idea of the existence of ellipsoidal lightspeed extinction (or vacuum adaptation) volumes around massive objects like the earth. Such a volume I will call LASOF or Local Asymmetric Oscillating Vacuum Frame.
Other historic lightspeed experiments support the idea that all objects with mass are equipped with some extinction volume.
As a consequence I propose new triangular trajectory lightspeed comparison experiments between the earth and dual satellites or dual balloons and even in the laboratory to support these lightspeed extinction and adaptation ideas.
Future GRACE / LISA satellite experiment should serve as alternative for the Michelson Morley ether wind experiment, reduced by Earth lightspeed frame dragging of the Local Asymmetric Oscillating vacuum Frame (LASOF) according to Q-FFF theory.
Observing Up and down ether wind differences of the light speed between two Grace satellites by earth motion around the sun as alternative for Michelson Morley experiment.
No lightspeed differences should be measured to or from the earth direction due to gravity drag effect.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2645] **viXra:1711.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-01 10:17:49*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 5 Pages. The original ideas

The special theory of relativity formula for the photon Doppler
effect is applied to the frequency of the RLC circuit moving
vith velocity v relativly to the rest system. The relativistic
transformation of the RLC circuit components is derived in
case the components are all in series with the voltage source
(R−L−C−v). The generalization to the more complex situation
was not considered. It is not excluded that the article is the
preamble for the future investigation of electronic physics and will
be integral part of such instituions as Bell Laboratories, NASA,
CERN and so on.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2644] **viXra:1710.0350 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-31 01:40:16*

**Authors:** Saksith Jaksri

**Comments:** 87 Pages.

We study theory of modified gravity, namely disformal gravity, which is con-
structed from disformal metric. We derive the action for disformal gravity from general
purely disformal transformation. Then we find the equations of motion for the back-
ground universe and find that the disformal gravity does not provide the kinetic driven
for cosmic acceleration as usually expected from Galilean-like theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2643] **viXra:1710.0344 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-31 11:12:22*

**Authors:** Walter Orlov

**Comments:** 10 Pages. In German

Hidden uncertainty in gravitational wave detection. There are two basic problems that call into question the validity of direct gravitational wave detection: 1. The strain data of the gravitational wave detectors contain the chirp-like signals in abundance. 2. The data processing procedure reduces relativistic templates to a fraction. But this remnant can have countless curves as a template. In this way, the assignment of the signal to the theoretical model disappears.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2642] **viXra:1710.0341 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-31 14:36:19*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract: The fine-strucure dimensionless constant alpha (1/137.035999139) has long been a mystery in physics. It now appears to be related to dark energy and the radius of the universe at age 13.5 billion years (scheduled collapse age of the 9th cyclic universe which did not happen) according to holographic cyclic E8 symmetric universe theory

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2641] **viXra:1710.0340 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-31 15:33:27*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Modern physicists do not really know exactly what the Planck length or the Planck mass, or the Planck second represent. They also do not know precisely how to incorporate it into the framework of modern physics. However, many physicists assume that the Planck second must be the shortest time interval possible. This lead to an interesting paradox. Nothing with rest-mass can undergo Planck acceleration, even for one Planck second. This because no object with rest- mass can travel at the speed of light, since this would require an infinite amount of energy, as first pointed out by Einstein. So does this mean the Planck acceleration is meaningless, or merely fiction?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2640] **viXra:1710.0319 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-27 07:35:04*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 26 Pages. This article is the Author's invited contribution (a chapter) to a new book. No copyright limitations.

The key to the stars and the basis for big bang cosmology is thermal emission, not the kinetic theory of gases or Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, although the latter employs thermal emission in the form given by Kirchhoff and Planck. Kirchhoff's Law of Thermal Emission is fundamental to astronomy and much of physics, including quantum mechanics. Via Kirchhoff's Law of Thermal Emission, Max Planck introduced the quantum of action in developing his equation for blackbody spectra. From Kirchhoff's Law Planck's equation acquired universality and Planck's mystical absolute units. Without Kirchhoff's Law and universality of Planck's equation, astronomy and cosmology completely collapse. Kirchhoff's Law of Thermal Emission is certainly false, as the clinical existence of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) proves. Consequently Planck's equation is not universal, Planck's absolute units have no special character, and astronomy and cosmology lose their foundations entirely.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2639] **viXra:1710.0315 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-28 02:03:32*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 1 Page.

here Is No Need for Big G in Einstein’s Field Equation! Newton Swapped with Max Planck,

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2638] **viXra:1710.0302 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-29 05:57:53*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this work, we present in more details the formulation of Euclidean relativity. We show that even though there are profound differences between Einstein special relativity and Euclidean special relativity, general relativity with both pseudo-Euclidean metric and Euclidean metric have many common features. For example, both forms of metric can be used to describe the precession of planetary orbits around a gravitational mass and the cosmological evolution.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2637] **viXra:1710.0276 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-25 00:47:59*

**Authors:** Sunil Thakur

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The theory of relativity’s concept o motion suggests that every observer must assume that his own frame of reference is always at rest; therefore, he must ascertain the state of the motion of all other entities in relation to his own frame of reference. In this article, we have shown that for every entity its own frame of reference actually behaves as if it is in the state of the absolute rest. Therefore, the motion of an entity has to be ascertained in relation to its own frame of reference. Thus, we have made only a slight but very significant change in the proposal of the theory of relativity. Our proposal is based on actual observations of how things behave.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2636] **viXra:1710.0274 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-23 17:49:56*

**Authors:** Ziaedin Shafiei

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The idea of time dilation was initially proposed by Einstein in 1905 as one component/consequence of the theory of special relativity (SR). Based on a thought, not real, experiment it maintains that a light clock which is moving away from an observer with a constant speed, goes slower in comparison with a stationary clock. This slower tick is imagined in a clock which is positioned so that the direction of light movement within the clock at rest is perpendicular to the direction of the relative movement of the clock, φ=90⁰.
It is shown in [2] that the idea of length contraction and time dilation is not supported by Michelson and Morley (M&M) experiment. It is argued further here that the thought experiment did not try, for no obvious reason, to test the clock function in any other angles, i.e. φ<90⁰. It is shown that if the clock so positioned that φ<90⁰ not only the clock on average goes even more slower but also the ticks become irregular. One tick is slower and the following one is faster than the tick of the stationary clock. This irregularity is worse when φ=0⁰. The first problem can be corrected by another component of SR, namely, length contraction. However, irregular ticks are left untouched by the theory.
Also, in SR the tick of the clock is studied when it only moves away from the observer. Moreover, no associated time delay is considered in the tick. It is shown that a related time delay or time advance must be considered in the ticks when the clock moves away from or returns to the observer, respectively. Time dilation, thus, was proposed based on incomplete analysis of one thought experiment and not all-inclusive analysis of real experiments necessary for developing a scientific theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2635] **viXra:1710.0254 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-22 05:39:32*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** Pages.

Space-Time Doesn't Have A Surface To Ripple

The "fabric of space" cannot ripple like they say.

If you have 2 bowling balls on the surface of swimming pool water and attach them together and spin them -- yes, they will create the sine wave traveling ripple.

But if the bowling balls are underwater -- completely immersed in the water -- the traveling "ripple" will NOT be able to propagate (happen) and it will immediately fizz-out. There is no mechanism to keep the up and down movement going whilst under water.

Black holes and or neutron stars are also completely immersed in space-time. Space time is filling space -- everything is completely immersed in it.

Gravitational waves cannot be transverse ripples like those on top of water.

One type of wave that a gravitational wave can be is a compression type wave -- like sound.

The funny thing is: even though they designed the detector for the wrong type of wave -- the detector can detect the other type -- the compression wave..

A compression would be easily detected by LIGO

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2634] **viXra:1710.0253 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-22 06:15:08*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this work we discuss the motion of quantum particles when they are viewed as three-dimensional Riemannian manifolds by extending the isometric transformations in classical physics to the isometric embedding between smooth manifolds. According to the Whitney embedding theorem, in order to smoothly embed three-dimensional Riemannian manifolds we would need an ambient six-dimensional Euclidean space. As has been shown in our previous works, a six-dimensional Minkowski pseudo-Euclidean spacetime can be obtained by extending one-dimensional temporal continuum to three-dimensional temporal manifold. While the question of whether it is possible to smoothly embed three-dimensional Riemannian manifolds in six-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean spacetime remains, we will show that it is possible to apply the principle of relativity and the postulate of a universal speed to formulate a special theory of relativity in which the geometry of spacetime has a positive definite metric by modifying the Lorentz transformation. The modified Lorentz transformation gives rise to new interesting features, such as there is no upper limit for the relative speed between inertial reference frames, the assumed universal speed is not the speed of any physical object or physical field but rather the common speed of expansion of the spatial space of all inertial frames. Furthermore, we also show that when the relative speed approaches infinite values, there will be a conversion between space and time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2633] **viXra:1710.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-22 09:46:21*

**Authors:** Paul R. Gerber

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A simple estimate is presented that raises doubts whether the new and spectacular observations of
gravitational waves by the LIGO collaboration can be attributed unambiguously to black-hole mergers.
In addition, with the advent of the VIRGO detector running, a test of the polarization character of
gravitational waves has become possible and a corresponding analysis of the data should be envisaged.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2632] **viXra:1710.0250 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-22 13:20:05*

**Authors:** Jalal Jafari

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this article, we will state equivalency of time space and energy on basis of vector attribution of time and space, special relativity principle, and electrodynamics. Also, we will state the relation of electromagnetic radiation which has emerged from acceleration of charged particle as a result of change in time and space orthogonality. We will indicate that acceleration of charged particle makes places with equal energy and these places have equal angles in time and space direction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2631] **viXra:1710.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-20 05:54:38*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 13 Pages. What is Charge, from what does it arise and, if discrete, why?

In the paper „ Physics is easy“ we showed, that leptons ( electron, muon, tau ), W + - Z bosons and neutrinos ( electron neutrino, muon neutrino, tau neutrino) can be replaced with electron moving at different speeds from 0.1c up to 0.999.. c . Similarly hyperons, mesons and quarks can be replaced by proton and neutron (or alpha particle respectively ) moving at different speeds from 0.1c up to 0.999.. c .
While, the neutron is composed of proton and electron orbiting around it.
Thus, all particles, which are currently known, can be replaced by the various fast moving electron or proton. Electron and proton are the only stable fundamental elementary particles.
We show, that neutron is source β rays - β electrons ( bosons Zo, W+- too) , γ rays, electron neutrinos, muon neutrinos, tauon neutrinos.
The hole is making with cocoon cloud and has a negative charge, such as electron - Spherical electron cocoon or an electron cloud has 4.57e + 14 electron orbits during 1 sec in the hydrogen atom for H alpha, and occupies a volume 2.7e-30m^3/s.
The hole is making with cocoon cloud and has a negative charge, such as electron
in neutron - Spherical electron cocoon or an electron cloud has 1,944e+25 electron orbits during 1 sec
Electron in neutron works analogically as electron in atom H.
Only their speeds are many times bigger.
Speed of electron in neutron: 0,999994c
Speed of electron in atom H: afnucleum: v/c = 0.0027212435663
perinucleum: v/c = 0.0027270653746
for Spectral line Hα 656.281 + - 1.4 nm
Speed of proton in neutron: 0,023337c
Speed of proton in atom : 0.0000636c
proton orbits around the center-of-mass with speedspeed 0,023337c,
and radiates γ ray.
In the "stable" neutron, electron orbits around the center-of-mass with speed greater than 0,999994c.
Proton is compact mass not making cocoon cloud.
The hole is making with cocoon cloud and has a negative charge.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2630] **viXra:1710.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-17 16:05:16*

**Authors:** E.P.J. de Haas

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

In GNSS, the improvement of atomic clocks will lead to Phi/c^2 in relativistic gravitational redshift three to four decades from today. Research towards a relativistic positioning system capable of handling this expected accuracy is all based upon the Schwarzschild metric as a replacement of todays GNSS Euclidian-Newtonian metric. The method employed in this paper to determining frequency shifts between atomic clocks is an intermediate Minkowski-EEP approach. This approach is based on relating two atomic clocks to one another through a background ensemble of frequency gauged clocks, a grid. The crucial grid of this paper, the Free Fall Grid or FFG, can be related to the Ehlers-Pirani-Schild P-CP Weyl space formalism, when applied to a central mass. The FFG second order in Phi/c^2 redshifts are derived for static to static, static to satellite and satellite to satellite atomic oscillators and then compared to GR-Schwarzschild and PPN (Parametrized Post Newtonian) results.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2629] **viXra:1710.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-15 00:16:04*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A little over 4 centuries ago, Galileo concluded - and possibly confirmed by experiment - that different weights hit the ground at the same time when dropped from a height (discounting air resistance). This agrees with Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity; which proposes that gravity is the curvature of space-time pushing objects towards, say, the surface of a planet. It says this curvature acts equally on all bodies, making massive and less massive ones fall at equal rates. However, Einstein published a paper in 1919 (four years after General Relativity) asking if gravitation plays an essential role in formation of matter's particles. If it does, there would be more gravity acting on a massive body and it would fall slightly faster. The rate at which different objects fall is the subject of a French-backed space experiment called Microscope. Einstein's 1919 paper did more than suggest limitations of his general relativity. It seems to have been the launching pad for his Unified Field Theory; which occupied the last 30 years of his life, sought to unite gravitation with electromagnetism, and proposed that this unified field connected all parts of time and space. While the unified field theory is generally considered a failure, my own conviction is that it could transform into a world-changing success through the application of quantum mechanics, something Einstein didn't approve of because he regarded it as incomplete.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2628] **viXra:1710.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-14 03:22:03*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In order to explain the null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment, Einstein denied the existence of the absolute reference frame. It will be shown that all Einstein did was replace the absolute reference frame with another preferred reference frame: the rest frame of the Michelson-Morley apparatus. According to the Special Theory of Relativity (SRT ) , there is no preferred reference frame and all inertial reference frames are equivalent in predicting and analyzing the result of the Michelson-Morley experiment. No reference frame, including the rest frame of the experiment, has any special significance different from other reference frames. It will be shown that the SRT analysis of the experiment violates this principle. This is because all other inertial observers moving relative to the Michelson-Morley apparatus do not know the outcome of the experiment until they get the experimental result of the observer in the rest frame of the apparatus. Only then can they use the Lorentz Transformation equations to ‘predict’ the outcome of the experiment in their own reference frames. If all inertial reference frames are really equivalent, why not first analyze the experiment in one of the reference frames moving relative to the apparatus, in which case there will be a fringe shift δ, and use Lorentz Transformation so that all other observers ( including the observer in the rest frame of the apparatus ) agree on the same fringe shift δ. The Special Relativity Theory ( SRT ) is just another form of Lorentz ether theory ( LET): both depend on a preferred reference frame. In LET the ether is the preferred reference frame, while in SRT the rest frame of the experimental apparatus is the preferred reference frame. SRT only shifted the privilege of deciding the outcome of the experiment from the absolute reference frame to the rest frame of the Michelson-Morley experiment. The same hidden fallacy exists in the SRT analysis of the Trouton-Noble experiment. An alternative theory of absolute motion and the speed of light will be proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2627] **viXra:1710.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-14 06:26:01*

**Authors:** Adham ahmed mohamed ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This paper explains some aspects of relativity and added some new inventions

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2626] **viXra:1710.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-14 06:53:15*

**Authors:** Adham ahmed mohamed ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This paper tries a new attempt to space travel at higher speeds

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2625] **viXra:1710.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-13 09:28:00*

**Authors:** Mihir Kumar jha

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Theory of everything (T.O.E), final theory or ultimate theory is a theoretical framework in the field of
physics, which holds an ultimate key to unify all the fundamental forces of nature in a single field. In other words
such theory can glue quantum mechanics with general relativity into a single framework. Many theories have been
postulated over the decades but the dominant one includes string theory and loop quantum gravity. In this paper I
would like to present a new framework which can unify quantum mechanics with general relativity by showing that
the change in Riemannian metric or the bend in space time is always an integral multiple of planks constant and
since gravity is the result due to bend in space-time, gravity itself is a discrete force.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2624] **viXra:1710.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-11 02:54:20*

**Authors:** Eran sinbar, Yoav Weinstein, Gabriel Sinbar

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The arrow of time is the "one-way direction" or "asymmetry" of time. The
thermodynamic arrow of time is provided by the Second Law of Thermodynamics,
which says that in an isolated system, entropy tends to increase with time
(Wikipedia).
Nevertheless, this asymmetry of time is not intuitive based on the Einstein’s field
equations that relate to space and time as one entity. Since space is symmetrical to
all directions time is also expected to be a “two way direction”.
Based on Einstein’s field equations mass curves space time and curvature of spacetime
is actually what Newtonian physics refer to as potential energy or the
gravitational field.
Two major questions can arise from this field equation interpretation:
1. Mass m, has a well-defined inherent energy based on Einstein’s special
relativity equation, =
2
.The mass curves space-time and this curvature
adds potential energy to its surrounding based on Einstein’s field equations.
What is the source of this added potential energy?
2. Since space-time is considered as a unified description and since space is
symmetric to all directions, we expect that time should flow symmetrically
both to the future and to the past. We know that this is not the case and time
flows only towards the future.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2623] **viXra:1710.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-09 07:08:24*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The Moving Magnet Conductor problem is the problem of 'coincidence' of the effect of magnetic field in the reference frame of the magnet and the effect of electric field in the reference frame of the conductor, the effect being a definite current flowing in the conductor, for a magnet and a conductor in relative motion. In this paper, we will show that this problem will not lead to the theory of relativity, i.e. to the conclusion that absolute motion doesn't exist. This 'coincidence' occurs only in the special case in which at least one of the two ( either the magnet or the conductor ) is at absolute rest and hence is only a special case. In general, the magnet and the conductor can have a relative motion while having a common absolute motion. This is the case, for example, of a magnet - conductor experiment carried out on Earth, which has an absolute velocity of 390 Km/s . In such cases, the motion of the magnet and the motion of the conductor will have different effects even if the relative velocities are the same. We will apply Apparent Source Theory ( AST ) to this problem. In the case of light, the effect of absolute motion for co-moving light source and observer is to create an apparent change in position of the light source relative to the observer. Therefore, no fringe shift will occur in the Michelson-Morley experiment due to an apparent change of source position for the same reason that no (significant ) fringe shift will occur if the position of the source was actually, physically changed relative to the detector. Intuitively, AST can be stated as: the speed of light is equal to c - Vabs in the forward direction and c + Vabs in the backward direction, relative to the source, for a source moving with absolute velocity Vabs. This theory readily explains the Michelson-Morley experiment, the Sagnac effect and moving source experiments. AST applies not only to light sources, but also to all electromagnetic sources: sources of electric fields ( charges ) , sources of magnetic fields ( magnets or electromagnets ) and sources of gravitational fields. Therefore, for absolutely co-moving magnet and (infinitesimal) conductor, the effect of absolute velocity is to create an apparent change in position of the magnet as seen by the conductor. The procedure of analysis is to replace the real magnet with an apparent magnet and analyze the problem as if both the apparent magnet and the conductor are at rest. There will not be any current induced in the conductor because the conductor is not moving relative to the magnet ( hence relative to the apparent magnet ). Since the conductor is at rest relative to the magnet, it is also at rest relative to the apparent magnet and hence no current will be induced in the conductor. There will be no induced current in this case for the same reason that there will be no induced current in the case of magnet and conductor both at absolute rest. An intuitive way of stating the same theory is to assume that the magnetic field is carried by the real magnet, but will be distorted due to absolute motion. Therefore, absolute motion of a magnet can be detected by a co-moving observer from the distortion of its field. The magnetic field of a magnet moving with absolute velocity will become weaker in front of the magnet and stronger behind the magnet. The electric field of a charge in absolute motion will become weaker in front of the charge and stronger behind the charge.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2622] **viXra:1710.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-09 13:47:33*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 18 Pages. The new physical theory Special Theory of Ether (in Polish)

W artykule wyprowadzona została uogólniona transformacja Galileusza. Uzyskana transformacja jest podstawą wyprowadzenia nowej teorii fizycznej, którą nazwaliśmy Szczególną Teorią Eteru.
Uogólnioną transformację Galileusza można wyrazić od prędkości względnych (26)-(27) lub od parametru delta(v) (37)-(38). Na postawie wniosków wynikających z eksperymentu Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a wyznaczony został parametr delta(v). Dzięki temu transformacja przyjmuje szczególną postać (80)-(81), która jest zgodna z eksperymentami, w których mierzono prędkość światła.
Na podstawie otrzymanej transformacji wyznaczone zostały wzory na sumowanie prędkości oraz prędkość względną.
Cały artykuł zawiera tylko oryginalne badania prowadzone przez jego autorów.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2621] **viXra:1710.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-07 20:02:39*

**Authors:** Ramzi suleiman

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Special Relativity theory postulates that the laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames of reference (the relativity postulate), and that the velocity of light in vacuum has the same value c in all inertial frames of reference (constancy of c postulate). We hereby show that relativity principle need not be postulated, since it follows from basic principles, without reliance on Lorentz transformations, or equivalently, reliance on the constancy of light postulate. The independency of the principle of relativity on the constancy of light postulate is featured by a different symmetry of Nature from the one constrained by the Lorentz transformations. We also show that that the same deductions apply to the relativity of simultaneity principle. Furthermore, we show that the symmetry of the laws of Nature, as being embedded in Nature itself, is a general law, which holds true for ALL systems of moving bodies, regardless of the velocity of the signal which carries information between one frame of reference to another, provided that the velocity of the information carrier is constant with respect to its source, and exceeds the relative velocities between the system's reference frames.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2620] **viXra:1710.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-07 20:59:13*

**Authors:** Abed Peerally

**Comments:** 17 Pages. AN ORIGINAL RESEARCH FINDING INTEGRATING SR AND GR

We examine the Lorentz factor and the Schwarzschild solution in relation to the estimation and
verification of time dilation particularly from available Global Positioning System data. We as a result
detect the possible occurrence of a proportionality between time dilation effects of special and general
relativity in free-fall motion in Keplerian orbits. This observation is then mathematically proved. The
results show that gravitational time dilation during free fall in Keplerian orbits must be exactly double
that caused in special relativity due to linear velocity. We propose that a law has to be enunciated in view
of the proof provided, and of the experimental and technological verification of time dilation effects
during the past six to seven decades. The importance of this finding as a universal phenomenon and in the
further development of stable clocks and satellite technology is highlighted.
1.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2619] **viXra:1710.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-07 21:43:29*

**Authors:** Abed Peerally

**Comments:** 13 Pages. TO UPLOAD A NEW PAPER

Research on human’s attachment to cosmological phenomena at least since the Neolithic Period may prove invaluable in modern scientific understanding of our ultimate realities. Of interest has been the archaeological research about the Neolithic Magic Cosmology. In more recent periods the Greek civilization and Hindu cosmological mythology amongst others engaged in various profound intellectual ways to understand and explain the cosmos. The last two millennia saw the progress of more modern civilizations in Asia and Europe resulting in the further empowerment of philosophy, religions and of astronomy. Astronomical discoveries in recent centuries have created particularly interesting philosophical and scientific reflections on the realities of the universe. But the last few decades have evolved differing scientific concepts which have made our notions of the universe and of existence more elusive to unfold thereby digging further the gaps between philosophy, religion and science. Interestingly studies on ancient human socio-religious cultures strongly suggest that human societies have an instinctive urge to unite their material experience with religious and cosmological beliefs, that is, with supernatural phenomena. This is intriguing because our own modern scientific literature clearly shows that many of even the most eminent of scientists see a supernatural character with our universe. Philosophy and religions in their theoretical ways have produced all that can be humanly interpreted on the origin and nature of the universe and existence. Since science has the objective role to explain natural phenomena including the manner the universe originated it should eventually be able to explain what the universe and existence stand from the manner scientific research on the origin of the universe develops in the decades to come. However the final decision as to whether the universe is a natural or supernatural emanation will obviously always remain a matter of personal judgment and choice.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2618] **viXra:1710.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-07 22:05:08*

**Authors:** Abed Peerally

**Comments:** 23 Pages. upload

The world of astronomy could be at a new and pivotal crossroad. In recent decades the controversial debate on the origin of the universe in relation to the conflict among science, philosophy and religion has reached a crescendo to the extent that humanity is quite confused on how to interpret the nature of the realities of the universe. Is science an atheistic endeavor and are philosophers and prophets of religion just scientific illiterates. Astronomy, the oldest and biggest branch of Science, has been intimately linked to human culture including philosophy and religion for millennia or even longer. Advances in cosmology and astrophysics on the one hand and the natural sciences on the other hand are now producing insights which could, in the coming decade, elucidate in quite concrete scientific details how most probably our universe originated and what could be the nature of the intriguing realities of the universe such as the nature of matter, life, energy, gravity,
2
the mind and consciousness amongst many other riddles. This paper will show a bit of the trends in relation to mindsets on the universe and its origin and will predict that in due course we will have a new way of profoundly looking at the universe, its realities and of the place of humanity in it. This new view of our ultimate realities, when it materializes and mature, would progressively bring science, philosophy and religion under a common umbrella, spearheaded by a new Scientific Cosmological Argument. Introduction

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2617] **viXra:1710.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-07 07:10:22*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 4 Pages. none

This paper is mostly philosophical in its nature thus avoiding many equations and computations, which casual readers do not necessarily understand. Paper investigates and compares side by side in detail assumptions with their logical consequences and resulting internal inconsistencies in both; the General Relativity Theory (GRT) and the Metric Theory of Gravity (MTG). It is found that the GRT has many such internal inconsistencies, which have to be corrected by unusual and difficult to believe assumptions that are not backed up by a typical experience one encounters in a real life, while the MTG avoids such problems. For the readers who are interested in proofs of discussed findings the paper provides internet links to papers where such proofs are available. The key differences between the GRT and MTG theories are: the gravitational mass dependence on velocity, the nature of “empty” space, the finite or infinite size of the Universe, the existence of Black Holes (BH) with their Event Horizons (EH), the creation of Universe by the Big Bang (BB), and the relation between the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) temperature, and the Hubble constant that characterizes the velocity of receding Galaxies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2616] **viXra:1710.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-06 12:16:31*

**Authors:** Peter J Carroll

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This paper presents a quantitative equation for Mach’s Principle that appears to satisfy the requirements of most of the qualitative expressions of Mach’s Principle, and it suggests that the universe has spatial closure and a Transactional gravitational exchange mechanism.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2615] **viXra:1710.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-06 05:47:13*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The true nature of absolute motion has eluded physicists for more than a century because they presumed absolute motion to be motion relative to the hypothetical ether. This author has developed a new interpretation of absolute velocity, Apparent Source Theory (AST ), that shows the ether does not exist, but absolute motion does. AST successfully explains the hitherto apparently contradicting experiments including the Michelson-Morley experiment, the Sagnac effect and moving source experiments. An argument against the validity of absolute motion is that if absolute motion existed, it would have been detected in the Ives-Stilwell and the fast ion beam experiments.In this paper it is proposed that, unconventionally, absolute motion does not affect experiments of Doppler effect. Therefore, such experiments cannot prove or disprove absolute motion. Doppler effect is determined only by the source-observer relative velocity, by applying Exponential Doppler Effect theory [1] already proposed by this author. Absolute velocity results only in phase delay of light, and has no effect on Doppler effect and this would be a novel nature of motion and the speed of light. This is not the case for sound waves.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2614] **viXra:1710.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-03 07:11:25*

**Authors:** Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia

**Comments:** 128 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity takes us to two results that presently are considered “inexplicable” to many renowned scientists, to know:
-The dilatation of time, and
-The contraction of the Lorentz Length.
The solution to these have driven the author to the development of the Undulating Relativity (UR) theory, where the Temporal variation is due to the differences on the route of the light propagation and the lengths are constants between two landmarks in uniform relative movement.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2613] **viXra:1710.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-02 17:11:39*

**Authors:** Thomas Preusser

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The holographic principle concept of physics theory traces its origins to the study of black holes. In the 1970’s Hawking and Bekenstein showed that black holes carry entropy, i.e. information, that is proportional not to black hole volume (i.e. 3-Dimensions), but to the area of the black hole horizon (i.e. 2-Dimensions). Subsequently Hooft and Susskind developed the holographic principle which pairs quantum gravity (3D) with quantum field theory (2D), making the black hole horizon “contoured 2D” and enabling entanglement information across the black hole horizon. More recently (1997 arXiv:9711200) Maldacena’s Anti-de Sitter/Conformal Field Theory correspondence, provided the holographic principle with a more explicit geometric (bulk, gravity, 3D, AdS) boundary correspondence with quantum field theory (2D, CFT), where the 2D is actually related to a dual boundary and the varying entanglement of two subsystems, A and its complement B.
The most interesting part of all the foregoing is that the holographic principle, which pertains to geometry and information, brings string theory adjacent to loop quantum gravity (LQG), which also pertains to geometry and information. More recently in LQG (1994 arXiv:9411005) Rovelli and Smolin related quantization to area / volume (geometry), and graphs (information). If “conservation” of information is a law, geometry is a more malleable topological property, (i.e. networked inter-connectedness is unaffected by changes in geometry).
There are two major issues that need to be addressed for further holographic principle progress.
Issue 1:The AdS, or bulk, gravity, 3D side, needs to be more topologically explicit and generalized. Gravity in 3D is a purely topological theory. In a topological theory geometric properties and spatial relations, i.e. networked inter-connectedness, are unaffected by the continuous change of shape or size of an object. Topological consistency is a very important aspect for systems of information, being akin to adiabatic consistency for systems of energy, thus providing stability.
Issue 2:Holographic principle entanglement needs to be put in a larger context that generalizes entanglement , and development of complexity. This includes CPT symmetry breaking, Lorentz covariant bound states (spooky action at a distance), neutrino oscillation involving electron, muon, and tau neutrinos, and gluon color charge oscillation.
Holography involves projection of an image from an object as perceived by an observer. This paper expounds on projection of an image from an object as perceived by an observer. In particular this paper looks at Pascal’s Projection Ellipse, and in a larger sense General Projective Relativit y (GPR), as models for projection of an image from an object as perceived by an observer, and in so doing addresses the prior holographic principle issues.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2612] **viXra:1710.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-03 04:07:18*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 12 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

It is known that most existing cosmology models do not include rotation, with few
exceptions such as rotating Bianchi and rotating Godel metrics. Therefore in this paper
we aim to discuss four possible ways to model rotating universe, including Nurgaliev’s
Ermakov-type equation. It is our hope that the new proposed method can be verified with
observations, in order to open new possibilities of more realistic nonlinear cosmology
models.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2611] **viXra:1710.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-01 11:46:19*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

Some years ago, Hidding et al. suggest that the emergence of intricate and pervasive weblike structure of the Universe on Megaparsec scales can be approximated by a well-known equation from fluid mechanics, the Burgers’ equation. The solution to this equation can be obtained from a geometrical formalism. The resulting Adhesion formalism provides deep insight into the dynamics and topology of the Cosmic Web. It uncovers a direct connection between the conditions in the very early Universe and the complex spatial patterns that emerged out of these under the influence of gravity. In the present paper, we describe a cellular automaton model of the Burgers’ equation, which can be investigated via a fast computer simulation. In the end, this suggests a Cellular Automata Adhesion Model of the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2610] **viXra:1709.0445 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-30 13:52:55*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: If E8 symmetry prevails, only 8 cyclic universes are allowed: the collapse of the 8th universe stopped time: luckily for us the symmetry of life (also of E8 symmetry) produced a rebirth of time and started the 9th universe evolving which it is still doing today.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2609] **viXra:1709.0431 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-29 10:48:15*

**Authors:** Pierre Réal Gosselin

**Comments:** 30 Pages. French version available - Website: http://phrenocarpe.org/index.html

We lay down the fundamental hypothesis that any electromagnetic radiation
transforms progressively, evolving towards and finally reaching after an appropriate
distance the value of the cosmic microwave background radiation wavelength
at 1,873 mm or the frequency of 160,2 GHz. This way we explain the cosmic
redshift Z of far away Galaxies using only Maxwell’s equations and the energy
quantum principle for photons. This hypothesis is also true for wavelength longer
or for frequency less than that of the cosmic microwave bacground. Hubble’s
law sprouts out naturally as the consequence of this transformation. According
to this hypothesis we compute the Hubble constant using Pioneer satellite data
and doing so deciphering the enigma of its anomalous behaviour. We speculate
about a numerical composition of the Hubble constant and introduce the Hubble
surface. This hypothesis helps to solve some cases that are still enigmatic for
the standard cosmology. We discuss about the maximal observation distance of
cosmological phenomena. We give an answer to the anomalous acceleration of the
Pioneer satellite and we show that it is a universal constant common to any satellite.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2608] **viXra:1709.0430 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-29 10:53:37*

**Authors:** Pierre Réal Gosselin

**Comments:** 31 Pages. English available - Site internet: http://phrenocarpe.org

Nous posons l’hypothèse fondamentale que toute radiation électromagnétique
se transforme progressivement, évoluant vers, et atteignant après une distance
appropriée, la valeur de la radiation cosmique résiduelle soit une longueur d’onde
de 1,873 mm ou la fréquence de 160,2 GHz. Ainsi nous expliquons le décalage vers
le rouge Z de la radiation provenant des galaxies éloignées moyennant les équations
classiques de Maxwell et l’énergie quantique des photons. Cette hypothèse est
aussi valable lorsque la radiation émise est de longueur d’onde plus grande, ou de
fréquence plus basse que celle de la radiation cosmique résiduelle. La loi de Hubble
émerge tout naturellement comme conséquence de cette transformation. Suivant
cette hypothèse, nous évaluons la constante de Hubble en utilisant les données
fournies par le satellite Pioneer tout en expliquant l’anomalie de comportement
attribuée à ce satellite. Nous spéculons sur une composition possible de la constante
de Hubble et introduisons la surface de Hubble. Ce modèle permet la résolution
de quelques situations inexpliquées par la cosmologie actuelle. Nous discutons de
la distance limite d’observation des phénomènes cosmologiques. Nous expliquons
l’accélération anormale du satellite Pioneer et montrons qu’elle est une constante
universelle, la même pour tout satellite.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2607] **viXra:1709.0424 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-28 19:52:23*

**Authors:** Paulo Sérgio Custódio

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The formation of Primordial Black Holes is a robust prediction of
several gravitational theories. Whereas the creation of PBHs was very
active in the remote past, such process seem to be very negligible at the
present epoch.
In this work, we estimate the effects from the radiation surrounding
PBHs due to the absorption term in the equations that describe how
their masses depend on time. The Hawking radiation contributes with
mass loss and the absorption term contributes with gain, but a interesting
competition between these terms is analysed.
These effects are included in the equations describing PBHs and its
mass density as the universe evolves in time and the model is able to
describes the evolution of the numerical density of PBHs and the mass
evolution and comparisons with cosmological constraints set upper limits
in their abundances.
We evaluate the effect of this accretion onto PBHs and we get some
corrections for the initial masses that indicates some deviations from de-
fault values for the time scale for evaporation. The scale time of the PBHs
in the early universe is modified due to the energy accretion and we can
estimate how these contributions may alter the standard model of PBHs.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2606] **viXra:1709.0423 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-28 21:28:19*

**Authors:** HyunCheol Kim

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The law of inertia has been treated as a fundamental assumption in classical physics. However in this paper, I show that the law of inertia is completely possible to be derived, from the homogeneity of the spacetime.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2605] **viXra:1709.0415 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-28 08:55:45*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The Lorentz Transformation ( LT) equations were invented to make the speed of light constant ( invariant ) in reference frames moving with constant velocity relative to each other, which was implied by Maxwell's equations. This required the counterintuitive idea of relativity of length and time. The mainstream physics community just accepts this as the way nature works, while many reject it outright. Even more confusing is that the predictions of LT have been confirmed experimentally, such as the gamma factor, the electric field of moving charges and the universal light speed limit. On the other hand, absolute motion has also been decisively detected by many experiments such as the Miller, the Marinov, the Silvertooth, the Roland De Witte and the CMBR experiments. The speed of light has also been shown to vary with observer velocity, experimentally. All these facts show that the true nature of motion and the speed of light is still a mystery. In this paper, errors in the theory of Special Relativity, the non-existence of equivalence principle of General Relativity theory, and solutions will be proposed. The source of all confusions surrounding the LT is as follows: it has been wrongly presumed that the postulate of the constancy of the speed of light applies both to the phase velocity and the group velocity. We propose that it is the phase velocity, not the group velocity, which is constant independently of source or observer velocity. The group velocity behaves in a more conventional way: it is independent of source velocity but varies with observer velocity. The relativity of length and time required to keep the phase velocity constant should be thought as an artifact and not real. LT should be applied only to predict the outcome of light speed experiments involving phase velocity such as the Doppler effect. The counterintuitive constancy of the phase velocity of light is something we should just accept as a law of nature. It is rooted in the reality that there is no medium of propagation for light waves. It is much better to just accept the constancy of the phase velocity of light without interpreting this to mean reality of relativity of length and time, and this is supported by logic and experimental evidence. LT should be interpreted to explain why all observers see the same fringe shift, not necessarily a null fringe shift. This paper also shows that the beautiful thought experiment of the equivalence principle turns out to be wrong. The equality of inertial mass and gravitational mass has its root in two of the longstanding mysteries in physics: what inertial mass is and what gravity is. Inertial mass and electrical self inductance are not only analogous, but are fundamentally the same phenomena. The velocity of a car cannot change instantaneously for the same reason that the current inside an inductor cannot change instantaneously. Just as the magnetic field of an inductor cannot change instantaneously, so does the magnetic field of the electrons, protons and neutrons of the car material. Gravity and electrostatic force are not only analogous, but are fundamentally the same phenomenon. Gravitational force is a slight difference between electrostatic attractive and repulsive forces. It follows that both inertial mass and gravitational mass depend on the same quantity: the total (not net ) amount of charge in an object.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2604] **viXra:1709.0401 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-26 18:58:33*

**Authors:** Evgeny A Novikov

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Quantum modification of general relativity (Qmoger) is supported by cosmic data (without fitting). Qmoger equations consist of Einstein equations with two additional terms responsible for production/absorption of matter. In Qmoger cosmology there was no Big Bang and matter is continuously producing by the Vacuum. Particularly, production of the ultralight gravitons with possible tiny electric dipole moment was started about 284 billion years ago. Quantum effects dominate interaction of these particles and they form the quantum condensate. Under influence of gravitation, the condensate is forming galaxies and producing ordinary matter, including photons. As one important result of this activity, it recently created us, the people, and continues to support us. Particularly, our subjective experiences (qualia) are a result of an interaction between the background condensate and the neural system of the brain. The action potentials of neural system create traps and coherent dynamic patterns in the dipolar condensate. So, qualia are graviton-based, which can open new directions of research in biology and medicine. At the same time, a specialized study of qualia can open a new window into the dark sector of matter. The Qmoger theory explains why most of the ordinary particles are fermions, predicts the mass of neutrino (in accord with the experimental bound) and explained their oscillations (between three flavors) in terms of interaction with the background condensate. The achievements of the Standard Model and the Quantum Field Theory can be combined with the Qmoger theory.
Key words: cosmology with continuous production of energy, ultralight gravitons with tiny electric dipole moment, biophysics, qualia.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2603] **viXra:1709.0395 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-27 03:43:02*

**Authors:** Arjun Dahal

**Comments:** 4 Pages. ©2017-2018 Journal of St. Xavier's Physics Council

This article provides a brief outline of Special Theory of Relativity. The physics before the relativity, the special relativity in itself, and the consequences of special relativity are discussed here.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2602] **viXra:1709.0392 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-26 07:59:53*

**Authors:** Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia

**Comments:** 128 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity takes us to two results that presently are considered “inexplicable” to many renowned scientists, to know:
-The dilatation of time, and
-The contraction of the Lorentz Length.
The solution to these have driven the author to the development of the Undulating Relativity (UR) theory, where the Temporal variation is due to the differences on the route of the light propagation and the lengths are constants between two landmarks in uniform relative movement.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2601] **viXra:1709.0377 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-25 06:33:23*

**Authors:** H.J. Veringa

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Small mistake in title: Gravity in stead of gravirty.

In this document an attempt is made to explain the origin of gravity. The basis for the analysis is a merger of Quantum theory and Relativity. Nowhere in the analysis there is any need to deviate from well proven and successful concepts of both theories and rules of calculation, and no exotic new particles will have to be introduced. By doing so it is demonstrated that, next to its local interactions of a multi-particle system, the Schrödinger equation leads to pairs of two and only two members. This solution is used as the invariant term in the quantized Einstein energy equation which finally leads to gravitational interactions between members of the pairs. With this particular solution for the quantum-mechanical wave function it is found that gravity is a second order effect operating over a long range. In this document it is tried to give a complete and consistent account of all steps that have been taken in the derivation of the classical Newton’s law. Further the document emphasizes precise justification of some of the basic assumptions made and how it works out on a cosmological scale. It is also found that the generator of gravity is contributing mass to particles that have gravitational interaction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2600] **viXra:1709.0373 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-25 01:41:33*

**Authors:** Jeffrey S. Keen

**Comments:** 6 Pages, 2 Figures,4 Tables

Existing publications suggest that the smallest psi-lines have interesting but unquantified properties. Addressing this challenge is this paper’s objective. The following quantitative experiments demonstrate that psi-lines must be greater than a minimum length of 1.58 metres before they possess nodes. At this minimum length, the distance of the node, measured from the start of the psi-line, equals 0.79 metres i.e. at its centre. Psi-lines without nodes also have a minimum length, but this is slightly less at 0.74 m. This is approximately half the minimum length of psi-lines with a node, and hence cannot be a coincidence. An exponential equation is also discovered. All these findings are additional factors to help determine the structure of psi-lines.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2599] **viXra:1709.0328 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-22 07:54:10*

**Authors:** T. Yarman, A. Kholmetskii, O. Yarman, M. Arik

**Comments:** 3 pages

We respond to one more attempt by Corda (vixra: 1709.0190v1) in criticizing the Yarman-Arik-Kholmetskii (YARK) gravitation theory, and show the fallacious character of his aggression.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2598] **viXra:1709.0308 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-20 17:03:02*

**Authors:** Wei Xu

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The workings of Universal Topology unfolds a duality of our natural world for the following remarks: i) Dual complex manifolds and the reciprocal world planes beyond a single spacetime manifold; ii) Two pairs of scalar potentials for field entanglements; iii) A mathematical framework of the dual variances to clone the event operations; iv) Two pairs of fluxions of continuity and commutations as a hierarchy foundation of Potential Entanglements; and v) Commutation Infrastructure as an introductory to derive the empirical artifacts of Lorentz Generators, Pauli matrices, Electromagnetic Field Structures, Inertial Commutation Curvature, and General Relativity. Upon this inception, our Universal Topology is ready to give rise to the unified and universal field theory ...

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2597] **viXra:1709.0297 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-19 23:18:05*

**Authors:** Henry Leonidovich Arutyunov

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this article it will be shown that in the moving frame of reference according to SRT two different time scales are observed. From this it follows that the "relativity of simultaneity" does not exist. Also from this follows the infidelity of the second postulate of Einstein on the constancy of the speed of light in all IFRs.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2596] **viXra:1709.0278 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-19 00:15:24*

**Authors:** Nikitin A. P.

**Comments:** Pages.

It is explained the deviation of the light beam in the gravitational field of the Sun from energy considerations, when all the changes and interactions, including gravitational ones, are considered not as force interactions or geometric manifestations of the curvature of space-time, but as manifestations and consequences of the motion of matter, described as the motion of energy in space-time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2595] **viXra:1709.0271 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-18 09:35:00*

**Authors:** Gary Nash

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

By maintaining the form of the Klein-Gordon equation in curved 4-dimensional spacetime, it can be symmetrized into symmetric and antisymmetric (2,0) tensors with the wave function $\Psi$ having spins $0,1,2,1/2$ and $3/2$. Using a decomposition of symmetric tensors and two fundamental principles of general relativity, a new tensor describing the energy-momentum of the gravitational field and dark energy appears naturally alongside the Einstein tensor. The tensors that constitute the modified Einstein equation add to zero. General relativity and dark energy are hidden in the symmetric part of the Klein-Gordon equation for each spin. As quantum field theory in curved spacetime is built from the free field solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation, general relativity and dark energy are hidden in the formalism of quantum field theory. The metric as a field variable describing gravitons vanishes from the massless spin-2 KG equation in the low-energy long-range to particle regimes of spacetime. Massless spin-2 gravitons in those regimes do not exist. Unlike the other three known fundamental forces in nature, no particle exchange is required to explain the force of gravity in those regimes. It is shown that the cosmological constant must be zero. Dark energy effectively replaces the cosmological constant and describes a cyclic universe which developed after the Big Bang. Dark energy is interpreted to be the repulsive part of the trace of the tensor describing the energy-momentum of the gravitational field and dark energy. The dark energy density provides a natural explanation of why the vacuum energy density is so small, and why it dominates the present epoch of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2594] **viXra:1709.0261 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-17 12:42:04*

**Authors:** Ziaedin Shafiei

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The theory of length contraction was initially proposed to uphold the existence of aether after the surprise null result from Michelson and Morley (M&M) experiment. The theory claimed that any physical object shrinks in the direction of its movement through aether. The theory is accepted by special relativity. It is, however, redefined as the shortening of any physical object in the direction of its movement relative to an observer.
This article shows that M&M experiment, in fact, does not support length contraction as the theory was not based on all-inclusive analysis of the experiment.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2593] **viXra:1709.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-15 09:21:16*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Shaw has proposed an aether explanation for gravity, publishing several papers over the current decade (see http://www.duncanshaw.ca/). These have evolved into his “Aether Concept of Gravity,” by which inflowing aether into cosmic bodies produces an accelerating “ram force” that manifests as the “attractive” gravitational force without the need to postulate “action at a distance.” While examination of the full theory is beyond the scope of this paper, it is feasible to examine three of the key aspects which lend themselves to modeling in the form of mathematical constructs. While no attempt is made to explain the physics behind Shaw’s theory, an investigation into its plausibility, at least from a mathematical perspective, is undertaken and appears to support at least this level of plausibility.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2592] **viXra:1709.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-15 09:29:53*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The 19th century novella “Flatland” has often inspired comparisons of inter-dimensional phenomena, particularly how phenomena in dimension n + 1 would be manifested to observers restricted to dimension n. With n = 2, a possible analogy for the phenomena of light and Coulombic repulsion and attraction is examined for its potential extension to n = 3, given the impossibility of our even physically imagining a fourth dimension, purely spatial (i.e., not-temporal, in contrast to Einstein’s time or space-time) like the three we know (length, width and height).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2591] **viXra:1709.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-15 10:00:47*

**Authors:** Durgadas Datta.

**Comments:** 1 Page. Reality with time.

Are we following the right path by applying relativity for the larger universe?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2590] **viXra:1709.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-15 07:02:57*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The Galilean space-time transformation is predicated on a salient theme of Galilean/Newtonian physics: relative motion at constant velocity has no physical consequences beyond the minimum which is required by that motion's existence. Therefore, since the electric field produced by a point charge at rest is spherically symmetric around the charge's location, and since a point charge at rest produces zero magnetic field, Galilean physics implies that a point charge moving at constant velocity produces an electric field which is spherically symmetric around that charge's instantaneous location and that it produces zero magnetic field. But the Biot-Savart-Maxwell Law has it that a point charge moving at nonzero constant velocity produces nonzero magnetic field, and Faraday's Law has it that this time-varying magnetic field, which has zero component along the line of the charge's motion, produces an electric field which isn't spherically symmetric around the charge's instantaneous location. Thus the Galilean space-time transformation is violated by electromagnetic phenomena in a definite way, and must be modified. The needed modification produces the Lorentz space-time transformation, which can straightforwardly be shown to never change the speed of electromagnetic radiation. The fate of the Galilean/Newtonian constant-velocity relative-motion paradigm was actually already sealed when it was observed that the presence of direct current in a wire deflects an adjacent compass needle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2589] **viXra:1709.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-14 14:52:53*

**Authors:** Jose Gregorio Baquero

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In 1964, Irwin Shapiro pointed out that electromagnetic waves traveling near a gravitational well of a star were delayed due to relativistic Gravitational Time Dilation (GTD). This paper proposes that traveling energy quanta (mainly vacuum energy and gravitational waves, as well as neutrinos, electromagnetic waves, cosmic rays, stellar winds, and all other kinds of waves and relativistic particles yet to be discovered) accumulate in a Density Wave like mechanism around the galactic and cosmic scale structures because of Shapiro Delay. Ultimately, the accumulative effect is a substantial increase in energy density when seen from frames of reference far from the regions where it occurs. The higher energy density is imperceptible for an observer within its own frame of reference since the proposed mechanism nature is relativistic. The higher concentration of travelling energy quanta around galaxies and galaxy clusters is creating extra gravitational distortion in spacetime with its mass equivalent.
The Relativistically Accumulated Mass Equivalent Mechanism (RAMEN), using the proposed model, matches without free parameters the tested local group galaxy rotation curves for all orbits using the same traveling energy density value. The paper proposes how all observations of “Dark Matter” can be easily explained by RAMEN. It predicts the existence of a Universe Traveling Energy Density in disagreement by several orders of magnitude with currently accepted Universe Critical Energy Density. The paper discusses how the Casimir Effect experiments directly confirm with less than 5% disagreement with Quantum Field Theory the existence of higher energy densities in the vacuum. It also discusses how we may have misunderstood the nature of the predominant form of energy in the universe and that have prevented us from understanding the gravitational anomalies attributed to “Dark Matter”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2588] **viXra:1709.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-15 01:40:11*

**Authors:** G. Stranathan

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper proposes an alternate way of thinking of 'empty' space and its interactions with matter, which may further explain certain mechanics of the universe, such as the behaviors of light, gravity and other forces. This paper will serve as a placeholder to communicate the general concepts until I am able to refine it further.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2587] **viXra:1709.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-13 20:42:32*

**Authors:** Francois Leyvraz

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The author attempts to give a self-contained view of various paradoxes in the theory of relativity, and provides an extensive discussion of them in hopefully elementary terms.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2586] **viXra:1709.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-14 02:40:06*

**Authors:** Christian Corda

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Invited contribution accepted for publication in the 2018 Issue of New Advances in Physics.

We ultimately show the unscientific behavior of the so-called YARK theory of gravitation (which applications have been published in both of
non-mainstream and mainstream journals) by using Einstein's equivalence principle which has today a strong, unchallengeable empiric evidence.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2585] **viXra:1709.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-13 05:29:44*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Astronomical observations show generally a redshift of electromagnetic radiation emitted by stars and galaxies that proves they move away from the observer. There are nevertheless numerous exceptions that prove the existence of a blueshift of radiation and consequently an approach of stars and galaxies. This fact together with a few important anisotropies that are present in the spectrum of the Cosmic Microwaves Background Radiation (CMBR) pose important problems for theories of the Big Bang and of the isotropic expansion of the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2584] **viXra:1709.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-11 16:47:35*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 17 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

It is known to experts, that in the nonlinear regression analysis, numerous curve fitting methods exist, which allow the statistician to cook up the data according to what he/she wants to see. Such a deep problem in nonlinear regression methods will be discussed in particular in the context of analyzing Hubble diagram from various existing data. It is our aim to distinguish the raw data and foregone conclusions, in order to arrive at a model-independent conclusion. As a preliminary remark, we deem that it remains possible that the Hubble law exhibits nonlinearity, just like proposed by Segal & Nicoll long time ago. More researches are needed to verify our proposition.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2583] **viXra:1709.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-12 03:54:15*

**Authors:** Laszlo A. Marosi

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The standard cosmological model rests on a never-ending array of hypotheses and assumptions (dark matter, dark energy and others) which either cannot be proved or, although theoretically possible, cannot yet be proved experimentally. This lack of secure knowledge raises legitimate doubts over the validity of the Big Bang model, which therefore cannot be seen as the ultimate answer to the question of the emergence and evolution of the universe. If the search for dark matter and dark energy turns out to be unsuccessful, the whole construction will break down and we will unavoidably face the question of which of the many different models based on Einstein’s field equations represents the real world.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2582] **viXra:1709.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-11 07:20:36*

**Authors:** Yukihiko Hoshino

**Comments:** 21 Pages. Paper on Neoaether theory (New Aether theory) No.4. Original Japanese paper.

In previous paper "Consideration on universal gravitation premised on the existence of aether (in Japanese)", it considered the cosmic inflation,the Big Bang and the dark energy on the premise of the presence of aether to show the possibility of the neoaether theory.This time, the large-scale structure of the cosmos is structured like bubbles overlapping many layers. There is a Supermassive black hole in the center of almost all galaxies, and its mass has a certain proportional relationship with the mass of the galaxy. It focused on these two points and further deepened the consideration.As a result, the large-scale structure of the cosmos is formed by the cosmic inflation continuing to occur several times at the same time in multiple places. The dark matter is an attractive force phenomenon caused by the flow of aether in one direction. These two points were newly turned out.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2581] **viXra:1709.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-10 20:46:04*

**Authors:** Henry Leonidovich Arutyunov

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This article describes the logical error that physicists made when proving ladder paradox for 100 years.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2580] **viXra:1709.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-11 01:01:16*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Acceleration Coordinate Lorentz Transformation

Two inertial reference frames moving at identical velocity can be seperated if one of them
is put under acceleration for a duration. The coordinates of both inertial reference frames are
related by the acceleration and its duration. An immediate property of this coordinate transformation is the conservation of
distance and length across reference frames. Therefore, the concept of length contraction from Lorentz Transformation is impossible in reality and physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2579] **viXra:1709.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-10 11:53:34*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Yunita Umniyati

**Comments:** 14 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

Some years ago, Matt Visser asked the following interesting questions: How much of modern cosmology is really cosmography? How much of modern cosmology is independent of the Einstein equations? (Independent of the Friedmann equations?) These questions are becoming increasingly germane — as the models cosmologists use for the stress-energy content of the universe become increasingly baroque. Therefore, in this paper we will discuss a novel Newtonian cosmology model with vortex, which offers wide implications from solar system, galaxy modeling up to large scale structures of the Universe. The basic starting point is very simple: It has been known for long time that most of the existing cosmology models have singularity problem. Cosmological singularity has been a consequence of excessive symmetry of flow, such as “Hubble’s law.” More realistic one is suggested, based on Newtonian cosmology model but here we include the vortical-rotational effect of the whole Universe. We review an Ermakov-type equation obtained by Nurgaliev, and solve the equation numerically with Mathematica. A potential application is also considered, namely for understanding tornado dynamics using 3D Navier-Stokes equations. It is our hope that the new proposed method can be verified with observations, in order to open new possibilities of more realistic nonlinear cosmology models.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2578] **viXra:1709.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-10 08:04:41*

**Authors:** Peter J Carroll

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract. This paper proposes a modification to Newton’s laws of motion and gravitation that would have negligible and undetectable effects at terrestrial scales, but at greater scales, it would have obvious effects that would create significant anomalies that we have already observed and that conventional theories have perhaps misinterpreted.
Newton devised his theories on the assumption that we inhabit a strictly Euclidian spacetime. Einstein showed that spacetime can have curvature. Conventional cosmology currently asserts that we inhabit an expanding universe with an overall curvature close to, or exactly equal to, zero. If however we entertain the possibility that the universe has a very small positive curvature then that small positive curvature could account for a number of apparent astronomical anomalies and remove the need to assume that it expands.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2577] **viXra:1709.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-09 10:15:41*

**Authors:** Ernst Schmutzer

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper the behaviour of a matter torus under the influence of the expanding
cosmos model (according to our theory PUFT) is investigated. This task can numerically be treated for the full life time of the cosmos model (from the Urstart to the Finish). As we know from our literature cited, the graphic course of the cosmological scalaric field after the Urstart exhibits an increase , followed by a return down to the Finish.
This curious behaviour of the cosmological scalaric field leads to the suspicion that
the shape of the torus during the life time of the cosmos may be: sphere at the Urstart, transformation of the sphere to a ring with decreasing thickness, return to a sphere at the Finish. It seems that such a theoretically predicted physical effect could perhaps exist in Nature.
The torus was chosen as a test object, since the numerical calculations can be done without approximation procedures. We took this rather simple example to show this cosmological effect for further applications in astrophysics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2576] **viXra:1709.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-08 19:17:43*

**Authors:** Yukihiko Hoshino

**Comments:** 24 Pages. Paper on Neoaether theory (New Aether theory) No.3. Original Japanese paper.

The law of universal gravitation in which all objects are attracting each other, has been clarified physical laws such as how to work and how to calculate the strength of force, and it is widely used along with the three laws of motion. However, the fundamental problem of why attraction exists between substances and what conveys the power has not yet been elucidated.This time, on the premise that aether exists and attracted by gravity, it considered the universal gravitation. As a result, if since each substance attracts aether by attraction, it thinks that aether acts as a so-called rope and substances attract each other, then the strength of attraction acting between substances is not inversely proportional to the square of distance and it turned out to be contrary to the inverse-square law which is the nature of universal gravitation. Therefore, in order to consider the properties of substances as a source of attraction in detail, the properties of elementary particles considered as the smallest unit of substances were examined on the premise of the existence of aether. In quantum theory it is thought that elementary particles have both properties of particles and waves and can not determine the position. This is because elementary particles have the three phases of "gas phase", "liquid phase", and "solid phase" (to be distinguished from the three states of macroscopic substances by surrounding them with ") similar to those of macroscopic substances, and they are constantly repeating phase change,but we can think that it is only in the case of "liquid phase", "solid phase" that we can identify its position. In the case of elementary particles, the substance corresponding to the molecule of the macroscopic substance is aether, and it is assumed that elementary particles always repeat phase change at very short intervals between "solid phase" or "liquid phase" where we can specify the position and "gas phase" where we can not locate did. And, in addition to that, we examined the mechanism of attractive force generation using the concept of "aether pressure" similar to the concept of atmospheric pressure.As a result, we could explain the mechanism of attractive force generation and its properties theoretically.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2575] **viXra:1709.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-06 15:00:33*

**Authors:** Abed Peerally

**Comments:** 35 PAGES. PART 2 OF THE PREVIOUS VIXRA PAPER: THEORY OF EVERYTHING= PHILOSOPHY OF EVERYTHING + PHYSICS OF EVERYTHING:1605/0239

This article precedes the author’s second book: Origin of Our Universe: Theory of Everything. The Final Answers to the Mystery of Existence. It proposes that science on its own, in its traditional nature, cannot explain the ultimate nature of physical realities, and therefore the ultimate nature of quantum reality, Einstein’s relativity laws, and the integration of relativity with quantum mechanics. In principle, a Theory of Everything of our universe, according to many physicists. ought to be a possible ultimate concept of physics, capable to explain all scientific and natural realities. However, nature appears to be perpetually mysterious and elusive. Therefore, in the finality of our existence, there should exist an ultimate scientific Theory of Everything capable of explaining our laws of nature and our realities, but this is not possible due to the impossibility of integrating relativity and quantum theory, without embodying a higher level multi-dimensional Metaphysics, that would underpin quantum theory, relativity and spacetime, as the author will lay out in his next book. This is an area where String Theory’s mathematics could be useful in attempts to unite spacetime and extra-dimensions. Metaphysics, integrated with our laws of nature, could provide the final arguments and interpretations that can tell us why we have an existence, where we appear to be an impossibility in an impossible universe. Therefore, the current status quo in terms of the elucidation of what existence in our universe entails, looks like an expectation that science and metaphysics will take us to the goal of knowing why and how we are here in our extraordinary realities.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2574] **viXra:1709.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-06 06:52:28*

**Authors:** Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

I spotted a fatal error in understanding of one of the basics of mathematics used in a PhD thesis titled: “A Generalized Variational Principle of Gravitation”,City University, London, 1982. There also are two types of errors, one is a typographic error and a second one is a major error. Scanned copy of part of the thesis page (131-140) where the errors occurred is attached to this paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2573] **viXra:1709.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-05 23:54:48*

**Authors:** Yukihiko Hoshino

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Paper on Neoaether theory (New Aether theory) No.2. Original Japanese paper.

In the presence of aether as a medium of light, the speed of light in vacuum can be considered constant with aether. Then, the principle of constancy of light velocity does not hold, and the theory of relativity guided by this as one of the starting points also does not hold. However, delay of time and bending of light due to gravity derived from the theory of relativity are verified by various experiments and observations. Therefore, we reexamined the properties of light, time and space on the premise of the presence of aether as light medium. As a result, without using the principle of constancy of light velocity, we could explain many events that have been thought to be the result of the theory of relativity, such as delay of clock, bending and redshift of light due to gravity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2572] **viXra:1709.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-05 08:12:05*

**Authors:** Yukihiko Hoshino

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Paper on Neoaether theory (New Aether theory) No.1. Original Japanese paper.

The Michelson-Morley experiment denied the existence of the aether wind Therefore, various hypotheses were considered to explain the existence of the aether even if no aether wind was observed. In one of them, there was the aether drag hypothesis that the aether was dragged by the earth.But,the aether drag hypothesis was denied because it couldn't explain the aberration of light. However, this time, I paid attention to the approaching angle of the light which was seen from the moving aether and re-examined.As a result, it turned out that the aberration of light can be explained even if the aether and the earth are moving together.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2571] **viXra:1709.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-05 02:02:08*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this work, we discuss the possibility to investigate the cosmological evolution using a covariant Ricci flow. Even though we have focused on the evolution of large-scale structures, the results obtained can be applied equally to microscopic structures of quantum particles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2570] **viXra:1709.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-04 12:25:38*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 32 pages. This is the French version of « THE EQUATION OF THE UNIVERSE » on viXra.org/abs/1709.0033v2.

Une nouvelle équation est trouvée dans laquelle le concept de matière-espace-temps est mathématiquement relié ; la gravitation et l’électromagnétisme sont également liés par l’espace-temps. Un mécanisme décrit comment sont corrélés la vitesse, le temps, la distance, la matière et l’énergie. Nous sommes amenés à constater que la gravité et l’électricité sont deux manifestations distinctes d’un même processus sous-jacent : l’électro-gravitation. La gravitation résulte de l’électromagnétisme – force intrinsèquement beaucoup plus forte – divisé par l’espace-temps cosmologique. Le rayon de l’espace-temps appartient à la famille des ondes électromagnétiques : la longueur d’onde est le rayon de l’univers et la période est son âge cosmologique. Pour la première fois, le temps cosmologique, considéré comme un objet physique réel, est intégré à « une équation cosmologique » qui rend cohérent ce que l’on sait du temps (son origine, son écoulement…), de la matière et de l’espace. Cette équation s’érige en modèle mathématique permettant de se représenter l’énergie noire (ou constante cosmologique) comme étant une énergie à la fois « négative » et « fatiguée ». En fait, c’est une équation de la cosmologie quantique qui opère la réconciliation entre le macrocosme et le microcosme, pour dresser une vision cohérente du comportement de la matière à travers l’espace et le temps.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2569] **viXra:1709.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-03 20:12:38*

**Authors:** Arutyunov Henry

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The article shows that the paradoxes of the ladder can not be solved with the help of the relativity of simultaneity. There are no paradoxes of SRT, there is only a contradiction between SRT and nature.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2568] **viXra:1709.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-04 00:30:09*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

A new equation is found in which the concept of matter-space-time is mathematically connected; gravitation and electromagnetism are also bound by space-time. A mechanism is described showing how velocity, time, distance, matter and energy, are correlated. We are led to ascertain that gravity and electricity are two distinct manifestations of a single underlying process: electrogravitation. For the first time, the cosmological time, considered as a real physical object, is integrated in a "cosmological equation" which makes coherent what we know regarding the time (its origin, its flow…), the matter and the space. It sets up a mathematical model allowing us to interpret dark energy (or cosmological constant) as being both "negative" and "tired" energy. In fact, it is an equation of quantum cosmology that operates the reconciliation between the macrocosm and the microcosm to draw up a coherent view of the behavior of matter through space and time.
mberbag@videotron.ca

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2567] **viXra:1709.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-04 05:17:53*

**Authors:** S.M.Hosseini, M.I.Kendrick

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Abstract
In this new approach the total number of the photons from the Big-Bang [1] and the volume of the entire Universe at the present epoch [2], have produced the energy density of the CMB photons.
This energy density shows that the photons of the CMB have a wavelength of:
. Approximate frequency of 30 GHz with a temperature of:
.This new approach indicates that the CMB photons are the force behind the expansion of the Universe [3] or the Dark energy.
The peak at 0.2 cm, 160 mega Hertz with a temperature of 2.7 K could either be due to all the galaxies in the Universe giving a peak intensity in the microwave at 2.7 K or according to:
P.J.E. PEEBLES
Principles of physical cosmology (pages144 and145).
“The CBR energy density can be compared to that of other local fields. The luminosity of the Milky Way is so at our position near the outskirts, at distance from the centre, the energy density is . This defines an effective temperature for the starlight; the result is .
The interstellar magnetic field is .
If we again define effective temperature by the energy density, , we get .”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2566] **viXra:1708.0484 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-31 13:19:40*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract: The Bekenstein Bound energy limit of the universe has a value determined by the universe's radius and mc^2 energy content at a given time. The bound energy cannot be exceeded and controls the maximum size and final age of each succeeding cyclic universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2565] **viXra:1708.0472 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-30 22:14:52*

**Authors:** Cyrus Master-Khodabakhsh

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This paper endeavours to explain why light and elementary particles have dual wave and particle characteristics, and proposes a physical interpretation of Huygens’ principle. It also explains why the famous Michelson and Morley experiment did not give the expected result, and to show that it did, in fact, detect the ether but was not correctly interpreted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1787] **viXra:1711.0345 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-19 19:02:50*

**Authors:** Capt. Joseph H. Forrington

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

General Relativity is solely dependent on the apparent difference in the rate of time between frames. This theory therefore attempts to explain what we are seeing in the universe through relativistic effects in time rather than through the Big Bang, Dark Energy and Dark Matter. Properly understood, Einstein’s field equations can explain the rotational velocities within flattened spiral galaxies. To that end, this paper clarifies how General Relativity describes the evolution of events and spaces within the continuum, rather than the movement of particles through pre-existing, static, spaces. Gravitational fields, (dilation gradients), have different shapes around different shaped masses. Stellar systems are spherical and events appear to evolve forward at an increasingly accelerated rate as the dilation gradient deepens approaching the center of the system. In flattened spiral galaxies, the gradients act across the broad flat surface of the disk from above and below, evolving objects forward at the same rate and hence the same velocity. IBEX failing to find a shock wave at the edge of the heliopause as expected is a proof of the concepts regarding the evolution and nature of the continuum explained here, as also might be the “dead zone” discovered by Pioneer 1. This theory also describes the dynamics in time by which the CMB is generated, accelerated, and concentrated, converting the potential energy of the spacetime continuum into real energy and mass. A proof of the dynamic developed here is LIGO’S Sept. 14, 2015 detection of a “gravity wave”; a distortion in the rate of time, an acceleration in the rate, travelling at c through space and distorting space in the physical form of the antenna. The theory also explains black holes and why our limits of perception within a black hole, and at ~ 13.8 Gly, are due to the limit of relativity, where our perception transitions from time-like to space-like. This is where ∆D, the difference in the rate of time between frames, = 1 s/s, which occurs both at the event horizon of a black hole and looking outward to the limits of perception. It occurs looking outward because events are being constantly accelerated in the rate of time, giving older frames progressively slower rates the older they are. This creates a time dilation gradient and the Hubble shift.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1786] **viXra:1711.0115 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-06 23:08:21*

**Authors:** John Malcolm Newell

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the century since Einstein's general relativity we have translated all of our solutions for relativity and quantum mechanics back into clock time, despite that dimension being too limited and too localised to describe those relationships. If we accept that clock time can have a natural complex conjugate, we can resolve quantum mechanics by appreciating the photon as a quantum without extension in its own time. We can then unify gravity and inertia with electromagnetic action, without paradox, in a Machian universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1785] **viXra:1710.0340 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-02 08:08:01*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Planck second is likely the shortest relevant time interval. If the Planck acceleration lasts for one Planck second, one will reach the speed of light. Yet, according to Einstein, no particle with rest-mass can travel at the speed of light as this would require an infinite amount of energy. Modern physics is incompatible with the Planck acceleration in many ways. However in atomism we see that the Planck acceleration happens for the building blocks of the Planck mass and that the Planck mass is dissolved into energy within one Planck second. Further, the Planck mass stands absolutely still as observed from any reference frame. Atomism is fully consistent with the Planck acceleration. The relativistic Planck acceleration is unique among accelerations because it can only happen from absolute rest; it is therefore the same as the Planck acceleration. In other words, atomism predicts breaks in Lorentz invariance at the Planck scale, something several quantum gravity theories address as well. Atomism seems to solve a series of challenges in modern physics and this paper is one of a series in pointing this out.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1784] **viXra:1710.0165 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-21 03:57:54*

**Authors:** E.P.J. de Haas

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

In GNSS, the improvement of atomic clocks will lead to Phi/c^2 in relativistic gravitational redshift three to four decades from today. Research towards a relativistic positioning system capable of handling this expected accuracy is all based upon the Schwarzschild metric as a replacement of todays GNSS Euclidian-Newtonian metric. The method employed in this paper to determining frequency shifts between atomic clocks is an intermediate Minkowski-EEP approach. This approach is based on relating two atomic clocks to one another through a background ensemble of frequency gauged clocks, a grid. The crucial grid of this paper, the Free Fall Grid or FFG, can be related to the Ehlers-Pirani-Schild P-CP Weyl space formalism, when applied to a central mass. The FFG second order in Phi/c^2 redshifts are derived for static to static, static to satellite and satellite to satellite atomic oscillators and then compared to GR-Schwarzschild and PPN (Parametrized Post Newtonian) results.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1783] **viXra:1710.0153 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-13 01:02:32*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In order to explain the null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment, Einstein denied the existence of the absolute reference frame. It will be shown that all Einstein did was replace the absolute reference frame with another preferred reference frame: the rest frame of the Michelson-Morley apparatus. According to the Special Theory of Relativity (SRT ) , there is no preferred reference frame and all inertial reference frames are equivalent in predicting and analyzing the result of the Michelson-Morley experiment. No reference frame, including the rest frame of the experiment, has any special significance over other reference frames. It will be shown that the SRT analysis of the experiment violates this principle. This is because all other inertial observers moving relative to the Michelson-Morley apparatus do not know the outcome of the experiment until they get the experimental result of the observer in the rest frame of the apparatus. Only then can they use the Lorentz Transformation equations to ‘predict’ the 'null' outcome of the experiment in their own reference frames. If all inertial reference frames are really equivalent, why not first analyze the experiment in one of the reference frames moving relative to the apparatus, in which case there will be a fringe shift δ, and use Lorentz Transformation so that all other observers ( including the observer in the rest frame of the apparatus ) agree on the same fringe shift δ. The Special Relativity Theory ( SRT ) is just another form of Lorentz ether theory ( LET): both depend on a preferred reference frame. In LET the ether is the preferred reference frame, while in SRT the rest frame of the experimental apparatus is the preferred reference frame. SRT only shifted the privilege of deciding the outcome of the experiment from the absolute reference frame to the rest frame of the Michelson-Morley experiment. The same hidden fallacy exists in the SRT analysis of the Trouton-Noble experiment. An alternative theory of absolute motion and the speed of light will be proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1782] **viXra:1710.0150 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-21 07:24:57*

**Authors:** Adham ahmed mohamed ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Relativity explained win the light of new invention

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1781] **viXra:1710.0150 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-20 07:49:40*

**Authors:** Adham ahmed mohamed ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Explains relativity in the light ofa new invention

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1780] **viXra:1710.0136 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-14 03:33:17*

**Authors:** Mihir Kumar jha

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Theory of everything (T.O.E), final theory or ultimate theory is a theoretical framework in the field of
physics, which holds an ultimate key to unify all the fundamental forces of nature in a single field. In other words
such theory can glue quantum mechanics with general relativity into a single framework. Many theories have been
postulated over the decades but the dominant one includes string theory and loop quantum gravity. In this paper I
would like to present a new framework which can unify quantum mechanics with general relativity by showing that
the change in Riemannian metric or the bend in space time is always an integral multiple of planks constant and
since gravity is the result due to bend in space-time, gravity itself is a discrete force.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1779] **viXra:1710.0088 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-27 09:14:48*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Special relativity theory postulates that the laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames of reference (the relativity postulate), and that the velocity of light in vacuum has the same value c in all inertial frames of reference (constancy of c postulate). We show, based on basic principles, that nature is endowed with symmetry with respect to its laws, such that the principle of relativity is a genuine property of nature, which is independent on the constant velocity of light, or on any other constant. We also show that the principle of relativity is associated with spatial asymmetry, such that the direction of relative motion matters. For frames of reference departing from each other, an observer in one frame will measure time and distance extension, with respect to the time and distance measured in the other frame, while for reference frames approaching each other, the same observer will measure time and distance contraction with respect to the same occurrence. No less important, we show that the principle of relativity is valid for all physical systems, independently of the type of information carrier utilized in the system, and is not specific to systems in which information between reference frames is transmitted by light, or other electromagnetic waves.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1778] **viXra:1710.0088 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-26 23:58:31*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Special relativity theory postulates that the laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames of reference (the relativity postulate), and that the velocity of light in vacuum has the same value c in all inertial frames of reference (constancy of c postulate). We show, based on basic principles, that nature is endowed with symmetry with respect to its laws, such that the principle of relativity is a genuine property of nature, which is independent on the constant velocity of light, or on any other constant. We also show that the principle of relativity is associated with spatial asymmetry, such that the direction of relative motion matters. For frames of reference departing from each other, an observer in one frame will measure time and distance extension, with respect to the time and distance measured in the other frame, while for reference frames approaching each other, the same observer will measure time and distance contraction with respect to the same occurrence. No less important, we show that the principle of relativity is valid for all physical systems, independently of the type of information carrier utilized in the system, and is not specific to systems in which information between reference frames is transmitted by light, or other electromagnetic waves.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1777] **viXra:1710.0078 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-16 08:38:43*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 5 Pages. none

This paper is mostly philosophical in its nature thus avoiding many equations and computations, which casual readers do not necessarily understand. Paper investigates and compares side by side in detail assumptions with their logical consequences and resulting internal inconsistencies in both; the General Relativity Theory (GRT) and the Metric Theory of Gravity (MTG). It is found that the GRT has many such internal inconsistencies, which have to be corrected by unusual and difficult to believe assumptions that are not backed up by a typical experience one encounters in a real life, while the MTG avoids such problems. For the readers who are interested in proofs of discussed findings the paper provides internet links to papers where such proofs are available. The key differences between the GRT and MTG theories are: the gravitational mass dependence on velocity, the nature of “empty” space, the finite or infinite size of the Universe, the existence of Black Holes (BH) with their Event Horizons (EH), the creation of Universe by the Big Bang (BB), and the relation between the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) temperature, and the Hubble constant that characterizes the velocity of receding Galaxies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1776] **viXra:1710.0033 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-01 06:37:46*

**Authors:** Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia

**Comments:** 131 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity takes us to two results that presently are considered “inexplicable” to many renowned scientists, to know:
-The dilatation of time, and
-The contraction of the Lorentz Length.
The solution to these have driven the author to the development of the Undulating Relativity (UR) theory, where the Temporal variation is due to the differences on the route of the light propagation and the lengths are constants between two landmarks in uniform relative movement.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1775] **viXra:1710.0012 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-02 22:03:50*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

Some years ago, Hidding et al. suggest that the emergence of intricate and pervasive weblike structure of the Universe on Megaparsec scales can be approximated by a well-known equation from fluid mechanics, the Burgers’ equation. The solution to this equation can be obtained from a geometrical formalism. The resulting Adhesion formalism provides deep insight into the dynamics and topology of the Cosmic Web. It uncovers a direct connection between the conditions in the very early Universe and the complex spatial patterns that emerged out of these under the influence of gravity. In the present paper, we describe a cellular automaton model of the Burgers’ equation, which can be investigated via a fast computer simulation. In the end, this suggests a Cellular Automata Adhesion Model of the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1774] **viXra:1709.0423 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-11 20:22:22*

**Authors:** HyunCheol Kim

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Feel free to mail me, if you are interested in my article.

The law of inertia has been treated as a fundamental assumption in classical physics. However in this article, I show that the law of inertia is completely possible to be derived, from the homogeneity of the spacetime, by using the time slice as a tool for dealing with the spacetime symmetries.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1773] **viXra:1709.0423 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-06 03:37:17*

**Authors:** HyunCheol Kim

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Feel free to mail me, if you are interested in my article.

The law of inertia has been treated as a fundamental assumption in classical physics. However in this article, I show that the law of inertia is completely possible to be derived, from the homogeneity of the spacetime, by using the time slice as a tool for dealing with the spacetime symmetries.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1772] **viXra:1709.0423 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-29 10:04:29*

**Authors:** HyunCheol Kim

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The law of inertia has been treated as a fundamental assumption in classical physics. However in this paper, I show that the law of inertia is completely possible to be derived, from the homogeneity of the spacetime.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1771] **viXra:1709.0415 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-06 05:41:44*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The origin of all Lorentz's ether theory and Einstein's relativity theory is the constant c in Maxwell's equations and the null result of ether drift experiments. In this paper, it will be shown that it is the phase velocity of light that is constant c independent of source and observer velocity. The group velocity of light behaves in a more conventional way: it is independent of source absolute velocity, but depends on observer absolute velocity. Relativity theory has already been disproved because absolute motion has been decisively detected by many experiments such as the Miller, the Marinov, the Silvertooth, the Roland De Witte and the CMBR experiments. The group velocity of light has also been shown experimentally to vary with observer velocity. The counterintuitive constancy of the phase velocity of light is something that should be just accepted as a law of nature. It is rooted in the reality that there is no medium of propagation for light waves. This paper also shows that the beautiful thought experiment of the equivalence principle turns out to be wrong. The equality of inertial mass and gravitational mass has its root in two of the longstanding mysteries in physics: what inertial mass is and what gravity is.Inertial mass and electrical self inductance are not only analogous, but are fundamentally the same phenomena. The velocity of a car cannot change instantaneously for the same reason that the current inside an inductor cannot change instantaneously. Just as the magnetic field of an inductor cannot change instantaneously, so does the magnetic field of the electrons, protons and neutrons of the car material. Gravity and electrostatic force are not only analogous, but are fundamentally the same phenomenon. Gravitational force is a slight difference between electrostatic attractive and repulsive forces. It follows that both inertial mass and gravitational mass depend on the same quantity: the total(not net ) amount of charge in an object.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1770] **viXra:1709.0415 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-29 04:41:05*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The Lorentz Transformation ( LT) equations were invented to make the speed of light constant ( invariant ) in reference frames moving with constant velocity relative to each other, which was implied by Maxwell's equations. This required the counterintuitive idea of relativity of length and time. The mainstream physics community just accepts this as the way nature works, while many reject it outright. Even more confusing is that the predictions of LT have been confirmed experimentally, such as the gamma factor, the electric field of moving charges and the universal light speed limit. On the other hand, absolute motion has also been decisively detected by many experiments such as the Miller, the Marinov, the Silvertooth, the Roland De Witte and the CMBR experiments. The speed of light has also been shown experimentally to vary with observer velocity. All these facts show that the true nature of motion and the speed of light is still a mystery. In this paper, errors in the theory of Special Relativity, the non-existence of equivalence principle of General Relativity theory, and solutions will be proposed. The source of all confusions surrounding the LT is as follows: it has been wrongly presumed that the postulate of the constancy of the speed of light applies both to the phase velocity and the group velocity. We propose that it is the phase velocity, not the group velocity, which is constant independently of source or observer absolute or relative velocity. The group velocity behaves in a more conventional way: it is independent of source absolute velocity but varies with observer absolute velocity. The relativity of length and time required to keep the phase velocity constant should be thought as an artifact and not real. LT should be applied only to predict the outcome of light speed experiments involving phase velocity such as the Doppler effect. The counterintuitive constancy of the phase velocity of light is something that should be just accepted as a law of nature. It is rooted in the reality that there is no medium of propagation for light waves. It is much better to just accept the constancy of the phase velocity of light without interpreting this to mean reality of relativity of length and time, and this view is supported by logic and experimental evidence. This paper also shows that the beautiful thought experiment of the equivalence principle turns out to be wrong. The equality of inertial mass and gravitational mass has its root in two of the longstanding mysteries in physics: what inertial mass is and what gravity is. Inertial mass and electrical self inductance are not only analogous, but are fundamentally the same phenomena. The velocity of a car cannot change instantaneously for the same reason that the current inside an inductor cannot change instantaneously. Just as the magnetic field of an inductor cannot change instantaneously, so does the magnetic field of the electrons, protons and neutrons of the car material. Gravity and electrostatic force are not only analogous, but are fundamentally the same phenomenon. Gravitational force is a slight difference between electrostatic attractive and repulsive forces. It follows that both inertial mass and gravitational mass depend on the same quantity: the total (not net ) amount of charge in an object.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1769] **viXra:1709.0395 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-01 03:43:14*

**Authors:** Arjun Dahal

**Comments:** 4 Pages. ©2017-2018 Journal of St. Xavier's Physics Council

This article provides a brief outline of Special Theory of Relativity. The physics before the relativity, the special relativity in itself, and the consequences of special relativity are discussed here.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1768] **viXra:1709.0395 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-28 03:15:35*

**Authors:** Arjun Dahal

**Comments:** 4 Pages. ©2017-2018 Journal of St. Xavier's Physics Council

This article provides a brief outline of Special Theory of Relativity. The physics before the
relativity, the special relativity in itself, and the consequences of special relativity are discussed
here.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1767] **viXra:1709.0317 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-16 10:29:00*

**Authors:** Edward G. Lake

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Made minor improvements.

While it appears to be a common practice today to refer to the “Theory of Relativity” as if it were the same as the “Principle of Relativity,” according to Albert Einstein, his “Theory of Relativity” is that the “Principle of Relativity” is an illusion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1766] **viXra:1709.0308 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-16 18:11:50*

**Authors:** Wei Xu

**Comments:** Pages.

The workings of *Universal Topology* unfolds a duality of our natural world at the following remarks:

- Dual complex manifolds and the reciprocal world planes beyond a single non-complex spacetime manifold;
- Two pairs of scalar potentials for field entanglements complementarily, reciprocally and interdependently;
- A mathematical framework of the dual variances to clone the event operations as an inevitable feature of reality;
- Two pairs of fluxions of continuity and commutations as a hierarchy foundation of
*Potential**Entanglements*; and *Commutation**Infrastructure*as an introductory to derive the empirical artifacts of*Lorentz*Generators,*Pauli*matrices,*Electromagnetic Field Structures*,*Inertial Commutation Curvature*, and*General Relativity*.

Upon this foundation, our *Universal Topology* is ready to give rise to the unified and universal field theory ...

[1765] **viXra:1709.0261 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-23 06:11:49*

**Authors:** Ziaedin Shafiei

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Version 2 - 23 Sep 2017

The theory of length contraction was initially proposed to uphold the existence of aether after the surprise null result from Michelson and Morley (M&M) experiment. The theory claimed that any physical object shrinks in the direction of its movement through aether. The theory is accepted by special relativity. It is, however, redefined as the shortening of any physical object in the direction of its movement relative to an observer.
This article shows that M&M experiment, in fact, does not support length contraction, and time dilation, as the theory was not based on all-inclusive analysis of the experiment. Subsequently, the constancy of the speed of light becomes uncorroborated by the experiment.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1764] **viXra:1709.0226 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-14 06:44:10*

**Authors:** Steven Kauffmann

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The space-time Galilean transformation is predicated on a salient theme of Galilean/Newtonian physics: relative motion at constant velocity has no physical consequences beyond the minimum which is required by that motion's existence. Therefore, since the electric field produced by a point charge at rest is spherically symmetric around the charge's location, and since a point charge at rest produces zero magnetic field, Galilean physics implies that a point charge moving at constant velocity produces an electric field which is spherically symmetric around that charge's instantaneous location and that it produces zero magnetic field. But the Biot-Savart-Maxwell Law has it that a point charge moving at nonzero constant velocity produces nonzero magnetic field, and Faraday's Law has it that this time-varying magnetic field, which has zero component along the line of the charge's motion, produces an electric field which isn't spherically symmetric around the charge's instantaneous location. Thus the space-time Galilean transformation is violated by electromagnetic phenomena in a definite way, and must be modified. The needed modification produces the space-time Lorentz transformation, which can straightforwardly be shown to never change the speed of electromagnetic radiation. The fate of the Galilean/Newtonian constant-velocity relative-motion paradigm was actually already sealed when it was observed that the presence of direct current in a wire deflects an adjacent compass needle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1763] **viXra:1709.0226 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-17 19:08:04*

**Authors:** Steven Kauffmann

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The space-time Galilean transformation is predicated on a salient theme of Galilean/Newtonian physics: relative motion at constant velocity has no physical consequences beyond the minimum which is required by that motion's existence. Therefore, since the electric field produced by a point charge at rest is spherically symmetric around the charge's location, and since a point charge at rest produces zero magnetic field, Galilean physics implies that a point charge moving at constant velocity produces an electric field which is spherically symmetric around that charge's instantaneous location and that it produces zero magnetic field. But the Biot-Savart-Maxwell Law has it that a point charge moving at nonzero constant velocity produces nonzero magnetic field, and Faraday's Law has it that this time-varying magnetic field, which has zero component along the line of the charge's motion, produces an electric field which isn't spherically symmetric around the charge's instantaneous location. Thus the space-time Galilean transformation is violated by electromagnetic phenomena in a definite way, and must be modified. The needed modification produces the space-time Lorentz transformation, which can straightforwardly be shown to never change the speed of electromagnetic radiation. The fate of the Galilean/Newtonian constant-velocity relative-motion paradigm was actually already sealed when it was observed that the presence of direct current in a wire deflects an adjacent compass needle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1762] **viXra:1709.0207 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-18 23:28:20*

**Authors:** Francois Leyvraz

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The author attempts to give a self-contained view of various paradoxes in the theory of relativity, and provides an extensive discussion of them in hopefully elementary terms.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1761] **viXra:1709.0071 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-11 18:58:03*

**Authors:** Abed Peerally

**Comments:** 36 Pages. MINOR CORRECTIIONS

Scientific and philosophical knowledge and concepts, about our universe, have reached a practically saturated bloated condition, where science and mathematics, on their own, cannot fully explain physical realities: the ultimate nature of quantum theory, Einstein’s relativity laws, and their integration into a Theory of Everything, unless we resort to new ideas and concepts of physical realities. There are important physics aspects which have varied interpretations like for instance mass, gravitation, particles and forces, the Higgs boson, symmetry, dimensions and others. A Theory of Everything of our universe, according to many physicists, might be the ultimate concept of physics, capable of elucidating all scientific and natural realities, but nature appears to be perpetually mysterious and elusive. A natural concept of the origin of our universe is simply speculative and unbelievable. This article explains that we require new physics, including multi-dimensional physics, as the only approach that can take us towards understanding aspects of Metaphysics, the higher science that potentially underpins quantum theory, relativity, consciousness and spacetime. This is an area where String Theory’s mathematics, but not their philosophy and science, could perhaps be applied in abstruse attempts to find new ways to unite spacetime and extra-dimensions. Why we have an existence, where we appear to be an impossibility in an impossible universe, seems to unconditionally require inputs from a higher-level quantum concept connected to metaphysics. This option is the only one capable to unravel the Theory of Everything, from which the integration of quantum theory with Einstein’s relativity and consciousness, has a strong potential to surface. These new physics are within our reach and are imperative to lead to the ultimate explanation of the universe, which will clearly show that there must have been a supernatural act of creation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1760] **viXra:1709.0071 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-08 20:04:12*

**Authors:** Abed Peerally

**Comments:** 35 Pages. REPLACEMENT DUE TO MINOR REVISION

This article precedes the author’s second book: Origin of Our Universe: Theory of Everything. The Final Answers to the Mystery of Existence. It proposes that science on its own, in its traditional nature, cannot explain the ultimate nature of physical realities, and therefore the ultimate nature of quantum reality, Einstein’s relativity laws, and the integration of relativity with quantum mechanics. In principle, a Theory of Everything of our universe, according to many physicists. ought to be a possible ultimate concept of physics, capable to explain all scientific and natural realities, but nature appears to be perpetually mysterious and elusive. However, in the finality of our existence, there should exist an ultimate scientific Theory of Everything capable of explaining our laws of nature and our realities, which requires integrating relativity and quantum theory, embodying a higher level multi-dimensional Metaphysics, that would underpin quantum theory, relativity and spacetime, as the author will lay out in his next book. This is an area where String Theory’s expertise in mathematics could be useful in attempts to unite spacetime and extra-dimensions. Metaphysics, integrated with our laws of nature, could provide the final arguments and interpretations that can tell us why we have an existence, where we appear to be an impossibility in an impossible universe. Therefore, the current status quo in terms of the elucidation of what existence in our universe entails, looks like an expectation that science and metaphysics could soon lead us to the goal of knowing why and how we are here in our extraordinary realities.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1759] **viXra:1709.0051 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-11 05:47:35*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this work, we discuss the possibility to investigate the cosmological evolution using a covariant Ricci flow, in particular spacetime manifolds with constant curvature. Even though we have focused on the evolution of large-scale structures, the results obtained can be applied equally to microscopic structures of quantum particles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1758] **viXra:1709.0033 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-06 06:56:10*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

A new equation is found in which the concept of matter-space-time is mathematically connected; gravitation and electromagnetism are also bound by space-time. A mechanism is described showing how velocity, time, distance, matter, and energy, are correlated. We are led to ascertain that gravity and electricity are two distinct manifestations of a single underlying process: electro-gravitation. The force of gravitation arises of electromagnetism – inherently much stronger – divided by the cosmological space-time. The radius of space-time belongs to the family of electromagnetic waves: the wavelength is the radius of the universe and the period is its cosmological age. For the first time, the cosmological time, considered as a real physical object, is integrated into a "cosmological equation" which makes coherent what we know regarding the time (its origin, its flow…), the matter, and space. It sets up a mathematical model allowing us to interpret dark energy (or cosmological constant) as being both "negative" and "tired" energy. In fact, it is an equation of quantum cosmology that operates the reconciliation between the macrocosm and the microcosm to draw up a coherent view of the behavior of matter through space and time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1757] **viXra:1709.0033 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-04 08:47:07*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

A new equation is found in which the concept of matter-space-time is mathematically connected; gravitation and electromagnetism are also bound by space-time. A mechanism is described showing how velocity, time, distance, matter, and energy, are correlated. We are led to ascertain that gravity and electricity are two distinct manifestations of a single underlying process: electro-gravitation. For the first time, the cosmological time, considered as a real physical object, is integrated into a "cosmological equation" which makes coherent what we know regarding the time (its origin, its flow…), the matter and space. It sets up a mathematical model allowing us to interpret dark energy (or cosmological constant) as being both "negative" and "tired" energy. In fact, it is an equation of quantum cosmology that operates the reconciliation between the macrocosm and the microcosm to draw up a coherent view of the behavior of matter through space and time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology