Thermodynamics and Energy

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[181] viXra:1706.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 01:16:46

Stored Electromagnetic Energy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

At EPFL, researchers challenge a fundamental law and discover that more electromagnetic energy can be stored in wave-guiding systems than previously thought. [25] The fact that light can also behave as a liquid, rippling and spiraling around obstacles like the current of a river, is a much more recent finding that is still a subject of active research. [24] An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behavior of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy. [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[180] viXra:1705.0462 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-29 12:01:22

A Note on Heat Multiplication Factor

Authors: Radhakrishnamurty Padyala
Comments: 5 Pages.

Kelvin, one of the founders of thermodynamics, proposed an economical, thermodynamic method to heat houses. The method employs a combination of two Carnot heat engines. One engine runs in clockwise direction while the other runs in counterclockwise direction. This combination is claimed to provide much more heat into the house for a given amount of fuel used, compared to that obtained through burning that fuel inside the house. The ratio of the two heats, one obtained by Kelvin’s method and the other obtained by the burning the fuel inside the house, is known as heat multiplication factor (HMF). This factor could theoretically be quite high (a typical calculation gives more than a factor of 6). We show in this note that Kelvin’s method is fallacious - it is impossible to get any more heat by using Kelvin’s method than the heat that could be obtained from combustion (burning) of the fuel.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[179] viXra:1705.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-28 03:15:32

A Scheme of the Second Type of Perpetual Motion Machine is Realized by Using Imbalance of Cationic and Anions

Authors: LI WeiGang
Comments: 3 Pages.

The molar ratio of sodium sulfate (Na2SO4), Na + cation and SO4- anion is 2 : 1.Thus, when the aqueous solution of sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) between the upper and lower semipermeables in the figure is placed in a vertical downward electrostatic field, Na + cation and SO4 - anion, respectively, to the bottom and above the concentration, Forming the bottom of the rich Na + cationic solution and the above-rich SO4- anion liquid, Up and down the balance of electricity but the molar concentration of ions is not balanced !
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[178] viXra:1705.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-16 13:56:59

Energy Dissipation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Energy dissipation is a key ingredient in understanding many physical phenomena in thermodynamics, photonics, chemical reactions, nuclear fission, photon emissions, or even electronic circuits, among others. [15] The likelihood of seeing quantum systems violating the second law of thermodynamics has been calculated by UCL scientists. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[177] viXra:1705.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-15 21:31:08

Cherish Renewable Aerial Water Vapor as it is a Huge Hidden Energy Resource

Authors: Yanming Wei
Comments: 13 pages, 3 figures. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.15595.75045

This paper emphasizes how great energy hidden in ubiquitous aerial water vapor and how spectacular and subtle in natural evaporation by visualizing tedious thermodynamic data in vivid macroscopic and microscopic scale with different gauges such as kj/kg, eV/molecule, photonic wavelength per single step of water molecular clusterization during condensation for energy density estimation, mm/day, nm/s for evaporation rate average calculation. Condensation is first time described as special invisible infrared combustion, and it is proved that it is theoretically possible to convert its latent heat to high grade thermal energy.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[176] viXra:1705.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-15 07:23:33

Nanoscale Machines

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Research from The University of Manchester has thrown new light on the use of miniaturised 'heat engines' that could one day help power nanoscale machines like quantum computers. [15] The likelihood of seeing quantum systems violating the second law of thermodynamics has been calculated by UCL scientists. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[175] viXra:1705.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-04 02:45:44

A Note on Irreversible Adiabatic Cyclic Process and Role of Time in Thermodynamics

Authors: Radhakrishnamurty Padyala
Comments: 5 Pages.

Irreversible adiabatic cyclic process of an ideal gas is an important thermodynamic process. It offers a method of analysis of second law without involving any heat interactions. We show in this note that the impossibility of an irreversible adiabatic cyclic process is equivalent to the assertion that time plays no role in thermodynamic predictions.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[174] viXra:1705.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-02 14:34:44

Shutter-Like Fluid Driven Motor and Tide Power Harvest System

Authors: Yanming Wei
Comments: 5 Pages. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.28522.72648

Why we have to be addictive to rotary turbine for tide or wind energy harvest? Perhaps we are not smart enough to find a new way. Now I propose a rectangular cross section turbine that works in reciprocation mode to harvest energy from any flowing fluid. In a sense, fluid flows in similar way of electric DC (Direct Current), but reciprocal motion of device’s ram behaves in similar way of AC (Alternating Current), thus a DC-AC mechanic inverter is needed. Of course, inverse utilization of same mechanism renders an AC-DC mechanic rectifier, i.e. an exotic pump.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[173] viXra:1704.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-26 07:55:13

Laser Cooling

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

A team of researchers at Harvard University has successfully cooled a three-atom molecule down to near absolute zero for the first time. [15] A research team led by UCLA electrical engineers has developed a new technique to control the polarization state of a laser that could lead to a new class of powerful, high-quality lasers for use in medical imaging, chemical sensing and detection, or fundamental science research. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[172] viXra:1704.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-18 23:39:41

Universal Topology W = P ± iV and Horizon of Dark Fluxions and Thermodynamics

Authors: C. Wei Xu
Comments: 7 pages, part II of Unified Physics (part I at http://vixra.org/abs/1704.0221)

Associated with the virtual or physical manifolds, the Universe Topology aggregates quantum objects and forms the second horizon as the group effects of the flow conservations both physically and virtually, called Dark Fluxions, a dynamics cosmology of energy flows. Inherent to its internal nature, the universe produces each of opposite dualities as a complex conjugate, the statistical representation of dark fluxions dynamically affiliated to bulk entropy, motion continuities, statistical works, and interactive fields, giving rise to the horizon of thermodynamics. As a result, this becomes a groundwork in quest for nature transformations delivered by the life energy of dark fluxions, or the dynamic flows of dark energy...
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[171] viXra:1704.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-14 14:03:45

Fermi Puzzle

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

In physics, the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-Tsingou (FPUT) problem—which found that certain nonlinear systems do not disperse their energy, but rather return to their initial excited states—has been a challenge that scientists have tackled repeatedly since 1955. [15] The likelihood of seeing quantum systems violating the second law of thermodynamics has been calculated by UCL scientists. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[170] viXra:1703.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-23 09:09:56

Cool to Absolute Zero

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

In 1912, chemist Walther Nernst proposed that cooling an object to absolute zero is impossible with a finite amount of time and resources. Today this idea, called the unattainability principle, is the most widely accepted version of the third law of thermodynamics—yet so far it has not been proved from first principles. [15] The likelihood of seeing quantum systems violating the second law of thermodynamics has been calculated by UCL scientists. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[169] viXra:1702.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-22 11:15:54

Information at Zero Energy Cost

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

A few years ago, physicists showed that it's possible to erase information without using any energy, in contrast to the assumption at the time that erasing information must require energy. [27] New research shows that a scanning-tunneling microscope (STM), used to study changes in the shape of a single molecule at the atomic scale, impacts the ability of that molecule to make these changes. [26] Physicists are getting a little bit closer to answering one of the oldest and most basic questions of quantum theory: does the quantum state represent reality or just our knowledge of reality? [25] A team of researchers led by LMU physics professor Immanuel Bloch has experimentally realized an exotic quantum system which is robust to mixing by periodic forces. [24] A group of scientists led by Johannes Fink from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) reported the first experimental observation of a first-order phase transition in a dissipative quantum system. [23] ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules. [20] Until quite recently, creating a hologram of a single photon was believed to be impossible due to fundamental laws of physics. However, scientists at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, have successfully applied concepts of classical holography to the world of quantum phenomena. A new measurement technique has enabled them to register the first-ever hologram of a single light particle, thereby shedding new light on the foundations of quantum mechanics. [19]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[168] viXra:1702.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-07 13:25:27

The Dangers of Adopting Results from One Discipline in Another

Authors: Jeremy Dunning-Davies
Comments: 4 Pages. Although being listed under 'Thermodynamics and Energy', this refers by implication to all areas of science.

Quite often in the sciences, results from one area are used in other quite different scenarios. However, it is crucial in these cases to ensure beyond all doubt that any assumptions made in deriving the initial result are fulfilled in all subsequent applications. It is the purpose of this note to draw attention to this highly important, but often neglected, point.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[167] viXra:1702.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-04 09:53:16

Concept of Entropy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Entropy, the measure of disorder in a physical system, is something that physicists understand well when systems are at equilibrium, meaning there's no external force throwing things out of kilter. But new research by Brown University physicists takes the idea of entropy out of its equilibrium comfort zone. [11] Could scientists use the Second Law of Thermodynamics on your chewing muscles to work out when you are going to die? According to research published in the International Journal of Exergy, the level of entropy, or thermodynamic disorder, in the chewing muscles in your jaw increases with each mouthful. This entropy begins to accumulate from the moment you're "on solids" until your last meal, but measuring it at any given point in your life could be used to estimate life expectancy. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[166] viXra:1701.0569 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-22 07:52:29

A Cautionary Note on the Second Law of Thermodynamics

Authors: Jeremy Dunning-Davies
Comments: 4 Pages.

Entropy and its physical meaning have been a problem in physics almost since the concept was introduced. Here questions are raised over the correctness of the idea that the Second Law of Thermodynamics may be expressed simply as 'the entropy never decreases'.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[165] viXra:1701.0531 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-17 17:36:56

Comparative Studies of Law of Conservation of Energy and Law Clusters of Conservation of Generalized Energy—No.3 of Comparative Physics Series Papers

Authors: Fu Yuhua
Comments: 6 Pages.

As No.3 of comparative physics series papers, this paper mainly discusses the comparative studies between the original law of conservation of energy and the Computer Information Library Clusters; and based on the multiform laws of conservation of energy, the concept of "law clusters of conservation of generalized energy" is presented. In which, any physical quantity can be regarded as "generalized energy", and any physical formula and equation can be transformed into law of conservation, therefore all the physical laws as well as formulas and equations can be classified as "physical law clusters of conservation of generalized energy" (sometimes it can be simplified to "law clusters of conservation of generalized energy"). While in law clusters of conservation of generalized energy, there are some source laws. According to the source law, some related laws as well as formulas and equations can be derived, for example, law of gravity and Newton's second law can be derived with law of conservation of energy; thus "law clusters of conservation of generalized energy" can be simplified to "law clusters of physical source law". As the number of source laws in the law clusters is reduced to some degree, all the laws of physics are able to be written on a T-shirt with the form of "the simplest law clusters of physical source law". In order to deal with the practical problems, "variational principle of the simplest law clusters of physical source law" can be eatablished.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[164] viXra:1701.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-08 03:54:31

Proposal to Test the Validity of the Second Law of Thermodynamics

Authors: Radhakrishnamurty Padyala
Comments: 6 Pages.

The concept of ‘thermal heating efficiency’, G, considered as a duel of Carnot efficiency, offers a suitable method to test the validity of second law of thermodynamics. This concept claims to offer us many practical (therefore, experimentally testable) advantages, specifically, economy in heating houses, cooking, besides others. For example, if one unit of fuel when burnt inside the house gives Q joules of heat, the thermodynamic method based on this concept offers as much as 10 Q joules for the same one unit of fuel, giving a 10 fold economy in heating houses. We show in this article that the economy claimed is a myth and we can get no more heat into the house using this method than that we get by burning the fuel inside the house. We propose, the concept of thermal heating efficiency as a suitable method to test the validity of the second law of thermodynamics.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[163] viXra:1701.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-06 14:50:00

Estudo do Sistema Pelamis Para Captação de Energia Maremotriz

Authors: A. Gobato, D. F. G. Fedrigo, R. Gobato
Comments: 1 Page. Panel presented at the XIX Physics Week, at the State University of Londrina, from September 15 to 19, 2014.

Many sources of energy have been researched for their proper capture, where some stand out for their ease of obtaining, others for low cost and others for being renewable. Here we study a source of energy - the sea wave, whose capture is still under development. This energy comes from the sea waves and is 100% renewable, and the treatment system here is the Pelamis System. Over the years the energy has become vital for the human being, allowing us comfort, leisure, mobility among other factors. The search for cheap and renewable energy sources has grown significantly in recent years, mainly to a diminishing effect that has degraded nature, enabling scientists and engineers to search for new technologies. Some countries where there are not many forms of energy capture, such as sources of alternative sources such as wind, solar, thermoelectric, marine energy and many others. Among the methods of energy capture mentioned above, a project created by Chinese in 1988, with the intention of being an infinite and totally clean energy source that caught our attention. It is a system that is not generated by the movement of the waves, this project is called Pelamis.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[162] viXra:1701.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-05 02:23:17

Energy Efficiency and Entropy

Authors: Binyamin Tsadik
Comments: 1 Page.

This paper represents an intuitive approach to understanding Entropy. We can thus associate entropy for all forms of energy based on a known form. Boltzmann's Equation will allow us to determine chemical entropy for chemical energy and based on this we can determine the entropy for all forms of energy.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[161] viXra:1701.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-05 04:09:40

Is Production of Energy "For Free" Feasible in a PhR Perspective?

Authors: W.Berckmans
Comments: 20 Pages.

The Physical Reality (PhR) model recently presented in viXra.org/abs/16040230 is the outcome of an alternative approach to studying cosmic behavior. It implicitly extends the principle of energy conservation to the whole cosmos since its creation out of nihil. This article concludes that under such scenario an attempt to produce energy "for free" (e.g. by cold fusion) would not be doomed to fail.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[160] viXra:1612.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-10 07:49:40

Energy from Human Motion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Michigan State University engineering researchers have created a new way to harvest energy from human motion, using a film-like device that actually can be folded to create more power. [14] Paint these days is becoming much more than it used to be. Already researchers have developed photovoltaic paint, which can be used to make "paint-on solar cells" that capture the sun's energy and turn it into electricity. Now in a new study, researchers have created thermoelectric paint, which captures the waste heat from hot painted surfaces and converts it into electrical energy. [13] Scientists at Aalto University, Finland, have made a breakthrough in physics. They succeeded in transporting heat maximally effectively ten thousand times further than ever before. The discovery may lead to a giant leap in the development of quantum computers. [12] Maxwell's demon, a hypothetical being that appears to violate the second law of thermodynamics, has been widely studied since it was first proposed in 1867 by James Clerk Maxwell. But most of these studies have been theoretical, with only a handful of experiments having actually realized Maxwell's demon. [11] In 1876, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann noticed something surprising about his equations that describe the flow of heat in a gas. Usually, the colliding gas particles eventually reach a state of thermal equilibrium, the point at which no net flow of heat energy occurs. But Boltzmann realized that his equations also predict that, when gases are confined in a specific way, they should remain in persistent non-equilibrium, meaning a small amount of heat is always flowing within the system. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[159] viXra:1611.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-22 07:15:41

Converting Heat into Electricity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Paint these days is becoming much more than it used to be. Already researchers have developed photovoltaic paint, which can be used to make "paint-on solar cells" that capture the sun's energy and turn it into electricity. Now in a new study, researchers have created thermoelectric paint, which captures the waste heat from hot painted surfaces and converts it into electrical energy. [13] Scientists at Aalto University, Finland, have made a breakthrough in physics. They succeeded in transporting heat maximally effectively ten thousand times further than ever before. The discovery may lead to a giant leap in the development of quantum computers. [12] Maxwell's demon, a hypothetical being that appears to violate the second law of thermodynamics, has been widely studied since it was first proposed in 1867 by James Clerk Maxwell. But most of these studies have been theoretical, with only a handful of experiments having actually realized Maxwell's demon. [11] In 1876, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann noticed something surprising about his equations that describe the flow of heat in a gas. Usually, the colliding gas particles eventually reach a state of thermal equilibrium, the point at which no net flow of heat energy occurs. But Boltzmann realized that his equations also predict that, when gases are confined in a specific way, they should remain in persistent non-equilibrium, meaning a small amount of heat is always flowing within the system. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[158] viXra:1611.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-20 09:05:30

New Way Heat Travels Between Molecules

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

A new model, developed by University of Pennsylvania chemists, could be the first step towards better harnessing heat energy to power nanoscale devices. [13] Scientists at Aalto University, Finland, have made a breakthrough in physics. They succeeded in transporting heat maximally effectively ten thousand times further than ever before. The discovery may lead to a giant leap in the development of quantum computers. [12] Maxwell's demon, a hypothetical being that appears to violate the second law of thermodynamics, has been widely studied since it was first proposed in 1867 by James Clerk Maxwell. But most of these studies have been theoretical, with only a handful of experiments having actually realized Maxwell's demon. [11] In 1876, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann noticed something surprising about his equations that describe the flow of heat in a gas. Usually, the colliding gas particles eventually reach a state of thermal equilibrium, the point at which no net flow of heat energy occurs. But Boltzmann realized that his equations also predict that, when gases are confined in a specific way, they should remain in persistent non-equilibrium, meaning a small amount of heat is always flowing within the system. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[157] viXra:1611.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-11 09:15:47

Some Novel Features of the Classical Electromagnetic Theory and Their Possible Impact to Understand and Enhance Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (Lenr)

Authors: Victor Christianto, Yunita Umniyati, Volodymyr Krasnoholovets
Comments: 7 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to any journal yet.

In this paper we will discuss how we can study some effects associated with LENR from the principles of classical electromagnetic theory. We are aware that this approach has its own risks, because many mainstream physicists consider nuclear fusion should be associated with tunneling through Coulomb barrier, which is a pure quantum effect.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[156] viXra:1611.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-01 13:15:02

The Condensing Stirling Cycle Heat Engine

Authors: Matthew Marko
Comments: 18 Pages, English,

The Stirling thermodynamic heat engine cycle is modified, where instead of an ideal gas, a real, monatomic working fluid is used, with the engine designed so that the isothermal compression starts off as a saturated gas, and ends as a mixed-phase fluid. This cycle takes advantage of the attractive intermolecular Van der Waals forces of the working fluid to assist in compressing the working fluid partially into a liquid, reducing the input compression work and increasing the overall heat engine efficiency to exceed that of the Carnot efficiency.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[155] viXra:1610.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-25 10:24:00

Quantum Second Law of Thermodynamics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

The likelihood of seeing quantum systems violating the second law of thermodynamics has been calculated by UCL scientists. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[154] viXra:1610.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-20 12:47:59

Quantum Maxwell's Demon

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[153] viXra:1610.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-18 06:56:46

Spin Singlet Exciton

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[152] viXra:1610.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 03:47:33

Further Thoughts on Thermodynamics

Authors: Jeremy Dunning-Davies
Comments: 8 Pages.

Recently, attention has been drawn to a number of pieces written concerning classical thermodynamics in a biological setting. Several ideas have been put forward which are unusual for orthodox classical thermodynamics but, as they are supported by experiment, seem to offer suggestions for expanding the scope of that subject and even possibly helping make some aspects more amenable to students. The idea of introducing time into considerations is one such major notion which appears to lead to a new meaning of 'slow' processes in a classical thermodynamic setting and should be examined further because of the possible ramifications for the subject as a whole.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[151] viXra:1610.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-05 04:41:23

Heat Engines of Extraordinary Efficiency and the General Principle of Their Operation

Authors: Remi Cornwall
Comments: 14 Pages. Another form of the conference paper

The need for better heat engines for our civilisation is obvious. The intention of this paper is to elucidate new types of heat engines with extraordinary efficiency, more specifically to eventually focus on the author’s research into a temporary magnetic remanence device. First we extend the definition of heat engines through a diagrammatic classification scheme and note a paradoxical non-coincidence between the Carnot, Kelvin-Planck and other forms of the 2nd Law, between sectors of the diagram. It is then seen, between the diagram sectors, how super-efficient heat engines are able to reduce the degrees of freedom resulting from change in chemical potential, over mere generation of heat; until in the right sector of the diagram, the conventional wisdom for the need of two reservoirs is refuted. A brief survey of the Maxwell Demon problem finds no problem with information theoretic constructs. Our ongoing experimental enquiry into a temporary magnetic remanence cycle using standard kinetic theory, thermodynamics and electrodynamics is presented – yet a contradiction results with the 2nd law placing it in the right sector of the classification diagram. Finally a discussion shows that there isn’t a problem with microscopically time symmetric laws and macroscopic irreversibility and that “Time’s Arrow” is really to be found in loss of information in the system state vector.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[150] viXra:1610.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-04 04:27:17

Entropy, or Entropies, in Physics?

Authors: Jeremy Dunning-Davies
Comments: 13 Pages.

Entropy and its physical meaning have been a problem in physics almost since the concept was introduced. The problem is exacerbated by its use in both statistical thermodynamics and information theory. Here its place in classical thermodynamics, where it was introduced originally, and in these other two areas will be examined and hopefully some light will be cast on the present position.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[149] viXra:1609.0419 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-29 05:28:28

Thought Intervention Through Biofield Changing Metal Powder Characteristics Experiments on Powder Characterisation at a PM Plant

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 2 Pages.

In earlier papers the effect of Mr. Trivedi’s thought intervention through biofield in his physical presence on the atomic, crystalline and particle characteristics of first series of transition metal powders, group four metals and carbon allotropes are discussed. In the present paper we demonstrate this unusual effect on sieve size distribution, apparent density and flow of several metal powders under PM plant conditions.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[148] viXra:1609.0414 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-29 02:22:28

A Transcendental Approach to Changing Metal Powder Characteristics

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 8 Pages.

It's not often that Metal Powder Report departs from the path of hard facts into the somewhat ‘mushier’ area of metaphysics, but opportunities crop up. While recognising that science has its fair share of charlatans, one such opportunity was presented by a paper submitted by an Indian researcher in which he details work aimed at probing the effects on powder samples where changes were apparently generated by thought. Some will laugh, others will cry, but perhaps among our readers there are those who might be able to help elucidate further the phenomena described…
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[147] viXra:1609.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-26 04:30:36

Effect of Biofield Energy Treatment on Physical and Structural Properties of Calcium Carbide and Praseodymium Oxide

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Calcium carbide (CaC2) is known for its wide applications in the production of acetylene and calcium cyanamide, whereas praseodymium Oxide (Pr6O11) is used in sensors and high-temperature pigments. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the physical and structural properties of CaC2 and Pr6O11 powder. The powder samples of both compounds were equally divided into two parts, referred as control and treated. The treated part of both compounds was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. After that, both control and treated samples were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The XRD data revealed that the biofield energy treatment has increased the lattice parameter of unit cell by 3.35% in the treated CaC2 sample as compared to the control. The density of treated CaC2 sample was reduced upto 4.49% and molecular weight was increased upto 4.70% as compared to the control. The crystallite size of CaC2 was reduced from 98.19 nm (control) to 52.93 nm in the treated CaC2 sample as compared to the control. The FT-IR analysis exhibited that the absorption band attributed to C=C stretching vibration was shifted to higher wavenumber as compared to the control. Thus, above data suggested that biofield energy treatment has considerable impact on the physical and structural properties of CaC2. Besides, in Pr6O11, the XRD did not show any significant change in lattice parameter, density and molecular weight. However, the FT-IR spectra revealed that the absorption band attributing to Pr-O stretching vibration was shifted from 593 cm-1 (control) to higher wavenumber 598 cm-1 in the treated Pr6O11 sample. Therefore, the biofield energy treatment could be applied to modify the CaC2 and Pr6O11 powder for the use in chemical industries.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[146] viXra:1609.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-21 13:19:05

Development of User-Friendly Software to Design Dairy Heat Exchanger and Performance Evaluation

Authors: Dipankar Mandal
Comments: 7 Pages. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications ISSN : 2248-9622,Vol. 5, Issue 2,2015, pp.111-117

The paper proposes a calculation algorithm and development of a software in Visual Basic(Visual Studio 2012 Express Desktop) used in heat transfer studies when different heat exchangers are involved (e.g. Helical Type Triple Tube Heat Exchanger , Plate Type Heat Exchanger).It includes the easy calculation of heat transfer coefficient and followed by the design and simulation of heat exchanger design parameter by inputting general known parameters of a heat exchanger into the developed software—DAIRY-HE. A parametric study is conducted using the software interface to determine the length of tubes or dimensions of heat exchanger.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[145] viXra:1609.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-21 12:24:50

Development of a Multipurpose Cold Storage Design Software MCS_BCKV V.1.14.1

Authors: Dipankar mandal
Comments: 15 Pages. International Journal of Engineering Science & Advanced Technology ISSN: 2250-3676. Volume-4, Issue-6, 519-535

The paper proposes development of an interactive, flexible and user friendly software for designing a multipurpose cold storage in Visual Studio Express Desktop2012 environment and evaluation. The developed software-MCS_BCKV has a criterion for typical load estimation and designing of cold storage, selection of evaporator, compressor and condenser in developing country. Load estimating and designing through computer automation is likely to make a positive impact in the dynamic nature of cold storage applications.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[144] viXra:1609.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-20 00:07:49

Impact of Biofield Treatment on Growth and Anatomical Characteristics of Pogostemoncablin (Benth.)

Authors: Gopal Nayak, Trivedi Science
Comments: 9 Pages.

Pogostemoncablin is a known aromatic plant which is cultivated for its essential oil widely applicated in perfumery and cosmetic industries. In the present study, the effect of biofield treatment was studied on the growth of P. cablin. For this study an in-vitro culture system was set up in two groups, viz., control and treatment, each of which was derived from three different explant sources, namely leaf, node and petiole. Further these in-vitro plantlets were hardened and transferred to external environment. The stomatal cells and epidermal hair growth were also studied at various morphogenetic stages. The study revealed that a single spell of biofield energy treatment produced significant increase in growth in treated group throughout all the morphogenetic phases from in-vitro to in vivo level. A remarkable increase in stomatal cells and epidermal hair was also seen in treated group.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[143] viXra:1609.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-19 01:08:12

Effect of Biofield Treatment on the Physical and Thermal Characteristics of Vanadium Pentoxide Powders

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 4 Pages.

In the present investigation V2O5 powders are exposed to biofield. Both the exposed and unexposed powders are later characterized by various techniques. The average particle size is found to decrease with increase in number of days after treatment upto a maximum of 15.9% in 110 days indicating severe fracture at agglomerate/crystallite boundaries. The BET surface area showed a surprising decrease (it should increase as particle size is decreased) of 7.22% in 109 days indicating the surface densification/removal of sharp surface corners/formation of large particles. SEM photographs indeed showed that samples exposed to biofield after 20 days showed increase in size as well as rounded corners. Thermal analysis indicated an increase in melting temperature by 9.9% in samples treated after 57 days along with a much reduced change in weight.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[142] viXra:1609.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-19 01:10:09

Atomic, Crystalline and Powder Characteristics of Treated Zirconia and Silica Powders

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 6 Pages.

In the present investigation Zirconium oxide and silicon dioxide powders are exposed to Bio-field. Both the exposed and unexposed powders are later characterized by various techniques. The treated powders when characterized by X-ray diffraction are found to exhibit significant increase and decrease in the lattice parameters of the unit cell, crystallite size and density. The lattice parameters are then used to compute the molecular weight and total number of protons and neutrons in the molecule, which showed an increase up to 0.24 and decrease up to 0.31 percent. It is speculated that the Biofield energy transmitted by Mr. Trivedi is acting on the nucleus in the atoms through some reversible weak interaction of larger cross section causing changes in the proton to neutron ratios and thus energy to mass and mass to energy. Thus the effect is felt by all the atoms, and hence the unit cell, single crystal grain and grain boundaries. The stresses generated in turn may have caused deformation and fracture of the weak interfaces in the polycrystalline powders such as the crystallite and grain boundaries.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[141] viXra:1609.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-19 01:04:55

Effect of Bio Field Treatment on the Physical and Thermal Characteristics of Silicon, Tin and Lead Powders

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 7 Pages.

In the present investigation silicon, tin and lead powders are exposed to bio field. Both the exposed and unexposed powders are later characterized by various techniques. The average particle size, after an initial decrease is found to increase with increase in number of days after treatment although the size is lee than that exhibited by untreated powder, suggesting the operation of competing mechanisms fracture and sintering. The BET surface area increased slightly in silicon powder but did not change in tin and lead powders. SEM photographs showed that samples exposed to bio field after 20 days showed fracture paths and fractures at inter and intra particle boundaries in treated powders. Thermal analysis indicated a decrease in heat of reaction and decrease in mass in treated samples.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[140] viXra:1609.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-17 05:12:00

Effect of Superconsciousness External Energy on Atomic, Crystalline and Powder Characteristics of Carbon Allotrope Powders

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 9 Pages. 9

Scientists are searching for eluding link between spirituality and science. Some believe fundamental essences of universe to be energy and information. As per current understanding, energy and matter always coexisted and is considered one and the same. Energy is considered as 'matter in perpetual motion' and matter as 'stationary energy'. Interconversion between matter and energy has been defined by Einstein's famous energy–mass equation (E=mc2) which has been proven by nuclear physicists using complex nuclear reactions involving high energy particles. However, many spiritual masters have claimed to realise this energy–matter interconversion using their spiritual powers/energy but scientifically unknown and unverified. It is the first time that the lead author (M. K. Trivedi) has been using his unique superconsciousness energy in the form of thought intervention and information signals to bring about dramatic and radical transformations in the physical and structural properties of organic and inorganic materials. The present paper is the first scientific report that deals with the effect of consciousness energy which M. K. Trivedi uniquely communicates through thought intervention by sending an information signal that transforms carbon allotropes. The changes the energy has caused at the atomic, molecular and crystalline levels in diamond, graphite and activated charcoal have been studied very systematically and are reported in this paper. It has been observed that the superconsciousness energy when transmitted to carbon allotropes has changed the lattice parameters of unit cells, crystallite sizes and densities. Computed weight and effective nuclear charge of the treated atoms exhibited significant variation. It is believed that the energy is acting on the nuclei causing their transmutation.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[139] viXra:1609.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-15 04:45:40

Impact of Biofield Treatment on Growth and Yield of Lettuce and Tomato

Authors: Trivedi Foundation
Comments: 6 Pages.

Recent studies report the effect of biofield treatment on changes in structural characteristics of organic and inorganic matter, on cancer cells in vitro and on overall plant development. This study tested the impact of the same treatment applied to lettuce and tomato seeds and transplants (Lactuca sativa var. capitata and Lycopersiconesculentum var. Roma) in commercial plantings with and without fertilizers and pesticides, in relation to yield, quality, and pest inhibition. Treated lettuce plants with fertilizer and pesticide applications were more vigorous, exhibited less incidence of soil-borne fungal wilt, and subsequent yield was statistically greater 43% compared to untreated plants. Treated plants with no fertilizer or pesticide applications in the field behaved similarly to untreated plants that received routine fertilizer and pest control inputs. Similarly, fertilizer applied and fertilizer non-applied treated tomato plants exhibited a 25% and 31% increase in total observable yields respectively. Treated tomato and lettuce plants also measured higher in total leaf tissue chlorophyll content. The combination of biofield treatment along with administration of chemical additives demonstrated the best results with statistically increased yields and higher pest resistance in both test cropping systems. The specific mechanisms that lead to these preliminary results have yet to be determined.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[138] viXra:1609.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-12 00:12:56

Influence of Biofield Energy Treatment on Isotopic Abundance Ratio in Aniline Derivatives

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance of 13C/12C or 2H/1H or 15N/14N ≡ (PM+1)/PM in aniline; and (PM+1)/PM and 81Br/79Br ≡ (PM+2)/PM in 4-bromoaniline using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Aniline and 4-bromoaniline samples were divided into two parts: control and treated. The control part remained as untreated, while the treated part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The treated samples were subdivided in three parts named as T1, T2, and T3 for aniline and four parts named as T1, T2, T3, and T4 for 4-bromoaniline. The GC-MS data revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM in aniline was increased from -40.82%, 30.17% and 73.12% in T1, T2 and T3 samples respectively. However in treated samples of 4-bromoaniline the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM was increased exponentially from -4.36 % (T1) to 368.3% (T4) as compared to the control. A slight decreasing trend of the isotopic ratio of (PM+2)/ PM in 4-bromoaniline was observed after biofield energy treatment. The GC-MS data suggests that the biofield energy treatment has significantly increased the isotopic abundance of 2H, 13C and 15N in the treated aniline and 4-bromoaniline, while slight decreased the isotopic abundance of 81Br in treated 4-bromoaniline as compared to their respective control.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[137] viXra:1609.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-10 04:12:36

Evaluation of Isotopic Abundance Ratio in Naphthalene Derivatives After Biofield Energy Treatment Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Naphthalene and 2-naphthol are two naphthalene derivatives, which play important roles in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance of 13C/12C or 2H/1H and 18O/16O in naphthalene and 2-naphthol using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). Naphthalene and 2-naphthol samples were divided into two parts: control and treated. The control group remained as untreated, while the treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The treated samples were subdivided into four parts named as T1, T2, T3 and T4. Control and treated samples were characterized using GC-MS. The GC-MS data revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of 13C/12C or 2H/1H, (PM+1)/PM and 18O/16O, (PM+2)/PM were increased significantly in treated naphthalene and 2-naphthol (where PM-primary molecule, (PM+1) isotopic molecule either for 13C or 2H and (PM+2) is the isotopic molecule for 18O). The isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM in the treated T2 samples of naphthalene and 2-naphthol was increased up to 129.40% and 165.40%, respectively as compared to their respective control. However, the isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM in the treated T1, T3 and T4 samples of naphthalene was decreased by 44.41%, 33.49% and 30.3%, respectively as compared to their respective control. While in case of 2- naphthol, the isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM was decreased by 39.57% in T1 sample and then gradually increased up to 9.85% from T3 to T4 samples. The isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+2)/PM in treated T2 sample of 2-naphthol was increased up to 163.24%, whereas this value was decreased by 39.57% in treated T1 sample. The GC-MS data suggest that the biofield energy treatment has significantly altered the isotopic abundance of 2H, 13C in naphthalene and 2H, 13C and 18O in 2- naphthol as compared to the control.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[136] viXra:1609.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-09 22:00:50

Search for Physical Origin of Intelligence

Authors: Michail Zak
Comments: 29 Pages.

The challenge of this work is to connect physics with the concept of intelligence. By intelligence we understand a capability to move from disorder to order without external resources, i.e. in violation of the second law of thermodynamics. The objective is to find such a mathematical object described by ODE that possesses such a capability. The proposed approach is based upon modification of the Madelung version of the Schrodinger equation by replacing the force following from quantum potential with non-conservative forces that link to the concept of information. A mathematical formalism suggests that a hypothetical intelligent particle, besides the capability to move against the second law of thermodynamics, acquires such properties like self-image, self-awareness, self- supervision, etc. that are typical for Livings. However since this particle being a quantum-classical hybrid acquires non-Newtonian and non-quantum properties, it does not belong to the physics matter as we know it: the modern physics should be complemented with the concept of the information force that represents a bridge to intelligent particle. As a follow-up of the proposed concept, the following question is addressed: can artificial intelligence (AI) system composed only of physical components compete with a human? The answer is proven to be negative if the AI system is based only on simulations, and positive if digital devices are included. It has been demonstrated that there exists such a quantum neural net that performs simulations combined with digital punctuations. The universality of this quantum-classical hybrid is in capability to violate the second law of thermodynamics by moving from disorder to order without external resources. This advanced capability is illustrated by examples. In conclusion, a mathematical machinery of the perception that is the fundamental part of a cognition process as well as intelligence is introduced and discussed. The discovery of isolated dynamical systems that can decrease entropy in violation of the second law of thermodynamics, and resemblances of these systems to livings implies that Life can slow down heat death of the Universe, and that can be associated with the purpose of Life.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[135] viXra:1609.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-08 23:41:48

Characterization of Physicochemical and Thermal Properties of Biofield Treated Ethyl Cellulose and Methyl Cellulose

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 9 Pages.

Cellulose and its derivatives are used as potential matrices for biomaterials and tissue engineering applications. The objective of present research was to investigate the influence of biofield treatment on physical, chemical and thermal properties of ethyl cellulose (EC) and methyl cellulose (MC). The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treated group. The biofield treated polymers are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), CHNSO analysis, X-ray diffraction study (XRD), Differential Scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). FT-IR analysis of treated EC showed downward shifting in C-O-C stretching peak from 1091→1066 cm-1 with respect to control. However, the treated MC showed upward shifting of –OH stretching (3413→3475) and downward shifting in C-O stretching (1647→1635 cm-1) vibrations with respect to control MC. CHNSO analysis showed substantial increase in percent hydrogen and oxygen in treated polymers with respect to control. XRD diffractogram of EC and MC affirmed the typical semi-crystalline nature. The crystallite size was substantially increased by 20.54% in treated EC with respect to control. However, the treated MC showed decrease in crystallite by 61.59% with respect to control. DSC analysis of treated EC showed minimal changes in crystallization temperature with respect to control sample. However, the treated and control MC did not show any crystallization temperature in the samples. TGA analysis of treated EC showed increase in thermal stability with respect to control. However, the TGA thermogram of treated MC showed reduction in thermal stability as compared to control. Overall, the result showed substantial alteration in physical, chemical and thermal properties of treated EC and MC.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[134] viXra:1609.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-08 12:18:33

Statistical Characterization of Heat Release Rates from Electrical Enclosure Fires for Nuclear Power Plant Applications

Authors: Raymond H.V. Gallucci, Brian Metzger
Comments: 19 Pages.

Since the publication of NUREG/CR-6850 / EPRI 1011989 in 2005, the US nuclear industry has sought to re-evaluate the default peak heat release rates (HRRs) for electrical enclosure fires typically used as fire modeling inputs to support fire probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), considering them too conservative. HRRs are an integral part of the fire phenomenological modeling phase of a fire PRA, which consists of identifying fire scenarios which can damage equipment or hinder human actions necessary to prevent core damage. Fire ignition frequency, fire growth and propagation, fire detection and suppression, and mitigating equipment and actions to prevent core damage in the event fire damage still occurred are all parts of a fire PRA. The fire growth and propagation phase incorporates fire phenomenological modeling where HRRs are key. An effort by the Electric Power Research Institute and Science Applications International Corporation in 2012 was not endorsed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for use in risk-informed, regulatory applications. Subsequently the NRC, with the National Institute of Standards and Technology, conducted a series of tests for representative nuclear power plant electrical enclosure fires to definitively establish more realistic peak HRRs for these often important contributors to fire risk. The results are statistically analyzed to develop two probabilistic distributions for peak HRR per unit mass of fuel that refine the values from NUREG/CR-6850, thereby providing a fairly simple means to estimate peak HRRs from electrical enclosure fires for fire modeling in support of fire PRA. Unlike NUREG/CR-6850, where five different distributions are provided, or NUREG-2178, which now provides 31, the peak HRRs for electrical enclosure fires can be characterized by only two distributions. These distributions depend only on the type of cable, namely qualified vs. unqualified, for which the mean peak HRR per unit mass is 11.9 and 22.3 kW/kg, respectively, essentially a factor of two difference. Two-sided, 90th percentile confidence bounds are 0.096 to 43.2 kW/kg for qualified cables, and 0.015 to 94.9 kW/kg for unqualified cables. From the mean (~70th percentile) upward, the peak HRR/kg for unqualified cables is roughly twice that that for qualified, increasing slightly with higher percentile, an expected phenomenological trend. Simulations using variable fuel loadings demonstrate how the results from this analysis may be used for nuclear power plant applications.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[133] viXra:1609.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-08 04:41:56

Characterization of Thermal and Physical Properties of Biofield Treated Acrylamide and 2-Chloroacetamide

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Acrylamide (AM) and 2-chloroacetamide (CA) are widely used in diverse applications such as biomedical, drug delivery, waste water treatment, and heavy metal ion removal. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of biofield treatment on physical and thermal properties of amide group containing compounds (AM and CA). The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treated group. The control and treated compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and surface area analysis. XRD of treated AM showed decrease in intensity of peaks as compared to control sample. However, the treated AM showed increase in volume of unit cell (0.16%) and molecular weight (0.16%) as compared to control. The crystallite size was decreased by 33.34% in treated AM as compared to control Whereas, the XRD diffractogram of treated CA showed increase in intensity of crystalline peaks as compared to control. The percentage volume of unit cell (-1.92%) and molecular weight (-1.92%) of treated CA were decreased as compared to control. However, significant increase in crystallite size (129.79%) was observed in treated CA as compared to control. DSC of treated AM showed increase in melting temperature as compared to control sample. Similarly, the treated CA also showed increase in melting temperature with respect to control. Latent heat of fusion (ΔH) was significantly changed in treated AM and CA as compared to control samples. TGA showed increase in thermal stability of treated AM and CA which was evidenced by increase in thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) as compared to control. Surface area analysis of treated AM showed increase (31.6%) in surface area as compared to control. However, a decrease (30.9%) in surface area was noticed in treated CA as compared to control. Study results suggest that biofield treatment has significant impact on the physical and thermal properties of AM and CA.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[132] viXra:1609.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-07 07:14:57

Evaluation of Plant Growth, Yield and Yield Attributes of Biofield Energy Treated Mustard (Brassica Juncea) and Chick Pea (Cicer Arietinum) Seeds

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on mustard (Brassica juncea) and chick pea (Cicer arietinum) for their growth, yield, and yield attributes. Both the samples were divided into two groups. One group was remained as untreated and coded as control, while the other group (both seed and plot) was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment and referred as the treated. The result showed the plant height of mustard and chick pea was increased by 13.2 and 97.41%, respectively in the treated samples as compared to the control. Additionally, primary branching of mustard and chick pea was improved by 7.4 and 19.84%, respectively in the treated sample as compared to the control. The control mustard and chick pea crops showed high rate of infection by pests and diseases, while treated crops were free from any infection of pests and disease. The yield attributing characters of mustard showed, lucidly higher numbers of siliquae on main shoot, siliquae/plant and siliquae length were observed in the treated seeds and plot as compared with the control. Moreover, similar results were observed in the yield attributing parameters of chick pea viz. pods/plant, grains/pod as well as test weight of 1000 grains. The seed and stover yield of mustard in treated plots were increased by 61.5% and 25.4%, respectively with respect to the control. However, grain/seed yield of mustard crop after biofield energy treatment was increased by 500% in terms of kg per meter square as compared to the control. Besides, grain/seed yield of chick pea crop after biofield energy treatment was increased by 500% in terms of kg per meter square. The harvest index of biofield treated mustard was increased by 21.83%, while it was slight increased in case of chick pea. In conclusion, the biofield energy treatment could be used on both the seeds and plots of mustard and chick pea as an alternative way to increase the production and yield.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[131] viXra:1609.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-06 05:12:54

Determination of Isotopic Abundance of 2H, 13C, 18O, and 37Cl in Biofield Energy Treated Dichlorophenol Isomers

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and 2,6-dichlorophenol (2,6-DCP) are two isomers of dichlorophenols, have been used as preservative agents for wood, paints, vegetable fibers and as intermediates in the production of pharmaceuticals and dyes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of 2H/1H or 13C/12C, and 18O/16O or 37Cl/35Cl, in dichlorophenol isomers using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The 2,4- DCP and 2,6-DCP samples were divided into two parts: control and treated. The control sample remained as untreated, while the treated sample was further divided into four groups as T1, T2, T3, and T4. The treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The GC-MS spectra of 2,4-DCP and 2,6-DCP showed three to six m/z peaks at 162, 126, 98, 73, 63, 37 etc. due to the molecular ion peak and fragmented peaks. The isotopic abundance ratios (percentage) in both the isomers were increased significantly after biofield treatment as compared to the control. The isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM and (PM+2)/PM after biofield energy treatment were increased by 54.38% and 40.57% in 2,4-DCP and 126.11% and 18.65% in 2,6-DCP, respectively which may affect the bond energy, reactivity and finally stability to the product.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[130] viXra:1609.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-03 06:46:46

Physical, Thermal, and Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated Murashige and Skoog Plant Cell Culture Media

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

The Murashige and Skoog medium (MS media) is a chemically defined and widely used as a growth medium for plant tissue culture techniques. The present study was attempted to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal, and spectral properties of MS media. The study was performed in two groups; one was kept as control while another was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment and coded as treated group. Afterward, both the control and treated samples were analyzed using various analytical techniques. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed 19.92% decrease in the crystallite size of treated sample with respect to the control. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed the increase in onset temperature of thermal degradation (Tonset) by 9.41% and 10.69% in first and second steps of thermal degradation, respectively after the biofield energy treatment as compared to the control. Likewise, Tmax (maximum thermal degradation temperature) was increased by 17.43% and 28.61% correspondingly in the first and second step of thermal degradation in the treated sample as compared to the control. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis indicated the 143.51% increase in the latent heat of fusion of the treated sample with respect to the control sample. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectrum of treated MS media showed the alteration in the frequency such as 3165→3130 cm-1 (aromatic C-H stretching); 2813→2775 cm-1 (aliphatic C-H stretching); 1145→1137 cm-1 (C-N stretching), 995→1001 cm-1 (S=O stretching), etc. in the treated sample with respect to the control. The UV spectra of control and treated MS media showed the similar absorbance maxima (λmax) i.e. at 201 and 198 nm, respectively. The XRD, TGA-DTG, DSC, and FT-IR results suggested that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has the impact on physical, thermal, and spectral properties of the MS media. As a result, the treated MS media could be more stable than the control, and might be used as better media in the plant tissue culture technique.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[129] viXra:1608.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-30 04:11:11

Impact of Biofield Energy Treatment on Soil Fertility

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Measurement of soil components such as microbial population, minerals and obviously the content of organic carbon play the important roles for the productivity of crops and plants. The present study was attempted to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on soil for its physical (electrical conductivity), chemical (minerals) and microbial flora (bacteria and fungi). A plot of lands was assigned for this study with some already grown plants. This plot was divided into two parts. One part was considered as control, while another part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment without physically touching and referred as treated. In the treated soil the total bacterial and fungal counts were increased by 546 and 617%, respectively as compared to the untreated soil. Additionally, the conductivity of soil of the treated plot was increased by 79% as compared to the soil of control plot. Apart from microbes, the content of various minerals were also changed in the biofield energy treated soil. The calcium carbonate content showed 2909 ppm in the control, while in the treated soil it was increased to 3943 ppm i.e. 36% increased. Various other minerals such as nitrogen and potassium were increased by 12% and 7%, respectively as compared to the control. Besides, the level of some minerals such as potassium, iron, and chloride were decreased by 9%, 23%, and 41%, respectively as compared to the control. Apart from chemical constituents of soil, the content of organic carbon was also reduced by 8% in the treated soil as compared to the control soil. The overall results envisaged that the biofield energy treatment on the soil showed a significant improvement in the physical, chemical, and microbial functions of soil component. Thus, improved the conductance, supportive microbes, minerals and overall productivity of crops. In conclusion, the biofield energy treatment could be used as an alternative way to increase the yield of quality crops by increasing soil fertility.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[128] viXra:1608.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 23:10:12

Quantitative Determination of Isotopic Abundance Ratio of 13C, 2H, and 18O in Biofield Energy Treated Ortho and Meta Toluic Acid Isomers

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

O-Toluic acid (OTA) and m-toluic acid (MTA) are two isomers of toluic acid that act as an important organic intermediates, mostly used in medicines and pesticides. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on isotopic abundance ratios of 2H/1H, 13C/12C, (PM+1)/PM and 18O/16O, (PM+2)/PM, in toluic acid isomers using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The OTA and MTA samples were divided into two parts: control and treated. The control sample remained as untreated, while the treated sample was further divided into four groups as T1, T2, T3, and T4. The treated group was subjected to biofield energy treatment. The GC-MS spectra of both the isomers showed five m/z peaks due to the molecular ion peak and fragmented peaks of toluic acid derivatives. The isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM and (PM+2)/PM were calculated for both the isomers and found significant alteration in the treated isomers. The isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM in treated samples of OTA was decreased and then slightly increased upto 2.37% in T2, where the (PM+2)/PM in treated OTA, significantly decreased by 55.3% in T3 sample. Similarly, in case of MTA, the isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM in the treated sample showed a slight increase the (PM+2)/PM was decreased by 11.95% in T2 as compared to their respective control. GC-MS data suggests that the biofield energy treatment on toluic acid isomers had significantly altered the isotopic abundance of 2H, 13C, and 18O in OTA and MTA as compared to the control.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[127] viXra:1608.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-23 23:21:48

Characterization of Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Properties of Biofield Energy Treated Bio Peptone

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Bio peptone is a combination of enzymatic digest of animal tissues and casein; and generally used for the growth of several varieties of microbes. The aim of present study was to investigate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of bio peptone. The present study was carried out in two groups i.e. control and treated. The control group was kept without treatment, while the treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Subsequently, both the samples were assessed using numerous analytical techniques. The X-ray diffractograms (XRD) showed the halo patterns of XRD peaks in both the samples. The particle size analysis exhibited about 4.70% and 17.58% increase in the d50 (average particle size) and d99 (particle size below which 99% particles are present), respectively of treated bio peptone as compared to the control. The surface area analysis revealed the 253.95% increase in the specific surface area of treated sample as compared to the control. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis showed the 29.59% increase in the melting temperature of treated bio peptone sample as compared to the control. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed the increase in onset of degradation temperature by 3.31% in the treated sample with respect to the control. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) study revealed the changes in the wavenumber of functional groups such as O-H stretching from 3066 cm-1 to 3060 cm-1; C-H stretching from 2980, 2893, and 2817 cm-1 to 2970, 2881, and 2835 cm-1, respectively; N-H bending from 1589 cm-1 to 1596 cm-1; C=C stretching from 1533 cm-1 to 1525 cm-1; and P=O stretching from 1070 cm-1 to 1078 cm-1 in treated sample as compared to the control. The UV-vis spectroscopy showed the similar patterns of absorbance maxima (λmax) i.e. at 259 nm and 257 nm in both the control and treated samples, respectively. Overall, the analytical results suggested that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has substantial effect on physicochemical and spectral properties of bio peptone. Owing to this, the treated bio peptone might be more effective as culture medium than the corresponding control.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[126] viXra:1608.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-22 23:31:57

Biochemical Differentiation and Molecular Characterization of Biofield Treated Vibrio Parahaemolyticus

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

The recent emergence of the Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus) is a pandemic. For the safety concern of seafood, consumer monitoring of this organism in seafood is very much essential. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on [ATCC-17802] strain of V. parahaemolyticus for its biochemical characteristics, biotype and 16S rDNA analysis. The lyophilized strain of V. parahaemolyticus was divided into two parts, Group (Gr.) I: control and Gr. II: treated. Gr. II was further subdivided into two parts, Gr. IIA and Gr. IIB. Gr. IIA was analyzed on day 10, whereas, Gr. IIB was stored and analyzed on day 142 (Study I). After retreatment of Gr. IIB on day 142 (Study II), the sample was divided into three separate tubes. The tubes first, second and third were analyzed on day 5, 10, and 15, respectively. The biochemical reaction and biotyping were performed using automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The 16S rDNA sequencing was carried out to correlate the phylogenetic relationship of V. parahaemolyticus with other bacterial species after the treatment. The results of biochemical reactions were altered 24.24%, out of thirty-three in the treated groups with respect to the control. Moreover, negative (-) reaction of urea was changed to positive (+) in the revived treated Gr. IIB, Study II on day 15 as compared to the control. Besides, biotype number was substantially changed in all the treated groups as compared to the control. However, change in organisms were reported in Gr. IIA on day 10 and in Gr. IIB; Study II on day 5 as Shewanella putrefaciens and Moraxella/Psychrobacter spp., respectively with respect to the control i.e. Vibrio sp. SF. 16S rDNA analysis showed that the identified sample in this experiment was V. parahaemolyticus after biofield treatment, and the nearest homolog genus-species was observed as Vibrio natriegens with 98% gene identity. The results envisaged that the biofield energy treatment showed an alteration in biochemical reaction pattern and biotype number on the strain of V. parahaemolyticus.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[125] viXra:1608.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-22 23:33:36

Impact of Biofield Treatment on Chemical and Thermal Properties of Cellulose and Cellulose Acetate

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Cellulose being an excellent biopolymer has cemented its place firmly in many industries as a coating material, textile, composites, and biomaterial applications. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of biofield treatment on physicochemical properties of cellulose and cellulose acetate. The cellulose and cellulose acetate were exposed to biofield and further the chemical and thermal properties were investigated. X-ray diffraction study asserted that the biofield treatment did affect the crystalline nature of cellulose. The percentage of crystallite size was found increased significantly in treated cellulose by 159.83%, as compared to control sample. This showed that biofield treatment was changing the crystalline nature of treated cellulose. However treated cellulose acetate showed a reduction in crystallite size (-17.38%) as compared to control sample. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) of treated cellulose showed no improvement in melting temperature as compared to control sample. Contrarily cellulose acetate showed significant improvement in melting temperature peak at 351.91ºC as compared to control (344ºC) polymer. Moreover percentage change in latent heat of fusion (ΔH) was calculated from the DSC thermogram of both treated and control polymers. A significant increase in percentage ΔH of both treated cellulose (59.09%) and cellulose acetate (105.79%) polymers indicated that biofield treatment enhanced the thermal stability of the treated polymers. CHNSO analysis revealed a significant change in percentage hydrogen and oxygen of treated cellulose (%H-17.77, %O-16.89) and cellulose acetate (%H-5.67, %O-13.41). Though minimal change was observed in carbon percentage of both treated cellulose (0.29%) and cellulose acetate (0.39%) polymers as compared to their respective control samples. Thermo gravimetric analysis and Differential thermo gravimetric (TGA-DTG) analysis of treated cellulose acetate (353ºC) showed increased maximum thermal decomposition temperature as compared to control polymer (351ºC). This showed the higher thermal stability of the treated cellulose acetate polymer; although the maximum thermal decomposition temperature of treated cellulose (248ºC) was decreased as compared to control cellulose (321ºC). These outcomes confirmed that biofield treatment has changed the physicochemical properties of the cellulose polymers.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[124] viXra:1608.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-21 23:32:35

Effect of Biofield Treatment on Physical, Thermal, and Spectral Properties of SFRE 199-1 Mammalian Cell Culture Medium

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

SFRE 199-1 medium (SFRE-M) is important mammalian cell culture medium, used for the culture of primary cells of mammals such as baboon kidney cells. The present study was attempted to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal and spectral properties of SFRE-M. The study was accomplished in two groups; one was set as control while another was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment and coded as treated group. Subsequently, the control and treated samples were analyzed using various analytical techniques. The CHNO analysis showed about 2.16, 4.87, and 5.89% decrease in percent contents of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, respectively; while 9.49% increase in nitrogen contents of treated sample as compared to the control. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed 7.23% decrease in crystallite size of treated sample as compared to the control. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) analysis showed the increase in onset temperature of thermal degradation by 19.61% in treated sample with respect to the control. The control sample showed the 48.63% weight loss during the thermal degradation temperature (Tmax) while the treated sample showed only 13.62% weight loss during the Tmax. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis showed the 62.58% increase in the latent heat of fusion of treated sample with respect to the control sample. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectrum of treated SFRE-M showed the alteration in the wavenumber of C-O, C-N and C-H vibrations in the treated sample as compared to the control. Altogether, the XRD, TGA-DTG, DSC, and FT-IR analysis suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has the impact on physical, thermal and spectral properties of SFRE-M. The treated SFRE-M was more thermal stable than the control SFRE-M and can be used as the better culture media for mammalian cell culture.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[123] viXra:1608.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 00:10:52

Experimental Investigation on Physical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Properties of 2-Chlorobenzonitrile: Impact of Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 9 Pages.

2-chlorobenzonitrile (2-ClBN) is widely used in the manufacturing of azo dyes, pharmaceuticals, and as intermediate in various chemical reactions. The aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physical, thermal and spectroscopic properties of 2-ClBN. 2-ClBN sample was divided into two groups that served as treated and control. The treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, the control and treated samples were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyser, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. XRD result showed a decrease in crystallite size in treated samples i.e. 4.88% in 2-ClBN along with the increase in peak intensity as compared to control. However, surface area analysis showed a decrease in surface area of 64.53% in treated 2-ClBN sample as compared to the control. Furthermore, DSC analysis results showed a significant increase in the latent heat of fusion (28.74%) and a slight increase in melting temperature (2.05%) in treated sample as compared to the control. Moreover, TGA/DTG studies showed that the control and treated 2-ClBN samples lost 61.05% and 46.15% of their weight, respectively. The FT-IR spectra did not show any significant change in treated 2-ClBN sample as compared to control. However, UV-Vis spectra showed an increase in the intensity of peak as compared to control sample. These findings suggest that biofield treatment has significantly altered the physical, thermal and spectroscopic properties of 2-ClBN, which could make them more useful as a chemical intermediate.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[122] viXra:1608.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 00:22:40

Physical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofield Treated P-Chloro-M-Cresol

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

p-Chloro-m-cresol(PCMC) is widely used in pharmaceutical industries as biocide and preservative. However, it faces the problems of solubility in water and photo degradation. The aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physical, thermal and spectral properties of PCMC. For this study, PCMC sample was divided into two groups i.e., one served as treated and other as control. The treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment and both control and treated samples of PCMC were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyser, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GCMS). The XRD result showed a 12.7% increase in crystallite size in treated samples along with increase in peak intensity as compared to control. Moreover, surface area analysis showed a 49.36% increase in surface area of treated PCMC sample as compared to control. The thermal analysis showed significant decrease (25.94%) in the latent heat of fusion in treated sample as compared to control. However, no change was found in other parameters like melting temperature, onset temperature of degradation, and Tmax (temperature at which maximum weight loss occur). The FT-IR spectroscopy did not show any significant change in treated PCMC sample as compared to control. Although, the UV-Vis spectra of treated samples showed characteristic absorption peaks at 206 and 280 nm, the peak at 280 nm was not found in control sample. The control sample showed another absorbance peak at 247 nm. GC-MS data revealed that carbon isotopic ratio (δ13C) was changed up to 204% while δ18O and δ37Cl isotopic ratio were significantly changed up to 142% in treated samples as compared to control. These findings suggest that biofield treatment has significantly altered the physical, thermal and spectroscopic properties, which can affect the solubility and stability of p-chloro-m-cresol and make it more useful as a pharmaceutical ingredient.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[121] viXra:1608.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-17 04:26:04

Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated Gerbera Multiplication Medium

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

The micropropagation technique is used for Gerbera species due to their high demand all over the world as the decorative potted plants and cut flowers. The present study was done to investigate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical properties of gerbera multiplication medium. A part of the sample was treated with Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy, and the other part was kept as untreated and termed as the control sample. Both the parts were subsequently analysed for their physical, thermal and spectral properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analysis, surface area analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), elemental analysis, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The XRD results showed 13.98% increase in crystallite size of treated sample (104.01 nm) as compared to the control (91.25 nm). The particle size data revealed an increase in d50 (average particle size) and d99 (size below which 99% particles are present) by 72.57% and 42.26%, respectively of the treated sample as compared to the control. Moreover, the surface area of the treated sample was reduced from 0.694 m2/g (control) to 0.560 m2/g in the treated sample. The TGA data showed the increase in onset temperature along with the reduction in the percent weight loss of the treated sample as compared to the control. Besides, the elemental analysis revealed the significant decrease in the percentage of nitrogen (10.47%) and hydrogen (9.35%) as well as the presence of sulphur in the treated sample. The FT-IR results showed the differences in the IR frequencies corresponding to pyridine ring and N-H2 deformation of the treated sample as compared to the control. Hence, the overall data revealed that the biofield energy treatment had a significant impact on the physicochemical properties of the treated sample that might help to improve its uses in the in vitro tissue culture techniques as compared to the control sample.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[120] viXra:1608.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-10 04:50:54

Use of Energy Healing Medicine Against Escherichia coli for Antimicrobial Susceptibility, Biochemical Reaction and Biotyping

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Escherichia coli (E. coli) infections are the major health concern, as it causes infections in human mainly in urinary tract, ear, and wound infections. The present study evaluates the impact of biofield energy treatment on E. coli regarding antimicrobial sensitivity assay, biochemical study and biotype number. Four multidrug resistant (MDR) clinical lab isolates (LSs) of E. coli (LS 12, LS 13, LS 42, and LS 51) were taken in two groups i.e. control and treated. After treatment, above mentioned parameter were evaluated on day 10 in control and treated samples using MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The antimicrobial sensitivity assay was reported with 46.67% alteration (14 out of 30 tested antimicrobials) in treated group of MDR E. coli isolates. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) study showed the alteration in MIC values of about 34.37% (11 out of 32) tested antimicrobials, after biofield treatment in clinical isolates of E. coli. Piperacillin/tazobactam was reported with improved sensitivity and four-fold decrease in the MIC value (64 to ≤16 μg/mL) in LS 42, as compared with the control. Amoxicillin/kclavulanate reported with improved sensitivity pattern from resistance to susceptible, with two-fold decrease in MIC value (>16/8 to ≤8/4 μg/mL) in biofield treated LS 51. Further, biochemical study showed 24.24% alteration (8 out of 33) in tested biochemical reactions after treatment among four isolates of E. coli as compared to the control. A change in biotype number (7774 4272) was reported as compared to the control, (7311 4012), with new organism identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae in biofield treated LS 13 with respect to the control organism, E. coli. Overall, data suggested that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment can be applied to alter the antimicrobial sensitivity, biochemical reactions and biotype number of E. coli.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[119] viXra:1608.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-09 04:18:18

Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofield Treated Butylated Hydroxytoluene

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

The antioxidants play an important role in the preservation of foods and the management of oxidative stress related diseases by acting on reactive oxygen species and free radicals. However, their use in high temperature processed food and pharmaceuticals are limited due to its low thermal stability. The objective of the study was to use the biofield energy treatment on butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) i.e. antioxidant and analyse its impact on the physical, thermal, and spectral properties of BHT. For the study, the sample was divided into two groups and termed as control and treated. The treated group was subjected to biofield energy treatment. The characterization of treated sample was done using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and UV-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The XRD results showed the alteration in lattice parameters, unit cell volume, and molecular weight along with 14.8% reduction in the crystallite size of treated sample as compared to the control. The DSC analysis showed an increase in the latent heat of fusion from 75.94 J/g (control) to 96.23 J/g in the treated BHT sample. The TGA analysis showed an increase in onset temperature of decomposition (130°C→136°C) and maximum thermal decomposition temperature (152.39°C→158.42°C) in the treated sample as compared to the control. Besides, the FT-IR analysis reported the shifting of aromatic C-H stretching peak towards higher frequency (3068→3150 cm-1) and C=C stretching towards lower frequency (1603→1575 cm-1) as compared to the control sample. Moreover, the UV spectrum also revealed the shifting of the peak at λmax 247 nm (control) to 223 nm in the treated sample. The overall results showed the impact of biofield energy treatment on physical, thermal and spectral properties of BHT sample.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[118] viXra:1608.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-09 04:20:30

Physical, Thermal, and Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated Potato Micropropagation Medium

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Potato Micropropagation Medium (PMM) is the growth medium used for in vitro micropropagation of potato tubers. The present study was intended to assess the effect of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal and spectroscopic properties of PMM. The study was attained in two groups i.e. control and treated. The control group was remained as untreated, while the treated group was received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Finally, both the samples (control and treated) were evaluated using various analytical techniques such as X-ray diffractometry (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis- differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA), UV-Vis spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The XRD analysis showed the crystalline nature of both control and treated samples of PMM. The X-ray diffractogram showed the significant increase in the intensity of XRD peaks in treated sample as compared to the control. The XRD analysis revealed 6.64% increase in the average crystallite size of treated PMM with respect to the control. The DSC analysis showed about 8.66% decrease in the latent heat of fusion in treated sample with respect to the control. The TGA-DTA analysis exhibited about 4.71% increase in onset temperature of thermal degradation after biofield treatment with respect to the control, while the maximum thermal degradation temperature (Tmax) was also increased (5.06%) in treated sample with respect to the control. This increase in Tmax might be correlated with increased thermal stability of treated sample as compared to the control. The UV spectroscopic study showed the slight blue shift in λmax of treated sample with respect to the control. FT-IR spectrum of control PMM showed the peak at 3132 cm-1 (C-H stretching) that was observed at higher wavenumber i.e. at 3161 cm-1 in the treated sample. Other vibrational peaks in the treated sample were observed in the similar region as that of the control. Altogether, the XRD, DSC, TGA-DTA, UV-Vis, and FT-IR analysis suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has the impact on physicochemical properties of PMM. This treated PMM might be more effective as a micropropagation medium as compared to the control.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[117] viXra:1608.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-08 14:22:29

Is Thermodynamic Irreversibility a Consequence of the Expansion of the Universe?

Authors: Szabolcs Osváth
Comments: 16 Pages.

This paper explains thermodynamic irreversibility by applying the expansion of the Universe to thermodynamic systems. The effect of metric expansion is immeasurably small on shorter scales than intergalactic distances. Multi-particle systems, however, are chaotic, and amplify any small disturbance exponentially. Metric expansion gives rise to time-asymmetric behavior in thermodynamic systems in a short time (few nanoseconds in air, few ten picoseconds in water). In contrast to existing publications, this paper explains without any additional assumptions the rise of thermodynamic irreversibility from the underlying reversible mechanics of particles. Calculations for the special case which assumes FLRW metric, slow motions (v<<c) and approximates space locally by Euclidean space show that metric expansion causes entropy increase in isolated systems. The rise of time-asymmetry, however, is not affected by these assumptions. Any influence of the expansion of the Universe on the local metric causes a coupling between local mechanics and evolution of the Universe.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[116] viXra:1608.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-01 23:16:36

Physical, Thermal and Spectroscopical Characterization of Biofield Treated Triphenylmethane: An Impact of Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Triphenylmethane is a synthetic dye used as antimicrobial agent and for the chemical visualization in thin layer chromatography of higher fatty acids, fatty alcohols, and aliphatic amines. The present study was an attempt to investigate the impact of biofield treatment on physical, thermal and spectroscopical charecteristics of triphenylmethane. The study was performed in two groups i.e., control and treatment. The treatment group subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. The control and treated groups of triphenylmethane samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyzer, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, and gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS). XRD study revealed decreases in average crystallite size (14.22%) of treated triphenylmethane as compared to control sample. Surface area analysis showed a slight increase (0.42%) in surface area of treated sample with respect to control. DSC thermogram of treated triphenylmethane showed the slight increase in melting point and latent heat of fusion with respect to control. TGA analysis of control triphenylmethane showed weight loss by 45.99% and treated sample showed weight loss by 64.40%. The Tmax was also decreased by 7.17% in treated sample as compared to control. The FT-IR and UV spectroscopic result showed the similar pattern of spectra. The GC-MS analysis suggested a significant decrease in carbon isotopic abundance (expressed in δ13C, ‰) in treated sample (about 380 to 524‰) as compared to control. Based on these results, it is found that biofield treatment has the impact on physical, thermal and carbon isotopic abundance of treated triphenylmethane with respect to control.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[115] viXra:1607.0490 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-26 07:42:34

On Space Power

Authors: S.Kalimuthu
Comments: 07 Pages. NA

To generate power from water , coal , wind and nuclear energies we require basic raw materials and the costs are high .Due to the scarcity of the above mentioned items , the developing countries like India are facing a number of challenges and problems. In order to avoid this, the author proposes to generate power directly from gravitons. The accepted physics says that the gravitons are the mediators of gravity. Albert Einstein told that we cannot separate gravity from space .Gravity is a part of space. Einstein’s variance of mass with velocity equation says that as the velocity of an object increases, its mass also increases .The author postulates that this mass is gained by the moving object directly from SPACE whenever its velocity increases. Pauli’s exclusive principle , Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle , Einstein’s equivalence principle and his two postulates of special relativity theory created ground breaking results in physics.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[114] viXra:1607.0426 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 23:25:10

Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated P-Anisidine

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

The p-anisidine is widely used as chemical intermediate in the production of various dyes, pigments, and pharmaceuticals. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of p-anisidine. The study was performed after dividing the sample in two groups; one was remained as untreated and another was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Afterward, both the control and treated samples of p-anisidine were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyzer, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis-derivative thermogravimetry (TGA-DTG), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The XRD analysis showed the increase in unit cell volume from 683.81 → 690.18 × 10-24 cm3 and crystallite size from 83.84→84.62 nm in the treated sample with respect to the control. The surface area analysis exhibited the significant increase (25.44%) in the surface area of treated sample as compared to control. The DSC thermogram of control p-anisidine showed the latent heat of fusion and melting temperature and 146.78 J/g and 59.41°C, respectively, which were slightly increased to 148.89 J/g and 59.49°C, respectively after biofield treatment. The TGA analysis showed the onset temperature of thermal degradation at 134.68°C in the control sample that was increased to 150.02°C after biofield treatment. The result showed about 11.39% increase in onset temperature of thermal degradation of treated p-anisidine as compared to the control. Moreover, the Tmax (temperature at which maximum thermal degradation occurs) was also increased slightly from 165.99°C (control) to 168.10°C (treated). This indicated the high thermal stability of treated p-anisidine as compared to the control. However, the FT-IR and UV spectroscopic studies did not show any significant changes in the spectral properties of treated p-anisidine with respect to the control. All together, the XRD, surface area and thermal analysis suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has the impact on physical and thermal properties of the treated p-anisidine.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[113] viXra:1607.0399 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-21 23:29:51

Evaluation of Physical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Properties of Biofield Treated P-Hydroxyacetophenone

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

P-Hydroxyacetophenone (pHAP) is an aromatic ketone derivative that is mainly used in the manufacturing of various pharmaceuticals, flavours, fragrances, etc. In the present study, the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment was analysed on various properties of pHAP viz. crystallite size, surface area, melting temperature, thermal decomposition, and spectral properties. The pHAP sample was divided into two parts; one was kept as control sample while another part was named as treated sample. The treated sample was given the biofield energy treatment and various parameters were analysed as compared to the control sample by X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyser, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), ultravioletvisible (UV-VIS), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The XRD studies showed the decrease in crystallite size of the treated sample (61.25 nm) as compared to the control (84.18 nm); however the intensity of peaks in diffractogram was increased in treated sample. Besides, the surface area of treated sample was decreased by 41.17% as compared to the control. The TGA analysis revealed that onset temperature as well as Tmax (maximum thermal decomposition temperature) was increased in the treated sample. However, the latent heat of fusion (ΔH) was decreased from 124.56 J/g (control) to 103.24 J/g in the treated sample. The treated and control samples were also evaluated by UV-Vis and FT-IR spectroscopy and did not show any significant alteration in spectra of treated sample as compared to the respective control. Hence, the overall results suggest that there was an impact of biofield energy treatment on the physical and thermal properties of pHAP sample.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[112] viXra:1607.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-21 23:32:54

Isotopic Abundance Analysis of Biofield Treated Benzene, Toluene and P-Xylene Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Benzene, toluene and p-xylene are derivatives of benzene, generally produced from crude petroleum and have numerous applications in industry. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on isotopic abundance of these benzene derivatives by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Benzene, toluene and p-xylene samples were divided into two parts: control and treatment. Control part was remained as untreated and treatment part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Control and treated samples were characterized using GC-MS. GC-MS data revealed that isotopic abundance ratio of 13C/12C or 2 H/1 H (PM+1/PM) of treated samples were significantly increased from un-substituted to substituted benzene rings (where, PM- primary molecule, PM+1- isotopic molecule either for 13C/12C and/or 2 H/1 H). The isotopic abundance ratio of 13C/12C or 2 H/1 H (PM+1/PM) in benzene was decreased significantly by 42.14% as compared to control. However, the isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1/PM) in treated toluene and p-xylene was significantly increased up to 531.61% and 134.34% respectively as compared to their respective control. Thus, overall data suggest that biofield treatment has significantly altered the isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1/PM) in a different way for un-substituted and substituted benzenes.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[111] viXra:1607.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-20 23:20:06

Evaluation of the Impact of Biofield Treatment on Physical and Thermal Properties of Casein Enzyme Hydrolysate and Casein Yeast Peptone

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 7 Pages.

In the present study, the influence of biofield treatment on physical and thermal properties of Casein Enzyme Hydrolysate (CEH) and Casein Yeast Peptone (CYP) were investigated. The control and treated samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), particle size and surface area analysis. The FTIR results revealed that biofield treatment has caused reduction of amide group (amide-I and amide-II) stretching vibration peak that is associated with strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding in treated CEH as compared to control. However, no significant changes were observed in FTIR spectrum of treated CYP. The TGA analysis of treated CEH showed a substantial improvement in thermal stability which was confirmed by increase in maximum thermal decomposition temperature (217° C) as compared to control (209° C). Similarly, the treated CYP also showed enhanced thermal stability as compared to control. DSC showed increase in melting temperature of treated CYP as compared to control. However the melting peak was absent in DSC of treated CEH which was probably due to rigid chain of the protein. The surface area of treated CEH was increased by 83% as compared to control. However, a decrease (7.3%) in surface area was observed in treated CYP. The particle size analysis of treated CEH showed a significant increase in average particle size (d50) and d99 value (maximum particle size below which 99% of particles are present) as compared to control sample. Similarly, the treated CYP also showed a substantial increase in d50 and d99 values which was probably due to the agglomeration of the particles which led to formation of bigger microparticles. The result showed that the biofield treated CEH and CYP could be used as a matrix for pharmaceutical applications.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[110] viXra:1607.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 10:07:50

A Proposal for an Improved Solar Still

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 4 Pages.

The yield from solar stills depends upon meteorological parameters and design. Below improvement opportunities are presented using heat pipes. The changes may increase the yield of potable water without the need for external energy.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[109] viXra:1607.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-13 23:15:55

The Potential Impact of Biofield Treatment on Physical, Structural and Mechanical Properties of Stainless Steel Powder

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 5 Pages.

Stainless steel (SS) has gained extensive attention due to its high corrosion resistance, low maintenance, familiar lustre, and superior mechanical properties. In SS, the mechanical properties are closely related with crystal structure, crystallite size, and lattice strain. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of biofield treatment on structural, physical and mechanical properties of SS powder. SS (Grade-SUS316L) powder was divided into two parts denoted as control and treatment. The treatment part was received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Control and treated SS samples were characterized using particle size analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Result showed that biofield treatment has significantly reduced the particle size d10, d50, d90, and d99 (size, below which 10, 50, 90, and 99% particles were present, respectively) of SS powder up to 7.42, 12.93, 30.23, and 41.38% respectively, as compared to control. XRD result showed that the unit cell volume of SS was altered after biofield treatment. Moreover, crystallite size was significantly reduced upto 70% in treated SS as compared to control. The yield strength calculated using Hall-Petch equation, was significantly increased upto 216.5% in treated SS, as compared to control. This could be due to significant reduction of crystallite size in treated SS after biofield treatment. In FT-IR spectra, intensity of the absorption peak at wavenumber 1107 cm-1 (control) attributing to Fe-O-H bond was diminished in case of treated SS. These findings suggest that biofield treatment has substantially altered the structural, physical and mechanical properties of treated SS powder.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[108] viXra:1607.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-13 23:17:52

Fourier Transform Infrared and Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofield Treated Salicylic Acid and Sparfloxacin

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Salicylic acid is a naturally occurring derivative of benzoic acid, and widely used in organic synthesis and as a plant hormone. Sparfloxacin is fluorinated quinolone antibiotic having broad spectrum antimicrobial property. The present study was aimed to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on spectral properties of salicylic acid and sparfloxacin using FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. The study was carried out in two groups, one was set to control, and another was subjected to biofield treatment. FT-IR spectrum of treated salicylic acid showed the upstream shifting in wavenumber of C-H stretching from 2999 to 3004 cm-1 and 2831 to 2837 cm-1 and C=O asymmetric stretching vibration from 1670 to 1683 cm-1 and 1652 to 1662 cm-1. The peak intensity in treated salicylic acid at 1558 cm-1 (aromatic C=C stretching) and 1501 cm-1 (C-C stretching) was increased as compared to control. FT-IR spectrum of treated sparfloxacin showed a downstream shifting in wavenumber of C-H stretching from 2961 to 2955 cm-1 and 2848 to 2818 cm-1, and upstream shifting in wavenumber of C=O (pyridone) stretching from 1641 to 1648 cm-1. Besides, increased intensity of peaks in treated sparfloxacin was found at 1628 cm-1 [C=C stretching (pyridone)] and 1507 cm-1 (N-H bending) as compared to control. UV spectrum of biofield treated salicylic acid exhibited a shifting of wavelength (λmax) from 295.8 to 302.4 nm and 231.2 to 234.4 nm, with respect to control. Likewise, biofield treated sparfloxacin showed the shifting in UV wavelength (λmax) from 373.8 to 380.6 nm and 224.2 to 209.2 nm. Over all, the results suggest that alteration in wavenumber of IR peaks in treated samples might be occurred due to biofield induced alteration in force constant and dipole moment of some bonds. The changes in UV wavelength (λmax) of treated sample also support the FT-IR results. Due to alteration in force constant and bond strength, the chemical stability of structure of treated drugs might also be increased, which could be beneficial for self-life of biofield treated drugs.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[107] viXra:1607.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-13 01:23:34

Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Physical and Structural Properties of Bronze Powder

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 6 Pages.

Bronze, a copper-tin alloy, widely utilizing in manufacturing of gears, bearing, and packing technologies due to its versatile physical, mechanical, and chemical properties. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of biofield treatment on physical and structural properties of bronze powder. Bronze powder was divided into two samples, one served as control and the other sample was received biofield treatment. Control and treated bronze samples were characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. XRD result showed that the unit cell volume was reduced upto 0.78% on day 78 in treated bronze as compared to control. Further, the crystallite size was significantly reduced upto 49.96% in treated bronze sample on day 106 as compared to control. In addition, the biofield treatment has significantly reduced the average particle size upto 18.22% in treated bronze powder as compared to control. SEM data showed agglomerated and welded particles in control bronze powder, whereas fractured morphology at satellites boundaries were observed in treated bronze. The yield strength of bronze powder calculated using HallPetch equation, was significantly changed after biofield treatment. The FT-IR analysis showed that there were three new peaks at 464 cm-1, 736 cm-1, and 835 cm-1 observed in treated bronze as compared to control; indicated that the biofield treatment may alter the bond properties in bronze. Therefore, the biofield treatment has substantially altered the characteristics of bronze at physical and structural level.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[106] viXra:1607.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-03 23:20:25

Characterization of Physical and Structural Properties of Aluminium Carbide Powder: Impact of Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 4 Pages.

Aluminium carbide (Al4 C3 ) has gained extensive attention due to its abrasive and creep resistance properties. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physical and structural properties of Al4 C3 powder. The Al4 C3 powder was divided into two parts i.e. control and treated. Control part was remained as untreated and treated part received biofield treatment. Subsequently, control and treated Al4 C3 samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyser and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). XRD data revealed that lattice parameter and unit cell volume of treated Al4 C3 samples were increased by 0.33 and 0.66% respectively, as compared to control. The density of treated Al4 C3 samples was reduced upto 0.65% as compared to control. In addition, the molecular weight and crystallite size of treated Al4 C3 samples were increased upto 0.66 and 249.53% respectively as compared to control. Furthermore, surface area of treated Al4 C3 sample was increased by 5% as compared to control. The FT-IR spectra revealed no significant change in absorption peaks of treated Al4 C3 samples as compared to control. Thus, XRD and surface area results suggest that biofield treatment has substantially altered the physical and structural properties of treated Al4 C3 powder.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[105] viXra:1607.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-03 23:22:28

Fourier Transform Infrared and Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopic Characterization of Ammonium Acetate and Ammonium Chloride: An Impact of Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Ammonium acetate and ammonium chloride are the white crystalline solid inorganic compounds having wide application in synthesis and analytical chemistry. The aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on spectral properties of inorganic salt like ammonium acetate and ammonium chloride. The study was performed in two groups of each compound i.e., control and treatment. Treatment groups were received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, control and treated groups were evaluated using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. FT-IR spectrum of treated ammonium acetate showed the shifting in wavenumber of vibrational peaks with respect to control. Like, the N-H stretching was shifted from 3024-3586 cm-1 to 3033-3606 cm-1, C-H stretching from 2826-2893 cm-1 to 2817-2881 cm-1, C=O asymmetrical stretching from 1660-1702 cm-1 to 1680-1714 cm-1, N-H bending from 1533-1563 cm-1 to 1506-1556 cm-1 etc. Treated ammonium chloride showed the shifting in IR frequency of three distinct oscillation modes in NH4 ion i.e., at ν1 , 3010 cm-1 to 3029 cm-1; ν2 , 1724 cm-1 to 1741 cm-1; and ν3 , 3156 cm-1 to 3124 cm-1. The N-Cl stretching was also shifted to downstream region i.e., from 710 cm-1 to 665 cm-1 in treated ammonium chloride. UV spectrum of treated ammonium acetate showed the absorbance maxima (λmax) at 258.0 nm that was shifted to 221.4 nm in treated sample. UV spectrum of control ammonium chloride exhibited two absorbance maxima (λmax) i.e., at 234.6 and 292.6 nm, which were shifted to 224.1 and 302.8 nm, respectively in treated sample. Overall, FT-IR and UV data of both compounds suggest an impact of biofield treatment on atomic level i.e., at force constant, bond strength, dipole moments and electron transition energy between two orbitals of treated compounds as compared to respective control.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[104] viXra:1606.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-30 23:09:29

Characterization of Physical and Structural Properties of Brass Powder After Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Snehasis Jana, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Brass, a copper-zinc (Cu-Zn) alloy has gained extensive attention in industries due to its high corrosion resistance, machinability and strength to weight ratio. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of biofield treatment on structural and physical properties of brass powder. The brass powder sample was divided into two parts: control and treated. The treated part was subjected to Mr.Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Control and treated brass powder were characterized using particle size analyser, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The result showed that the average particle size, d50 and d99 (size below which 99% particles were present) were reduced up to 44.3% and 56.4%, respectively as compared to control. XRD result revealed that the unit cell volume in treated brass powder was increased up to 0.19% as compared to control. Besides, the crystallite size of brass powder was significantly increased up to 100.5% as compared to control, after biofield treatment. Furthermore, SEM microscopy showed welded particles in control powder, however fractured surfaces were observed in treated sample. In FT-IR spectra, new peak at 685 cm-1 was observed after biofield treatment as compared to control that might be due to alteration in bonding properties in treated brass sample. These findings suggest that the biofield treatment has significantly altered the physical and structural properties of brass powder.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[103] viXra:1606.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-30 23:12:37

Biofield Treatment: A Potential Strategy for Modification of Physical and Thermal Properties of Indole

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 8 Pages.

Indole compounds are important class of therapeutic molecules, which have excellent pharmaceutical applications. The objective of present research was to investigate the influence of biofield treatment on physical and thermal properties of indole. The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treated group. The control and treated samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. XRD study demonstrated the increase in crystalline nature of treated indole as compared to control. Additionally, the treated indole showed increase in crystallite size by 2.53% as compared to control. DSC analysis of treated indole (54.45ºC) showed no significant change in melting temperature (Tm) in comparison with control sample (54.76ºC). A significant increase in latent heat of fusion (ΔH) by 30.86% was observed in treated indole with respect to control. Derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) of treated indole showed elevation in maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) 166.49ºC as compared to control (163.37ºC). This was due to increase in thermal stability of indole after biofield treatment. FT-IR analysis of treated indole showed increase in frequency of N-H stretching vibrational peak by 6 cm-1 as compared to control sample. UV spectroscopy analysis showed no alteration in absorption wavelength (λmax) of treated indole with respect to control. The present study showed that biofield has substantially affected the physical and thermal nature of indole.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[102] viXra:1606.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-29 23:22:10

Characterization of Physical, Thermal and Structural Properties of Chromium (VI) Oxide Powder: Impact of Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 4 Pages.

Chromium (VI) oxide (CrO3 ) has gained extensive attention due to its versatile physical and chemical properties. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physical, thermal and structural properties of CrO3 powder. In this study, CrO3 powder was divided into two parts i.e. control and treatment. Control part was remained as untreated and treated part received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, control and treated CrO3 samples were characterized using Thermo gravimetric analysis-differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). DTA showed that the melting point of treated CrO3 was increased upto 212.65°C (T3) as compared to 201.43°C in control. In addition, the latent heat of fusion was reduced upto 51.70% in treated CrO3 as compared to control. TGA showed the maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) around 330°C, was increased upto 340.12°C in treated CrO3 sample. XRD data revealed that lattice parameter and unit cell volume of treated CrO3 samples were reduced by 0.25 and 0.92% respectively, whereas density was increased by 0.93% in treated CrO3 sample as compared to control. The crystallite size of treated CrO3 was increased from 46.77 nm (control) to 60.13 nm after biofield treatment. FT-IR spectra showed the absorption peaks corresponding to Cr=O at 906 and 944 cm-1 in control, which were increased to 919 and 949 cm¬1 in treated CrO3 after biofield treatment. Overall, these results suggest that biofield treatment has substantially altered the physical, thermal and structural properties of CrO3 powder.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[101] viXra:1606.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-28 23:24:20

In Vitro Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Cancer Biomarkers Involved in Endometrial and Prostate Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Mayank Gangwar, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 5 Pages.

Increasing cancer rates particularly in the developed world are associated with related lifestyle and environmental exposures. Combined immunotherapy and targeted therapies are the main treatment approaches in advanced and recurrent cancer. An alternate approach, energy medicine is increasingly used in life threatening problems to promote human wellness. This study aimed to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on cancer biomarkers involved in human endometrium and prostate cancer cell lines. Each cancer cell lines were taken in two sealed tubes i.e. one tube was considered as control and another tube was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment, referred as treated. Control and treated samples were studied for the determination of cancer biomarkers such as multifunctional cytokines viz. interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R), prostate specific antigen (PSA), and free prostate specific antigen (FPSA) concentrations using ELISA assay on day 10. Experimental results showed a significant reduction of IL-6 level in endometrium (12%) and prostate (98.8%) cancer cell lines while a significant increase was observed in TNF-α level in endometrium (385%) and prostate (89.8%) cancer cell lines as compared to control. No alteration of PSA level was observed in biofield treated endometrium and prostate cell line. Similarly, no alterations were evident in IL-2R and FPSA levels in endometrium and prostate cell lines after biofield treatment as compared to control. In conclusion, results suggest that biofield treatment has shown significant alterations in the level of cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) in both endometrium and prostate cancer cell lines.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[100] viXra:1606.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-27 23:16:55

Influence of Biofield Treatment on Physical, Structural and Spectral Properties of Boron Nitride

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Boron nitride (BN) is known for high hardness, thermal stability, thermal conductivity, and catalytic action. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on physical, structural and spectral properties of BN powder. The control and treated sample of BN powder were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). XRD results indicated that biofield treatment had substantially changed the crystallinity of BN powder as compared to control. Apart from the crystallinity, significant changes were also observed in lattice parameter, density and molecular weight of the treated BN powder as compared to control sample. The XRD data confirmed 33.30% increase crystallite size in treated BN powder as compared to control. The surface area data showed 10.33% increment in surface area of treated BN as compared to control. Furthermore, FT-IR spectra revealed that some part of BN may be transformed from hexagonal BN (h-BN) to rhombohedral boron nitride (r-BN), which was corroborated by emergence of new prominent peaks at 1388 cm -1 in treated BN as compared to control sample. These findings suggest that biofield treatment has substantially altered the structural properties and surface area of treated BN powder.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[99] viXra:1606.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-24 07:46:15

Impact of Biofield Treatment on Atomic and Structural Characteristics of Barium Titanate Powder

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 6 Pages.

Barium titanate, perovskite structure is known for its high dielectric constant and piezoelectric properties, which makes it interesting material for fabricating capacitors, transducer, actuator, and sensors. The perovskite crystal structure and lattice vibrations play a crucial role in its piezoelectric and ferroelectric behavior. In the present study, the barium titanate powder was subjected to biofield treatment. Further, the control and treated samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) and Electron spin resonance (ESR). The XRD analysis showed the permanent compressive strain of 0.45% in treated barium titanate powder as compared to control. Furthermore, the biofield treatment has enhanced the density upto 1.38% in barium titanate as compared to control. The FT-IR spectra showed that the stretching and bending vibrations of Ti-O bond in treated BaTiO3 were shifted towards lower frequency as compared to control. The bond length was substantially increased by 0.72 % in treated BaTiO3 as compared to control. The ESR spectra of control and treated BaTiO3 sample showed the g-factor of 2.0; and biofield treatment has substantially changed the width and height of ESR signal in treated BaTiO3 as compared to control. These observations revealed that biofield treatment has significantly altered the crystal structure, lattice strain, and bond vibration of barium titanate.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[98] viXra:1606.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-12 10:10:59

A.A.A.S. Conference Slides: “2nd Law Challenges” University of San Diego 2016, Maxwell Demons by Phase Transitions Severing the Link Between Physics and Information Theory

Authors: Remi Cornwall
Comments: 25 Pages. Nearly last draft for 25 minute talk.

The search for new power sources has increasingly challenged the second law of thermodynamics; one such cycle is presented herein with both experimental and rigorous theoretical underpinnings. These analyses, both kinetic and thermodynamic inevitably lead to the Maxwell Demon problem. It is clear that, against the Szilard-Brillouin-Landauer argument, that phase transition processes in conjunction with the cycle and apparatus requires no molecular information to be kept, negating the argument and need that the demon’s entropy change by 1/2kTln 2 per molecule processed. The Demon was thought to bring Information into the fold of Physics. We ask the question, if all computing can be made reversible by heat recovery and furthermore, if the speed of information appears not to be limited by Relativity, due to the author’s protocol to send classical data over an entangled Bell Channel, if the Landauer maxim, “Information is Physical”, is entirely true?
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[97] viXra:1606.0111 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-12 03:44:39

Energy Conversion Mechanics for Photon Emission Per Non-Local Hidden-Variable Theory

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 27 Pages. Published as: Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., & Pons, A. J. (2016). Energy conversion mechanics for photon emission per non-local hidden-variable theory. Journal of Modern Physics, 7(10), 1049-1067. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2016.710094

Problem- Energy conversion processes in optical phenomena are incompletely explained by wave theory or quantum mechanics. There is a need for ontologically rich explanations at the level of individual particles. Purpose- This paper reports on the application of a non-local hidden-variable solution called the Cordus theory to this problem. The method is directed to the systematic development of a conceptual framework of proposed causal mechanisms. Findings- It has long been known that the bonding commitments of the electron affect its energy behaviour but the mechanisms for this have been elusive. We show how the degree of bonding constraint on the electron determines how it processes excess energy. A key concept is that the span and frequency of the electron are inversely proportional. This explains why energy changes cause positional distress for the electron. Natural explanations are given for multiple emission phenomena: Absorbance; Saturation; Beer-Lambert law; Colour; Quantum energy states; Directional emission; Photoelectric effect; Emission of polarised photons from crystals; Refraction effects; Reflection; Transparency; Birefringence; Cherenkov radiation; Bremsstrahlung and Synchrotron radiation; Phase change at reflection; Force impulse at reflection and radiation pressure; Simulated emission (Laser). Originality- The paper elucidates a mechanism for how the electron responds to combinations of bonding constraint and pumped energy. The crucial insight is that the electron size and position(s) are coupled attributes of its frequency and energy, where the coupling is achieved via physical substructures. The theory is able to provide a logically coherent explanation for a wide variety of energy conversion phenomena.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[96] viXra:1606.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-08 09:27:43

A.A.A.S. Conference: “2nd Law Challenges” University of San Diego 2016, Maxwell Demons by Phase Transitions Severing the Link Between Physics and Information Theory

Authors: Remi Cornwall
Comments: 33 Pages. 1st draft

The search for new power sources has increasingly challenged the second law of thermodynamics; one such cycle is presented herein with both experimental and rigorous theoretical underpinnings. These analyses, both kinetic and thermodynamic inevitably lead to the Maxwell Demon problem. It is clear that, against the Szilard-Brillouin-Landauer argument, that phase transition processes in conjunction with the cycle and apparatus requires no molecular information to be kept, negating the argument and need that the demon’s entropy change by 1/2kTln 2 per molecule processed. The Demon was thought to bring Information into the fold of Physics. We ask the question, if all computing can be made reversible by heat recovery and furthermore, if the speed of information appears not to be limited by Relativity, due to the author’s protocol to send classical data over an entangled Bell Channel, if the Landauer maxim, “Information is Physical”, is entirely true?
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[95] viXra:1605.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-22 00:47:28

Dark Energy and Arrow of Time

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

For years, physicists have attempted to explain dark energy - a mysterious influence that pushes space apart faster than gravity can pull the things in it together. But physics isn’t always about figuring out what things are. A lot of it is figuring out what things cause. And in a recent paper, a group of physicists asked this very question about dark energy, and found that in some cases, it might cause time to go forward. [5] The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community—it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[94] viXra:1605.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-14 14:42:02

Van der Waals Forces Measured

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Physicists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute and the University of Basel have succeeded in measuring the very weak van der Waals forces between individual atoms for the first time. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[93] viXra:1604.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-10 10:30:47

Ghostly Transfer of Heat

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

In a recent study, a researcher at Princeton and colleagues at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have come up with a formula that describes the maximum heat transfer in such tight scenarios. Surprisingly— and encouragingly—the formula suggests that a million times more heat transfer is possible between close objects than previously thought. [13] Scientists at Aalto University, Finland, have made a breakthrough in physics. They succeeded in transporting heat maximally effectively ten thousand times further than ever before. The discovery may lead to a giant leap in the development of quantum computers. [12] Maxwell's demon, a hypothetical being that appears to violate the second law of thermodynamics, has been widely studied since it was first proposed in 1867 by James Clerk Maxwell. But most of these studies have been theoretical, with only a handful of experiments having actually realized Maxwell's demon. [11] In 1876, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann noticed something surprising about his equations that describe the flow of heat in a gas. Usually, the colliding gas particles eventually reach a state of thermal equilibrium, the point at which no net flow of heat energy occurs. But Boltzmann realized that his equations also predict that, when gases are confined in a specific way, they should remain in persistent non-equilibrium, meaning a small amount of heat is always flowing within the system. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[92] viXra:1603.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-16 05:12:57

Quantum Thermometer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Better thermometers might be possible as a result of a discovery at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), where physicists have found a way to calibrate temperature measurements by monitoring the tiny motions of a nanomechanical system that are governed by the often counterintuitive rules of quantum mechanics. [13] Scientists at Aalto University, Finland, have made a breakthrough in physics. They succeeded in transporting heat maximally effectively ten thousand times further than ever before. The discovery may lead to a giant leap in the development of quantum computers. [12] Maxwell's demon, a hypothetical being that appears to violate the second law of thermodynamics, has been widely studied since it was first proposed in 1867 by James Clerk Maxwell. But most of these studies have been theoretical, with only a handful of experiments having actually realized Maxwell's demon. [11] In 1876, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann noticed something surprising about his equations that describe the flow of heat in a gas. Usually, the colliding gas particles eventually reach a state of thermal equilibrium, the point at which no net flow of heat energy occurs. But Boltzmann realized that his equations also predict that, when gases are confined in a specific way, they should remain in persistent non-equilibrium, meaning a small amount of heat is always flowing within the system. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[91] viXra:1603.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-08 03:32:20

Entropy at the Level of Individual Particles: Analysis of Maxwell's Agent with a Hidden-Variable Theory

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 27 Pages.

Problem- Maxwell's Agent (MA) is a thought experiment about whether the Second Law is violated at smaller scales. This is a complex problem because the scale dependencies are unclear for perfect gas assumptions, quantum coherence, thermalisation, and contextual measurement. Purpose- The MA is explored from a non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) perspective. Approach- The Cordus theory, a specific NLHV solution, was applied at macroscopic to fundamental scales. Physical realism requires the Agent be included in the analysis. Findings- The primary function is sorting, i.e. a one-time separation of species by some attribute. The thermodynamic MA situation is merely a special case for reducing disorder (entropy). A one-time extraction of energy is possible. This requires input energy, hence the device only has thermodynamic leverage and is not a perpetual motion device. Inefficiencies arise from thermalisation causing short mean free path of Brownian motion, perfect gases having minimal interaction with the gate, ambiguity about spatial location arising from quantum superposition, contextual measurement interfering with the particle velocity, and bremsstrahlung hysteresis losses occurring when the Agent operates. Implications- Entropy is a group property at the bulk level, not a characteristic of the individual particle, and can be reversed at an energy cost at the particle level. Originality- The explanation spans multiple levels from macroscopic down to fundamental, which is unusual. Achieving an explanation from the NLHV sector is novel. The theory accommodates superposition, irreversibility, entropy, contextual measurement, coherence-discord transition, and Brownian motion.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[90] viXra:1602.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-29 12:11:59

Planck’s Theory of Heat Radiation Criticized

Authors: Sjaak Uitterdijk
Comments: 18 Pages.

Robitaille and Crothers wrote an article [1] with the same purpose: to present the mistakes in Planck’s Theory of Heat Radiation and in Kirchhoff’s law of thermal emission. In this article an alternative approach is taken, leading to a support of the conclusion of Robitaille and Crothers. In my own words: Planck, indeed, made a scientific mess of it! Not only Planck's theory makes no sense, the current presentation of this theory turns out to be of this low level too.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[89] viXra:1602.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-15 10:56:08

Heat Transport by Photons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Scientists at Aalto University, Finland, have made a breakthrough in physics. They succeeded in transporting heat maximally effectively ten thousand times further than ever before. The discovery may lead to a giant leap in the development of quantum computers. [12] Maxwell's demon, a hypothetical being that appears to violate the second law of thermodynamics, has been widely studied since it was first proposed in 1867 by James Clerk Maxwell. But most of these studies have been theoretical, with only a handful of experiments having actually realized Maxwell's demon. [11] In 1876, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann noticed something surprising about his equations that describe the flow of heat in a gas. Usually, the colliding gas particles eventually reach a state of thermal equilibrium, the point at which no net flow of heat energy occurs. But Boltzmann realized that his equations also predict that, when gases are confined in a specific way, they should remain in persistent non-equilibrium, meaning a small amount of heat is always flowing within the system. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[88] viXra:1602.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-12 12:36:14

Photonic Maxwell's Demon

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Maxwell's demon, a hypothetical being that appears to violate the second law of thermodynamics, has been widely studied since it was first proposed in 1867 by James Clerk Maxwell. But most of these studies have been theoretical, with only a handful of experiments having actually realized Maxwell's demon. [11] In 1876, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann noticed something surprising about his equations that describe the flow of heat in a gas. Usually, the colliding gas particles eventually reach a state of thermal equilibrium, the point at which no net flow of heat energy occurs. But Boltzmann realized that his equations also predict that, when gases are confined in a specific way, they should remain in persistent non-equilibrium, meaning a small amount of heat is always flowing within the system. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[87] viXra:1602.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-01 08:30:24

Further Insight Relative to Cavity Radiation III: Gedanken Experiments, Irreversibility, and Kirchhoff's Law

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 4 pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2016, v. 12, no. 1, 85-88.

Recently, gedanken experiments have been proposed in order to examine the validity of Kirchhoff’s Law of Thermal Emission (P.-M. Robitaille, Further Insight Relative to Cavity Radiation: A Thought Experiment Refuting Kirchhoff’s Law, Prog. Phys., 2014, v. 10, no. 1, 38–40; P.-M. Robitaille, Further Insight Relative to Cavity Radiation II: Gedanken Experiments and Kirchhoff’s Law, Prog. Phys., 2014, v. 10, no. 2, 116–120). In the second of these works, real materials (i.e. graphite a nd silver) were utilized in order to construct two separate cavities at the same temperature which are then placed in thermal contact with one another. It was hypothesized that the graphite cavity initially contained blackbody radiation and that the silver cavity was devoid of radiation. In the case of the silver cavity, all of the energy of the system was assigned to the phonons in its walls. When the cavities were brought together and a small hole introduced between the cavities, it was hypothesized that thermal contact between the cavity walls would enable the transformation of phonon energy into photon energy, eventually resulting in filling the silver cavity with black radiation. Energy contained within the wall of the silver cavity was believed to be reversibly trapped. However, in allowing energy to flow reversibly out of the walls of the silver cavity in this context, it has been assumed that the silver conduction bands could be neglected and that only phonon energy need be considered. However, the reflectivity attributed to the silver cavity should be considered uniquely as a result of energy associated with the formation of its conduction bands. Such formation must be considered irreversible. It will be demonstrated that under these conditions Kirchhoff’s law, once again, does not hold. The lack of thermal radiation within the silver cavity does not lead to a violation of the second law of thermodynamics.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[86] viXra:1602.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-01 08:44:56

A Re-examination of Kirchhoff's Law of Thermal Radiation in Relation to Recent Criticisms: Reply

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 20 pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2016, v. 12, no. 3, 184-203.

Recently, Robert J. Johnson submitted an analysis of my work, relative to Kirchhoff’s Law of Thermal Emission (R.J. Johnson, A Re-examination of Kirchhoff’s Law of Thermal Radiation in Relation to Recent Criticisms. Prog. Phys., 2016, v. 12, no. 3,175–183) in which he reached the conclusion that “Robitaille’s claims are not sustainable and that Kirchhoff’s Law and Planck’s proof remain valid in the situations for which they were intended to apply, including in cavities with walls of any arbitrary materials in thermal equilibrium”. However, even a cursory review of Johnson’s letter reveals that his conclusions are unjustified. No section constitutes a proper challenge to my writings. Nonetheless, his letter is important, as it serves to underscore the impossibility of defending Kirchhoff’s work. At the onset, Kirchhoff formulated his law, based solely on thought experiments and, without any experimental evidence (G. Kirchhoff, Uber das Verhaltnis zwischen dem Emissionsvermogen und dem Absorptionsvermogen der Korper fur Warme und Licht. Pogg. Ann. Phys. Chem., 1860,v. 109, 275–301). Thought experiments, not laboratory confirmation, remain the basis on which Kirchhoff’s law is defended, despite the passage of 150 years. For his part, Max Planck tried to derive Kirchhoff’s Law by redefining the nature of a blackbody and relying on the use of polarized radiation, even though he realized that heat radiation is never polarized (Planck M. The Theory of Heat radiation. P. Blakiston’s Son & Co., Philadelphia, PA, 1914). In advancing his proof of Kirchhoff’s Law, Max Planck concluded that the reflectivities of any two arbitrary materials must be equal, though he argued otherwise (see P.-M. Robitaille and S.J. Crothers, “The Theory of Heat Radiation” Revisited: A Commentary on the Validity of Kirchhoff’s Law of Thermal Emission and Max Planck’s Claim of Universality. Prog. Phys., 2015, v. 11, no. 2, 120–132). Planck’s Eq. 40 (ρ=ρ’), as presented in his textbook, constituted a violation of known optics. Planck reached this conclusion, because he did not properly treat absorption and invoked polarized light in his derivation. Planck also made use of a carbon particle, which he characterized as a simple catalyst. This conjecture can be shown to result in a violation of the First Law of thermodynamics, if indeed, all cavities must contain black radiation. In the end, while Johnson attempts to defend Planck’s proof, his arguments fall short. Though the author has argued that Kirchhoff’s law lacks both proper theoretical and experimental proof, Johnson avoids advancing any experimental evidence from the literature for his position. It remains the case that experimental data does not support Kirchhoff’s claims and no valid theoretical proof exists.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[85] viXra:1601.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-25 06:06:21

Response to “Comment on ‘Zero and Negative Energy Dissipation at Information-Theoretic Erasure’”

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-Goran Granqvist, Sunil P. Khatri, Ferdinand Peper
Comments: 5 Pages. Accepted for publication in the Journal of Computational Electronics

We prove that statistical information theoretic quantities, such as information entropy, cannot generally be interrelated with the lower limit of energy dissipation during information erasure. We also point out that, in deterministic and error-free computers, the information entropy of memories does not change during erasure because its value is always zero. On the other hand, for information-theoretic erasure—i.e., “thermalization” / randomization of the memory—the originally zero information entropy (with deterministic data in the memory) changes after erasure to its maximum value, 1 bit / memory bit, while the energy dissipation is still positive, even at parameters for which the thermodynamic entropy within the memory cell does not change. Information entropy does not convert to thermodynamic entropy and to the related energy dissipation; they are quantities of different physical nature. Possible specific observations (if any) indicating convertibility are at most fortuitous and due to the disregard of additional processes that are present.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[84] viXra:1601.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-20 23:48:28

Numerical-Analytical Assessment on Solar Chimney Power Plant

Authors: Nima Fathi, Seyed Sobhan Aleyasin, Peter Vorobieff
Comments: 14 Pages. Preprint

This study considers an appropriate expression to estimate the output power of solar chimney power plant systems (SCPPS). Recently several mathematical models of a solar chimney power plant were derived, studied for a variety of boundary conditions, and compared against CFD calculations. An important concern for modeling SCPPS is about the accuracy of the derived pressure drop and output power equation. To elucidate the matter, axisymmetric CFD analysis was performed to model the solar chimney power plant and calculate the output power for diffrent available solar irradiation. Both analytical and numerical results were compared against the available experimental data from the Manzanares power plant. We also evaluated the fidelity of the assumptions underlying the derivation and present reasons to believe that some of the derived equations, specially the power equation in this model, may require a correction to be applicable in more realistic conditions. This paper provides an approach to estimate the output power with respect to radiation available to the collector.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[83] viXra:1601.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-04 08:24:47

Motion of an Object Due to the Adjusted Rate of Modifications Performed on Its Environment

Authors: François Barriquand
Comments: 13 Pages.

A special statistical model illustrates how an object can move anisotropically in two dimensions by taking advantage of some controlled modifications of its environment, under the condition that the rate of such modifications depends on the position of the object under study.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[82] viXra:1512.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-18 04:33:18

Heat, Work and Illusion: the Case of the Rankine Cycle

Authors: Sosale Chandrasekhar
Comments: 8 Pages.

It is argued that no net conversion of heat to work occurs in the Rankine engine, and that the putative work obtained originates in the higher pressure at which the vaporized liquid is maintained. Thus, although heat is employed to convert the working liquid to vapour, this remains as such upon performance of the work (typically, rotation of a turbine). The heat is let out to the surroundings upon condensing the vapour, which is then compressed for the next cycle of operations. This ensures that the vapour is again produced at a relatively high pressure. Thus, the expansion work obtained would only depend on the pressure drop experienced by the vapour within the turbine. Therefore, the above compression stage is the sole driver of the process. The invalidity of the Rankine cycle – much like that of the Carnot cycle – indicates the improbability of converting heat to work in a sealed system operating within a closed loop. In fact, the traditional steam engine is based on the build-up of pressure brought on by the rapid vaporization of a mass of water in a confined space. The resulting steam then expands directly within a chamber designed to capture the work. The process is driven by the transfer of a large mass of steam, with a concomitant pressure drop, through a turbine. In the Rankine cycle, however, the vapour produced initially is allowed to expand at constant pressure – thus expending its thermal energy acquired during vaporization – before being led into the turbine.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[81] viXra:1512.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-13 08:22:04

Something Inert Releasing Energy Into A System

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: 1 Page.

How Energy actually works.
Something inert can release energy into a system.
The string Particle Field is everywhere, attached to everything and is loaded with tension.
When anything happens in it... like inert proton strings unballing / unwinding it causes a disruption in the field and that is energy.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[80] viXra:1511.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-24 18:59:50

The Mind of God Problem

Authors: Jeffrey Stevens
Comments: 120 Pages.

Speed=C= DISTANCE/TIME=0
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[79] viXra:1511.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-19 10:40:55

Dark Matter and Life's Origin

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

The new limits on the dark matter interaction strength allow for the possibility that an oscillating, low-mass dark matter field coupled to standard model particles causes variations in the fundamental constants. As the scientists explain, this could have important implications for understanding life's origins. [11] Could scientists use the Second Law of Thermodynamics on your chewing muscles to work out when you are going to die? According to research published in the International Journal of Exergy, the level of entropy, or thermodynamic disorder, in the chewing muscles in your jaw increases with each mouthful. This entropy begins to accumulate from the moment you're "on solids" until your last meal, but measuring it at any given point in your life could be used to estimate life expectancy. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[78] viXra:1510.0510 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-30 11:15:57

Scientists Experimentally Demonstrate 140-Year-Old Prediction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

In 1876, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann noticed something surprising about his equations that describe the flow of heat in a gas. Usually, the colliding gas particles eventually reach a state of thermal equilibrium, the point at which no net flow of heat energy occurs. But Boltzmann realized that his equations also predict that, when gases are confined in a specific way, they should remain in persistent non-equilibrium, meaning a small amount of heat is always flowing within the system. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[77] viXra:1510.0457 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 09:21:37

An Equivalent Circuit Modeling Self Heating Induced InterModulation Distortion in Microwave Interconnects

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 8 Pages.

Self-heating is an undesirable phenomenon, causing intermodulation distortion in RF frequencies. The theories pertinent to passive electrothermal theory are studied, and the phenomenon giving rise to self-heating is represented as an RC equivalent circuit. After validation of the model with established experimental observations, the model is applied to various microwave transmission line configurations (coplanar and microstrip) considering various material configurations. After extracting certain useful inferences, the model is applied to smart materials such as Titanium Dioxide.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[76] viXra:1510.0456 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 09:22:35

Harmonic Elimination using Giant-K Planar Filters

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper design of low loss passive planar low pass filter for reducing harmonics in a frequently used voltage source type nonlinear load in low voltage distribution system is proposed. The filter is comprised of a lumped high impedance line inductor made of fused silica and an interdigitated capacitor that is made of La0.5Na0.5Cu3Ti4O12 giant K material. An extensive simulation of single phase diode bridge rectifier with designed filter is carried out by employing Spice software. The subsequent analyses reveal very low insertion loss for the proposed filter. Furthermore, low total harmonic distortion values conforming to IEEE standards and 3dB cut-off in the range of 75Hz, are obtained. This enables the designed low pass filter to effectively eliminate higher order harmonics over the entire wide band in single stretch. The usage of fractal based capacitor structure with giant K resulting in large capacitance value of the order of 3mF, small size, and the effective harnessing of temperature dependent resistance in the inductor leading to stable cut-off frequency even amidst dynamic load variation form the crux of the present work.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[75] viXra:1510.0403 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-27 03:10:06

Modeling of Two-Dimension Solid Dissolution Based on Granular Particle Interaction: A Simple Approach for Tablet Dissolution Simulation in 2-D

Authors: Sparisoma Viridi, Suprijadi, Rachmat Mauludin, Hendy Hertiasa
Comments: 10 pages, 8 figures, 1 table, conference paper (ICPAPS, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, 7-8 September 2015)

Simulation of 2-d rectangular tablet dissolution is constructed based on short range granular interaction through repulsive and attractive force. The former is based on linear spring-dashpot model, while the later is gravitation-like force. Fluid particles around the tablet is obeying Maxwell speed distribution, which can be tuned through temperature. Dissolution process seems to be influenced by the temperature.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[74] viXra:1510.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-15 09:16:22

Problem of Thermally Driven Diffusion in Terms of Occupation Numbers

Authors: I. V. Drozdov
Comments: 8 Pages.

In the new approach to the diffusion problem conventional statistical derivation is reconsidered deterministically using the partition function for thermal velocities. The resulting relation for time evolution of particle distribution is an integro-differential equation. Its first approximation provides the conventional partial differential equation - the second Fick's law with the diffusion transport coefficient proportional to the temperature.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[73] viXra:1510.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-12 15:36:35

From Thermokinetics to the Energodynamics

Authors: Etkin V.A.
Comments: 16 Pages.

The author generalizes thermodynamics of irreversible processes on processes of useful transformation of energy in thermal and not thermal, cyclic and not cyclic engines. For this purpose it suggests to find thermodynamic forces Xi and flows Ji from the energy conservation law, but not “entropy production”. Further it opens indissoluble communication of processes of transfer and transformation of any forms of energy, unity of their laws and existence for them antisymmetric reciprocal relations, confirming their fairness on a wide class of the processes, submitting to Maxwell’s equations.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[72] viXra:1510.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-01 06:18:12

Further Insights on the New Concept of Heat for Open Systems

Authors: Juan Ramón González Álvarez
Comments: 7 Pages.

A new definition of heat for open systems, with a number of advantages over previous definitions, was introduced in [2013}; Int. J. Therm., 16(3), 102--108]. We extend the previous work by analyzing the production of entropy and showing that the new definition of heat appears naturally as the proper flow [«flux density»] conjugate to the gradient of temperature, with the previous definitions only considering a subset of the physical effects associated to this gradient. We also revisit the transfer of heat in multicomponent systems, confirming the identity derived in the previous work for the identification of thermal effects associated to each one of the chemical potentials in the system. The new definition of heat was previously obtained within the scope of the traditional thermodynamics of irreversible processes (TIP), which has a limited field of applicability to macroscopic systems with no too strong gradients and not too fast processes. We extend now the new definition of heat to more general situations and to the quantum level of description using a standard non-commutative phase space, with the former TIP-level definition recovered from partial integration.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[71] viXra:1509.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-15 14:32:22

Airfoil Force Approach to the Rocket Propulsion

Authors: Oliver R Jovanovic
Comments: 5 Pages.

Note that in "Airfoil force approach", force (rocket thrust) has quadratic dependence on the velocity. This quadratic dependence on the velocity is giving us opportunity to reduce rate of mass ejection (fuel loss).
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[70] viXra:1508.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2015-08-08 01:04:51

Model-Based Analysis of Hypothalamus Controlled Fever: the Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamic Aspect

Authors: Feng Lin
Comments: 24 Pages. interdiscipline of medical science and non-equilibrium thermodynamics

We focus on the symptom of hypothalamus controlled fever, which is in fact a problem related to non-equilibrium system. Since live human body has constant temperature, whose dissipation is easy to be figured out by observation, it is a suitable candidate for non-equilibrium system to study. In our paper, human body is regarded as a 2-compartment-system: one is the chemical-reaction network, the other is observed by mechanical motion which means the vital signs apart from body temperature. Van der Pol model is used to describe the overall effect of chemical reaction network in human body. When the parameter of mathematical model is set to guarantee the mathematical model to be in limit cycle oscillation state, the energy absorbtion and releasing is computed. With the help of body temperature, which can be observed, the energy metabolism of overall effect of chemical reaction network is figured out. We have figured out the conditions when human is at healthy and fever how the mathematical respond. This response is just the overall effect of chemical reaction network. This research may be capable of answering the question whether fever is a kind of illness or some response of body to maintain its life? From our study, hypothalamus controlled fever is beneficial to maintain life.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[69] viXra:1507.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-30 08:30:56

Zero and Negative Energy Dissipation at Information-Theoretic Erasure

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Claes G. Granqvist, Sunil P. Khatri, Ferdinand Peper
Comments: 4 Pages. second draft

We introduce information-theoretic erasure based on Shannon’s binary channel formula. It is pointed out that this type of erasure is a natural energy-dissipation-free way in which information is lost in double-potential-well memories, and it may be the reason why the brain can forget things effortlessly. We also demonstrate a new non-volatile, charge-based memory scheme wherein the erasure can be associated with even negative energy dissipation; this implies that the memory’s environment is cooled during information erasure and contradicts Landauer’s principle of erasure dissipation. On the other hand, writing new information into the memory always requires positive energy dissipation.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[68] viXra:1506.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-27 14:12:35

Information Conversion to Energy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 8 Pages.

Physicists in Japan have shown experimentally that a particle can be made to do work simply by receiving information, rather than energy. They say that their demonstration, which uses a feedback system to control the electric potential of tiny polystyrene beads, does not violate the second law of thermodynamics and could in future lead to new types of microscopic devices. [9] Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[67] viXra:1506.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-13 11:36:28

Thermalization of Gases: A First Principles Approach

Authors: Clifford Chafin
Comments: 17 Pages.

Previous approaches of emergent thermalization for condensed matter based on typical wavefunctions are extended to generate an intrinsically quantum theory of gases. Gases are fundamentally quantum objects at all temperatures, by virtue of rapid delocalization of their constituents. When there is a sufficiently broad spread in the energy of eigenstates, a well- defined temperature is shown to arise by photon production when the samples are optically thick. This produces a highly accurate approximation to the Planck distribution so that thermalization arises from the initial data as a consequence of purely quantum and unitary dynamics. These results are used as a foil for some common hydrodynamic theory for ultracold gases. It is suggested here that strong history dependence typically remains in these gases and so limits the validity of thermodynamics in their description. These problems are even more profound in the extension of hydrodynamics to such gases when they are optically thin, even when their internal energy is not low. We investigate rotation of elliptically trapped gases and consistency problems with deriving a local hydrodynamic approach. The presence of vorticity that is “hidden” from order parameter approaches is discussed along with some buoyancy intrinsically associated with vorticity that gives essential quantum corrections to gases in the regimes where standard perturbation approaches to the Boltzmann equations are known to fail to converge. These results suggest that studying of trapped gases in the far from ultracold regions may yield interesting results not described by classical hydrodynamics.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[66] viXra:1505.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-23 00:03:25

Energy Nonconservation Experimental Facts Ignored by Millikan in 1916

Authors: Fei Tan
Comments: 5 Pages.

Basing on analyses for the data of photoeffect, observed by Millikan in 1916, this paper finds that the energy in the photoeffect are not conservative obviously nearby the cutoff frequency, and that the scales of the nonconservative energy fit quantitatively the theoretical prediction in 2013. The causes that the energy nonconservation phenomenon was ignored by Millikan in 1916 are: (1). The wrong measurement made by Millikan’s assistant for the relative intensity of the spectrum of his mercury lamp; (2). Absolute belief for the energy con-servation law in any cases.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[65] viXra:1505.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-13 18:16:33

The Gravitational Heat Exchanger

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 5 Pages.

The heat exchangers are present in many sectors of the economy. They are widely used in Refrigerators, Air-conditioners, Engines, Refineries, etc. Here we show a heat exchanger that works based on the gravity control. This type of heat exchanger can be much more economic than the conventional heat exchangers.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[64] viXra:1505.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-12 05:34:43

The Thermodynamics of Time

Authors: Rodrigo de Abreu
Comments: 9 Pages. Vértice 66/Maio-Junho, 23 (1995).

We connect the change of complex bodies (extended deformable bodies, not a particle) with the change of entropy, Thermodynamics with Time.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[63] viXra:1505.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-11 10:18:00

Temperature as a Concept Derived from Energy and Entropy.

Authors: Rodrigo de Abreu
Comments: 17 Pages. Ciência & Tecnologia dos Materiais, Vol. 15, nº 1/2, 23 (2003).

Temperature is introduced as a derived concept from energy and entropy. We consider two sub-systems in equilibrium for several configurations. The equality of temperature of the sub-systems is obtained from the equilibrium condition. The isothermal transformation is defined for several configurations and from this definition we obtain the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. We apply the analysis to the ideal gas. The classical ideal gas appears as a limit and the problem of the measurement of temperature is analysed.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[62] viXra:1505.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-11 07:27:49

About the Resolution of Some Conceptual Difficulties of Thermodynamics.

Authors: Rodrigo de Abreu
Comments: 28 Pages. Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics Teaching Modern Physics, Badajoz (Spain) 1992.

Our goal is to achieve in a condensed way, the resolution of some difficulties about the conceptual foundations of Thermodynamics-problematic ideas are identified and analysed. These difficulties have been presented and published in several and incompatible ways but the subject is still controversial. Why is this controversy still unsolved or-and this is stranger-why do some authors refuse the existence of difficulties although the existence of incompatible formulations is a fact? How can a resolution be obtained after the problem has been clearly identified? The difficulties and the solution considered are related to the followings concepts: 1. The several concepts of Heat. 2. The several concepts of Force. 3. The First Law and the concepts presented on points 1 and 2. 4. The several concepts of reversibility and the concept of quasi-static transformation. 5. The introduction of entropy in a simple and straightforward way with a physical interpretation to circumvent and clarify all the difficulties identified-we propose an energy-entropy principle.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[61] viXra:1505.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-08 05:24:55

Resolution of Two Entropy Maximization Controversies.

Authors: Rodrigo de Abreu
Comments: 19 Pages. EPS-11:Trends in Physics, London (1999).

Irreversible interactions between two subsystems constituted by ideal gases are considered. Several processes conducting the gases to the final equilibrium point and the meaning of entropy production are analysed. If the interaction between the two subsystems results from the energy exchange through a fixed partition, it was demonstrated that the positive entropy production, the local law, is a consequence of the global entropy increase of the universe-it is not possible to have a negative entropy production. If the interaction results from the energy exchange netween the two subsystems through a moving partition it is not possible to define the entropy production generalising the expressions that can be attained for the first configuration. For the first case it is unnecessary. For the other it can not be defined. For the first case it gives a false interpretation [1, 2]. For the other it was the source of an impossibility statement that does not exist [3]. If this so, it is possible to understand what are the misconceptions and prejudices at the origin of two controversies [1-3]. [1] J. Belandria, J. Chem. Educ. 72, 116 (1995). [2] R. Battino, S. Wood, R. Freeman, L. Nash, W. Olivares, P. Colemenares, R. Tykody, J. Belandria, J. Chem. Educ. 74, 256 (1997). [3] A. Curzon and H. Leff, Am. J. Phys. 47, 385 (1979).
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[60] viXra:1504.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-24 07:56:32

The Difficulty of Attributing a Physical Significance to Quantities Work and Heat in the First Principle of Thermodynamics. The Resolution of an Entropy Maximization Controversy.

Authors: Rodrigo de Abreu
Comments: 9 Pages. Técnica 1, 53-61 (1994).

Two processes have been chosen to show the difficulty of attributing a physical significance to the first law - dU=dW+dQ, since it is not possible to separate the energetic exchange between two subsystems, dividing it into work - dW, and heat - dQ, with an energetic significance (attributed to each one of these terms), even if a "quasi-static" transformation is assumed. By analysing these processes we have shown that the First Law does not possess the significance commonly attributed to it. The analysis developed herein completes one recently published [3].
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[59] viXra:1504.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-20 06:39:55

Análise Dinâmica da Tendência Para O Equilíbrio Num Modelo Simples: a 2ª Lei de Newton F=ma e a 2ª Lei da Termodinâmica DS>0

Authors: Rodrigo de Abreu
Comments: 18 Pages. Ciência & Tecnologia dos Materiais, Vol. 14, Nº2/3, 65-72 (2002).

Neste artigo estabelecem-se as equações que permitem relacionar a tendência para o equilíbrio obtida por aplicação da 2ª Lei de Newton com a 2ª Lei da Termodinâmica. Esta análise permite, de uma forma simples e directa, relacionar a condição final de equilíbrio correspondente à aceleração e velocidade nulas (equilíbrio mecânico estático) com a estacionaridade da entropia (equilíbrio termodinâmico). Através da introdução do conceito de pressão dinâmica determinam-se a origem, significado e condições de validade de algumas aproximações da Termodinâmica.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[58] viXra:1504.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-20 05:30:11

Análise Termodinâmica da Aceleração de Uma Massa

Authors: Rodrigo de Abreu
Comments: 11 Pages. Ciência & Tecnologia dos Materiais, Vol. 14, Nº 4, 36-40 (2002).

We analyse the acceleration of a mass with a simple structure taking into account Thermodynamics. Two situations are analysed. The first one for the application of a localized force to a point of the mass. The second one for the application of a force to the entire mass. The two situations are not equivalent. For the first situation we have an increase of temperature of the mass, resulting from an internal damping, during a transient.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[57] viXra:1504.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-20 02:37:56

Sobre O Equilibrio DE Uma Parede ADIABÁTICA MÓVEL

Authors: Rodrigo de Abreu
Comments: 5 Pages. Ciência & Tecnologia dos Materiais, Vol. 13, Nº 1, 44-48 (2001).

Considera-se um Sistema constituído por dois sub-sistemas separados por uma parede adiabática móvel. Cada um destes sub-sistemas i (i=A,B) é constituido por Ni moléculas de gás. A condição final de equilíbrio corresponde à igualdade de pressões e de temperaturas de A e B. No entanto este resultado tem sido posto em causa e originado controvérsia em artigos e livros. Mostra-se a origem desta controvérsia e qual a forma de a resolver: as condições dQA= 0 e dQB= 0 impostas nas equações obtidas através do primeiro princípio da termodinâmica e baseadas na adiabaticidade da parede, são incompativeis com a condição de aumento de entropia global na transformação espontânea que se dá pelo movimento da parede até que as pressões e as temperaturas sejam iguais, verificando-se então a condição de equilibrio dST=0. Tiram-se conclusões divergentes das de um artigo recentemente publicado (Brogueira, P. e Dias de Deus, J. Gazeta de Física, vol. 18, Fasc. 1, 19 (1995)).
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[56] viXra:1504.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-19 12:23:22

The Ideal Gas Equation P=αu and the Energy-Entropy Principle

Authors: Rodrigo de Abreu
Comments: 7 Pages. Técnica 3, 15-21 (1994), (Int. Conf. on Phys. Ed. "Light and Information", Univ. do Minho, Braga, Portugal (1993).

The fundamental aim of this article is to show that by considering an ideal gas defined through p=αu, this relation between force and energy contains the whole thermodynamic information about the system. As a matter of fact we show that there is no need for an a priori introduction of the variables temperature or entropy since they result from the above relation and from the Energy Conservation Principle. Previous tautological treatments are thus eliminated and equations p=αu and pV = BT are related with generality. The theory is general since the ideal gas considered has the photon gas, which, of course, is ever present.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[55] viXra:1504.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-15 06:14:42

VARIAÇÃO DE Entropia e Reversibilidade

Authors: Rodrigo de Abreu
Comments: 4 Pages. Técnica 2, 100-104 (1985)

The <> of Thermodynamics is built upon the verification that the increase of energy in a system for a given value of the deformation variable increase the force exerted by the system on the outside. This being the case, the Second Principle is affirmed on the existence of a relation between energy, entropy and deformation variables, a relation which is not postulated but assumed on the basis of the above verification. In this way the Second Principle is established independently of the so called Zero and First Principles.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[54] viXra:1504.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-14 06:42:07

Análise Termodinâmica da Interacção de Uma Massa Com Uma Atmosfera

Authors: Rodrigo de Abreu
Comments: 13 Pages. Portuguese

Considera-se uma massa imersa numa atmosfera, infinita, constituída por um gás ideal clássico na presença de um campo gravitacional constante. A massa desloca-se de uma altura inicial em que está em repouso, até uma altura final de equilíbrio. Determina-se a variação de entropia da atmosfera devida ao movimento da massa entre a altura inicial e final, por dois métodos: através das relações que resultam de se considerar que a energia da atmosfera é função da altura em que se encontra a massa e da entropia, e através da estatística de Maxwell-Boltzmann. A variação de entropia é calculada na transformação irreversível resultante da variação de posição da massa. A interpretação do cálculo da variação de entropia através da estatística de Maxwell-Boltzmann é comparada com o cálculo feito através do outro método. Mostra-se a consistência das duas análises e interpreta-se físicamente. Considera-se, como caso particular, uma parte da atmosfera confinada a um cilindro provido de um êmbolo. A analogia entre este modelo e o considerado anteriormente permite ilustrar, através de um modelo concreto, o tratamento unificado da interacção entre sub-sistemas em transformações irreversíveis, origem de uma controvérsia bem conhecida.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[53] viXra:1504.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-13 14:21:13

The Concepts of "GORCE" and "GHEAT": What is the Problem with the First Law of Thermodynamics?

Authors: Rodrigo de Abreu
Comments: 7 Pages. Técnica 3, 47-53 (1994)

An analysis of the movement of a piston under the action of a constant gravitational field g and of the particle collisions of a gas can explain the difficulty of ascribing a physical meaning to the concept of force. The idea of force very naturally arises out of the anthropomorphic notion of weight. Newton's law f =dp/dt is a tautology as long as we have no definition of f which obviously cannot be defined as being "the product of mass by acceleration or as "the variation of the quantity of movement in order to time". As pointed out by Feynman, "Gorce is the rate of change of position", meaning that any definition is necessarily right, because for such a law to have physical meaning the concept of Gorce should be introduced independently of the variation of position in order to time (Feynman, Leighton and Sands 1976). In fact, the analysis of the previously mentioned movement of a piston shows that the force quantities are introduced independently of the dp/dt of the body considered, although they can be related to this quantity. The "force' due to weight results only from the fact that the acceleration of gravity for all bodies is g, g=d^2x/dt^22, or obviously mg=md^2x/dt^2. The force due to the particle collisions merely results from the global momentum conservation. This latter force is interpreted as the overlapping of an emitted beam and an absorbed beam. Such an interpretation makes it possible to show that for systems of variable mass f as dp/dt is an entity without physical meaning (Sommerfeld 1966), which allows to identify a controversy: the concept of force and the First Principle of Thermodynamics-the notion of "gheat".
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[52] viXra:1504.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-13 05:28:06

A Test for Space-Time Entropic Flow

Authors: Jeffrey M. Albert
Comments: 5 Pages. albertj001@roadrunner.com

A basic experiment is proposed to test the conjecture of space-time flow.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[51] viXra:1503.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-30 12:49:34

The Concept of System and the Physical Significance of the Quantities Work and Heat

Authors: Rodrigo de Abreu
Comments: 4 Pages. Técnica 1, 50-53 (1987).

In this paper the concept of system is related to the concepts of entropy, work and heat. Through the analysis of three models it is shown that the arbitrariness in the choice of the system is related to the existence of parts of the Universe whose energy is only a function of the deformation variables. For this reason those parts may or may not be included in the system or in the work term. With this in mind we propose a new interpretation of the quantity heat and a non orthodox enunciation of the Second Principle of Thermodynamics.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[50] viXra:1503.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-30 14:06:33

Critical Remarks on Landauer’s Principle of Erasure–dissipation. Including Notes on Maxwell Demons and Szilard Engines.

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-Goran Granqvist, Sunil P. Khatri, Janusz M. Smulko
Comments: 4 Pages. Accepted paper at the International Conference on Noise and Fluctuations (ICNF 2015); to be published in its IEEE proceedings.

We briefly address Landauer’s Principle and some related issues in thermal demons. We show that an error-free Turing computer works in the zero-entropy limit, which proves Landauer’s derivation incorrect. To have a physical logic gate, memory or information-engine, a few essential components necessary for the operation of these devices are often neglected, such as various aspects of control, damping and the fluctuation–dissipation theorem. We also point out that bit erasure is typically not needed or used for the functioning of computers or engines (except for secure erasure).
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[49] viXra:1503.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-28 12:23:31

A New Perspective in Thermodynamics: The Energy-Entropy Principle

Authors: Rodrigo de Abreu
Comments: 8 Pages. Técnica 2, 33-40 (1991)

In this paper, through the criticism of the paradigmatic view of thermodynamics, we aim at showing a new perspective attained in this matter. The generalization of heat as internal energy (generalization of the kinetic energy concept of heat) permits the generalization of the Kelvin postulate: "It is impossible, without another effect, to convert internal energy into work" (no reference to heat or to a heat reservoir).
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[48] viXra:1503.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-18 08:26:52

A One-Dimensional Model of Irreversibility

Authors: M. de Abreu Faro, Rodrigo de Abreu
Comments: 27 Pages. EPS 10 TRENDS IN PHYSICS 10th General Conference of the European Physica Society, Abstracts p. 314 (1996)

The main purpose of this paper is to show that it is possible to understand the origin of irreversibility with a simple one-dimensional model of a collisionless gas. We begin by studying a one-particle "gas" and then we generalise the results to an N-particle gas. The gas particles are enclosed in a cylinder and their movement is perpendicular to a frictionless piston. Only elastic collisions of the particles with the cylinder bottom and the piston are consider. In order to understand the origin of irreversibility we compare the solution obtained for the differential equation f=dp/dt, where the force f on the piston is due to the gravitational field and to the particle collisions on the piston, with the solution obtained for the momentum conservation law. When the number of particles increases and are not in phase, both solutions must agree most of the time in agreement with a statistical formulation. Therefore irreversibility exists in a model without friction between the piston and the cylinder wall and without heat flux between the gas and the exterior. And, although this is commonly suggested, it is not due to mathematical hypothesis like the use of a mean value for the force due to the particle collisions. In fact irreversibility has its origin in the interaction between the particles through the piston and then the statistical formulation agree with am exact and deterministic solution, most of the time and for most of the initial conditions, but not for all time and all the initial conditions.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[47] viXra:1503.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-17 07:29:53

Mechanics and Thermodynamics: a Semantic Problem of Classification Contribution to the Solution of a Controversial Issue

Authors: Rodrigo de Abreu
Comments: 6 Pages. Técnica 3, 39 (1991)

ABSTRACT An ill-formulated problem gives rise to paradoxes.However, once concepts are conveniently defined, such false paradoxes are easily eliminated. In mechanics,one of the concepts generally held as fundamental is the reversibility of its equations. Hence, the well-known statement that mechanics is irreconcilable with thermodynamics. We propose to show that only apparently are the two branches independent and that wrong assumptions are at the basis of this misinterpretation.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[46] viXra:1502.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-24 12:23:57

The Temperature of a System as a Function of the Multiplicity and its Rate of Change

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper I derive the formula for the temperature of a thermodynamic system as a function of the multiplicity (number of microstates) and its the rate of change with respect to the absorbed or lost energy. Then the formula is used to obtain the temperature-energy relation for a black hole assuming that the number of microstates is proportional to the energy of the emitted photon through either tunnelling effect or Hawking radiation.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[45] viXra:1502.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-16 16:26:35

All that Glitters is not Gold: Zero-Point Energy in the Johnson Noise of Resistors

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Kyle Sundqvist
Comments: 2 Pages. submitted for publication

The zero-point (quantum) term in the Johnson noise of resistors has been a controversial topic. In this talk, we add new arguments to the discussion to clarify the matter, however, open questions will still remain.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[44] viXra:1502.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-03 09:33:43

A Natural Brake on Global Warming?

Authors: Colin Bruce Jack
Comments: 7 Pages.

It is possible that a negative feedback cycle is responsible for the recent global warming ‘pause’ and will delay further warming for centuries.
The only necessary assumption is that organisms with access to a free source of energy will take advantage of it. These are poikilothermic animals which migrate vertically across the ocean thermocline. The change in body temperature which results can be used to generate energy for the animal’s use, using internal chemical mechanisms whose efficiency is limited by the Carnot cycle.
Even a small rise in surface temperature greatly increases the energy available to such animals, and will tend to increase their numbers and activity. A thermodynamically inevitable consequence is that increasing quantities of heat energy will be pumped down into the mid-depths, as is already observed to be happening.[1]
Confirmation of the effect would support Jeremy England’s hypothesis[2] that life tends to dissipate energy available from the environment at the highest possible rate. At the ecosystem level, an event such as a jellyfish bloom could be described as the available biomass reorganising itself from forms which perform modest vertical transport of heat, fish which carry ~2 kg of water per kg dry weight as they migrate, to forms which perform far more: jellyfish which carry up to 20 kg of water per kg dry weight internally, and can drag even larger quantities externally.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[43] viXra:1502.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-01 07:46:27

“The Theory of Heat Radiation” Revisited: A Commentary on the Validity of Kirchhoff’s Law of Thermal Emission and Max Planck’s Claim of Universality

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille, Stephen J. Crothers
Comments: 13 Pages. Published in Progress in Physics, 28 Jan 2015. No copyright limitations.

Affirming Kirchhoff’s Law of thermal emission, Max Planck conferred upon his own equation and its constants, h and k, universal significance. All arbitrary cavities were said to behave as blackbodies. They were thought to contain black, or normal radiation, which depended only upon temperature and frequency of observation, irrespective of the nature of the cavity walls. Today, laboratory blackbodies are specialized, heated devices whose interior walls are lined with highly absorptive surfaces, such as graphite, soot, or other sophisticated materials. Such evidence repeatedly calls into question Kirchhoff’s Law, as nothing in the laboratory is independent of the nature of the walls. By focusing on Max Planck’s classic text, “The Theory of Heat Radiation’, it can be demonstrated that the German physicist was unable to properly justify Kirchhoff’s Law. At every turn, he was confronted with the fact that materials possess frequency dependent reflectivity and absorptivity, but he often chose to sidestep these realities. He used polarized light to derive Kirchhoff’s Law, when it is well known that blackbody radiation is never polarized. Through the use of an element, dσ, at the bounding surface between two media, he reached the untenable position that arbitrary materials have the same reflective properties. His Eq. 40 (ρ=ρ′), constituted a dismissal of experimental reality. It is evident that if one neglects reflection, then all cavities must be black. Unable to ensure that perfectly reflecting cavities can be filled with black radiation, Planck inserted a minute carbon particle, which he qualified as a “catalyst”. In fact, it was acting as a perfect absorber, fully able to provide, on its own, the radiation sought. In 1858, Balfour Stewart had outlined that the proper treatment of cavity radiation must include reflection. Yet, Max Planck did not cite the Scottish scientist. He also did not correctly address real materials, especially metals, from which reflectors would be constructed. These shortcomings led to universality, an incorrect conclusion. Arbitrary cavities do not contain black radiation. Kirchhoff’s formulation is invalid. As a direct consequence, the constants h and k do not have fundamental meaning and along with “Planck length”, “Planck time”, “Planck mass”, and “Planck temperature”, lose the privileged position they once held in physics.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[42] viXra:1501.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-06 02:06:03

Classical Thermodynamics as a Consequence of Spacetime Geometry

Authors: Jay R. Yablon
Comments: 10 Pages.

Just as Maxwell’s magnetic equations emerge entirely from dd = 0 of exterior calculus applied to a gauge potential A, so too does the second law of thermodynamics emerge from applying dd=0 to a scalar potential s. If we represent this as dds = dU = 0, then when the Gauss / Stokes theorem is used to obtain the integral formulation of this equation, and after breaking a time loop that appears in the integral equation, we find that U behaves precisely like the internal energy state variable, and that the second law of thermodynamics for irreversible processes naturally emerges.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[41] viXra:1411.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-04 05:38:53

A Relation Between Radiation and Temperature

Authors: José Francisco García Juliá
Comments: 4 Pages.

It is obtained a relation between the radiated energy density and the absolute temperature.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[40] viXra:1409.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-03 12:04:38

Extension on the Gibbs Paradox

Authors: Ikonomis Ilias
Comments: 4 Pages. Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0

There are several versions and continuous discussion of the so-called Gibbs paradox. In this paper we are not trying to prove one more time that there is no paradox or that there is one, but to prove that similarity of different gases, or otherwise gases than slightly differ, leads to the violation of the second law of thermodynamics.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[39] viXra:1408.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-23 21:34:17

A Judgment Experimental Design About the Basic Principles of Newtonian Mechanics and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

Authors: LI WeiGang
Comments: 4 Pages.

This paper describes an experimental design similar to “Maxwell’s demon”. Compared with the “Maxwell's demon” scheme, the proposed experiment does not need intelligence that is necessary for “Maxwell’ demon” when working. Moreover, the program is not an ideal experiment only performed in thought. It can be implemented realistically. The design fully follows the basic principles of Newtonian mechanics but contradicts the second law of thermodynamics. The experimental design suggests that there is a logical contradiction between the basic principles of Newtonian mechanics and the second law of thermodynamics.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[38] viXra:1408.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-18 13:15:22

Demons: Maxwell’s Demon, Szilard’s Engine and Landauer’s Erasure–dissipation

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-Goran Granqvist, Sunil Khatri, He Wen
Comments: 6 Pages. In: Proceedings of the first conference on Hot Topics in Physical Informatics (HoTPI, 2013 November). Paper is in press at International Journal of Modern Physics: Conference Series (2014).

This talk addressed the following questions in the public debate at HoTPI: (i) energy dissipation limits of switches, memories and control; (ii) whether reversible computers are possible, or does their concept violate thermodynamics; (iii) Szilard’s engine, Maxwell’s demon and Landauer’s principle: corrections to their exposition in the literature; (iv) whether Landauer’s erasure–dissipation principle is valid, if the same energy dissipation holds for writing information, or if it is invalid; and (v) whether (non-secure) erasure of memories, or the writing of the same amount of information, dissipates most heat.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[37] viXra:1407.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-08 08:53:41

Divergence in the Stefan-Boltzmann law at High Energy Density Conditions

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 4 Pages.

It was recently detected an unidentified emission line in the stacked X-ray spectrum of galaxy clusters. Since this line is not catalogued as being the emission of a known chemical element, several hypotheses have been proposed, for example that it is of a known chemical element but with an emissivity of 10 or 20 times the expected theoretical value. Here we show that there is a divergence in the Stefan-Boltzmann equation at high energy density conditions. This divergence is related to the correlation between gravitational mass and inertial mass, and it can explain the increment in the observed emissivity.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[36] viXra:1406.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-19 14:37:41

Second-Law-Attack, and Eliminating All Cable Resistance Attacks in the Johnson Noise Based Secure Scheme

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-Goran Granqvist
Comments: 4 Pages. first version

We introduce the so far most efficient attack against the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key exchanger. The attack utilizes the lack of exact thermal equilibrium at practical applications due to the cable resistance loss. Thus the Second Law of Thermodynamics cannot provide full security. While the new attack does not challenge the unconditional security of the KLJN scheme, due to its more favorable properties for Eve, it requires higher requirements for the security/privacy enhancing protocol than any earlier versions. We create a simple defense protocol to fully eliminate this attack by increasing the noise-temperature at the side of the lower resistance value. We show that, this simple defense protocol totally eliminates Eve's information not only in this but also in the old (Bergou)-Scheuer-Yariv attack. Thus the so far most efficient attack methods become useless against the KLJN scheme.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[35] viXra:1406.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-17 12:16:46

An Electrostatic Analogue for the Novel Temporary Magnetic Remanence Thermodynamic Cycles

Authors: Remi Cornwall
Comments: 5 Pages. Needs background of viXra:1311.0078 and viXra:1311.0089

This paper follows on from the exposition of the new temporary magnetic remanence cycles and looks at the similarities and subtle differences in the electrostatic analogue. Only the electromagnetics is analysed as the kinetic theory and thermodynamic analysis is almost exactly the same as the magnetic case.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[34] viXra:1406.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-13 01:00:31

On Absorption of the Fation Gas by FSP

Authors: Nikolay V. Dibrov
Comments: 2 Pages.

Abstract. An expression for the energy fations absorbed by the fundamental sub-particle (FSP) is derived.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[33] viXra:1405.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-17 13:57:24

MAXWELL’S Demon Kind Machines

Authors: Ikonomis Ilias
Comments: 15 Pages. Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0

In this paper, we propose several Maxwell’s demon-like machines. Most of them are made from semipermeable membranes, thermal engines, and ideal gases. The presentation of each machine is followed by few thermodynamic calculations and conclusions. Most of solutions are done by means of classical thermodynamics but references to statistical thermodynamics are also done. Our demons are non-sentient, they act by natural processes [2]. Our hypothetical semipermeable membranes do all the work, without the need of external work, information storage or other entropy increasing mechanisms. As Maxwell’s demon thought experiment has been widely used in papers regarding information entropy, computing etc we must clarify that our demons have nothing to do with the above, but only with a “thermodynamic” world.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[32] viXra:1403.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 07:34:53

Defeating the 2ND Law of Thermodynamics with Quantum-Entangled Bits

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 3 Pages.

Disorder (entropy) increases over time. This is known as the 2nd law of thermodynamics. In the 1860s, physicist James Clerk Maxwell invented the hypothetical "Maxwell's Demon" - this classic thought experiment could break the law by sorting hot and cold gas particles without expending any energy. 150 years later, a research team in the USA has published a mathematical model envisioning a machine which really could decrease entropy without using energy. It would only need a supply of bits – the binary digits of 0 and 1 – with which to encode information about the particles. Such a machine may supply infinite energy in the future, according to team member Dibyendu Mandal. But it would require about 200 x 10^18 bytes to heat a gram of water by just a single degree Celsius – at present, an overwhelming demand on data storage. (from “Conquering a Demon” by Shannon Palus – Discover Magazine, March 2014, p.17). My vixra article seeks to show how to delete that overwhelming demand.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[31] viXra:1401.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-05 12:48:23

Energodynamics. Part 7. Afteword, Contents and References.

Authors: Etkin V.A.
Comments: 22 Pages.

In the conclusion it is shown, that energodynamic approach allowed not only to receive variety of not trivial consequences, but also to solve a number of new problems such as the elaboration of the theory of energy conversion process similarity, the theory of engineering system productivity, the real gas mixing theory and the theory of biological system self-organization. Affirms, that energodynamics is the new effective tool of the analysis of modern physics problems.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[30] viXra:1401.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-02 03:58:03

Energodynamics. Part 6. Elements of the Energodynamic Theory of Evolution

Authors: Etkin V.A.
Comments: 50 Pages.

In this part given evidences major advantages of the energy (non-entropy) criteria of evolution, which allow following the evolution of each degree of freedom or each part of the system separately. It is shown that “order” arises not from ”chaos”, but due to “disordering” in the system as a whole, which is in absolute compliance with the 2nd law of thermodynamics.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[29] viXra:1401.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-01 12:19:19

When is Information Erasure Necessary Between Successive Thermodynamic Cycles ?

Authors: François Barriquand
Comments: 8 Pages.

A modified version of Leo Szilard's 1929 thought-experiment is considered, which allows one to show that the iteration of some specially conceived thermodynamic “cycles” does not require any costly memory erasure. These thermodynamic cycles can be easily examined from either a classical or a quantum point of view. Although they differ randomly from each other in certain aspects, their remarkable energy balance remains systematically constant. Similar cycles can prove useful for lowering the theoretical cost of memory erasure in computers.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[28] viXra:1312.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2013-12-28 12:17:23

Repulsive Gravitational Force Field

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 5 Pages.

A method is proposed in this paper to generate a repulsive gravitational force field, which can strongly repel material particles and photons of any frequency. By repelling particles and photons, including in the infrared range, this force field can work as a perfect thermal insulation. It can also work as a friction reducer with the atmosphere, for example, between an aeronave and the atmosphere. A spacecraft with this force field around it cannot be affected by any external temperature and, in this way, it can even penetrate (and to exit) the Sun, for example, without be damaged or to cause the death of the crew. The generation of this force field is based on the reversion and intensification of gravity by electromagnetic means.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[27] viXra:1312.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2013-12-27 10:55:33

Energodynamics. Part 5. Fundamental Unity of Heat and Non-Heat Forms-of-Energy Conversion Processes.

Authors: Etkin V.A.
Comments: 78 Pages.

In this part of book a single theory of energy conversion process rate and productivity is suggested, which relate to the classic theory of thermal engines in the same manner as dynamics to statics.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[26] viXra:1312.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2013-12-20 10:17:40

Energodynamics. Part 4.themodynamic Analisys of Phenomena at Scientific Dysciplines Interfaces.

Authors: Etkin V.A.
Comments: 64 Pages.

It is shown that multiple thermomechanical, thermodiffusional, thermoelectrical, thermomagnetic, electromechanical, thermogalvanomagnetic, etc effects are caused not by synergism (mutual intensification) of irreversible processes as commonly accepted, but, on the contrary, by their counterdirectivity and the associated partial reversibility.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[25] viXra:1312.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2013-12-20 03:53:31

Energodynamics. Part 3.elimination of Negative Consequencies of Thermodynamics Extrapolation.

Authors: Etkin V.A.
Comments: 81 Pages.

The objective of this Section is to consider from more general positions of energodynamics a number of consequences obtained beyond the applicability of the classic thermodynamics and resulted in a number of paralogisms appeared in it, viz. fallacious statements, though, seemingly, quite credible.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[24] viXra:1312.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2013-12-11 06:59:27

Energodynamics.part 2. Main Principles, Laws and Equations

Authors: Etkin V.A.
Comments: 122 Pages.

It is shown, that distribution of a thermodynamic method of research on other fundamental disciplines «building a bridge» between classical and quantum mechanics; classical and nonequilibrium thermodynamics, heat- and mass transfer theories, hydrodynamics and electrodynamics, allowed to argue the fundamental principles of these disciplines, to prove their main laws and to deduce their basic equations as mathematical and logic consequences of energodinamics, not resorting thus to any hypotheses, postulates or modelling representations about the molecular mechanism of investigated processes.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[23] viXra:1312.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2013-12-01 03:57:21

Redefining 'system' and 'entropy' in Physical Terms

Authors: Jose P Koshy
Comments: 4 Pages. The second paper based on Reality

In this paper, I propose that any independent physical system is closed and isolated, and that the system as well as its subsystems has entropy. An increase in entropy of the system causes a decrease in entropy of its subsystems. So ‘normal entropy’ is the preferred state of a static system. A dynamic system, however, oscillates between high and low entropy states. The proposed concept limits ‘the role of second law of thermodynamics’, and predicts ‘a pulsating model’ for the universe, and ‘a reversible low-entropy state’ for black holes.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[22] viXra:1311.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2013-11-25 14:52:28

From Thermodynamics to Energodynamics

Authors: Etkin V.A.
Comments: 50 Pages.

We will try to find out the minimum volume of corrective amendments, which are necessary for bringing in thermodynamics to make its method suitable for research enough wide range of scientific disciplines, processes and systems.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[21] viXra:1311.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2013-11-19 04:18:53

Energodynamics. Part 0. Annotation, Contens and Introduction

Authors: Etkin V.A.
Comments: 10 Pages.

The objective of this book is to generalize the methods pertaining to thermodynamics of irreversible processes and to create on this basis energodynamics – a fundamental discipline studying the general laws covering nonstatic (running with finite rate) processes of energy transfer and conversion in any forms regardless of the field of knowledge they belong to.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[20] viXra:1311.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2013-11-17 18:09:19

To the Fuelless Energetics of Future

Authors: Etkin V.A.
Comments: 9 Pages. In Russian

It is shown, that creation of the machines showing reception of surplus power at the expense of force fields energy, does not contradict physics laws. Specificity of such devices is analyzed and bases of their theory are stated.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[19] viXra:1311.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2013-11-15 06:04:47

To the Thermodynamics of Biological Systems

Authors: Etkin V.A.
Comments: 12 Pages. In Russian

It is shown, that the existing theory of irreversible processes not applicability to biological processes of energy transformation. It is offered way of overcoming of arising difficulties.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[18] viXra:1311.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2013-11-11 15:34:54

A Novel Temporary Magnetic Remanence Thermodynamic Cycle

Authors: Remi Cornwall
Comments: 12 Pages. From Thesis

This paper presents a summary of research to utilise the massive amount of low grade heat energy, for instance which exists in the worlds oceans, by a new type of magnetic cycle. Developed herein are methods based on 2nd order phase changes that make it possible to achieve high efficiency despite small temperature differences with the reservoir. Ferrofluids displaying temporary magnetic remanence are an almost perfect embodiment of the working substance for these cycles. Standard Kinetic Theory, Thermodynamic and Electrodynamic analysis and experiment validates the new cycle.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[17] viXra:1311.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2013-11-11 13:33:31

The Alternative Form of the Generalized Transfer Laws

Authors: Etkin V.A.
Comments: 9 Pages. In Russian

The conclusion of the interconnected transfer processes kinetic equations is offered from the first principles of energodynamics and is shown, that phenomenological laws of independent processes contain in contrary to Onsager's postulate unique (resultant) force whose disappearance conducts to the termination of this process. It allows to reduce number of phenomenological coefficients in them with n (n+1)/2 to n and to extend the thermodynamic theory of the transfer processes to nonlinear systems and the conditions far from equilibrium
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[16] viXra:1311.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2013-11-11 14:58:53

How to build a Maxwell Demon from a 2nd order Phase Change System

Authors: Remi Cornwall
Comments: 14 Pages. From thesis

This paper presents a summary of research to utilise the massive amount of low grade heat energy, for instance which exists in the worlds oceans, by a new type of magnetic cycle. Developed herein are methods based on 2nd order phase changes that make it possible to irrefutably build a Maxwell Demon. Ferrofluids displaying temporary magnetic remanence are an almost perfect embodiment of the working substance for these cycles. Standard Kinetic Theory, Thermodynamic, Electrodynamic analysis and experiment validates the new cycle.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[15] viXra:1311.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2013-11-04 03:08:30

Specificity of Mathematical Instrument of Thermokinetics

Authors: Etkin V.A.
Comments: 11 Pages.

Present-day thermodynamics has long outgrown the initial frames of the heat-engine theory and transmuted into a rather general macroscopic method for studying kinetics of various transfer processes in their inseparable connection with the thermal form of motion. However its primary notions and mathematical instrument as before based on concepts of thermostatics, to which time, speed and productivity of processes are alien, and on the equations transitory in case of irreversible processes in inequalities. It is offered essentially other approach at which the thermostatics equations follow from thermokinetics of spatially non-uniform systems.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[14] viXra:1311.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2013-11-01 05:02:15

Термокинетика (Thermokinetics)

Authors: Etkin V.A.
Comments: 238 Pages. In Russian

The monography gives the developed statement of two new directions of modern thermodynamics - theories of irreversible processes and thermodynamics in finite times which concern classical thermodynamics as dynamics to a statics. It is distinguished by consistently thermodynamic substantiation of all positions of the theory of irreversible processes and its generalisation on nonlinear systems and the conditions far from equilibrium. The book offers a new method of a irreversible processes superposition effects from conditions of partial equilibrium that allows to simplify their laws, to reduce number of unknown coefficients and to establish additional connections between them. Along with it the book contains the application of this theory to processes of useful transformation of energy and offers the productivity theory of energy transformation processes, founded on the theory of its similarity.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[13] viXra:1310.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-28 17:05:27

Thermodynamic Response Functions and Maxwell Relations for a Kerr Black Hole

Authors: L. Escamilla, J. Torres-Arenas
Comments: 26 Pages.

Assuming the existence of a fundamental thermodynamic relation, the classical thermodynamics of a black hole with mass and angular momentum is given. New definitions of the response functions and $TdS$ equations are introduced and mathematical analogous of the Euler equation and Gibbs-Duhem relation are founded. Thermodynamic stability is studied from concavity conditions, resulting in an unstable equilibrium at all the domain except for a region of local stable equilibrium. The Maxwell relations are written, allowing to build the thermodynamic squares. Our results shown an interesting analogy between thermodynamics of gravitational and magnetic systems.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[12] viXra:1310.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-28 04:04:01

THERMOKINETICS (Synthesis of Heat Engineering Theoretical Grounds).

Authors: Etkin V.A.
Comments: 341 Pages.

The book calls attention to a method of describing and investigating various physicochemical processes in their inseparable link with the heat form of energy. The method is based on the law of energy conservation and free of hypotheses and postulates. All the basic principles, laws and equations of equilibrium and nonequilibrium thermodynamics, heat- and mass-exchange theory, thermo-economics and thermodynamics of finite-time processes are here derived from this method as particular cases. The book considers also with much attention phenomena at the interfaces between heat engineering and other engineering disciplines, elaborates new applications of the energy transfer and conversion theories, as well as analyzes paralogisms arising in thermodynamics due to its inconsistent extrapolation. The book is intended for researches, engineers and university students keen-set for updating, extension and integration of knowledge in heat engineering disciplines. It may be useful also for a wide audience interested in issues relating to perfection of the modern natural science conceptual frameworks.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[11] viXra:1310.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-23 05:05:23

Can the Efficiency of an Arbitrary Revrsible Cycle be Equal to the Efficiency of the Enclosing Carnot Cycle? Part a

Authors: Radhakrishnamurty Padyala
Comments: 6 Pages.

One of the major issues that remained controversial in classical thermodynamics is resolved. The issue is: Is it possible for the efficiency of an arbitrary reversible heat engine cycle to be equal to the efficiency of the enclosing Carnot cycle? Taking the simplest case of a reversible cycle that involves heat interactions at three different temperatures, we demonstrate that the answer is in the affirmative. We also show that if it is possible for the efficiency of an arbitrary reversible cycle to be lower than the efficiency of the enclosing Carnot cycle, then it is also possible for the efficiency of an arbitrary reversible cycle to be greater than the efficiency of the enclosing Carnot cycle. If the later is impossible, the former, too, is impossible. The later, however, is impossible according to Carnot’s corollary. Therefore, inequality of efficiencies of the two cycles is impossible. The only option left is equality of their efficiencies.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[10] viXra:1310.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-23 05:13:49

Can the Efficiency of an Arbitrary Revrsible Cycle be Equal to the Efficiency of the Enclosing Carnot Cycle? Part B

Authors: Radhakrishnamurty Padyala
Comments: 4 Pages.

Calculation of efficiency of reversible cycles in thermodynamics remains a controversial issue. The basic question is this: Do different reversible heat engines, operating between maximum and minimum temperatures TH and TL, respectively, have different values of efficiency? We demonstrate in this article that the answer is in the negative and that all such cycles have equal efficiencies. In other words, no two reversible cycles operating between maximum and minimum temperatures of TH and TL respectively, can have unequal efficiencies.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[9] viXra:1310.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-21 08:18:05

Maxwell's demon does not Violate the Second Law but Violates the First Law of Thermodynamics

Authors: Radhakrishnamurty Padyala
Comments: 5 Pages.

Maxwell’s Demon is believed to violate the second law of thermodynamics. Maxwell, who conceived of this being in 1867, did not believe that it violated the second law, but rather that it only highlighted the statistical validity of the law - with less than 100 percent certainty for its results - in contrast to the general view that thermodynamics gave results with 100 percent certainty. From then on, many other forms of challenges appeared. Some try to exorcise the demon by proposing new theories to prove that the second law is not violated by the demon, while others argue that the demon violated the second law. The debate has been continuing for the past nearly 150 years. We show in this article that Maxwell’s Demon does not violate the second law but violates the first law. This we show by demonstrating that the Maxwell’s Demon Process (MDP) can be incorporated as a step into a reversible cycle. Through this cycle, the system subjected to MDP can be restored to its original state without leaving any changes in the surroundings. Therefore, the cycle must be reversible. If such a reversible cycle involving MDP as one of its steps were to be impossible, then it must violate the first law. Violation of the first law by this reversible cycle can arise only if MDP violated the first law, as no other process in the cycle violates either the first law or the second law of thermodynamics.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[8] viXra:1310.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-16 07:36:54

A Thermodynamic History of the Solar Constitution - II: The Theory of a Gaseous Sun and Jeans’ Failed Liquid Alternative

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 19 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2011, v. 3, 41-59

In this work, the development of solar theory is followed from the concept that the Sun was an ethereal nuclear body with a partially condensed photosphere to the creation of a fully gaseous object. An overview will be presented of the liquid Sun. A powerful lineage has brought us the gaseous Sun and two of its main authors were the direct scientific descendants of Gustav Robert Kirchhoff: Franz Arthur Friedrich Schuster and Arthur Stanley Eddington. It will be discovered that the seminal ideas of Father Secchi and Hervé Faye were not abandoned by astronomy until the beginning of 20th century. The central role of carbon in early solar physics will also be highlighted by revisiting George Johnstone Stoney. The evolution of the gaseous models will be outlined, along with the contributions of Johann Karl Friedrich Zöllner, James Clerk Maxwell, Jonathan Homer Lane, August Ritter, William Thomson, William Huggins, William Edward Wilson, George Francis FitzGerald, Jacob Robert Emden, Frank Washington Very, Karl Schwarzschild, and Edward Arthur Milne. Finally, with the aid of Edward Arthur Milne, the work of James Hopwood Jeans, the last modern advocate of a liquid Sun, will be rediscovered. Jeans was a staunch advocate of the condensed phase, but deprived of a proper building block, he would eventually abandon his non-gaseous stars. For his part, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar would spend nine years of his life studying homogeneous liquid masses. These were precisely the kind of objects which Jeans had considered for his liquid stars.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[7] viXra:1310.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-16 00:09:11

A Continued Fraction Expression for Carnot Efficiency

Authors: Radhakrishnamurty Padyala
Comments: 6 Pages.

A new and interesting continued fraction expression is derived for Carnot efficiency. The derivation is based on a series combination of a set of Carnot heat engines, wherein heat rejected by a member of the series is absorbed by the following member of the series. Our analysis of this combination of Carnot heat engines shows that mathematical consistency is maintained only if the efficiency of Carnot heat engine is zero. This calls the attention of researchers to look back at the puzzling definition of Carnot efficiency that says the efficiency of ideal heat engine (Carnot heat engine) is less than one, in spite of the fact that each of the steps involved in the cycle of operation is hundred percent efficient.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[6] viXra:1310.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-15 06:56:51

The Little Heat Engine: Heat Transfer in Solids, Liquids and Gases

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 9 Pages. First Published in: Progress in Physics, 2007, v. 4, 25-33.

In this work, an introductory exposition of the laws of thermodynamics and radiative heat transfer is presented while exploring the concepts of the ideal solid, the lattice, and the vibrational, translational, and rotational degrees of freedom. Analysis of heat transfer in this manner helps scientists to recognize that the laws of thermal radiation are strictly applicable only to the ideal solid. On the Earth, such a solid is best represented by either graphite or soot. Indeed, certain forms of graphite can approach perfect absorption over a relatively large frequency range. Nonetheless, in dealing with heat, solids will eventually sublime or melt. Similarly, liquids will give way to the gas phase. That thermal conductivity eventually decreases in the solid signals an inability to further dissipate heat and the coming breakdown of Planck’s law. Ultimately, this breakdown is reflected in the thermal emission of gases. Interestingly, total gaseous emissivity can decrease with increasing temperature. Consequently, neither solids, liquids, or gases can maintain the behavior predicted by the laws of thermal emission. Since the laws of thermal emission are, in fact, not universal, the extension of these principles to non-solids constitutes a serious overextension of the work of Kirchhoff, Wien, Stefan and Planck.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[5] viXra:1310.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-06 01:03:23

Are the Kelvin and Clausius Statements of the Second Law of Thermodynamics Mutually Consistent?

Authors: Radhakrishnamurty Padyala
Comments: 8 Pages.

The most standard and fundamental statements of the second law of thermodynamics are those of Kelvin and Clausius. They form the foundation for the structure of thermodynamics. Essentially they are statements of impossibility of certain processes in nature. Every standard book on thermodynamics ritualistically demonstrates the consistency between these two statements by showing violation of one leads to violation of the other. We show in this note, that the two statements are mutually inconsistent. That is, we show violation of one does not lead to violation of the other. We adopt a procedure similar to the one used by Fermi for our demonstration.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[4] viXra:1308.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2013-08-23 11:26:52

Reducing Thermodynamics to (Statistical) Mechanics: Reconsidering the Logical Path

Authors: Loris Serafino
Comments: 18 Pages.

This paper will reconsider the logical path of reducing the second law of thermodynamics to mechanics up to the point where it seems to drop the ball. The thesis of an off-centered interpretation of mechanical reduction is presented together with the call for an interventionist explanans, although revised. This will be accomplished in a conceptual way without any mathematical hocus-pocus and strictly between the borders of classical physics.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[3] viXra:1307.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2013-07-11 12:12:19

Conversion Spacetime in Energy

Authors: Florentino Muñiz Ania
Comments: 11 pages, 1 figure, Spanish

This article is a small part of a larger one that has been called TOP (Theory Of Potentials) and in which is shown broadly as energy can be obtained in various ways. Although what Nature does sometimes not be imitated, or at least as effectively. But it describes as it does. Appendices are also included in this article in order to understand certain details that without them you would understand, and the description of them is an experiment (in Appendix C) which dilates the period of an oscillator, causing decrease in frequency simply applying a voltage in the vicinity, and which coincides well with the theory.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[2] viXra:1305.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2013-05-27 14:04:48

The Issue of Negative Absolute Temperatures

Authors: Jeremy Dunning-Davies
Comments: 4 Pages.

Here attention is drawn to a recent article in the journal Nature which claimed that researchers had cooled a system to a temperature below absolute zero. It is pointed out that this was not the claim in the original paper and is incorrect as far as the accepted definition of temperature is concerned. It is pointed out also that, if the claim were true, then it would imply that both the Third and Second Laws of Thermodynamics had been violated.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[1] viXra:1304.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-10 05:46:28

Thoughts on Order, Etc. Occasioned by Writings of J. P. Wesley.

Authors: J. Dunning-Davies, D. Sands
Comments: 6 Pages.

Although rarely, if ever, acknowledged, there is real confusion existing over several of the fundamental ideas of classical macroscopic thermodynamics. Many of these surround the concept of entropy and one of the big questions never publicly asked is whether or not the functions called entropy in various branches of mathematics and physics are all the same? Here some thoughts are presented which have been provoked by reading some of the writings of J. P. Wesley in the hope that they, in turn, will provoke further examination of these notions, many of which are so basic to so many areas of physics and are causing so much trouble for students at the present time.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

Replacements of recent Submissions

[37] viXra:1705.0394 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-28 03:51:51

A Scheme of the Second Type of Perpetual Motion Machine is Realized by Using Imbalance of Cationic and Anions

Authors: LI WeiGang
Comments: 3 Pages.

The molar ratio of sodium sulfate (Na2SO4), Na + cation and SO4- anion is 2 : 1.Thus, when the aqueous solution of sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) between the upper and lower semipermeables in the figure is placed in a vertical downward electrostatic field, Na + cation and SO4 - anion, respectively, to the bottom and above the concentration, Forming the bottom of the rich Na + cationic solution and the above-rich SO4- anion liquid, Up and down the balance of electricity but the molar concentration of ions is not balanced !
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[36] viXra:1705.0243 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-18 16:56:26

Cherish Renewable Aerial Water Vapor as it is a Huge Hidden Energy Resource

Authors: Yanming Wei
Comments: 15 pages, 3 figures. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.15595.75045

This paper emphasizes how great energy hidden in ubiquitous aerial water vapor and how spectacular and subtle in natural evaporation by visualizing tedious thermodynamic data in vivid macroscopic and microscopic scale with different gauges such as kj/kg, eV/molecule, photonic wavelength per single step of water molecular clusterization during condensation for energy density estimation, mm/day, nm/s for evaporation rate average calculation. Condensation is first time described as special invisible infrared combustion, and it is proved that it is theoretically possible to convert its latent heat to high grade thermal energy.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[35] viXra:1705.0039 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-04 20:08:30

A Note on Irreversible Adiabatic Cyclic Process and Role of Time in Thermodynamics

Authors: Radhakrishnamurty Padyala
Comments: 5 Pages.

Irreversible adiabatic cyclic process of an ideal gas is an important thermodynamic process. It offers a method of analysis of second law without involving any heat interactions. We show in this note that the impossibility of an irreversible adiabatic cyclic process is equivalent to the assertion that time plays no role in thermodynamic predictions.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[34] viXra:1704.0112 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-10 11:31:25

Heat, Gravity and Temperature Distribution of Earth, Mars and Venus

Authors: Emil Junvik
Comments: 14 Pages.

Abstract The vertical mean temperature distribution and gravity are coupled to the power of total solar irradiance. A simple geometrical modification of the two-dimensional surface of the blackbody combined with a hemispherical solar irradiation is presented as an explanation of surface temperature. Radiative heat transfer is shown to explain effective temperature and troposphere temperature. The difference between the effective temperature of the perfect blackbody and the observed effective temperature, is found to match the energy needed for the force of gravity when expressed in units of thermal resistance, stress and pressure. The power source strength needed for the effective temperature to be radiated from the atmosphere is shown to be equal to a core temperature of 5770K by using the inverse square law. Altogether this combines to a basic framework of energy distribution inside the system of Earth. It is simply an extension to the blackbody model into a more realistic definition with absorption in depth of a volume, which inevitably leads to a fraction of the heat to be turned into work. It is a suggestion for a new approach of understanding how solar radiation interacts with the planet. The method is used to analyze temperature distribution on Mars which confirms it as a useful model, although with some differences in the results. Venus, with its deep atmosphere, show similar correlation to spherical volumetric distribution, but all three planets have different relationships to Solar Irradiance. Altogether it is shown in this paper that on a bulk scale energy is what dominate the structure of the three planets independently of mass.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[33] viXra:1704.0112 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-02 19:21:43

Blackbody Modification According to the Energy Distribution of Earth

Authors: Emil Junvik
Comments: 7 Pages.

The earth steady state is shown to be balanced by solar radiation, the surface temperature and the emitted effective temperature. Geometrical modification is shown to solve the problem of absorption of solar radiation into a volume of a sphere with two shells. Heat transfer explain the distribution of energy according to observed mean temperature at different altitude. Gravity is shown to be a force of intensity equal to the difference between the true blackbody temperature calculated from the solar constant and the effective temperature. The source strength needed for the effective temperature to be radiated from the atmosphere, is connected to the core temperature of earth in the discussion chapter, assumed to be at a similar value as the surface of the sun. This forms a somewhat complete model of energy distribution inside the system of Earth, where all individual temperatures are balanced in an instantaneous steady state. It is shown that energy is what dominate the structure independently of mass, following simple laws of geometry, heat transfer and the inverse square law.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[32] viXra:1611.0161 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-22 08:13:31

On Plausible Role of Classical Electromagnetic Theory and Submicroscopic Physics to Understand and Enhance Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (Lenr): a Preliminary Review

Authors: Victor Christianto, Yunita Umniyati, Volodymyr Krasnoholovets
Comments: 10 Pages. This paper has been submitted to Foundations of Physics (FOOP)

In this paper we will discuss how we can study some effects associated with LENR from the principles of classical electromagnetic theory and also from a very new approach based on the submicroscopic concept of physics. Perhaps our considerations have their own risks because the majority of mainstream physicists consider nuclear fusion rather as a phenomenon associated with tunneling through a Coulomb barrier, which is a pure quantum effect. We will discuss that there are some aspects of Classical electromagnetic theories which may have impact on our understanding on LENR phenomena, including: a. nonlinear electrostatic potential as proposed by Eugen Andreev, b. vortex sound theory of Tsutomu Kambe, c. nonlinear ponderomotive force, and d. submicroscopic consideration.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[31] viXra:1610.0122 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-12 16:24:34

Discovery of an Unintended Mathematical Error in Equation (7a) on Page 81 in “ Investigations on the Theory of the Brownian MOVEMENT” by Albert Einstein in 1926 Perhaps After 88 Years

Authors: Khoshnevisan, M
Comments: 2 Pages. Please contact Associate Professor Khoshnevisan,M at mkhoshnevisan@mailaps.org if further elucidation is warranted.

Professor Albert Einstein in 1926 published his book entitled “INVESTIGATIONS ON THE THEORY OF THE BROWNIAN MOVEMENT”, during the time that he was teaching at the University of Berlin. This book was edited by Professor Reinhold Heinrich (Henry) Furth in 1926.He was co-author with Professor Albert Einstein of the Theory of Brownian Movement. Acknowledgements: I would like to thank Professor. Dr. Simon Lilly, Head of Department of Physics at ETH- Swiss Federal Institute of Technology for responding to my e-mail and phone call on September 19 2016 and putting me in contact with Professor Norbert Straumann. I further would like to express my appreciation to Professor Straumann for reviewing and confirming my findings on September 19 2016 via e-mail in relation to the unintended mathematical error in equation (7a) on page 81 in this book.I shall note that Professor Straumann is a retired Professor of Physics from the University of Zurich, and former student of Professor Wolfgang Pauli at ETH, the Austrian-American Physics Nobel Prize Winner in 1945 and one of the pioneers of Quantum Physics. He has also served on the advisory board of the Albert Einstein Institute of the Max Planck Society.It appears that this book has been cited more than 3800 times over the years and I hope equation (7a) will be corrected in the new edition of this book.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[30] viXra:1610.0063 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-28 04:22:02

Heat Engines of Extraordinary Efficiency and the General Principle of Their Operation

Authors: Remi Cornwall
Comments: 20 Pages. Provisional form to MDPI Entropy. Improvements in wording and presentation. Power calculation included instead of referenced. Appendix expanded.

The intention of this paper is to elucidate new types of heat engines with extraordinary efficiency, more specifically to eventually focus on the author’s research into a temporary magnetic remanence device. First we extend the definition of heat engines through a diagrammatic classification scheme and note a paradoxical non-coincidence between the Carnot, Kelvin-Planck and other forms of the 2nd Law, between sectors of the diagram. It is then seen, between the diagram sectors, how super-efficient heat engines are able to reduce the degrees of freedom resulting from change in chemical potential, over mere generation of heat; until in the right sector of the diagram, the conventional wisdom for the need of two reservoirs is refuted. A brief survey of the Maxwell Demon problem finds no problem with information theoretic constructs. Our ongoing experimental enquiry into a temporary magnetic remanence cycle using standard kinetic theory, thermodynamics and electrodynamics is presented – yet a contradiction results with the 2nd law placing it in the right sector of the classification diagram.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[29] viXra:1609.0103 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-28 08:44:22

Statistical Characterization of Heat Release Rates from Electrical Enclosure Fires for Nuclear Power Plant Applications

Authors: Raymond HV Gallucci, Brian Metzger
Comments: 32 Pages. Accepted at PSAM13 (Seoul, October 2016) and RAMS2017 (Orlando, January 2017), but not presented due to lack of travel funds; published in Fire Technology, 2017 (http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10694-016-0633-z)

Since the publication of NUREG/CR-6850 / EPRI 1011989 in 2005, the US nuclear industry has sought to re-evaluate the default peak heat release rates (HRRs) for electrical enclosure fires typically used as fire modeling inputs to support fire probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), considering them too conservative. HRRs are an integral part of the fire phenomenological modeling phase of a fire PRA, which consists of identifying fire scenarios which can damage equipment or hinder human actions necessary to prevent core damage. Fire ignition frequency, fire growth and propagation, fire detection and suppression, and mitigating equipment and actions to prevent core damage in the event fire damage still occurred are all parts of a fire PRA. The fire growth and propagation phase incorporates fire phenomenological modeling where HRRs have a key effect. A major effort by the Electric Power Research Institute and Science Applications International Corporation in 2012 was not endorsed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for use in risk-informed, regulatory applications. Subsequently the NRC, in conjunction with the National Institute of Standards and Technology, conducted a series of tests for representative nuclear power plant electrical enclosure fires designed to definitively establish more realistic peak HRRs for these often important contributors to fire risk. The results from these tests are statistically analyzed to develop two probabilistic distributions for peak HRR per unit mass of fuel that refine the values from NUREG/CR-6850, thereby providing a fairly simple means by which to estimate peak HRRs from electrical enclosure fires for fire modeling in support of fire PRA. Unlike NUREG/CR-6850, where five different distributions are provided, or NUREG-2178, which now provides 31, the peak HRRs for electrical enclosure fires can be characterized by only two distributions. These distributions depend only on the type of cable, namely qualified vs. unqualified, for which the mean peak HRR per unit mass is 11.3 and 23.2 kW/kg, respectively, essentially a factor of two difference. Two-sided, 90th percentile confidence bounds are 0.091 to 41.15 kW/kg for qualified cables, and 0.027 to 95.93 kW/kg for unqualified cables. From the mean (~70th percentile) upward, the peak HRR/kg for unqualified cables is roughly twice that that for qualified, increasing slightly with higher percentile, an expected phenomenological trend. Simulations using variable fuel loadings are performed to demonstrate how the results from this analysis may be used for nuclear power plant applications.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[28] viXra:1603.0117 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-14 01:59:42

Entropy at the Level of Individual Particles: Analysis of Maxwell's Agent with a Hidden-Variable Theory

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 29 Pages. Published: Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., & Pons, A. J. (2016). Entropy at the level of individual particles: Analysis of Maxwell's Agent with a hidden-variable theory. Journal of Modern Physics, 7(10), 1277-1295. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2016.710113

Problem- Maxwell's Agent (MA) is a thought experiment about whether the Second Law is violated at smaller scales. This is a complex problem because the scale dependencies are unclear for perfect gas assumptions, quantum coherence, thermalisation, and contextual measurement. Purpose- The MA is explored from a non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) perspective. Approach- The Cordus theory, a specific NLHV solution, was applied at macroscopic to fundamental scales. Physical realism requires the Agent be included in the analysis. Findings- The primary function is sorting, i.e. a one-time separation of species by some attribute. The thermodynamic MA situation is merely a special case for reducing disorder (entropy). A one-time extraction of energy is possible. This requires input energy, hence the device only has thermodynamic leverage and is not a perpetual motion device. Inefficiencies arise from thermalisation causing short mean free path of Brownian motion, perfect gases having minimal interaction with the gate, ambiguity about spatial location arising from quantum superposition, contextual measurement interfering with the particle velocity, and bremsstrahlung hysteresis losses occurring when the Agent operates. Implications- Entropy is a group property at the bulk level, not a characteristic of the individual particle, and can be reversed at an energy cost at the particle level. Originality- The explanation spans multiple levels from macroscopic down to fundamental, which is unusual. Achieving an explanation from the NLHV sector is novel. The theory accommodates superposition, irreversibility, entropy, contextual measurement, coherence-discord transition, and Brownian motion.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[27] viXra:1602.0374 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-09 01:06:01

Planck’s Theory of Heat Radiation Criticized

Authors: Sjaak Uitterdijk
Comments: 17 Pages.

Robitaille and Crothers wrote an article [1] with the same purpose: to present the mistakes in Planck’s Theory of Heat Radiation and in Kirchhoff’s law of thermal emission. In this article an alternative approach is taken, leading to a support of the conclusion of Robitaille and Crothers. In my own words: Planck, indeed, made a scientific mess of it! Not only Planck's theory makes no sense, the current presentation of this theory turns out to be of this low level too.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[26] viXra:1601.0027 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-08 10:35:47

Motion of an Object Due to the Adjusted Rate of Modifications Performed on Its Environment

Authors: François Barriquand
Comments: 10 Pages.

Abstract. A special statistical model illustrates how an object moving in one dimension, embedded in a tubular structure, can progress anisotropically towards a single direction and produce work. The anisotropic motion of the object is fueled by the thermal fluctuations originating from an ordinary thermal bath, whose coupling with the object depends in a carefully adjusted way on the position of the object itself. A limiting case of this scenario can be solved exactly in a very simple way. From a global physical point of view, it is justified to say that the object and its environment become ever more correlated as time increases ; surprisingly, however, the infinite topology of the system makes it theoretically possible for the object to continue its anisotropic progression at an unabated speed during an infinite time.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[25] viXra:1507.0221 [pdf] replaced on 2015-09-23 10:13:43

Zero and Negative Energy Dissipation at Information-Theoretic Erasure

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-Goran Granqvist, Sunil P. Khatri, Fedinand Peper
Comments: 6 Pages. Accepted for publication (in press) at J. Computational Electronics (Springer)

We introduce information-theoretic erasure based on Shannon’s binary channel formula. It is pointed out that this type of erasure is a natural energy-dissipation-free way in which information is lost in double-potential-well memories, and it may be the reason why the brain can forget things effortlessly. We also demonstrate a new non-volatile, charge-based memory scheme wherein the erasure can be associated with even negative energy dissipation; this implies that the memory’s environment is cooled during information erasure and contradicts Landauer’s principle of erasure dissipation. On the other hand, writing new information into the memory always requires positive energy dissipation in our schemes. Finally, we show a simple system where even a classical erasure process yields negative energy dissipation of arbitrarily large energy.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[24] viXra:1504.0098 [pdf] replaced on 2015-05-25 22:10:14

Testing a Conjectured Space-Time Model

Authors: Jeffrey M. Albert
Comments: 3 Pages.

An experiment is proposed to test a conjectured space-time model
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[23] viXra:1504.0098 [pdf] replaced on 2015-04-27 05:45:32

A Test for Space-Time Entropic Flow

Authors: Jeffrey M. Albert
Comments: 3 Pages.

A basic experiment is proposed to test the conjecture of space-time flow.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[22] viXra:1502.0219 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-26 11:55:01

The Temperature of a System as a Function of the Multiplicity and its Rate of Change

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper I derive the formula for the temperature of a thermodynamic system as a function of the multiplicity (number of microstates) and its the rate of change with respect to the absorbed or lost energy. Then the formula is used to obtain the “temperature-microstates- energy” relation for a black hole assuming that the number of microstates is proportional to the energy of the emitted photon through either tunnelling effect or Hawking radiation.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[21] viXra:1502.0007 [pdf] replaced on 2015-07-02 15:31:53

“The Theory of Heat Radiation” Revisited: A Commentary on the Validity of Kirchhoff’s Law of Thermal Emission and Max Planck’s Claim of Universality

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille, Stephen J. Crothers
Comments: 13 Pages. Published in Progress in Physics, 28 Jan 2015. Revised on May 24, 2015. No copyright limitations.

Affirming Kirchhoff’s Law of thermal emission, Max Planck conferred upon his own equation and its constants, h and k, universal significance. All arbitrary cavities were said to behave as blackbodies. They were thought to contain black, or normal radiation, which depended only upon temperature and frequency of observation, irrespective of the nature of the cavity walls. Today, laboratory blackbodies are specialized, heated devices whose interior walls are lined with highly absorptive surfaces, such as graphite, soot, or other sophisticated materials. Such evidence repeatedly calls into question Kirchhoff’s Law, as nothing in the laboratory is independent of the nature of the walls. By focusing on Max Planck’s classic text, "The Theory of Heat Radiation", it can be demonstrated that the German physicist was unable to properly justify Kirchhoff’s Law. At every turn, he was confronted with the fact that materials possess frequency dependent reflectivity and absorptivity, but he often chose to sidestep these realities. He used polarized light to derive Kirchhoff’s Law, when it is well known that blackbody radiation is never polarized. Through the use of an element, dσ, at the bounding surface between two media, he reached the untenable position that arbitrary materials have the same reflective properties. His Eq. 40 (ρ =ρ′), constituted a dismissal of experimental reality. It is evident that if one neglects reflection, then all cavities must be black. Unable to ensure that perfectly reflecting cavities can be filled with black radiation, Planck inserted a minute carbon particle, which he qualified as a “catalyst”. In fact, it was acting as a perfect absorber, fully able to provide, on its own, the radiation sought. In 1858, Balfour Stewart had outlined that the proper treatment of cavity radiation must include reflection. Yet, Max Planck did not cite the Scottish scientist. He also did not correctly address real materials, especially metals, from which reflectors would be constructed. These shortcomings led to universality, an incorrect conclusion. Arbitrary cavities do not contain black radiation. Kirchhoff’s formulation is invalid. As a direct consequence, the constants h and k do not have fundamental meaning and along with “Planck length”, “Planck time”, “Planck mass”, and “Planck temperature”, lose the privileged position they once held in physics.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[20] viXra:1501.0070 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-08 13:09:52

Classical Thermodynamics Entropy Laws as a Consequence of Spacetime Geometry

Authors: Jay R. Yablon
Comments: 14 Pages.

Just as Maxwell’s magnetic equations emerge entirely from applying dd = 0 of exterior calculus to a gauge potential A, so too does the second law of thermodynamics emerge from applying dd=0 to a scalar potential s. If we represent this as dds = dU = 0, then when the Gauss / Stokes theorem is used to obtain the integral formulation of this equation, and after breaking a time loop that appears in the integral equation, we find that U behaves precisely like the internal energy state variable, and that the second law of thermodynamics for the entropy of irreversible processes naturally emerges.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[19] viXra:1408.0052 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-18 10:51:59

The Laws of Thermohydrodynamics

Authors: Daniel Cordero Grau
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper I lay down the Theory of Thermohydrodynamics, the van der Waals Thermohydrodynamical Equation and the Laws of Thermohydrodynamical Systems in Chaos
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[18] viXra:1408.0052 [pdf] replaced on 2016-03-12 20:22:04

The Laws of Thermohydrodynamics

Authors: Daniel Cordero Grau
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper we give the Laws of Thermohydrodynamics, the van der Waals Thermohydrodynamic Equation and the Laws of Thermohydrodynamical Systems in Chaos
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[17] viXra:1407.0154 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-18 10:45:21

The Laws of Thermochemistry

Authors: Daniel Cordero Grau
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper I lay down the Theory of Thermochemistry, the van der Waals Thermochemical Equation and the Relativistic Energy in Quantum Chemistry
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[16] viXra:1407.0154 [pdf] replaced on 2014-10-28 19:07:41

The Laws of Thermochemistry

Authors: Daniel Cordero Grau
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper we give the Laws of Thermochemistry, the van der Waals Thermochemical Equation and the Relativistic Energy in Quantum Chemistry
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[15] viXra:1407.0058 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-14 17:13:14

Divergence in the Stefan-Boltzmann law at High Energy Density Conditions

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 5 Pages.

It was recently detected an unidentified emission line in the stacked X-ray spectrum of galaxy clusters. Since this line is not catalogued as being the emission of a known chemical element, several hypotheses have been proposed, for example that it is of a known chemical element but with an emissivity of 10 or 20 times the expected theoretical value. Here we show that there is a divergence in the Stefan-Boltzmann equation at high energy density conditions. This divergence is related to the correlation between gravitational mass and inertial mass, and it can explain the increment in the observed emissivity.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[14] viXra:1406.0124 [pdf] replaced on 2014-06-27 11:07:19

Elimination of a Second-Law-Attack, and All Cable-Resistance-Based Attacks, in the Kirchhoff-Law–Johnson-Noise (KLJN) Secure Key Exchange System

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-Goran Granqvist
Comments: 4 Pages. second version; submitted for publication

We introduce the so far most efficient attack against the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key exchange system. This attack utilizes the lack of exact thermal equilibrium in practical applications and is based on cable resistance losses and the fact that the Second Law of Thermodynamics cannot provide full security when such losses are present. The new attack does not challenge the unconditional security of the KLJN scheme, but it puts more stringent demands on the security/privacy enhancing protocol than for any earlier attack. In this paper we present a simple defense protocol to fully eliminate this new attack by increasing the noise-temperature at the side of the smaller resistance value over the noise-temperature at the at the side with the greater resistance. It is shown that this simple protocol totally removes Eve’s information not only for the new attack but also for the old Bergou-Scheuer-Yariv attack. The presently most efficient attacks against the KLJN scheme are thereby completely nullified.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[13] viXra:1403.0964 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-24 22:04:48

Do Electromagnetic Waves Exist in a Short Cable at Low Frequencies? What Does Physics Say?

Authors: Hsien-Pu Chen, Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-GÖran Granqvist, Gabor Schmera
Comments: 13 Pages. Version after Galley proof corrections in Fluctuation and Noise Letters

We refute a physical model, recently proposed by Gunn, Allison and Abbott (GAA) [http://arxiv.org/pdf/1402.2709v2.pdf], to utilize electromagnetic waves for eavesdropping on the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key distribution. Their model, and its theoretical underpinnings, is found to be fundamentally flawed because their assumption of electromagnetic waves violates not only the wave equation but also the Second Law of Thermodynamics, the Principle of Detailed Balance, Boltzmann’s Energy Equipartition Theorem, and Planck’s formula by implying infinitely strong blackbody radiation. We deduce the correct mathematical model of the GAA scheme, which is based on impedances at the quasi-static limit. Mathematical analysis and simulation results confirm our approach and prove that GAA’s experimental interpretation is incorrect too.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[12] viXra:1312.0225 [pdf] replaced on 2014-01-16 10:57:55

Repulsive Gravitational Force Field

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 6 Pages.

A method is proposed in this paper to generate a repulsive gravitational force field, which can strongly repel material particles, while creating a gravitational shielding that can nullify the momentum of incident particles (including photons). By nullifying the momentum of the particles and photons, including in the infrared range, this force field can work as a perfect thermal insulation. This means that, a spacecraft with this force field around it, cannot be affected by any external temperature and, in this way, it can even penetrate (and to exit) the Sun without be damaged or to cause the death of the crew. The repulsive force field can also work as a friction reducer with the atmosphere (between an aeronave and the atmosphere), which allows traveling with very high velocities through the atmosphere without overheating the aeronave. The generation of this force field is based on the reversion and intensification of gravity by electromagnetic means.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[11] viXra:1312.0225 [pdf] replaced on 2014-01-15 10:56:32

Repulsive Gravitational Force Field

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 5 Pages.

A method is proposed in this paper to generate a repulsive gravitational force field, which can strongly repel material particles, while creating a gravitational shielding that can nullify the momentum of incident particles (including photons). By nullifying the momentum of the particles and photons, including in the infrared range, this force field can work as a perfect thermal insulation. This means that, a spacecraft with this force field around it, cannot be affected by any external temperature and, in this way, it can even penetrate (and to exit) the Sun without be damaged or to cause the death of the crew. The repulsive force field can also work as a friction reducer with the atmosphere (between an aeronave and the atmosphere), which allows traveling with very high velocities through the atmosphere without overheating the aeronave. The generation of this force field is based on the reversion and intensification of gravity by electromagnetic means.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[10] viXra:1312.0225 [pdf] replaced on 2014-01-03 07:33:43

Repulsive Gravitational Force Field

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 5 Pages.

A method is proposed in this paper to generate a repulsive gravitational force field, which can strongly repel material particles, while creating a gravitational shielding that can nullify the momentum of incident particles (including photons). By nullifying the momentum of the particles and photons, including in the infrared range, this force field can work as a perfect thermal insulation. This means that, a spacecraft with this force field around it, cannot be affected by any external temperature and, in this way, it can even penetrate (and to exit) the Sun without be damaged or to cause the death of the crew. The repulsive force field can also work as a friction reducer with the atmosphere (between an aeronave and the atmosphere), which allows traveling with very high velocities through the atmosphere without overheating the aeronave. The generation of this force field is based on the reversion and intensification of gravity by electromagnetic means.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[9] viXra:1312.0157 [pdf] replaced on 2013-12-25 13:39:01

Energodynamics. Part 4. Thermodynamic Analisys of Phenomena at Scientific Disciplines Interfaces

Authors: Etkin V.A.
Comments: 63 Pages.

It is shown that multiple thermomechanical, thermodiffusional, thermoelectrical, thermo-magnetic, electromechanical, thermogalvanomagnetic, etc effects are caused not by synergism (mutual intensification) of irreversible processes as commonly accepted, but, on the contrary, by their counterdirectivity and the associated partial reversibility.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[8] viXra:1311.0089 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-07 11:37:48

A Novel Temporary Magnetic Remanence Thermodynamic Cycle

Authors: Remi Cornwall
Comments: 12 Pages. From Thesis. New version with slight improvements.

This paper presents a summary of research to utilise the massive amount of low grade heat energy, for instance which exists in the worlds oceans, by a new type of magnetic cycle. Developed herein are methods based on 2nd order phase changes that make it possible to achieve high efficiency despite small temperature differences with the reservoir. Ferrofluids displaying temporary magnetic remanence are an almost perfect embodiment of the working substance for these cycles. Standard Kinetic Theory, Thermodynamic and Electrodynamic analysis and experiment validates the new cycle.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[7] viXra:1311.0078 [pdf] replaced on 2014-09-05 14:41:42

Novel Thermodynamic Cycles Involving Ferrofluids Displaying Temporary Magnetic Remanence

Authors: Remi Cornwall
Comments: 92 Pages. Thesis. New version with newer refs, B-H (M-H) curve for ferrofluid loss, some cosmetic changes and minor change at start of chapter 4.

The objective of this research is to utilise the massive amount of low grade heat energy, for instance which exists in the worlds oceans, by a new type of magnetic cycle. Developed herein are methods based on 2nd order phase changes that make it possible to achieve high efficiency despite small temperature differences with the reservoir. Ferrofluids displaying temporary magnetic remanence are an almost perfect embodiment of the working substance for these cycles. Standard Kinetic Theory, Thermodynamic and Electrodynamic analysis validates the new cycle. Experiment, both physical and by numerical solution have laid the foundations for this work showing: that a property of the system is a strong function of temperature, that a temporary independent flux remains after magnetisation and that a cancellation scheme is required to achieve energy transduction in excess of the magnetisation energy input. This research shows that a new type of heat engine/refrigerator/heat pump is possible.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[6] viXra:1311.0077 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-07 10:57:01

How to build a Maxwell Demon from a 2nd order Phase Change System

Authors: Remi Cornwall
Comments: 14 Pages. New version with three new refs. and some improvements

This paper presents a summary of research to utilise the massive amount of low grade heat energy, for instance which exists in the worlds oceans, by a new type of magnetic cycle. Developed herein are methods based on 2nd order phase changes that make it possible to irrefutably build a Maxwell Demon. Ferrofluids displaying temporary magnetic remanence are an almost perfect embodiment of the working substance for these cycles. Standard Kinetic Theory, Thermodynamic, Electrodynamic analysis and experiment validates the new cycle.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[5] viXra:1309.0076 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-24 06:48:13

Mpemba Effect Explanation

Authors: Ilias J. Tyrovolas
Comments: Pages. Is presented at the 4th Conference on Frontiers in Water Biophysics 2017 in Erice,Sicily (Italy),from May 23-27,in the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture,XI Course of the International School of Statistical Physics

Water molecules are dipoles positioned and oriented joined by hydrogen bonds. When water is heated this structure collapses (increasing entropy). After the water is recooled to a lower temperature the structure is not reconstructed immediately but needed some time. Time is not always available inside a freezer because the cooling process is fast. Entropy reduction curves function of temperature S=f(T) appear retardation (lagging) relative to entropy growth curves. The water after was heated and recooled at the starting temperature, has more entropy than before it was heated. That means that molecules have now the same kinetic energy, but thermal motion before heating was more oriented by the structure mentioned above. Recooling random collisions are more possible leading to faster temperature reduction.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[4] viXra:1309.0076 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-02 04:17:05

Mpemba Effect Explanation

Authors: Ilias J. Tyrovolas
Comments: Pages. correcting abstract

Water molecules are dipoles positioned and oriented joined by hydrogen bonds. When water is heated this structure collapses (increasing entropy). After the water is recooled to a lower temperature the structure is not reconstructed immediately but needed some time. Time is not always available inside a freezer because the cooling process is fast. Entropy reduction curves function of temperature S=f(T) appear retardation (lagging) relative to entropy growth curves. The water after was heated and recooled at the starting temperature, has more entropy than before it was heated. That means that molecules have now the same kinetic energy, but thermal motion before heating was more oriented by the structure mentioned above. Recooling random collisions are more possible leading to faster temperature’s reduction.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[3] viXra:1308.0127 [pdf] replaced on 2013-09-04 16:36:29

Reducing Thermodynamics to (Statistical) Mechanics: Reconsidering the Logical Path

Authors: Loris Serafino
Comments: 18 Pages.

This paper will reconsider the logical path of reducing the second law of thermodynamics to mechanics up to the point where it seems to drop the ball. The thesis of an off-centered interpretation of the mechanical reduction is presented in the light of a promising (although unusual and contested) conceptualization of the second law. This will be accomplished in a conceptual way and strictly between the borders of classical physics.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[2] viXra:1308.0127 [pdf] replaced on 2013-08-23 23:48:33

Reducing Thermodynamics to (Statistical) Mechanics: Reconsidering the Logical Path

Authors: Loris Serafino
Comments: 18 Pages.

This paper will reconsider the logical path of reducing the second law of thermodynamics to mechanics up to the point where it seems to drop the ball. The thesis of an off-centered interpretation of mechanical reduction is presented together with the call for an interventionist explanans, although revised. This will be accomplished in a conceptual way without any mathematical hocus-pocus and strictly between the borders of classical physics.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[1] viXra:1307.0057 [pdf] replaced on 2013-07-16 12:33:47

Conversion Spacetime in Energy

Authors: Florentino Muñiz Ania
Comments: 12 Pages.

This article is a small part of a larger one that has been called TOP (Theory Of Potentials) and in which is shown broadly as energy can be obtained in various ways. Although what Nature does sometimes not be imitated, or at least as effectively. But it describes as it does. Appendices are also included in this article in order to understand certain details that without them you would understand, and the description of them is an experiment (in Appendix C) which dilates the period of an oscillator, causing decrease in frequency simply applying a voltage in the vicinity, and which coincides well with the theory.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy