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2018 - 1801(6)

Any replacements are listed further down

[1107] **viXra:1801.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-10 10:56:13*

**Authors:** Arthur E Pletcher

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The primary consideration of this unifying field theory is the partial mapping of topology, within observations, as feedback loops. Specifically, the effective degrees of freedom (d.o.f.) resulting from such recursive exchanges. This
modeling of observation as partial mapping seems well justified, as it is ubiquitous throughout nature's exchanges and propagation of information. Considered the meridian distortions of gnomonic projection of light waves in vision.
Thus, PVRL extrapolates this same principle of constraining parameters in recursive feedback loops into the entire scope from QFT, (at flashpoint), to GR. PVRL proposes a multispace of transitioning Rn vector fields (similar to Hilbert space), coexisting like wavelengths
in a prism. Progressing from quantum states, which are higher dimensional, outward to lower dimensional Macrospace (Note that backward causation is possible in quantum mechanics, but not possible in the constrained parameters of
classic mechanics or GR). Familiar classic R4
spacetime is just one phase of this multispace.
The mechanism which delineates between each state is PVRL: An iterated process of conscious binary gnomonic mapping of higher dimensional topology onto biased eigenstates. (and subsequent propagation within the quantum field). At each iteration, symmetry becomes more broken, and geometric parameters become more constrained
(Polarity, bonding, separation, alignment and propagation). The inevitable outcome of such recursive feedback loops is a power law distribution (exponential tail), with increased entropy and complexity The resolution of the Cosmological Constant Problem is an understanding that scales approaching QFT are viewed in higher dimensional divergence, and that scales approaching GR are viewed in lower dimensional convergence. A Transitioning Rn space, from R5 at microscales, outward to R3 at the cosmic event horizon, with R4 spactime as an intermediate phase.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1106] **viXra:1801.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-08 14:47:54*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

Spin physicists first observed the tendency of more neutrons to emerge slightly to the right in proton-proton interactions in 2001-2002, during RHIC's first polarized proton experiments. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14]

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1105] **viXra:1801.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-07 19:07:08*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

E8 Physics ( viXra 1602.0319 and 1701.0495 and 1701.0496 ) is based on 26D String Theory with Strings interpreted as World-Lines and spin-2 carriers of Bohm Quantum Potential with Sarfatti Back-Reaction and an Indra’s Net with each Indra’s Jewel being a Schwinger Source. Each Schwinger Source contains about 10^27 virtual particle/antiparticle pairs and interacts with the rest of our Universe through 8 x 10^53 elements of the Monster automorphism group of each 26-dim String Theory cell modulo a Leech lattice so each Schwinger Source can contain full Blockchain information about 10^27 x 8 x 10^53 = 8 x 10^80 other Schwinger Sources in our Universe which is enough capacity to act as an Indra’s Jewel Blockchain Block for our Universe.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1104] **viXra:1801.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-06 14:30:41*

**Authors:** Peter Hickman

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

It is proposed that particles are not fundamental but arise as symmetries of an infinite dimension random field. Space-Time with signature (3,1) and gravitation arises as a double phase transformation of spinors and scalars. The 3 generations of chiral spinors of quarks and leptons and the scalar doublets of the Standard Model are found from 3d random field. The Schwarzschild space-time has no physical singularity.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1103] **viXra:1801.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-05 08:21:32*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A team of scientists from the Theory Division of Professor Ignacio Cirac at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics has now for a couple of years collaborated with theorists from the field of particle physics, in order to find a new and simplified formulation of lattice gauge theories. [11] Now, powerful supercomputer simulations of colliding atomic nuclei, conducted by an international team of researchers including a Berkeley Lab physicist, provide new insights about the twisting, whirlpool-like structure of this soup and what's at work inside of it, and also lights a path to how experiments could confirm these characteristics. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1102] **viXra:1801.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-01 23:06:41*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The missing standard model superpartners compel one to consider an alternative implementation for supersymmetry. The basic supermultiplet proposed here includes the photon and a charged spin 1/2 preon field. These fields are shown to yield the standard model fermions, gauge symmetries and Higgs fields. The novelty is that supersymmetry is defined for unbound preons only. Quantum group SLq(2) representations are introduced to classify topologically scalars, preons, quarks and leptons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1101] **viXra:1712.0603 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-26 06:56:49*

**Authors:** Arijit Bag

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The presently observed accelerating universe suggests that there is a
possibility of the real existence of ‘Tachyons’ - a Boson class particle theo-
rized to exceed the maximum speed of electro magnetic radiation. Theory
suggests that Tachyons do not violate the theory of Special Relativity despite having a speed greater than that of light in vacuum. But their existence is not confirmed by experiment. In this article, possible properties of
tachyons are discussed which would be helpful to test their existence and
detection. Two thought experiments are proposed to detect them.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1100] **viXra:1712.0551 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-21 14:37:23*

**Authors:** Richard Lighthouse

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This short paper presents mathematical evidence that the “positron” found in numerous laboratory experiments - is actually a probable version of the muon neutrino, which is ordinary matter, not antimatter. This new evidence is based on the 1024-QAM model as the first Periodic Table for Elementary Particles. There are 16 probable versions of the muon neutrino with one third of the mass of an electron. 4 of these have the same charge-to-mass ratio as a common electron. Another 4 have twice the charge-to-mass as a common electron, but with the opposite charge (+2/3), causing them to move in the opposite direction in a magnetic field. To complicate matters further, note that there are 16 probable versions of an electron, with 4 different charges (0, -1, -1/3, +2/3). A 1024-QAM table was previously presented that graphically displays how all elementary
particles are related, similar to the Standard Periodic Table in chemistry. This paper concludes there is no antimatter available in our universe. All such events can be explained as ordinary matter.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1099] **viXra:1712.0538 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-20 07:22:45*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1098] **viXra:1712.0531 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-20 17:00:36*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It was show that the linear momentum transported by electromagnetic waves has a negative component, in such way that, when a radiation incides on a surface, it is exerted a pressure on opposite direction to the direction of propagation of the radiation. In addition, it was predicted the existence of photons in which the negative component of the momentum is greater than the positive one. These photons were called attractive photons or gravific photons. Here, we show how to produce and to detect this type of photons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1097] **viXra:1712.0511 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-20 02:53:58*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

According to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), all hadrons are built of the Einstein-spacetime (ES) components (they are the neutrino-antineutrino pairs - their detection is much difficult than neutrinos) and neutrino(s). The ES components are the carriers of the photons and gluons (they are the rotational energies). It leads to conclusion that sometimes we should observe some coincidences in the behaviour of neutrinos and hadrons. Here we show one of such lepton-meson coincidence - there is the similarity of the curves for the neutrino cross-section per neutrino energy in quasi-elastic (QE) scattering and for the kaon-to-pion ratio - in both curves, there is a “horn” and the origin of the separated two curves is the same.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1096] **viXra:1712.0492 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-17 13:40:40*

**Authors:** Peter Sujak

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This paper shows that there is no doubt that a fantasy of the Standard Model has nothing to do with science. This paper is an extension of the Standard Model topic in author's August 2017 published book titled "Einstein's Destruction of Physics". Per this book all references as summary references are directed in this paper.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1095] **viXra:1712.0487 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-17 05:32:41*

**Authors:** Rui-Cheng LI

**Comments:** 90 Pages.

We introduce a new class of higgs type fields $\{U,U^{\mu},U^{\mu\nu}\}$
with Feynman propagator $\thicksim 1/p^4$, and consider the matching to the traditional gauge fields with propagator $\thicksim 1/p^2$ in the viewpoint of effective potentials at tree level. With some particular restrictions on the convergence, there are a wealth of potential forms
generated by the fields $\{U,U^{\mu},U^{\mu\nu}\}$, such as:
(1) in the case of $U$ coupled to the intrinsic charges of matter fields, electromagnetic Coulomb potential with an extra linear potential and Newton's gravitation could be generated with the operators of different orders from the dynamics of $U$, respectively;
(2) for the matter fields, with the multi-vacuum structure of a sine-Gordon type vector field $A^{\mu}$ induced from $U$, a seesaw mechanism for gauge symmetry and flavor symmetry of fermions could be generated, in which the heavy fermions could be produced; besides, by treating the fermion current as a field, a possible way for renormalizable gravity could be proposed;
(3) the Coulomb potential in electromagnetism and gravitation could be generated by an anti-symmetric field strength of $U^{\mu}$, when it's coupled to the intrinsic charge and momentum of matter fields, respectively; and, except for the Coulomb part in each case, there is a linear and a logarithmic part in the former case which might correspond to the confinement in strong QED, while there is a linear and a logarithmic part in the latter case which might correspond to the dark energy effects in the impulsive case and dark matter effects in the attractive case, respectively; besides, a symmetric field strength of $U^{\mu}$ could also generate the same gravitation form as the anti-symmetric case;
(4) a nonlinear version Klein-Gordon equation, QED and the Einstein's general relativity, could be generated as a low energy approximation of the dynamics of $U$, $U^{\mu}$ and $U^{\mu\nu}$, respectively; moreover, in the weak field case, the gauge symmetry could superficially arise, and, a linear QED, linear gravitation and a 3rd-order tensor version QED could be generated by relating the field strength of $U$, $U^{\mu}$ and $U^{\mu\nu}$ to the corresponding gauge fields, respectively;
(5) for the massive $\{U, U^{\mu}\}$, attractive potentials for particles with the same kind of charges could be generated, which might serve as candidate for
interactions maintaining the s-wave pairing and d-wave pairing Cooper pairs in superconductors, with electric charge in the $U$ case and magnetic moment in the $U^{\mu}$ case as interaction charge, respectively; etc.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1094] **viXra:1712.0422 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-12 08:57:22*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Vasiliev

**Comments:** 19 Pages. in Russian

The proposed model describes the process of evolution of elementary particles and fundamental interactions of the early Universe, in which the order observed today, described by the standard model of elementary particle physics, develops in several stages with the participation of complementary local and nonlocal processes.
Предлагаемая модель описывает процесс эволюции элементарных частиц и фундаментальных взаимодействий ранней Вселенной, в котором наблюдаемый сегодня порядок, описываемый стандартной моделью физики элементарных частиц, развивается в несколько этапов с участием дополняющих друг друга локальных и нелокальных процессов.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1093] **viXra:1712.0414 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-12 15:01:54*

**Authors:** Richard Lighthouse

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This short technical paper presents a new standard model for Elementary Particles. All elementary particle masses are related by simple math. This math is similar to the math used for wifi signals and it is called 1024-QAM. The 1024-QAM table graphically displays how all elementary particles are related, similar to the Standard Periodic Table in chemistry. If we line up all of the particle masses in order, we find there are a number of “gaps.” These are called the "mass gaps", and they line up perfectly with 1024-QAM, which fits the sequence. Supersymmetry (SUSY) is also found to occur with 1024-QAM. Mass Groups 1 thru 8 have heavyweight counterparts which are found in Mass Groups 9 thru 16. New particles appear in groups of 4. Numerous new particles are predicted using 1024-QAM. Each particle mass is shown to have 16 probabilities - 4 charges X 4 spins. The only possible explanation for elementary particles to follow a QAM pattern, is due to a blinking universe. This ebook provides compelling evidence that our universe is literally blinking, off and on.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1092] **viXra:1712.0411 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-12 15:22:33*

**Authors:** Richard Ligthouse

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper explains the anomalous magnetic moment for all elementary particles and composite particles (such as the proton). The special case regarding the Muon anomaly is addressed. It also presents a summary of the issues in accurately measuring the magnetic dipole moment for elementary particles. The explanation provided involves simple math and probabilities. It is not complex, such as Yang-Mills and related theories. In summary, there is no anomaly. The measurement of the magnetic moment is a time-averaged value for 16 different probabilities (4 charges X 4 spins) for each particle mass, which is consistent with 1024-QAM. To eliminate the anomaly, a measurement of the particle characteristics and magnetic moment must be taken at a rate faster than the blinking universe, or 1.1 trillion cycles per second. Visual graphs and areas for further research are suggested.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1091] **viXra:1712.0363 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-10 08:14:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The work at the CERN research centre in Switzerland became widely known when the 2013 Nobel-prize-winning discovery of the Higgs boson completed the standard model of particle physics. [9] Usha Mallik and her team used a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to help build a sub-detector at the Large Hadron Collider, the world's largest and most powerful particle accelerator, located in Switzerland. They're running experiments on the sub-detector to search for a pair of bottom quarks— subatomic yin-and-yang particles that should be produced about 60 percent of the time a Higgs boson decays. [8] A new way of measuring how the Higgs boson couples to other fundamental particles has been proposed by physicists in France, Israel and the US. Their technique would involve comparing the spectra of several different isotopes of the same atom to see how the Higgs force between the atom's electrons and its nucleus affects the atomic energy levels. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1090] **viXra:1712.0356 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-08 17:36:33*

**Authors:** Andrzej Okninski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We study leptonic and semileptonic weak decays working in the framework of Hagen-Hurley equations. It is argued that the Hagen-Hurley equations describe decay of the intermediate gauge boson W. It follows that we get a universal picture with the W boson being a virtual,
off-shell, particle with (partially undefined) spin in the $0\oplus 1$ space.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1089] **viXra:1712.0344 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-07 14:40:24*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

The Consensus view of the Physics Community is that the Standard Model has one Higgs mass state at 125 GeV and one Tquark mass state at 174 GeV. E8 Physics (viXra 1602.0319, 1701.0495, 1701.0496) views Higgs as a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) type Tquark -Tantiquark Condensate with 3 mass states for Higgs and Tquark: Low-mass - 125 GeV Higgs and 130 GeV Tquark; Middle-mass - 200 GeV Higgs and 174 GeV Tquark; High-mass - 240 GeV Higgs and 220 GeV Tquark. This paper is a chronological listing of observations of Higgs and Tquark mass states by experiments such as (descriptions from Wikipedia): ARGUS - a particle physics experiment at the electron-positron collider DORIS II at DESY in Hamburg - commissioned in 1982 - operated until 1992. HERA - DESY’s largest synchrotron and storage ring for electrons and positrons - began operation in 1990 - started taking data in 1992 - closed in 2007 - detectors H1 and HERA. FERMILAB - site of Tevatron proton-antiproton collider at Batavia, Illinois - Tevatron was completed in 1983 and closed in 2011 - detectors CDF and D0. LEP - electron-positron collider at CERN in Geneva used from 1989 until 2000. LHC - proton-proton collider at CERN re-using the LEP tunnel - the largest single machine on Earth - built between 1998 and 2008 - detectors CMS and ATLAS - first research run at 7 to 8 TeV was from 2010 to 2013 - restarted at 13 TeV in 2015 - by the end of 2016 had 36 fb(-1) at 13 TeV - during 2017 had collected an additional 45 fb(-1) at 13 TeV for a total of 80 fb(-1) = 80 x 100 Trillion = 8 Quadrillion = 8 x 10^15 events. ATLAS analysis of Higgs -> ZZ* -> 4l of 2016 LHC run was in ATLAS-CONF-2017-058 saying: “... proton–proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36.1 fb-1 collected with the ATLAS detector during 2015 and 2016 at the Large Hadron Collider ... excess ...[is]... observed ...around 240 ... GeV ... with local significance 3.6 sigma. WILL ANALYSIS OF THE ADDITIONAL 45 fb(-1) OF LHC 2017 DATA
CONFIRM OBSERVATION OF THE HIGGS HIGH-MASS 240 GEV STATE ?

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1088] **viXra:1712.0341 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-08 05:38:49*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Physicists peering inside the neutron are seeing glimmers of what appears to be an impossible situation. The vexing findings pertain to quarks, which are the main components of neutrons and protons. The quarks, in essence, spin like tops, as do the neutrons and protons themselves. Now, experimenters at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Va., have found hints that a single quark can briefly hog most of the energy residing in a neutron, yet spin in the direction opposite to that of the neutron itself, says Science News. [10] The puzzle comes from experiments that aimed to determine how quarks, the building blocks of the proton, are arranged inside that particle. That information is locked inside a quantity that scientists refer to as the proton's electric form factor. The electric form factor describes the spatial distribution of the quarks inside the proton by mapping the charge that the quarks carry. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1087] **viXra:1712.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-05 10:39:09*

**Authors:** Pavel Sladkov

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

In paper, which is submitted, electron, proton and neutron are considered as spherical areas, inside which monochromatic electromagnetic wave of corresponding frequency spread along parallels, at that along each parallel exactly half of wave length for electron and proton and exactly one wave length for neutron is kept within, thus this is rotating soliton. This is caused by presence of spatial dispersion and anisotropy of strictly defined type inside the particles. Electric field has only radial component, and magnetic field - only meridional component. By solution of corresponding edge task, functions of distribution of electromagnetic field inside the particles and on their boundary surfaces were obtained. Integration of distribution functions of electromagnetic field through volume of the particles lead to system of algebraic equations, solution of which give all basic parameters of particles: charge, rest energy, mass, radius, magnetic moment and spin.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1086] **viXra:1712.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-04 09:45:27*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 4 Pages. First draft, work in progress.

We show that relativistic invariance is encoded in the multifractal structure of the Standard Model near the electroweak scale. The approximate scale invariance of this structure accounts for the flavor hierarchy and chiral symmetry breaking in the electroweak sector. Surprisingly, it also accounts for breaking of conformal symmetry in General Relativity and the emergence of a non-vanishing cosmological constant.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1085] **viXra:1712.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-04 04:45:31*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In the Standard Model (SM), neutrinos interact with quarks through charged current interactions (mediated by W bosons) and neutral current interactions (mediated by Z bosons). When we take into account the uncertainties then the measured in accelerator and the IceCube experiments cross-sections for neutrinos divided by their energy are consistent with the SM predictions. But there is still the proton spin crisis concerning the quarks and gluons so the SM assumptions for the neutrino-nucleon scattering are not clear. Here we calculated the ratios of cross section for neutrinos to neutrino energy using the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). According to SST, rotating neutrino produces a halo and disc (it looks as a miniature of active massive galaxy) both composed of the Einstein spacetime components which gravitate and are local i.e. are non-relativistic. The sum of masses of the neutrino halo and disc is equal to the neutrino energy. On the other hand, cross-section of neutrino is defined by radius of the disc which density is much higher than the neutrino halo. Below the threshold neutrino energy equal to 2.67 TeV, pions and other hadrons are not produced in the cost of neutrino energy (their production decreases both radii i.e. of the halo and disc) so the ratio of cross-section to neutrino energy is invariant. Above the threshold energy, more and more neutrino energy is consumed on the production of pions and heavier hadrons - it leads to a slower increase in cross section at higher energies in such a way that the ratio of cross section to neutrino energy decreases practically to zero for neutrino energy about 2,800 TeV (this is due to the scattering on heaviest atomic nuclei). The threshold energy for antineutrinos is two times higher than for neutrinos but the ratio of cross section to antineutrino energy for energies lower than the threshold energy is two times lower than for neutrinos - it follows from the internal helicities of nucleons, muons, neutrinos and antineutrinos. Obtained results are consistent with experimental data and we can verify presented here model because of the SST predictions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1084] **viXra:1712.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-02 10:10:29*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas, Mohsin Ilahi, Sajad Ahmad Sheikh, Sheikh Salahudin

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Standard Model in spite of being the most successful model of particle physics, has a well-known shortcoming/weakness;
and which is that the electric charges of quarks of magnitude 2/3 and -1/3 are not properly quantized in it and are
actually fixed arbitrarily.
In this paper we show that under a proper in-depth study, in reality these charges are found to be basically "wrong".
This is attributed to their lack of proper colour-dependence.
Here the proper and correct quark charges are shown to be actually intrinsically colour dependent and which
in turn give consistent and correct description of baryons in QCD.
Hence these colour dependent charges are the correct ones to use in particle physics.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1083] **viXra:1711.0476 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-30 21:36:14*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

All Universes obey the same Laws of Physics and have the same Particle Masses, Force Strengths, and Spacetime Structure because they all begin with Void and evolve according to the Quantum Process of David Finkelstein’s Iteration of Real Clifford Algebras. Our Universe began with a Big Bang Planck-Scale Compact Fluctuation in its Parent Universe, followed by an Octonionic Inflation of its Spacetime, and then its present state of Quaternionic Conformal Gravity + Dark Energy Expansion. This paper is only a sketch-overview of the History of Our Universe. For details and references, see viXra 1602.0319 , 1701.0495 , 1701.0496 , 11709.0265 , 1208.0145 Table of Contents From Void to Algebraic Quantum Field Theory via David Finkelstein’s Iteration of Real Clifford Algebras ... page 2, Initial Planck Cell Big Bang ... page 4, Octonionic Inflation ... page 6, 26D String Theory and Bohm Quantum Consciouness ... page 8, Quaternionic Conformal Expansion ... page 10, Low Entropy of Our Universe after Inflation ... page 10, Quaternionic Standard Model and Gravity + Dark Energy Lagrangian ... page 11, Particle Masses, Force Strengths, K-M parameters ... page 12, History of Our Universe Timetable ... page 13, Human - Universe Consciousness Resonant Connection ... page 14

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1082] **viXra:1711.0426 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-27 07:27:52*

**Authors:** Gaurav Biraris

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

The paper reports a theory which gives explicit (ontic) understanding of the abstract (epistemic) mechanisms spanning many branches of physics. It results to most modern physics starting from Newtonian physics by abandoning progress in twentieth century. The theory assumes consolidation of points in 4-balls of specific radius in the universe. Thus the 4-balls are fundamental elements of the universe. Analogue of momentum defined as soul vector is assumed to be induced on the 4-balls at the beginning of the universe. Then with progression of local time, collisions happen leading to different rotations of CNs. For such rotations, the consolidation provides centripetal binding. By using general terminologies of force and work, the mass energy mechanism gets revealed. The theory provides explicit interpretation of intrinsic properties of mass, electric charge, color charge, weak charge, spin etc. It also provides explicit understanding of the wave-particle duality & quantum mechanics. Epistemic study of the universe with the consolidation results to conventional quantum theories. Elementary mechanism of the field interactions is evident due to conservation of the soul vectors, and its epistemic expectation results to the gauge theories. The theory predicts that four types of interaction would exist in the universe along with the acceptable relative strengths; it provides fundamental interpretation of the physical forces. Further, it explains the basic mechanisms which can be identified with dark energy & dark matter. It also results to (or explains) entanglement, chirality, excess of matter, 4-component spinor, real-abstract (ontic-epistemic) correspondence etc. The theory is beyond standard model and results to the standard model, relativity, dark energy & dark matter, starting by simple assumptions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1081] **viXra:1711.0401 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-23 22:30:32*

**Authors:** Robert L. Oldershaw

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The radical idea that neutrinos are subatomic gravitational waves is presented. Given the available empirical evidence, as opposed to theoretical assumptions, this idea is not as bizarre and ignorable as it may at first sound.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1080] **viXra:1711.0389 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-22 17:03:59*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 46 Pages.

Fundamental = Starting Point of a Process Describing Realistic Physics including Lagrangian and Algebraic Quantum Field Theory (AQFT). The Starting Point of Our Universe was a Fundamental Spinor Void Void = NOTHING so NOTHING is Fundamental. This paper explores the Process, which allows calculation of Standard Model Particle Masses and Force Strengths.Page 2 is a Graphic Overview. Pages 3-13 What is Fundamental? NOTHING is Fundamental !!! Pages 14-42 are my 2018 Calendar with Physics Graphics. Pages 43-46 are about Leonardo DaVinci’s Salvator Mundi and E8.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1079] **viXra:1711.0388 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-23 02:43:48*

**Authors:** Kevin Loch

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Empirically derived formulas are proposed for calculating the Higgs field Yukawa couplings and pole masses of the twelve known fundamental fermions with experimental inputs me, mμ and the Fermi constant G0F.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1078] **viXra:1711.0337 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-16 12:53:45*

**Authors:** Imrich Krištof

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This an expert text is focused on still unknown questions and answers of physics of elementary particles, elementary fields and its entangled particles. The text is built on new concept of theory of elementary particles in Standard Model, namely interactions of gauge bosons, hypothetically neutrinic gaugino – between lepton–neutrino and w (boson) wion and Z boson zion, and among vector bosons and scalar bosons, Higgs boson or graviton, gravitino and photino. Quantum theoretical particle Polyhedronic quantum prisma is possibly called Quantum Polyhedronic Soliton, and may lead to new point of view on TWISTOR THEORY, SUPERTWISTORS, TWISTOR STRING THEORY, GAUGE THEORY. Ending part of this text is dedicated to a Model situation of quantum gravity tunneling and entanglement of graviton and gravitinos. In this text is re–discovered scientifical work of scientists like Sir Roger Penrose, Cornelius Lanczos, Alan Faber, Kenneth G. Wilson, Alexander Polyakov.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1077] **viXra:1710.0328 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-30 09:45:16*

**Authors:** Anatoli Kuznetsov

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

We present the formula for the mass spectrum of the charged composite particles (CP). This formula includes the renormalized fine-structure constant a =1/128.330593928, the rest mass of a new electrically charged particle m = 156.3699214 eV/c2 and two quantum numbers of n and k. The half–integer and integer quantum number n is the projection of an orbital angular momentum electrically charged particle on the symmetry axis of the CP, and the integer k defines the magnetic charges of two Dirac magnetic monopoles, which have opposite signs of magnetic charges and masses. The presented model predicts the values of spins, masses, charge orbit radii and magnetic moments for an infinite number of charged fermions and bosons in the infinite range of mass.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1076] **viXra:1710.0306 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-28 17:41:13*

**Authors:** Gene H. Barbee

**Comments:** 49 Pages. Please contact me at genebarbee@msn.com

A mass model of the neutron and proton reported previously was successful in providing insights into physics and cosmology [9][13]. The equation E=e0*exp(N), where e0 is a constant, was used to characterize energy. This equation works but Edwin Klingman [17] indicated that it needed a clear derivation. This document presents the Schrodinger based fundamentals of the relationship and an understanding of N values for the proton mass model. The fundamentals indicate that zero energy, probability one and quanta found in the neutron model should apply to all mesons and baryons. To study this, data from the new Particle Data Group (PDG) 2016 Particle Physics Booklet [18] was placed in an Excel© spreadsheet and analyzed. The principles zero energy and probability one are consistent with PDG data (even though the particle accelerator must supply energy to create the particles). Understanding mesons and baryons including their properties and fields is important to physics (a subject known as chromodynamics). It is intriguing that results also extend Schrodinger’s equation to quantum gravity and cosmology. New in this document:
1. Nature is extremely simple at the most fundamental level. Schrodinger “quantum circles” at probability one are the source of Charge, Parity, Time (spin) and Fields. Nature creates everything by separating properties from zero (CPTF=0). Energy was originally zero and separated into mass+ kinetic energy and opposite field energy. Parity conjugation is involved in some separations.
2. Quark masses were correlated and their fields identified. It is proposed that “tunneling” allows mesons and baryons to form at various energies rather than their “ideal” energy (the energy where mass+ kinetic energy is equal and opposite the field energy). This explains the large number of mesons and baryons.
3. Fundamentals of decay time are presented and demonstrated for the neutron. Meson and baron decay times are based on N values for their quarks. Some mesons have positive and negative field components correlated with longer decay times (11 orders of magnitude longer).
4. Currently literature suggests that charge, parity and time (CPT) is violated in the weak interaction. New properties of the Up and Down quarks were discovered that cast doubt on this result. The new properties explain Iso-spin (I) and allow baryons to conserve CPTIF=0.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1075] **viXra:1710.0258 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-23 04:14:05*

**Authors:** John Smith

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Richard Feynman: "There is a most profound and beautiful question associated with the observed coupling constant, e - the amplitude for a real electron to emit or absorb a real photon. It is a simple number that has been experimentally determined to be close to 0.08542455. (My physicist friends won't recognize this number, because they like to remember it as the inverse of its square: about 137.03597 with about an uncertainty of about 2 in the last decimal place. It has been a mystery ever since it was discovered more than fifty years ago, and all good theoretical physicists put this number up on their wall and worry about it.) Immediately you would like to know where this number for a coupling comes from: is it related to pi or perhaps to the base of natural logarithms? Nobody knows. It's one of the greatest damn mysteries of physics: a magic number that comes to us with no understanding by man. You might say the "hand of G-d" wrote that number, and "we don't know how He pushed his pencil." We know what kind of a dance to do experimentally to measure this number very accurately, but we don't know what kind of dance to do on the computer to make this number come out, without putting it in secretly!" In this note, a "computational dance" from which this number emerges without any need to put it in secretly is identified...

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1074] **viXra:1710.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-21 07:34:40*

**Authors:** Arayik Emilevich Danghyan

**Comments:** 10 Pages. The article is a translation from the Russian language previously published work.

In this paper, by solving the equations of the relativistic M2 [2] it will show that elementary
particles, such as electrons, can contain the wave process with very specific properties. The wave
model of a stationary electron is represented in the form of a spherical wave process.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1073] **viXra:1710.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-21 14:55:42*

**Authors:** Osvaldo F. Schilling

**Comments:** 23 Pages. 2 tables, 3 figures

In a previous paper we have related rest energy to magnetodynamic energy for the baryons. The hypothesis of a zitterbewegung vibrating motion is essential to the scheme. To impose gauge invariance to the model and the continuity of the wavefunctions, we adopted the criterion that the magnetic flux linked through the region covered by the particle vibrations should be quantized in units n of hc/e. Our results, however, displayed some “scattering” of the data around the theoretical line, which was not analyzed in that previous work. To elucidate this point, the imposition of a fixed criterion on the possible values for n has been replaced in the present paper by the calculation of n from the model equations. Such procedure led to advances in our interpretation of mass in terms of magnetodynamic energy. It has now been shown that the data actually follow a sinusoidal pattern in a plot of mass against n. The previous criterion implied the exclusive existence of fully coherent wavefunctions ( several baryons indeed comply with strict flux quantization), but the sinusoidal behavior can be attributed to additional interference involving also incoherent waves, which are now introduced in the model. Therefore, confined magnetic flux modulates currents which cross through internal boundaries ( or topological constraints) inside baryons, in analogy with transport through Josephson Junctions between superconductors. This results in the undulations observed in our new plots of n against the magnetic moments of particles, and of the mass against n for all baryons. The proposal by A.O.Barut in the 1970s that every baryon contains a proton as constituent is also consistent with our data analysis, as well as the conclusion that inner constituents of baryons manifest as correlated unit-charged quasiparticles of topology dictated by the symmetry properties of each baryon.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1072] **viXra:1710.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-20 20:13:21*

**Authors:** John Smith

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

"There is a most profound and beautiful question associated with the observed coupling constant, e \[Dash] the amplitude for a real electron to emit or absorb a real photon. It is a simple number that has been experimentally determined to be close to 0.08542455. (My physicist friends won't recognize this number, because they like to remember it as the inverse of its square: about 137.03597 with about an uncertainty of about 2 in the last decimal place. It has been a mystery ever since it was discovered more than fifty years ago, and all good theoretical physicists put this number up on their wall and worry about it.) Immediately you would like to know where this number for a coupling comes from: is it related to pi or perhaps to the base of natural logarithms? Nobody knows. It's one of the greatest damn mysteries of physics: a magic number that comes to us with no understanding by man. You might say the "hand of G-d" wrote that number, and "we don't know how He pushed his pencil." We know what kind of a dance to do experimentally to measure this number very accurately, but we don't know what kind of dance to do on the computer to make this number come out, without putting it in secretly!"

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1071] **viXra:1710.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-20 07:42:54*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

I search for concepts that would allow self-consistent generation of dressed fermions in theories of gravitation. Self-consistency means here having the Compton wave lengths of the same order of magnitude for all particles and the four interactions. To build the quarks and leptons of the standard model preons of spin 1/2 and charge 1/3 or 0 have been introduced by the author. Classification of preons, quarks and leptons is provided by the two lowest representations of the quantum group SLq(2). Three extensions of general relativity are considered for self-consistency: (a) propagating and (b) non-propagating torsion theories in Einstein-Cartan spacetime and (c) a Kerr-Newman metric based theory in general relativity (GR). For self-consistency, the case (a) is not excluded, (b) is possible and (c) has been shown to provide it, reinforcing the preon model, too. Therefore I propose that semiclassical GR with its quantum extension (c) and the preon model will be considered a basis for unification of physics. The possibility remains that there are 'true' quantum gravitational phenomena at or near the Planck scale.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1070] **viXra:1710.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-19 01:55:50*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

An asymmetry must exist here somewhere but we simply do not understand where the difference is. What is the source of the symmetry break? [13] They have successfully deciphered the total angular momentum (spin) of the nucleon, determining how it's shared among its constituents. [12] The resulting values for the Rydberg constant and the proton radius are in excellent agreement with the muonic results (Nature 466, 213 (2010)), but disagree by 3.3 standard deviations with the average of the previous determinations from regular hydrogen. [11] In a stringent test of a fundamental property of the standard model of particle physics, known as CPT symmetry, researchers from the RIKEN-led BASE collaboration at CERN have made the most precise measurements so far of the charge-to-mass ratio of protons and their antimatter counterparts, antiprotons. [10] The puzzle comes from experiments that aimed to determine how quarks, the building blocks of the proton, are arranged inside that particle. That information is locked inside a quantity that scientists refer to as the proton's electric form factor. The electric form factor describes the spatial distribution of the quarks inside the proton by mapping the charge that the quarks carry. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1069] **viXra:1710.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-10 08:50:23*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

They have successfully deciphered the total angular momentum (spin) of the nucleon, determining how it's shared among its constituents. [12] The resulting values for the Rydberg constant and the proton radius are in excellent agreement with the muonic results (Nature 466, 213 (2010)), but disagree by 3.3 standard deviations with the average of the previous determinations from regular hydrogen. [11] In a stringent test of a fundamental property of the standard model of particle physics, known as CPT symmetry, researchers from the RIKEN-led BASE collaboration at CERN have made the most precise measurements so far of the charge-to-mass ratio of protons and their antimatter counterparts, antiprotons. [10] The puzzle comes from experiments that aimed to determine how quarks, the building blocks of the proton, are arranged inside that particle. That information is locked inside a quantity that scientists refer to as the proton's electric form factor. The electric form factor describes the spatial distribution of the quarks inside the proton by mapping the charge that the quarks carry. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1068] **viXra:1710.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-08 10:56:59*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The resulting values for the Rydberg constant and the proton radius are in excellent agreement with the muonic results (Nature 466, 213 (2010)), but disagree by 3.3 standard deviations with the average of the previous determinations from regular hydrogen. [11]
In a stringent test of a fundamental property of the standard model of particle physics, known as CPT symmetry, researchers from the RIKEN-led BASE collaboration at CERN have made the most precise measurements so far of the charge-to-mass ratio of protons and their antimatter counterparts, antiprotons. [10]
The puzzle comes from experiments that aimed to determine how quarks, the building blocks of the proton, are arranged inside that particle. That information is locked inside a quantity that scientists refer to as the proton’s electric form factor. The electric form factor describes the spatial distribution of the quarks inside the proton by mapping the charge that the quarks carry. [9]
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1067] **viXra:1710.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-06 08:26:51*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1066] **viXra:1710.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-06 01:38:44*

**Authors:** Nikola Perkovic

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In my attempt to eliminate the Landau Pole from QED by “borrowing” asymptotic freedom from
QCD, I was successful in uniting the coupling constants of the two, respectively. This equation,
together with the already established electroweak unification forms a basis, within the Standard
Model, to experimentally test Grand Unification. The part that can be tested experimentally is the
value of the strong coupling constant for the energy value of the QCD integration parameter Λ,
offering such a prediction for the first time. It should be also noted that I was successful in
eliminating the Landau Pole.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1065] **viXra:1710.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-03 00:37:53*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

We point to a significant mismatch between the nature of the baryon number and
of the electric charge of baryons in the Skyrme topological model. Requirement
of consistency between these two then demands a significant improvement in
how the electric charge is defined in this model. The Skyrme model thereafter
has a consistent electric charge which has a unique colour dependence built into
it. Its relationship with other theoretical model structures is also studied.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1064] **viXra:1709.0438 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-30 06:57:27*

**Authors:** Austin J.Fearnley

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Model#7 extended the previous model by including spin 2 gravitons which are now withdrawn in model#8 and replaced by spin 1 gravitons. The reason for the change to spin 1 gravitons was the realisation that spin 1 gravitons together with a unified use of colour charge can unite the forces of QCD, QED, Weak and gravitation in a way that shows the commonality of all charges (Figure A). This commonality is outside the range of the Standard Model as there is a symmetry at the level of preons which is broken by aggregation of preons into elementary particles. At the preon level, the QED charge on preons derives exactly from the QCD charge. Because of aggregation of preons into quarks, that symmetry is broken at the level of quarks. A red quark can be either positive or negatively charged which hides the symmetry present at the level of preons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1063] **viXra:1709.0433 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-29 09:14:28*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Contrary to the author’s account, the “sum of squares” equation of vixra 1709.0386 has been recorded and analyzed in at least one publication prior to his submission. We also object to his interpretation of this equation.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1062] **viXra:1709.0398 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-26 20:41:25*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A much easier process

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1061] **viXra:1709.0386 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-25 16:24:08*

**Authors:** Cris A. Fitch

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We observe that the sum of the squares of the three known fundamental massive bosons is within 0.4% of the square of the vacuum expectation value divided by 2. It is also well known that the top quark mass squared is also slightly less than this value. We put forth the conjecture that this is not a coincidence, and that these two facts are a result of a general principle for the Standard Model that the sum of the squares of the boson masses and the sum of the squares of the fermion masses actually equals the vacuum expectation value squared divided by two. Furthermore this foreshadows a coming particle desert at TeV energies, as the available reservoir of mass couplings has already been allocated to known particles.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1060] **viXra:1709.0385 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-25 22:46:58*

**Authors:** Wei Xu

**Comments:** 3 Pages. The 2nd part of this series is available at http://vixra.org/abs/1709.0358

For the first time, ** Law of Conservation of Light** is uncovered that consists of the seven principles including the wave-particle duality as well as the

[1059] **viXra:1709.0311 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-20 13:33:26*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Under construction, first draft.

As we have recently shown, the minimal fractal manifold (MFM) describes the underlying structure of spacetime near or above the electroweak scale. Here we uncover the connection between quantum field operators and the MFM starting from the operator product expansion of high-energy Quantum Field Theory (QFT). The approach confirms that the Standard Model of particle physics (SM) stems from a symmetry breaking mechanism that turns the spacetime continuum into a MFM.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1058] **viXra:1709.0306 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-21 03:02:58*

**Authors:** Han Geurdes

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper an algebraic method is presented to derive a non-Hermitian Schr{\"o}dinger equation from total relativistic energy. Here, $E=V+c\sqrt{m^2c^2+\left(\mathbf{p}-\frac{q}{c}\mathbf{A}\right)^2}$ with $E\rightarrow i\hbar \frac{\partial}{\partial t}$ and $\mathbf{p} \rightarrow -i\hbar \nabla$.
In the derivation no use is made of Dirac's method of four vectors and the root operator isn't squared either.
Instead, use is made of the algebra of operators. Proof is delivered that it is possible to derive Lorentz invariant forms in this way.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1057] **viXra:1709.0273 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-18 08:23:30*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Particle collisions recreating the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) that filled the early universe reveal that droplets of this primordial soup swirl far faster than any other fluid. [11] Now, powerful supercomputer simulations of colliding atomic nuclei, conducted by an international team of researchers including a Berkeley Lab physicist, provide new insights about the twisting, whirlpool-like structure of this soup and what's at work inside of it, and also lights a path to how experiments could confirm these characteristics. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1056] **viXra:1709.0265 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-17 19:16:04*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In E8 Physics, when our Planck Scale Universe emerged from its Parent Universe by Quantum Fluctuation, it was represented by Real Form E8(-248) with SO(16) symmetry; and during Octonionic NonUnitary Inflation our Universe was represented by Real Form E8(8) with SO(8,8) symmetry; and after the end of Octonionic Inflation with 8-dim Octonionic Spacetime, during the present era of (4+4)-dim Quaternionic Kaluza-Klein Spacetime and Unitary Quaternionic Quantum Processes our Universe has been represented by Real Form E8(-24) with SO*(8) symmetry.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1055] **viXra:1709.0264 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-18 00:04:29*

**Authors:** Gunn Quznetsov

**Comments:** 54 Pages.

No need models - the fundamental theoretical physics is a part of classical probability theory (the part that considers the probability of dot events in the 3 + 1 space-time)

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1054] **viXra:1709.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-12 21:11:20*

**Authors:** DING Jian

**Comments:** 14 Pages. I firmly believe that a single spark can start great creative conflagrations.

Based on Aristotle's definition, all the knowledge was able to be divided into three parts: natural science, metaphysics and mathematics. Among them, we can distinguish between natural science and metaphysics according to whether there exists in reality. And the principle of the limit in mathematics helps us to break the bondage of finite thought. From the quantitative changes of real space to have gone deep into a qualitative difference of ideal realm, it has accomplished the unity of opposites of all knowledge. Take the postulation as an example. This concept corresponds to limiting value, and is a hypothesis that humans can only be continually to modify the one-sided view to approach the truth but can't use empirical methods to prove or disprove it. Newton's First Law is such a postulation, which has invariance or absoluteness, can be called the absolute truth and belonged to the metaphysical category. According to the above philosophical principles we have found that in Einstein's special relativity there is a paradoxes, which is to use an absolute truth (the principle of constant light velocity in vacuum) to overthrow another absolute truth (the absoluteness of simultaneity) but one of them can't be proved to be false. And his mistake to be found out, which is to confuse the light speed in reality with the c. So, starting from the perspective of all knowledge, all the inertial systems are redefined, Galileo's coordinate transformations once again enabled; and in order to eliminate the false and retain the true, Einstein's two postulations in special relativity are reshaped, which can make them reasonably to return to the framework of absolute space-time. Finally to point out, it has been identified that so-called "Non-being" in Lao-tzu is the "metaphysics", which will certainly have great significance to unify the Eastern and Western Philosophy.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1053] **viXra:1709.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-13 03:37:11*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

An extremely puzzling problem of particle physics is, how come, no baryon
number arises mathematically to describe the spin-1/2 octet baryons in the
Eightfold way model. Recently the author has shown that all the canonical
proposals to provide a baryon number to solve the above problem, are funda-
mentally wrong. So what is the resolution of this conundrum? Here we show
that the topological Skyrme-Witten model which takes account of the Wess-
Zumino anomaly comes to our rescue. In contrast to the two
avour model, the
presence of this anomaly term for three
avours, shows that the quantal states
are monopolar harmonics, which are not functions but sections of a ber bun-
dle. This generates a profoundly signicant "right hypercharges", which lead
to making the adjoint representation of SU(3) as being the ground state. This
provides a topologically generated baryon number for the spin-1/2 baryons in
the adjoint representation, to connect to the Eightfold way model baryon octet
states. This solves the mystery of the missing baryon number in the Eightfold
way model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1052] **viXra:1709.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-11 18:57:12*

**Authors:** DING Jian

**Comments:** 19 Pages. I firmly believe that a single spark can start great creative conflagrations.

Based on Aristotle's definition, all the knowledge was able to be divided into three parts: natural science, metaphysics and mathematics. Among them, we can distinguish between natural science and metaphysics according to whether there exists in reality. And the principle of the limit in mathematics helps us to break the bondage of finite thought. From the quantitative changes of real space to have gone deep into a qualitative difference of ideal realm, it has accomplished the unity of opposites of all knowledge. Take the postulation as an example. This concept corresponds to limiting value, and is a hypothesis that humans can only be continually to modify the one-sided view to approach the truth but can't use empirical methods to prove or disprove it. Newton's First Law is such a postulation, which has invariance or absoluteness, can be called the absolute truth, and belonged to the metaphysical category. According to the above philosophical principles we have found that in Einstein's special relativity there is a paradoxes, which is to use an absolute truth (the principle of constant light velocity in vacuum) to overthrow another absolute truth (the absoluteness of simultaneity) but one of them can't be proved to be false. And his mistake to be found out, which is to confuse the light speed in reality with the c. So, starting from the perspective of all knowledge, all the inertial systems are redefined, Galileo's coordinate transformations once again enabled; and in order to eliminate the false and retain the true, Einstein's two postulations in special relativity are reshaped, which can make them reasonably to return to the framework of absolute space-time. Finally to point out, it has been identified that so-called "Nonbeing" in Lao-tzu is the "metaphysics", which will certainly have great significance to unify the Eastern and Western philosophy.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1051] **viXra:1709.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-09 16:45:47*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The conservation role of the Higgs boson is the creation of the "Leptonic Spectrum".

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1050] **viXra:1709.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-08 08:33:52*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Scientists generally imagine atomic nuclei to be more or less spherical clusters of protons and neutrons, but always relatively chaotic. [12] At very high energies, the collision of massive atomic nuclei in an accelerator generates hundreds or even thousands of particles that undergo numerous interactions. [11] The first experimental result has been published from the newly upgraded Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The result demonstrates the feasibility of detecting a potential new form of matter to study why quarks are never found in isolation. [10] A team of scientists currently working at the Large Hadron Collider at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) announced that it has possibly discovered the existence of a particle integral to nature in a statement on Tuesday, Dec. 15, and again on Dec.16. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1049] **viXra:1709.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-08 06:37:52*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Conventional electron accelerators have become an indispensable tool in modern research. [12]
An outstanding conundrum on what happens to the laser energy after beams are fired into plasma has been solved in newly-published research at the University of Strathclyde. [11]
Researchers at Lund University and Louisiana State University have developed a tool that makes it possible to control extreme UV light - light with much shorter wavelengths than visible light. [10]
Tiny micro- and nanoscale structures within a material's surface are invisible to the naked eye, but play a big role in determining a material's physical, chemical, and biomedical properties. [9]
A team of researchers led by Leo Kouwenhoven at TU Delft has demonstrated an on-chip microwave laser based on a fundamental property of superconductivity, the ac Josephson effect. They embedded a small section of an interrupted superconductor, a Josephson junction, in a carefully engineered on-chip cavity. Such a device opens the door to many applications in which microwave radiation with minimal dissipation is key, for example in controlling qubits in a scalable quantum computer. [8]
Optical scientists from the Warsaw Laser Centre of the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Faculty of Physics of the University of Warsaw have generated ultrashort laser pulses in an optical fiber with a method previously considered to be physically impossible. [7]
Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light in Erlangen have discovered a new mechanism for guiding light in photonic crystal fiber (PCF). [6]
Scientists behind a theory that the speed of light is variable - and not constant as Einstein suggested - have made a prediction that could be tested. [5]
Physicists’ greatest hope for 2015, then, is that one of these experiments will show where Einstein got off track, so someone else can jump in and get closer to his long-sought “theory of everything.”
This article is part of our annual "Year In Ideas" package, which looks forward to the most important science stories we can expect in the coming year. It was originally published in the January 2015 issue of Popular Science. [4]
The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1048] **viXra:1709.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-02 08:43:01*

**Authors:** A.J.Fearnley

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This paper summarises a model for building all elementary particles of the Standard Model plus the higgs, dark matter, dark energy and gravitons, out of preons and sub-preons. The preons are themselves built from string-like hexarks each with chiral values for the fundamental properties of elementary particles. The four forces are shown to be unified by hexarks being string-like objects comprising a compactified multiverse-like structure of at least 10^39 strands of string-like 4D space and time blocks (septarks). Despite the individual forces seeming very different from each another, they all derive from the same colour strands, either as net colour braids (QCD and attractive gravity) or as net neutral-colour braids/strands (electric charge, weak isospin and dark energy, or repulsive gravity). Different strength forces have different numbers of braids in them but QCD-colour is qualitatively, but not quantitatively, the same as gravitational colour while electric charge, weak isospin and dark energy are all qualitatively the same neutral-colour mix, but not quantitatively the same.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1047] **viXra:1709.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-01 09:03:32*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

New research by a team from Aarhus, Swansea, and Purdue Universities has enabled recent experiments to make the first measurement of the 1S – 2S atomic state transition in antihydrogen. [12] The LHCb experiment has found hints of what could be a new piece of the jigsaw puzzle of the missing antimatter in our universe. [11] In a stringent test of a fundamental property of the standard model of particle physics, known as CPT symmetry, researchers from the RIKEN-led BASE collaboration at CERN have made the most precise measurements so far of the charge-to-mass ratio of protons and their antimatter counterparts, antiprotons. [10] The puzzle comes from experiments that aimed to determine how quarks, the building blocks of the proton, are arranged inside that particle. That information is locked inside a quantity that scientists refer to as the proton's electric form factor. The electric form factor describes the spatial distribution of the quarks inside the proton by mapping the charge that the quarks carry. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1046] **viXra:1708.0479 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-31 12:36:34*

**Authors:** M. D. Monsia

**Comments:** 2 pages

This work is devoted to investigate the types of interaction of physics by exchange particles, that are photon, W and Z bosons, gluon and graviton considered in terms of crystalline polyhedron of light.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1045] **viXra:1708.0378 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-27 06:34:27*

**Authors:** Imrich Krištof

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This publication is based on studies of The Moravian Masaryk University, Professor RNDr. Josef Havel, Dr.Sc., from Department of Analytical Chemistry and Department of Physical Electronics. The significant subject of the work is an application of ANN (ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK, with MALDI–TOF SPECTROMETRY,
HPLC (High Pressure Liquid Chromatography), Electrophoresis and Research of AAS (ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY). This text says about research of neutrinos and photons, wimp’s like an application of construction of QUANTUM ANN COMPUTER. The Article consists of study an introduction of Author and Prof. RNDr. J. Havel, Dr.Sc. theme of mineralogy and biology
and geography and scientific cooperation from the year 2004, study generally could be known
like soil computation. The second part of this publication is dedicated to short History of Computational Science. The third part says about Highlights of this article, concretely Author’s sketches of a quantum computer.
The fourth part talks about results from continual measuring of statistical data
from project SAGE ^{37}Ar neutrino source experiment (SAGE -> SOVIET–AMERICAN–
^{71}GERMANIUM–^{71}GALIUM EXPERIMENT IN CAUCASCUS BAKSAN. Fifth part is connected with METHODS (KATRIN AND TROITSK NU–MASS). Sixth part is focused to conclusions of Research of neutrinos and other quanticles,
namely photon proton, photon neutrino, neutrino photon and wimp’s.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1044] **viXra:1708.0369 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-25 14:56:59*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

This paper is an elementary-level attempt at discussing 8D E8 Physics based on the 240 Root Vectors of an E8 lattice and how it compares with physics models based on 4D and 3D structures such as Glotzer Dimer packings in 3D, Elser-Sloane Quasicrystals in 4D, and various 3D Quasicrystals based on slices of 600-cells.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1043] **viXra:1708.0337 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-25 02:32:10*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas, Mohsin Ilahi, Sajad Ahmad Sheikh, Sheikh Salahudin

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The Standard Model of particle physics, based on the group structure
SU (N ) c ⊗ SU (2) L ⊗U (1) Y (f orN c = 3), has been very successful. However in
it, the electric charge is not quantized and is fixed by hand to be 2/3 and -1/3.
This is its major shortcoming. This model runs into conflict with another
similarly structured, but actually quite different model, wherein the electric
charge is fully quantized and depends upon colour degree of freedom as well.
We study this basic conflict between these models and how they connect
to a consistent study of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) for arbitrary
number of colours. We run into a basic issue of consistency of Quantum
Electrodynamics (QED) with these fundamentally different charges. Study of
consistency of ( QCD + QED ) together, makes discriminating and conclusive
statements about the relevance of these two model structures.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1042] **viXra:1708.0267 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-22 23:03:33*

**Authors:** C A Brannen

**Comments:** 59 Pages. As submitted to Foundations of Physics

We use density matrices to explore the possibility that the various flavors of quarks and leptons are linear superpositions over a single particle whose symmetry follows the finite subgroup $S_4$ of the simple Lie group SO(3). We use density matrices which allow modeling of symmetry breaking over temperature, and can incorporate superselection sectors. We obtain three generations each consisting of the quarks and leptons and an SU(2) dark matter doublet. We apply the model to the Koide mass equations and propose extensions of the theory to other parts of the Standard Model and gravitation.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1041] **viXra:1708.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-19 03:56:44*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Scientists have discovered a remarkably simple way to suppress a common instability that can halt fusion reactions and damage the walls of reactors built to create a "star in a jar." [12] Particle collisions recreating the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) that filled the early universe reveal that droplets of this primordial soup swirl far faster than any other fluid. [11] Now, powerful supercomputer simulations of colliding atomic nuclei, conducted by an international team of researchers including a Berkeley Lab physicist, provide new insights about the twisting, whirlpool-like structure of this soup and what's at work inside of it, and also lights a path to how experiments could confirm these characteristics. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1040] **viXra:1708.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-18 12:55:06*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described the mechanism of the light-by-light scattering and we calculated the cross-section: 76.5 +- 59.5 nb - it is independent of transverse momentum. This result is very close to the ATLAS data. The SST shows that in reality light is scattered on the central condensates in virtual electrons. The maximum width +-59.5 nb follows from a natural phenomenon. On the other hand, the calculated within the Standard Model central value (too low) and width (too low) of the cross-section are inconsistent with the ATLAS data. We answered as well following question: Why the perturbative Quantum Electrodynamics is at least an incomplete theory?

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1039] **viXra:1708.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-17 22:38:32*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas, Sajjad Ahmad Sheikh, Sheikh Salahudin

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

It is commonly believed ( and as well reflected in current textbooks in particle physics )
that the R ratio in $e^+ e^-$ scattering and $\pi^0 \rightarrow \gamma \gamma$ decay provide
strong evidences of the three colours of the Quantum Chromodynamics group ${SU(3)}_c$.
This is well documented in current literature. However,
here we show that with a better understanding of the structure of the electric charge in the Standard Model of particle
physics at hand, one rejects the second evidence as given above but continues to accept the first one.
Thus $\pi^0 \rightarrow \gamma \gamma$ decay is not a proof of three colours anymore.
This fact is well known. However unfortunately some kind of inertia has prevented
this being taught to the students.
As such the textbooks and monographs should be corrected so that more accurate information may be transmitted to the students.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1038] **viXra:1708.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-15 05:43:15*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is shown a system that, if launched radially into the Earth’s gravitational field, it can acquires a ultra high amount of kinetic energy, which can generate a highly intense pulse of electromagnetic energy (EMP) with magnitude of the order of 10 Megatons or more.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1037] **viXra:1708.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-11 09:32:14*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22]
Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21]
Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20]
Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19]
Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been “squeezed” to a record low. [18]
An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by “twisted light” can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15]
Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14]
Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13]
Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12]

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1036] **viXra:1708.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-10 19:49:52*

**Authors:** Wei Lu

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

There are three composite electroweak Higgs bosons stemming from top quark, tau neutrino, and tau lepton condensations. Each of the three condensations gives rise to masses of four different fermions. The fermion mass hierarchies within these three cohorts are dictated by four-fermion condensations, which break two global chiral symmetries. The four-fermion condensations induce axion-like pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons and can be dark matter candidates. In addition to the 125 GeV Higgs boson observed at the LHC, we anticipate detection of tau neutrino composite Higgs boson via the charm quark decay channel. Tau neutrino condensation may contribute substantially to the muon anomalous magnetic moment. On the other hand, a feeble antisymmetric condensation might be gravitationally relevant and reflected as large-scale CMB anisotropies.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1035] **viXra:1708.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-07 14:42:32*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It seems to be the most attractive experiment for physicists, who strongly believe in the validity of the STR, to refer to: the supposed half-life time, in combination with their supposed velocity, of muons entering the atmosphere. The crucial part of the experiment is the application of the equation E=mc2. This article shows that, by applying this equation, the one error in STR is used to prove the apparent validity of another error in this theory.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1034] **viXra:1708.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-08 01:55:24*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

For the first time, scientists have conducted thermonuclear measurements of nuclear reaction cross-sections under extreme conditions like those of stellar interiors. [19] Astronomers like to say we are the byproducts of stars, stellar furnaces that long ago fused hydrogen and helium into the elements needed for life through the process of stellar nucleosynthesis. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1033] **viXra:1708.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-06 09:21:13*

**Authors:** Osvaldo F. Schilling

**Comments:** 3 pages, 1 figure

Evidence for quantum interference due to internal currents is presented for all baryons of the octet and decuplet, through the joint analysis of their rest energy and magnetic moments data. This work supplements the paper vixra: 1706.0040, and corrects the approximate equation used to fit data in a Figure in that paper( and in vixra:1706.0287). The fully correct expression, plotted here in a new Figure, clearly displays instability and the tendency of the number of flux quanta n to “reach for” integer values whenever the magnetic moment of a particle ( in nuclear magneton units) becomes an integer number. The overall conclusion of this set of papers in vixra is that mass is essentially determined by kinetic( and magnetic) energies associated with angular momentum. The fine details, however, depend upon the magnetic moments ( consistent with SU(3) symmetry), their self-magnetic fields, and the resulting currents whose intereference will determine the correct energies that consitute the so-called rest masses.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1032] **viXra:1708.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-06 09:33:37*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: showing a viewpoint with regards to the relationship of the Pion and the Muon.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1031] **viXra:1708.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-03 14:15:11*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 39 Pages.

Neutrinos are a challenge to study because their interactions with matter are so rare. Particularly elusive has been what's known as coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, which occurs when a neutrino bumps off the nucleus of an atom. [12] Lately, neutrinos – the tiny, nearly massless particles that many scientists study to better understand the fundamental workings of the universe – have been posing a problem for physicists. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn't be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we're starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1030] **viXra:1708.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-02 13:28:09*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Particle collisions recreating the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) that filled the early universe reveal that droplets of this primordial soup swirl far faster than any other fluid. [11] Now, powerful supercomputer simulations of colliding atomic nuclei, conducted by an international team of researchers including a Berkeley Lab physicist, provide new insights about the twisting, whirlpool-like structure of this soup and what's at work inside of it, and also lights a path to how experiments could confirm these characteristics. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1029] **viXra:1708.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-01 06:43:13*

**Authors:** Victor L. Mironov, Sergey V. Mironov

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

We discuss the theoretical description of dyons having simultaneously both electric and magnetic charges on the basis of space-time algebra of sixteen-component sedeons. We show that the sedeonic equations for electromagnetic field of dyons can be reformulated in equivalent form as the equations for renormalized field potentials, field strengths and single renormalized source. The relations for energy and momentum as well as the relations for Lorentz invariants of renormalized electromagnetic field are derived. Additionally, we discuss the sedeonic second-order Klein-Gordon and first-order Dirac wave equations describing the quantum behavior of dyons in an external electromagnetic field.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1028] **viXra:1707.0415 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-31 13:02:33*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Predicting the properties of subatomic particles before their experimental discovery has been a big challenge for physicists. [14] There's a new particle in town, and it's a double-charmingly heavy beast. Researchers working on the LHCb experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider have announced the discovery of the esoterically named Xicc++ particle. [13] One of the fundamental challenges in nuclear physics is to predict the properties of subatomic matter from quantum chromodynamics (QCD)—the theory describing the strong force that confines quarks into protons and neutrons, and that binds protons and neutrons together. [12] At very high energies, the collision of massive atomic nuclei in an accelerator generates hundreds or even thousands of particles that undergo numerous interactions. [11] The first experimental result has been published from the newly upgraded Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The result demonstrates the feasibility of detecting a potential new form of matter to study why quarks are never found in isolation. [10] A team of scientists currently working at the Large Hadron Collider at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) announced that it has possibly discovered the existence of a particle integral to nature in a statement on Tuesday, Dec. 15, and again on Dec.16. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1027] **viXra:1707.0385 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-28 13:15:02*

**Authors:** Angel Garcés Doz

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The proof of the existence of seven dimensions compacted in circles: the principle of uncertainty of Heisenberg extended to d dimensions; Allows us to obtain the masses of the seven Higgs bosons, including the known empirically (125.0901 GeV = mh (1)); And theorize the calculation of the mass of the boson stop quark (745 GeV)

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1026] **viXra:1707.0384 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-28 13:34:57*

**Authors:** Solomon Budnik

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Search for Graviton

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a linear collider. The LHC consists of a 27-kilometre ring of superconducting magnets with a number of accelerating structures to boost the energy of the particles along the way. Inside the accelerator, two high-energy particle beams travel at close to the speed of light before they are made to collide. The beams travel in opposite directions in separate beam pipes – two tubes kept at ultrahigh vacuum. Note that all experiments in that collider are subject to gravity and to thereby associated defects in superconducting.
Moreover, the collision of particles is artificially induced in that collider, while in our accelerator they won’t collide but would naturally propel themselves at high kinetic energy due to inherent repulsion and thereby created gravitational wave to then split in duality. Gravity has indeed a repulsive force with vortical repulsion effect as in illustrations of our accelerator model on p. 2.
The first theory of repulsive gravity was a quantum theory published by Kowitt. In this modified Dirac theory, Kowitt postulated that the positron is not a hole in the sea of electrons-with-negative-energy as in usual Dirac hole theory, but instead is a hole in the sea of electrons-with-negative-energy-and-positive-gravitational-mass: this yields a modified C-inversion, by which the positron has positive energy but negative gravitational mass. Repulsive gravity is then described by adding extra terms (mgΦg and mgAg) to the wave equation. The idea is that the wave function of a positron moving in the gravitational field of a matter particle evolves such that in time it becomes more probable to find the positron further away from the matter particle.
Kowitt, M. (1996). "Gravitational repulsion and Dirac antimatter". International Journal of Theoretical Physics. 35 (3): 605–631. doi:10.1007/BF02082828.
To summarize, our concept device and technology enable to create a vortical flow spiral accelerator as occurs in spiral galaxies like M101. Note that our vortical particles accelerator has nothing to do with common cyclotron or synchrotron.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1025] **viXra:1707.0367 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-27 22:18:52*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

5 July 2017 ATLAS released ATLAS-CONF-2017-058 saying:
“... A search for heavy resonances decaying into a pair of Z bosons leading to l+ l- l+ l- ... is presented. [ that includes the Higgs -> ZZ* -> 4l channel ] The search uses proton–proton collision data at 13 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36.1 fb-1 collected with the ATLAS detector during 2015 and 2016 at the Large Hadron Collider ... excess ...[is]... observed in the data for m4l around 240 ... GeV ... with a local significance of 3.6 sigma ...". E8-Cl(16) Physics Model ( viXra 1602.0319 ) has a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) type structure for the Higgs-Tquark system resulting in 3 Higgs mass states: around 125 GeV (observed) and 200 and 250 GeV. 240 GeV is close enough to 250 GeV that the ATLAS 3.6 sigma peak should not be suppressed by LEE and does constitute significant support for the validity of the NJL sector of the model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1024] **viXra:1707.0340 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-25 13:29:10*

**Authors:** Solomon Budnik

**Comments:** 3 Pages. NextGen high energy physics

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world’s largest and most powerful particle accelerator. The LHC consists of a 27-kilometre ring of superconducting magnets with a number of accelerating structures to boost the energy of the particles along the way. Inside the accelerator, two high-energy particle beams travel at close to the speed of light before they are made to collide. The beams travel in opposite directions in separate beam pipes – two tubes kept at ultrahigh vacuum. Note that all experiments in that collider are subject to gravity and thereby associated defects in superconducting.
Our concept device and technology enable to create a supercollider in NextGen patricides engineering.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1023] **viXra:1707.0283 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-21 09:54:40*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

To some degree of approximation, atomic nuclei are spherical, though distorted to a greater or lesser extent. When the nucleus is excited, its shape may change, but only for an extremely brief moment, after which it returns to its original state. [13] What is the mass of a proton? Scientists from Germany and Japan have made an important step toward better understanding this fundamental constant. [12] In a paper published today in the journal Science, the ASACUSA experiment at CERN reported new precision measurement of the mass of the antiproton relative to that of the electron. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1022] **viXra:1707.0275 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-20 07:18:32*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In a paper published today in the journal Science, the ASACUSA experiment at CERN reported new precision measurement of the mass of the antiproton relative to that of the electron. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1021] **viXra:1707.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-17 08:09:39*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Although the discovery of the Higgs boson by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations in 2012 completed the Standard Model, many mysteries remain unexplained. For instance, why is the mass of the Higgs boson so much lighter than expected, and why is gravity so weak? [9] Last week, the detectors of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) witnessed their first collisions of 2017. [8] As physicists were testing the repairs of LHC by zipping a few spare protons around the 17 mile loop, the CMS detector picked up something unusual. The team feverishly pored over the data, and ultimately came to an unlikely conclusion—in their tests, they had accidentally created a rainbow universe. [7] The universe may have existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1020] **viXra:1707.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-16 06:07:42*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: show the viewpoint with regards to first big question facing physics and science.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1019] **viXra:1707.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-12 03:52:25*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

By application of the 10D/4D correspondence, the radii of nearby stars have been shown to map onto the masses of stable atomic nuclei. The correspondence is now used to calculate the mass m and radius r of the subatomic object that corresponds to a typical 1.4 solar mass neutron star. The mass m is found to be 4.0 TeV. Using natural units, r/m is precisely 2.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1018] **viXra:1707.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-11 04:05:08*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Standard Model (SM) and experimental data show that the change of the up quark for down quark increases the mass of nucleon by about 1 MeV. On the other hand, SM and experimental results show that the same change in the doubly charmed baryons Xi decreases the mass by about 100 MeV. Within the SM we cannot explain such two major inconsistencies (i.e. 100 MeV instead 1 MeV and the increase-decrease asymmetry) so such problems suggest new physics. To save the SM, some scientists suggest that the first doubly charmed Xi, detected by the SELEX collaboration based at Fermilab, should disappear! Here, applying the atom-like structure of baryons that follows from the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we calculated masses and I, J and P of many charmed Xi baryons and masses of the two doubly charmed baryons Xi. Calculated mass of Xi_cc+ is 3519.08 MeV whereas of Xi_cc++ is 3621.90 MeV - the results are consistent with experimental data. The other theoretical masses obtained here are very close to experimental results. We present a generalized scheme that is very helpful in calculating masses and other physical quantities that characterize baryons. Charmed baryons contain relativistic, positively charged pion in the d = 0 state which mass is 1256.6 MeV - this mass is close to the mass of the charm quark (in SST it is 1267 MeV) so the quark model can mimic presented here the atom-like theory of baryons. On the other hand, relativistic mass of charged kaon in the d = 0 state is 4444.9 MeV so it can mimic the mass of the bottom quark (in SST it is 4190 MeV).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1017] **viXra:1707.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-10 05:31:29*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: show the viewpoint with regards to Higgs boson and neutrinos.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1016] **viXra:1707.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-07 06:54:57*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

There's a new particle in town, and it's a double-charmingly heavy beast. Researchers working on the LHCb experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider have announced the discovery of the esoterically named Xicc++ particle. [13] One of the fundamental challenges in nuclear physics is to predict the properties of subatomic matter from quantum chromodynamics (QCD)—the theory describing the strong force that confines quarks into protons and neutrons, and that binds protons and neutrons together. [12] At very high energies, the collision of massive atomic nuclei in an accelerator generates hundreds or even thousands of particles that undergo numerous interactions. [11] The first experimental result has been published from the newly upgraded Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The result demonstrates the feasibility of detecting a potential new form of matter to study why quarks are never found in isolation. [10] A team of scientists currently working at the Large Hadron Collider at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) announced that it has possibly discovered the existence of a particle integral to nature in a statement on Tuesday, Dec. 15, and again on Dec.16. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1015] **viXra:1707.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-02 05:27:39*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

A new theory proposes that faster-than-light particles known as tachyons could answer a lot of questions about the universe, writes Robyn Arianrhod. [29] In a recent publication, Aalto University researchers show that in a transparent medium each photon is accompanied by an atomic mass density wave. [28] New research has made it possible for the first time to compare the spatial structures and positions of two distant objects, which may be very far away from each other, just by using a simple thermal light source, much like a star in the sky. [27] In an arranged marriage of optics and mechanics, physicists have created microscopic structural beams that have a variety of powerful uses when light strikes them. [26] At EPFL, researchers challenge a fundamental law and discover that more electromagnetic energy can be stored in wave-guiding systems than previously thought. [25] The fact that light can also behave as a liquid, rippling and spiraling around obstacles like the current of a river, is a much more recent finding that is still a subject of active research. [24] An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behavior of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy. [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20]

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[804] **viXra:1712.0531 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-23 17:07:23*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It was show that the linear momentum transported by electromagnetic waves has a negative component, in such way that, when a radiation incides on a surface, it is exerted a pressure on opposite direction to the direction of propagation of the radiation. In addition, it was predicted the existence of photons in which the negative component of the momentum is greater than the positive one. These photons were called attractive photons or gravific photons. Here, we show how to produce and to detect this type of photons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[803] **viXra:1712.0511 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-21 15:20:08*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

According to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), all hadrons are built of the Einstein-spacetime (ES) components (they are the neutrino-antineutrino pairs - their detection is much difficult than neutrinos) and neutrino(s). The ES components are the carriers of the photons and gluons (they are the rotational energies). It leads to conclusion that sometimes we should observe some coincidences in the behaviour of neutrinos and hadrons. Here we show one of such lepton-meson coincidence - there is the similarity of the curves for the neutrino cross-section per neutrino energy in quasi-elastic (QE) scattering and for the kaon-to-pion ratio - in both curves, there is a “horn” and the origin of the separated two curves is the same.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[802] **viXra:1712.0344 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-16 12:13:37*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

The Consensus view of the Physics Community is that the Standard Model has one Higgs mass state at 125 GeV and one Tquark mass state at 174 GeV. E8 Physics (viXra 1602.0319, 1701.0495, 1701.0496) views Higgs as a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) type Tquark -Tantiquark Condensate with 3 mass states for Higgs and Tquark: Low-mass - 125 GeV Higgs and 130 GeV Tquark; Middle-mass - 200 GeV Higgs and 174 GeV Tquark; High-mass - 240 GeV Higgs and 220 GeV Tquark. This paper is a chronological listing of observations of Higgs and Tquark mass states by experiments such as (descriptions from Wikipedia): ARGUS - a particle physics experiment at the electron-positron collider DORIS II at DESY in Hamburg - commissioned in 1982 - operated until 1992. HERA - DESY’s largest synchrotron and storage ring for electrons and positrons - began operation in 1990 - started taking data in 1992 - closed in 2007 - detectors H1 and HERA. FERMILAB - site of Tevatron proton-antiproton collider at Batavia, Illinois - Tevatron was completed in 1983 and closed in 2011 - detectors CDF and D0. LEP - electron-positron collider at CERN in Geneva used from 1989 until 2000. LHC - proton-proton collider at CERN re-using the LEP tunnel - the largest single machine on Earth - built between 1998 and 2008 - detectors CMS and ATLAS - first research run at 7 to 8 TeV was from 2010 to 2013 - restarted at 13 TeV in 2015 - by the end of 2016 had 36 fb(-1) at 13 TeV - during 2017 had collected an additional 45 fb(-1) at 13 TeV for a total of 80 fb(-1) = 80 x 100 Trillion = 8 Quadrillion = 8 x 10^15 events. ATLAS analysis of Higgs -> ZZ* -> 4l of 2016 LHC run was in ATLAS-CONF-2017-058 saying: “... proton–proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36.1 fb-1 collected with the ATLAS detector during 2015 and 2016 at the Large Hadron Collider ... excess ...[is]... observed ...around 240 ... GeV ... with local significance 3.6 sigma. CMS disagrees with ATLAS. CMS PAS HIG-17-012 (2017/12/08) says “... in the mass range from 130 GeV to 3 TeV ... No significant excess of events is observed ...” If CMS is right, then Our Universe is MetaStable (see page 26). If CMS is wrong due to misuse of Look Elsewhere Effect (LEE), then Higgs and Tquark form a 3-State NJL type System (see page 28).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[801] **viXra:1712.0118 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-07 18:40:41*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Work in progress.

We show that relativistic invariance is encoded in the multifractal structure of the Standard Model near the electroweak scale. The approximate scale invariance of this structure accounts for the flavor hierarchy and chiral symmetry breaking in the electroweak sector. Surprisingly, it also accounts for breaking of conformal symmetry in General Relativity and the emergence of a non-vanishing cosmological constant.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[800] **viXra:1712.0118 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-27 08:32:15*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Work in progress, second draft.

We show that relativistic invariance is encoded in the multifractal structure of the Standard Model near the electroweak scale. The approximate scale invariance of this structure accounts for the flavor hierarchy and chiral symmetry breaking in the electroweak sector. Surprisingly, it also accounts for breaking of conformal symmetry in General Relativity and the emergence of a non-vanishing cosmological constant.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[799] **viXra:1712.0118 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-20 12:05:19*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 5 Pages. First draft, work in progress.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[798] **viXra:1712.0118 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-05 20:54:23*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 4 Pages. First draft, work in progress.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[797] **viXra:1710.0258 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-03 16:58:34*

**Authors:** John Smith

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Richard Feynman said in the 80s: "There is a most profound and beautiful question associated with the observed coupling constant, e - the amplitude for a real electron to emit or absorb a real photon. It is a simple number that has been experimentally determined to be close to 0.08542455. (My physicist friends won't recognize this number, because they like to remember it as the inverse of its square: about 137.03597 with about an uncertainty of about 2 in the last decimal place. It has been a mystery ever since it was discovered more than fifty years ago, and all good theoretical physicists put this number up on their wall and worry about it.) Immediately you would like to know where this number for a coupling comes from: is it related to pi or perhaps to the base of natural logarithms? Nobody knows. It's one of the greatest damn mysteries of physics: a magic number that comes to us with no understanding by man. You might say the "hand of G-d" wrote that number, and "we don't know how He pushed his pencil." We know what kind of a dance to do experimentally to measure this number very accurately, but we don't know what kind of dance to do on the computer to make this number come out, without putting it in secretly!". In fact, Armand Wyler had pointed out in 1969 that (9/16\[Pi]^3)(\[Pi]/5!)^1/4 is close to 1/137 (2), but failed to convince anyone that his explanation of the connection -that the number is a property of a 7-dimensional space-time- was viable. In this note, it is suggested that the reason for the closeness of another expression to 1/137 is, not a numerical curiosity, but -ironically- an indicator of the truth of a multi-dimensional physical theory.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[796] **viXra:1710.0258 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-29 20:59:14*

**Authors:** John Smith

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Richard Feynman: "There is a most profound and beautiful question associated with the observed coupling constant, e - the amplitude for a real electron to emit or absorb a real photon. It is a simple number that has been experimentally determined to be close to 0.08542455. (My physicist friends won't recognize this number, because they like to remember it as the inverse of its square: about 137.03597 with about an uncertainty of about 2 in the last decimal place. It has been a mystery ever since it was discovered more than fifty years ago, and all good theoretical physicists put this number up on their wall and worry about it.) Immediately you would like to know where this number for a coupling comes from: is it related to pi or perhaps to the base of natural logarithms? Nobody knows. It's one of the greatest damn mysteries of physics: a magic number that comes to us with no understanding by man. You might say the "hand of G-d" wrote that number, and "we don't know how He pushed his pencil." We know what kind of a dance to do experimentally to measure this number very accurately, but we don't know what kind of dance to do on the computer to make this number come out, without putting it in secretly!" In this note, a "computational dance" from which this number emerges without any need to put it in secretly is identified...

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[795] **viXra:1710.0258 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-27 20:15:41*

**Authors:** John Smith

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Richard Feynman: "There is a most profound and beautiful question associated with the observed coupling constant, e - the amplitude for a real electron to emit or absorb a real photon. It is a simple number that has been experimentally determined to be close to 0.08542455. (My physicist friends won't recognize this number, because they like to remember it as the inverse of its square: about 137.03597 with about an uncertainty of about 2 in the last decimal place. It has been a mystery ever since it was discovered more than fifty years ago, and all good theoretical physicists put this number up on their wall and worry about it.) Immediately you would like to know where this number for a coupling comes from: is it related to pi or perhaps to the base of natural logarithms? Nobody knows. It's one of the greatest damn mysteries of physics: a magic number that comes to us with no understanding by man. You might say the "hand of G-d" wrote that number, and "we don't know how He pushed his pencil." We know what kind of a dance to do experimentally to measure this number very accurately, but we don't know what kind of dance to do on the computer to make this number come out, without putting it in secretly!" In this note, a "computational dance" from which this number emerges without any need to put it in secretly is identified...

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[794] **viXra:1710.0258 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-26 19:09:13*

**Authors:** John Smith

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[793] **viXra:1710.0258 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-26 01:40:12*

**Authors:** John Smith

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[792] **viXra:1710.0234 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-22 19:02:52*

**Authors:** John Smith

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

"There is a most profound and beautiful question associated with the observed coupling constant, e \[Dash] the amplitude for a real electron to emit or absorb a real photon. It is a simple number that has been experimentally determined to be close to 0.08542455. (My physicist friends won't recognize this number, because they like to remember it as the inverse of its square: about 137.03597 with about an uncertainty of about 2 in the last decimal place. It has been a mystery ever since it was discovered more than fifty years ago, and all good theoretical physicists put this number up on their wall and worry about it.) Immediately you would like to know where this number for a coupling comes from: is it related to pi or perhaps to the base of natural logarithms? Nobody knows. It's one of the greatest damn mysteries of physics: a magic number that comes to us with no understanding by man. You might say the "hand of G-d" wrote that number, and "we don't know how He pushed his pencil." We know what kind of a dance to do experimentally to measure this number very accurately, but we don't know what kind of dance to do on the computer to make this number come out, without putting it in secretly!" Not to be put too fine a point on it, I know exactly what kind of dance to do on the computer to makes this number come out, without putting it in secretly...

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[791] **viXra:1710.0234 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-21 12:18:24*

**Authors:** John Smith

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

"There is a most profound and beautiful question associated with the observed coupling constant, e \[Dash] the amplitude for a real electron to emit or absorb a real photon. It is a simple number that has been experimentally determined to be close to 0.08542455. (My physicist friends won't recognize this number, because they like to remember it as the inverse of its square: about 137.03597 with about an uncertainty of about 2 in the last decimal place. It has been a mystery ever since it was discovered more than fifty years ago, and all good theoretical physicists put this number up on their wall and worry about it.) Immediately you would like to know where this number for a coupling comes from: is it related to pi or perhaps to the base of natural logarithms? Nobody knows. It's one of the greatest damn mysteries of physics: a magic number that comes to us with no understanding by man. You might say the "hand of G-d" wrote that number, and "we don't know how He pushed his pencil." We know what kind of a dance to do experimentally to measure this number very accurately, but we don't know what kind of dance to do on the computer to make this number come out, without putting it in secretly!"

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[790] **viXra:1709.0433 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-30 20:11:43*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Contrary to what the submission suggests, the “sum of squares” equation of viXra 1709.0386 has been recorded and analyzed in at least one previous publication. We also challenge the author’s interpretation of this equation.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[789] **viXra:1709.0386 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-27 18:33:11*

**Authors:** Cris A. Fitch

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Scooped by http://dispatchesfromturtleisland.blogspot.com/2015/03/the-latest-combined-higgs-boson-mass.html

We observe that the sum of the squares of the three known fundamental massive bosons is within 0.4% of the square of the vacuum expectation value divided by 2. It is also well known that the top quark mass squared is also slightly less than this value. We put forth the conjecture that this is not a coincidence, and that these two facts are a result of a general principle for the Standard Model that the sum of the squares of the boson masses and the sum of the squares of the fermion masses actually equals the vacuum expectation value squared divided by two. Furthermore this foreshadows a coming particle desert at TeV energies, as the available reservoir of mass couplings has already been allocated to known particles.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[788] **viXra:1709.0385 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-25 16:43:26*

**Authors:** Wei Xu

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

** Abstract**: As a major part of the unification, the quantum fields give rise to a symmetric environment and bring together

- Connect a set of generic fluxions unifying*General Symmetric Fields**electromagnetism,**gravitation, and thermodynamics*.- Declare law of conservation of graviton and compose a duality of torque transportations.*Graviton and Gravitational Fields*- Integrate horizon factors of thermodynamics with the area entropies of*Thermodynamic and Black Body**Black Hole*radiations.

Conclusively, this manuscript presents the unification and compliance with the principle theories of classical and contemporary physics.

[787] **viXra:1709.0311 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-21 09:40:48*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Under construction, first draft.

As we have recently shown, the minimal fractal manifold (MFM) describes the underlying structure of spacetime near or above the electroweak scale. Here we uncover the connection between quantum field operators and the MFM starting from the operator product expansion of high-energy Quantum Field Theory. The approach confirms that the Standard Model of particle physics (SM) stems from a symmetry breaking mechanism that turns the spacetime continuum into a MFM.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[786] **viXra:1709.0306 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-13 04:56:42*

**Authors:** Han Geurdes

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper an algebraic method is presented to derive a non-Hermitian Schr{\"o}dinger equation from $E=V+c\sqrt{m^2c^2+\left(\mathbf{p}-\frac{e}{c}\mathbf{A}\right)^2}$ with $E\rightarrow i\hbar \frac{\partial}{\partial t}$ and $\mathbf{p} \rightarrow -i\hbar \nabla$.
In the derivation no use is made of Dirac's method of four vectors and the root operator isn't squared either.
In this paper use is made of the algebra of operators to derive a matrix Schr{\"o}dinger equation. It is demonstrated that the obtained equation is Lorentz invariant.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[785] **viXra:1709.0265 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-25 08:46:25*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In E8 Physics, when our Planck Scale Universe emerged from its Parent Universe by Quantum Fluctuation, it was represented by Real Form E8(-248) with SO(16) symmetry; and during Octonionic NonUnitary Inflation our Universe was represented by Real Form E8(8) with SO(8,8) symmetry; and after the end of Octonionic Inflation with 8-dim Octonionic Spacetime, during the present era of (4+4)-dim Quaternionic Kaluza-Klein Spacetime and Unitary Quaternionic Quantum Processes our Universe has been represented by Real Form E8(-24) with SO*(16) symmetry.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[784] **viXra:1709.0103 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-28 13:55:39*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** new section added at bottom of page

The conservation role of the Higgs Boson is the creation of the "Leptonic Spectrum"

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[783] **viXra:1709.0103 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-12 16:35:00*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 5 Pages. section added (at bottom)

The conservation role of the Higgs boson is the creation of the "Leptonic Spectrum"

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[782] **viXra:1708.0479 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-02 16:55:18*

**Authors:** M. D. Monsia

**Comments:** 2 pages

This work aims to investigate the exchange particles, photon, W and Z bosons, gluon and graviton which are responsible for fundamental interactions, and other types of elementary particles in terms of crystalline polyhedra of quantum vacuum.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[781] **viXra:1708.0369 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-15 00:10:14*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 39 Pages.

This paper is an elementary-level attempt at discussing 8D E8 Physics based on the 240 Root Vectors of an E8 lattice and how it compares with physics models based on 4D and 3D structures such as Glotzer Dimer packings in 3D, Elser-Sloane Quasicrystals in 4D, and various 3D Quasicrystals based on slices of 600-cells. Version 2 (v2) adds material about Fibonacci Chains and Cellular Automata. Version 3 (v3) adds material about H4 quasilattice. Version 4 (v4) describes a natural progression from 600-cell to Superposition of 8 E8 Lattices

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[780] **viXra:1708.0369 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-01 13:51:21*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 39 Pages.

This paper is an elementary-level attempt at discussing 8D E8 Physics based on the 240 Root Vectors of an E8 lattice and how it compares with physics models based on 4D and 3D structures such as Glotzer Dimer packings in 3D, Elser-Sloane Quasicrystals in 4D, and various 3D Quasicrystals based on slices of 600-cells. Version 2 (v2) adds material about Fibonacci Chains and Cellular Automata. Version 3 (v3) adds material about H4 quasilattice. Version 4 (v4) describes a natural progression from 600-cell to Superposition of 8 E8 Lattices

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[779] **viXra:1708.0369 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-29 03:13:38*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

This paper is an elementary-level attempt at discussing 8D E8 Physics based on the 240 Root Vectors of an E8 lattice and how it compares with physics models based on 4D and 3D structures such as Glotzer Dimer packings in 3D, Elser-Sloane Quasicrystals in 4D, and various 3D Quasicrystals based on slices of 600-cells. Version 2 (v2) adds material about Fibonacci Chains and Cellular Automata. Version 3 (v3) adds material about H4 quasilattice.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[778] **viXra:1708.0369 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-26 18:31:20*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

This paper is an elementary-level attempt at discussing 8D E8 Physics based on the 240 Root Vectors of an E8 lattice and how it compares with physics models based on 4D and 3D structures such as Glotzer Dimer packings in 3D, Elser-Sloane Quasicrystals in 4D, and various 3D Quasicrystals based on slices of 600-cells. Version 2 (v2) adds material about Fibonacci Chains and Cellular Automata.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[777] **viXra:1708.0217 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-23 10:11:17*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described the mechanism of the light-by-light scattering and we calculated the cross-section: 76.5 +- 59.5 nb - it is independent of transverse momentum. This result is very close to the ATLAS data. The SST shows that in reality light is scattered on the central condensates in virtual electrons. The maximum width +-59.5 nb follows from a natural phenomenon. The ATLAS background events decrease the observed maximum width to less than +-44.4 nb (it does not concern uncertainties). On the other hand, the calculated within the Standard Model central value (too low) of the cross-section is inconsistent with the ATLAS data. We can say only that the ATLAS result is compatible with Standard-Model predictions only within experimental uncertainties. We answered as well following question: Why the perturbative Quantum Electrodynamics is at least an incomplete theory?

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[776] **viXra:1708.0211 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-18 23:54:36*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas, Sajad Ahmad Sheikh, Sheikh Salahudin, Mohsin Ilahi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

It is commonly believed ( and as well reflected in current textbooks in particle physics )
that the R ratio in $e^+ e^-$ scattering and $\pi^0 \rightarrow \gamma \gamma$ decay provide
strong evidences of the three colours of the Quantum Chromodynamics group ${SU(3)}_c$.
This is well documented in current literature. However,
here we show that with a better understanding of the structure of the electric charge in the Standard Model of particle
physics at hand, one rejects the second evidence as given above but continues to accept the first one.
Thus $\pi^0 \rightarrow \gamma \gamma$ decay is not a proof of three colours anymore.
This fact is well known. However unfortunately some kind of inertia has prevented
this being taught to the students.
As such the textbooks and monographs should be corrected so that more accurate information may be transmitted to the students.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[775] **viXra:1708.0168 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-28 18:20:00*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is shown a system that, if launched radially into the Earth’s gravitational field, it can acquires a ultra high amount of kinetic energy, which can generate a highly intense pulse of electromagnetic energy (EMP) with magnitude of the order of 20 Megatons or more.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[774] **viXra:1708.0168 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-19 18:42:22*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is shown a system that, if launched radially into the Earth’s gravitational field, it can acquires a ultra high amount of kinetic energy, which can generate a highly intense pulse of electromagnetic energy (EMP) with magnitude of the order of 10 Megatons or more.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[773] **viXra:1708.0115 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-16 21:03:47*

**Authors:** Wei Lu

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Ternary Clifford algebra is connected with three Higgs bosons and three fermion
generations, whereas cube roots of time vector are associated with three quark colors
and three weak gauge fields. Four-fermion condensations break chiral symmetries,
induce axion-like bosons, and dictate fermion mass hierarchies.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[772] **viXra:1708.0115 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-12 14:09:19*

**Authors:** Wei Lu

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

There are three composite electroweak Higgs bosons stemming from top quark, tau neutrino, and tau lepton condensations. Each of the three condensations gives rise to masses of four different fermions. The fermion mass hierarchies within these three cohorts are dictated by four-fermion condensations, which break two global chiral symmetries. The four-fermion condensations induce axion-like pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons and can be dark matter candidates. In addition to the 125 GeV Higgs boson observed at the LHC, we anticipate detection of tau neutrino composite Higgs boson via the charm quark decay channel. Tau neutrino condensation may contribute substantially to the muon anomalous magnetic moment. On the other hand, a feeble antisymmetric condensation might be gravitationally relevant and reflected as large-scale CMB anisotropies.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[771] **viXra:1708.0056 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-10 09:38:40*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: showing a viewpoint with regards to the relationship of the Pion and the Muon.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[770] **viXra:1708.0056 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-10 04:23:45*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: showing a viewpoint with regards to the relationship of the Pion and the Muon.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[769] **viXra:1708.0056 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-09 08:35:29*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[768] **viXra:1708.0056 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-08 04:05:17*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[767] **viXra:1708.0056 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-07 00:00:01*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[766] **viXra:1708.0056 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-06 11:04:47*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[765] **viXra:1708.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-12 06:43:16*

**Authors:** Victor L. Mironov, Sergey V. Mironov

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Revised version

We discuss the theoretical description of dyons having simultaneously both electric and magnetic charges on the basis of space-time algebra of sixteen-component sedeons. We show that the generalized sedeonic equations for electromagnetic field of dyons can be reformulated in equivalent canonical form as the equations for redefined field potentials, field strengths and sources. The relations for energy and momentum as well as the relations for Lorentz invariants of dyonic electromagnetic field are derived. Additionally, we discuss the sedeonic second-order Klein-Gordon and first-order Dirac wave equations describing the quantum behavior of dyons in an external dyonic electromagnetic field.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[764] **viXra:1708.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-27 03:55:42*

**Authors:** Victor L. Mironov, Sergey V. Mironov

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Revised version

We discuss the theoretical description of dyons having simultaneously both electric and magnetic charges on the basis of space-time algebra of sixteen-component sedeons. We show that the generalized sedeonic equations for electromagnetic field of dyons can be reformulated in equivalent canonical form as the equations for redefined field potentials, field strengths and sources. The relations for energy and momentum as well as the relations for Lorentz invariants of dyonic electromagnetic field are derived. Additionally, we discuss the sedeonic second-order Klein-Gordon and first-order Dirac wave equations describing the quantum behavior of dyons in an external dyonic electromagnetic field.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[763] **viXra:1707.0385 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-01 15:02:55*

**Authors:** Angel Garcés Doz

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The proof of the existence of seven dimensions compacted in circles: the principle of uncertainty of Heisenberg extended to d dimensions; Allows us to obtain the masses of the seven Higgs bosons, including the known empirically (125.0901 GeV = mh (1)); And theorize the calculation of the mass of the boson stop quark (745 GeV)

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[762] **viXra:1707.0367 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-01 11:57:25*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

5 July 2017 ATLAS released ATLAS-CONF-2017-058 saying: “... A search for heavy resonances decaying into a pair of Z bosons leading to l+ l- l+ l- ... is presented. [ that includes the Higgs -> ZZ* -> 4l channel ] The search uses proton–proton collision data at 13 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36.1 fb-1 collected with the ATLAS detector during 2015 and 2016 at the Large Hadron Collider ... excess ...[is]... observed in the data for m4l around 240 ... GeV ... with a local significance of 3.6 sigma ...". E8-Cl(16) Physics Model ( viXra 1602.0319 ) has a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) type structure for the Higgs-Tquark system resulting in 3 Higgs mass states: around 125 GeV (observed) and 200 and 250 GeV. 240 GeV is close enough to 250 GeV that the ATLAS 3.6 sigma peak should not be suppressed by LEE and does constitute significant support for the validity of the NJL sector of the model. Version 2 (v2) adds Tommaso Dorigo blog commentary.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[761] **viXra:1707.0218 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-16 10:13:32*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: show a viewpoint with regards to first big question facing physics and science.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[760] **viXra:1707.0143 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-12 04:36:18*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The Standard Model (SM) and experimental data show that the change of the up quark for down quark increases the mass of nucleon by about 1 MeV. On the other hand, SM and experimental results show that the same change in the doubly charmed baryons Xi decreases the mass by about 100 MeV. Within the SM we cannot explain such two major inconsistencies (i.e. 100 MeV instead 1 MeV and the increase-decrease asymmetry) so such problems suggest new physics. To save the SM, some scientists suggest that the first doubly charmed Xi, detected by the SELEX collaboration based at Fermilab, should disappear! Here, applying the atom-like structure of baryons that follows from the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we calculated masses and I, J and P of baryon Delta, of many charmed and bottom baryons and masses of the two doubly charmed baryons Xi. Calculated mass of Xi_cc+ is 3519.08 MeV whereas of Xi_cc++ is 3621.90 MeV - the results are consistent with experimental data. The other theoretical masses obtained here are very close to experimental results. We present a generalized scheme that is very helpful in calculating masses and other physical quantities that characterize baryons. Charmed baryons contain relativistic, positively charged pion in the d = 0 state which mass is 1256.6 MeV - this mass is close to the mass of the charm quark (in SST it is 1267 MeV) so the quark model can mimic presented here the atom-like theory of baryons. On the other hand, relativistic mass of charged kaon in the d = 0 state is 4444.9 MeV so it can mimic the mass of the bottom quark (in SST it is 4190 MeV).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[759] **viXra:1707.0138 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-11 01:18:35*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: show the viewpoint with regards to the higgs boson and neutrinos.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics