High Energy Particle Physics

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[1541] viXra:1910.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-15 12:19:07

Atlas Boost

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

The outer realms of the periodic table, where stable, long-lived isotopes give way to radioactive ions, offer nuclear scientists a unique glimpse into the structure of nuclei and a better understanding of how the different elements in our universe came to be as a result of stellar fusion or supernova explosions. [29] The ATLAS collaboration has released its very first result utilising its entire Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Run 2 dataset, collected between 2015 and 2018. [28]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1540] viXra:1910.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-11 04:12:36

Explore Unknown Energy Regions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 87 Pages.

State University physicists are using photon-proton collisions to capture particles in an unexplored energy region, yielding new insights into the matter that binds parts of the nucleus together. [48] Scientists from the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Cracow have found further confirmation of this assumption, this time, in the high energy collision of protons with protons or lead nuclei. [47] Ten years ago, just about any nuclear physicist could tell you the approximate size of the proton. But that changed in 2010, when atomic physicists unveiled a new method that promised a more precise measurement. [46] "Spin has surprises. Everybody thought it's simple … and it turns out it's much more complicated," Aschenauer says. [45] Approximately one year ago, a spectacular dive into Saturn ended NASA's Cassini mission-and with it a unique, 13-year research expedition to the Saturnian system. [44] Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, and their colleagues from the international ALICE collaboration recently collided xenon nuclei, in order to gain new insights into the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (the QGP)-the matter that the universe consisted of up to a microsecond after the Big Bang. [43] The energy transfer processes that occur in this collisionless space plasma are believed to be based on wave-particle interactions such as particle acceleration by plasma waves and spontaneous wave generation, which enable energy and momentum transfer. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning-all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1539] viXra:1910.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-10 04:20:42

The Structure and Properties of Elementary Particles

Authors: S. Reucroft, E. G.H.Williams
Comments: 19 Pages.

We have developed simple models of the elementary particles based on the assumption that the particle interior is influenced by just two force fields, gravity and electrostatics. The fundamental particles are electrons, positrons, neutrinos and photons. All the other elementary particles are composed of these fundamental entities. A semi-classical approach is used to obtain simple expressions that give properties all in good agreement with experimental results. This approach is able to make several predictions. For example: All the elementary particles are composed of the particles they decay into. All particles are made of matter. There is no antimatter. The muon is not point-like. It is a composite particle with internal structure. Neutrinos have a small quantity of mass and charge. The neutron also has a small charge determined by the charge of its neutrino. A particle's lifetime is determined by its size relative to its Schwarzschild radius. Single protons should be produced in electron-positron collisions below the two-proton energy threshold.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1538] viXra:1910.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-10 13:02:57

Einstein Did not Understand Special Theory of Relativity. How to Accelerate Electrons to the Speed of Light

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 439 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

Einstein did not understand Special Theory of Relativity. How to accelerate electrons to the speed of light “Einstein, your professors did not understand STR because the photon has the rest mass m0 = 0, and all the particles have m0 > 0, this means the maximum speed for these particles v < c and their m and E will not be infinite” Adrian Ferent “In Einstein equations and theories are singularities, infinite mass and energy, gravitational singularity, because Einstein did not understand Special relativity and Gravitation” Adrian Ferent “The electron is composed of a photon and a Dark Matter electron” Adrian Ferent “In particle accelerators they accelerate the electric charge, the photon inside the electron with m0 > 0, this means all the time the speed of the electron v < c” Adrian Ferent “What the scientists, the Nobel Laureates, your professors… do not understand? When the electron is accelerated gains kinetic energy and when the electron – positron collide the kinetic energy is transferred to the photons and Dark Matter electrons” Adrian Ferent “To accelerate the electron to the speed of light must be acted upon Dark Matter electron” Adrian Ferent ”In Ferent Quantum Gravity Dark Photons and Gravitons are faster than light” Adrian Ferent “To accelerate the electron to the speed of light must be acted upon Dark Matter electron with Dark Photons or Gravitons” Adrian Ferent “The electron at the speed of light it will be broken down into high energy photon and Dark Matter electron” Adrian Ferent “Near the Black Holes gravitons accelerate electrons to the speed of light and they break them in high energy photons and Dark Matter electrons” Adrian Ferent The relativistic mass in STR, m is: the rest mass m0 You learned from Einstein, your professors that when v = c, m and E goes to infinity and that’s not physically possible. In particle accelerators scientists try to accelerate electrons to the speed of light. Because the scientists do not understand what the electron is, they do not understand what they doing there. “The electron is a photon around Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “The Dark Matter electron is the Dark Matter inside the electron” Adrian Ferent “Between the Ferent time t = 1.294 × 10^(-86) s and the Planck time t = 5.391 × 10^(-44) s were created the Dark Matter electrons” Adrian Ferent “When the photons were created, the photons with the energy 0.5 MeV and the Dark Matter electrons created the electrons” Adrian Ferent “Einstein, your professors did not understand STR because the photon has the rest mass m0 = 0, and all the particles have m0 > 0, this means the maximum speed for these particles v < c and their m and E will not be infinite” Adrian Ferent “In Einstein equations and theories are singularities, infinite mass and energy, gravitational singularity, because Einstein did not understand Special relativity and Gravitation” Adrian Ferent “Einstein bent the space, Ferent unbent the space” Adrian Ferent “The electron is composed of a photon and a Dark Matter electron” Adrian Ferent “I calculated the charge created by the photon with f = 10^20 Hz inside the electron Q = 1.6 × 10^(-19) C, the electron charge” Adrian Ferent “In particle accelerators they accelerate the electric charge, the photon inside the electron with m0 > 0, this means all the time the speed of the electron v < c” Adrian Ferent In 2019 the Nobel Prizes were awarded to scientists who do not understand Dark Matter, to scientists who discovered batteries, to scientists who discovered how cells sense oxygen, nothing at Planck level or beyond! “What the scientists, the Nobel Laureates, your professors… do not understand? When the electron is accelerated gains kinetic energy and when the electron – positron collide the kinetic energy is transferred to the photons and Dark Matter electrons” Adrian Ferent They started Stealing from Ferent Quantum Gravity: How Dark Matter was created before the Planck wall, How Stars and Planets were formed around Dark Matter… https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.061302 https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.141301 How to accelerate electrons to the speed of light? Because in Ferent Quantum Gravity the electron is composed of a photon and a Dark Matter electron, acting on a photon how I explained it is not possible in particle accelerators. “To accelerate the electron to the speed of light must be acted upon Dark Matter electron” Adrian Ferent ”In Ferent Quantum Gravity Dark Photons and Gravitons are faster than light” Adrian Ferent “To accelerate the electron to the speed of light must be acted upon Dark Matter electron with Dark Photons or Gravitons” Adrian Ferent “Ferent equation for N elementary particles:” Adrian Ferent What will happen with the electron at the speed of light? Not the infinite mass and energy how you learned from your professors! “The electron at the speed of light it will be broken down into high energy photon and Dark Matter electron” Adrian Ferent In Ferent Quantum Gravity: “Black Holes are Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Near the Black Holes gravitons accelerate electrons to the speed of light and they break them in high energy photons and Dark Matter electrons” Adrian Ferent I published this article because today is my Birthday! Remembering my Parents on my Birthday! 257. I am the first who discovered that Einstein, your professors did not understand STR because the photon has the rest mass m0 = 0, and all the particles have m0 > 0, this means the maximum speed for these particles v < c and their m and E will not be infinite 258. I am the first who explained that in Einstein equations and theories are singularities, infinite mass and energy, gravitational singularity, because Einstein did not understand Special relativity and Gravitation 259. I am the first who discovered that the electron is composed of a photon and a Dark Matter electron 260. I am the first who discovered that in particle accelerators they accelerate the electric charge, the photon inside the electron with m0 > 0, this means all the time the speed of the electron v < c 261. I am the first who discovered what the scientists, the Nobel Laureates, your professors… do not understand? When the electron is accelerated gains kinetic energy and when the electron – positron collide the kinetic energy is transferred to the photons and Dark Matter electrons 262. I am the first who discovered that to accelerate the electron to the speed of light must be acted upon Dark Matter electron 263. I am the first who discovered that in Ferent Quantum Gravity Dark Photons and Gravitons are faster than light 264. I am the first who discovered that to accelerate the electron to the speed of light must be acted upon Dark Matter electron with Dark Photons or Gravitons 265. I am the first who discovered that the electron at the speed of light it will be broken down into high energy photon and Dark Matter electron 266. I am the first who discovered that near the Black Holes gravitons accelerate electrons to the speed of light and they break them in high energy photons and Dark Matter electrons
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1537] viXra:1910.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-08 12:34:21

Минимально необходимая локально-нелокальная модель эволюции элементарных частиц и фундаментальных взаимодействий ранней Вселенной

Authors: Vasiliev V. Sergey
Comments: 23 Pages. In Russian

В статье рассматриваются следствия предложенного ранее Ли Смолиным (Lee Smolin) механизма формирования вероятностей в индетерминированнных квантовых процессах. Результатом экстраполяции этих следствий на области физики высоких энергий и физики ранней Вселенной является предложенная в статье модель эволюции элементарных частиц и фундаментальных взаимодействий ранней Вселенной, в которой наблюдаемый сегодня порядок, описываемый Стандартной моделью физики элементарных частиц, развивается в несколько этапов с участием дополняющих друг друга локальных и нелокальных процессов. Включение в модель нелокальных квантовых эффектов позволило сделать её полнее других предшественников и непротиворечиво решить в её рамках некоторые, не решённые в полностью локальных теориях, проблемы, такие как: проблема барионной асимметрии; проблема иерархии фермионных масс; проблема калибровочной иерархии фундаментальных взаимодействий; вопрос о природе и происхождении частиц тёмной материи; экспериментально наблюдаемые в распадах мезонов отклонения от предсказаний Стандартной модели и др. Модель хорошо согласуется с экспериментальными данными, лежащими в основе Стандартной модели и выходящими за рамки её предсказательной силы, совместима с теорией инфляционного расширения Вселенной и космологической моделью $\Lambda$CDM и включает некоторые элементы теорий симметрии и суперсимметрии и теории струн.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1536] viXra:1910.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-08 07:32:30

Top-Quark Mass Variation Measure

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

For the first time, CMS physicists have investigated an effect called the "running" of the top quark mass, a fundamental quantum effect predicted by the Standard Model. [31] As the heaviest known elementary particle, the top quark has a special place in the physics studied at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. [30] This allowed ATLAS to detect and measure an unprecedented number of events involving top-antitop quark pairs, providing ATLAS physicists with a unique opportunity to gain insight into the top quark's properties. [29] The ATLAS collaboration has released its very first result utilising its entire Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Run 2 dataset, collected between 2015 and 2018. [28]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1535] viXra:1910.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-07 10:14:18

Lagrangian Quantum Mechanics for Indistinguishable Fermions: a Self-Consistent Universe.

Authors: Adri´ an Arancibia Gonz´ alez
Comments: 22 Pages.

This work corresponds to a paradigmatic classical mechanic approach to quantum mechanics and, as a consequence, the paradigm of expanding universe is replaced for a universe of contracting particles which allows explaining the cosmological redshift because as the time progresses the hydrogen atoms absorb smaller wavelengths. Quantum particles are defined as linearly independent indistinguishable normalized classical bi-spinor fields with quartic interactions, this matter allows defining positive energy spectra and to evade the problems with infinities associated with quantization procedure. To have a consistent particle interpretation in each inertial system, a large N approach for the number of fermions must be imposed. The following model, based in dynamical mass generation methods, explains the quark confinement and the hadronic mass behavior in a trivial form and allows the oscillation of low massive neutrinos inside of massive matter.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1534] viXra:1910.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-07 10:41:14

More Energy in Proton Collisions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 85 Pages.

Scientists from the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Cracow have found further confirmation of this assumption, this time, in the high energy collision of protons with protons or lead nuclei. [47] Ten years ago, just about any nuclear physicist could tell you the approximate size of the proton. But that changed in 2010, when atomic physicists unveiled a new method that promised a more precise measurement. [46] “Spin has surprises. Everybody thought it’s simple … and it turns out it’s much more complicated,” Aschenauer says. [45] Approximately one year ago, a spectacular dive into Saturn ended NASA's Cassini mission—and with it a unique, 13-year research expedition to the Saturnian system. [44]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1533] viXra:1910.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-06 06:12:17

Cantor Dust as Underlying Texture of Fuzzy Dark Matter

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 2 Pages.

A close connection exists between the recently advanced concept of Fuzzy Dark Matter and Cantor Dust, a dimensional condensate created from the minimal fractal structure of spacetime near or above the Fermi scale.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1532] viXra:1909.0644 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-30 08:07:14

Higgs Troika Disappearance Antimatter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

A team of researchers from Brookhaven National Laboratory and the University of Kansas has developed a theory to explain why there is so much more matter than antimatter in the universe. [11] Critically, the new results examine two of the Higgs boson decays that led to the particle's discovery in 2012: H→ZZ*→4ℓ, where the Higgs boson decays into two Z bosons, in turn decaying into four leptons (electrons or muons); and H→γγ where the Higgs boson decays directly into two photons. [10] Higgs boson decaying into bottom quarks. Now, scientists are tackling its relationship with the top quark. [9] Usha Mallik and her team used a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to help build a sub-detector at the Large Hadron Collider, the world's largest and most powerful particle accelerator, located in Switzerland. They're running experiments on the sub-detector to search for a pair of bottom quarks-subatomic yin-and-yang particles that should be produced about 60 percent of the time a Higgs boson decays. [8] A new way of measuring how the Higgs boson couples to other fundamental particles has been proposed by physicists in France, Israel and the US. Their technique would involve comparing the spectra of several different isotopes of the same atom to see how the Higgs force between the atom's electrons and its nucleus affects the atomic energy levels. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1531] viXra:1909.0586 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-28 04:23:28

Exotic Radioactive Decay Process

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

Researchers from the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) at Michigan State University (MSU) and TRIUMF (Canada's national particle accelerator) have observed a rare nuclear decay. [22] A hypothetical nuclear process known as neutrinoless double beta decay ought to be among the least likely events in the universe. [21] Studying this really interesting particle that's all around us, and yet is so hard to measure, that could hold the key to understanding why we're here at all, is exciting—and I get to do this for a living," says Mauger. [20]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1530] viXra:1909.0557 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-25 08:34:22

Cooling Superconducting Accelerator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Fermilab scientists and engineers have achieved a landmark result in an ongoing effort to design and build compact, portable particle accelerators. [32] The interdisciplinary research team in the departments of physics, astronomy and advanced materials in the U.S. and Japan found the side gates to be highly efficient, allowing them to control carrier density along either edge of the junction across a wide range of magnetic fields. [31] Ultimately, Li said, the combination of a superconducting and a magnetic system allows for precise coupling and decoupling of the magnon and photon, presenting opportunities for manipulating quantum information. [30] Great hope rests on so-called cuprates, copper and oxygen based compounds also called high-temperature superconductors, where the scientific community is focusing its efforts. [29] Discovered more than 100 years ago, superconductivity continues to captivate scientists who seek to develop components for highly efficient energy transmission, ultrafast electronics or quantum bits for next-generation computation. [27] One of the greatest mysteries in condensed matter physics is the exact relationship between charge order and superconductivity in cuprate superconductors. [26]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1529] viXra:1909.0556 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-25 08:54:15

Finish Brazil's Particle Accelerator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

Brazilian scientists are racing against time to finish building a particle accelerator the size of the Maracana football stadium before government funds run out or it is superseded by rival technology. [33] Fermilab scientists and engineers have achieved a landmark result in an ongoing effort to design and build compact, portable particle accelerators. [32] The interdisciplinary research team in the departments of physics, astronomy and advanced materials in the U.S. and Japan found the side gates to be highly efficient, allowing them to control carrier density along either edge of the junction across a wide range of magnetic fields. [31] Ultimately, Li said, the combination of a superconducting and a magnetic system allows for precise coupling and decoupling of the magnon and photon, presenting opportunities for manipulating quantum information. [30] Great hope rests on so-called cuprates, copper and oxygen based compounds also called high-temperature superconductors, where the scientific community is focusing its efforts. [29] Discovered more than 100 years ago, superconductivity continues to captivate scientists who seek to develop components for highly efficient energy transmission, ultrafast electronics or quantum bits for next-generation computation. [27] One of the greatest mysteries in condensed matter physics is the exact relationship between charge order and superconductivity in cuprate superconductors. [26]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1528] viXra:1909.0555 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-25 09:25:37

Extremely Rare Nuclear Process

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

A hypothetical nuclear process known as neutrinoless double beta decay ought to be among the least likely events in the universe. [21] Studying this really interesting particle that's all around us, and yet is so hard to measure, that could hold the key to understanding why we're here at all, is exciting—and I get to do this for a living," says Mauger. [20] In the Standard Model of particle physics, elementary particles acquire their masses by interacting with the Higgs field. This process is governed by a delicate mechanism: electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB). [19]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1527] viXra:1909.0533 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-24 07:38:24

Rosetta Stone for Neutrino Physics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

While the eigenvalues are somewhat unavoidably tricky, this new result shows that the eigenvectors can be written down in a simple, compact, and easy-to-remember form, once the eigenvalues are calculated. For this reason, we called the eigenvalues "the Rosetta Stone" for neutrino oscillations in our original publication-once you have them, you know everything you want to know. [28] An international team of scientists has announced a breakthrough in its quest to measure the mass of the neutrino, one of the most abundant, yet elusive, elementary particles in our universe. [27] In the quest to prove that matter can be produced without antimatter, the GERDA experiment at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory in Italy is looking for signs of neutrinoless double beta decay. [26] The announcement was made during the CHARM 2018 international workshop in Novosibirsk in Russia: a charming moment for this doubly charmed particle. [25] The group, in work published in Physical Review Letters, has now used powerful theoretical and computational tools to predict the existence of a "most strange" dibaryon, made up of two "Omega baryons" that contain three strange quarks each. [24] The nuclear physicists found that the proton's building blocks, the quarks, are subjected to a pressure of 100 decillion Pascal (10 35) near the center of a proton, which is about 10 times greater than the pressure in the heart of a neutron star. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1526] viXra:1909.0521 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-24 13:43:11

Neutrinos Explain Matter with Antimatter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Studying this really interesting particle that's all around us, and yet is so hard to measure, that could hold the key to understanding why we're here at all, is exciting—and I get to do this for a living," says Mauger. [20] In the Standard Model of particle physics, elementary particles acquire their masses by interacting with the Higgs field. This process is governed by a delicate mechanism: electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB). [19] Nuclear physicists successfully measured the weak charge of the proton by shooting electrons at a cold liquid hydrogen target in an experiment carried out at the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. [18]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1525] viXra:1909.0501 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-23 09:03:56

Ultra-Rare Kaon Decay

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 80 Pages.

The experiment, led by an international team of scientists, demonstrates a new technique which captures and measures the ultra rare decay of a sub atomic particle called a kaon. [48] A group of scientists at the Department of Energy's Fermilab has figured out how to use quantum computing to simulate the fundamental interactions that hold together our universe. [47] Phonons, or more specifically, surface acoustic wave phonons, are proposed as a method to coherently couple distant solid-state quantum systems. [46] Now a Rochester Institute of Technology researcher has teamed up with experts at the University of Rochester to create a different kind of laser-a laser for sound, using the optical tweezer technique invented by Ashkin. [45]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1524] viXra:1909.0467 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-21 08:14:27

Crucial Plasma Pressure

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 77 Pages.

A key requirement for future facilities that aim to capture and control on Earth the fusion energy that drives the sun and stars is accurate predictions of the pressure of the plasma-the hot, charged gas that fuels fusion reactions inside doughnut-shaped tokamaks that house the reactions. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning-all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1523] viXra:1909.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 15:34:57

Naturalness Revisited: not Spacetime, But Rather Spacephase

Authors: Peter Cameron
Comments: Pages.

What defines the boundary of a quantum system is phase coherence, not time coherence. Time is the same for all three spatial degrees of freedom in flat 4D Minkowski spacetime. However, in the quantum mechanics of wavefunctions in 3D space, phases of wavefunction components are not necessarily the same in all three orientations. Consequently, the S-matrix generated by the geometric Clifford product of two 3D wavefunctions exists not in 4D spacetime, but rather in 6D `spacephase'.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1522] viXra:1909.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 09:49:41

Puzzle of Antineutrino's Energy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

By understanding neutron production in concert with MINERvA's characterization of antineutrino interactions on many nuclei, future oscillation studies can quantify how undetected neutrons could affect their conclusions about the differences between neutrinos and antineutrinos. [28] An international team of scientists has announced a breakthrough in its quest to measure the mass of the neutrino, one of the most abundant, yet elusive, elementary particles in our universe. [27] In the quest to prove that matter can be produced without antimatter, the GERDA experiment at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory in Italy is looking for signs of neutrinoless double beta decay. [26] The announcement was made during the CHARM 2018 international workshop in Novosibirsk in Russia: a charming moment for this doubly charmed particle. [25] The group, in work published in Physical Review Letters, has now used powerful theoretical and computational tools to predict the existence of a "most strange" dibaryon, made up of two "Omega baryons" that contain three strange quarks each. [24] The nuclear physicists found that the proton's building blocks, the quarks, are subjected to a pressure of 100 decillion Pascal (10 35) near the center of a proton, which is about 10 times greater than the pressure in the heart of a neutron star. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1521] viXra:1909.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 12:58:00

Mass Estimate for Elusive Neutrino

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

An international team of scientists has announced a breakthrough in its quest to measure the mass of the neutrino, one of the most abundant, yet elusive, elementary particles in our universe. [27] In the quest to prove that matter can be produced without antimatter, the GERDA experiment at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory in Italy is looking for signs of neutrinoless double beta decay. [26] The announcement was made during the CHARM 2018 international workshop in Novosibirsk in Russia: a charming moment for this doubly charmed particle. [25] The group, in work published in Physical Review Letters, has now used powerful theoretical and computational tools to predict the existence of a "most strange" dibaryon, made up of two "Omega baryons" that contain three strange quarks each. [24] The nuclear physicists found that the proton's building blocks, the quarks, are subjected to a pressure of 100 decillion Pascal (10 35) near the center of a proton, which is about 10 times greater than the pressure in the heart of a neutron star. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been "squeezed" to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by "twisted light" can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1520] viXra:1909.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 00:18:57

Huangzi Theory Outline

Authors: Huang Weixiong
Comments: 5 Pages.

Photons are particles moving at the speed of light. They are the source of energy. Atoms are the elements that make up matter. They are the basis of matter. photons collision transforms into photons dust, photons dust combination transforms into atoms, atoms split into photons dust, photons dust collision transforms into photons. Energy and matter achieve cyclic transformation. The theory of energy and material cycle transformation is called Huangzi theory.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1519] viXra:1909.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-12 06:55:46

Neutrons Dance in UC Berkeley Campus

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

In an underground vault enclosed by six-foot concrete walls and accessed by a rolling, 25-ton concrete-and-steel door, University of California, Berkeley, students are making neutrons dance to a new tune: one better suited to producing isotopes required for geological dating, police forensics, hospital diagnosis and treatment. [30] Polymer gels, a gel type with unique properties, have piqued the interest of researchers because of their potential uses in medical applications. [29] Tensorial neutron tomography promises new insights into superconductors, battery electrodes and other energy-related materials. [28] CERN's nuclear physics facility, ISOLDE, has minted a new coin in its impressive collection of isotopes. [27] In the case of several light nuclei, experimental confirmation of the individualism or family nature of nucleons will now be simpler, thanks to predictions presented by Polish physicists from Cracow and Kielce. [26] The identification of the magic number of six provides an avenue to investigate the origin of spin-orbit splittings in atomic nuclei. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1518] viXra:1909.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-10 12:34:32

Gluon-Dominated Protons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 86 Pages.

New findings from University of Kansas experimental nuclear physicists Daniel Tapia Takaki and Aleksandr (Sasha) Bylinkin were just published in the European Physical Journal C. [47] Ten years ago, just about any nuclear physicist could tell you the approximate size of the proton. But that changed in 2010, when atomic physicists unveiled a new method that promised a more precise measurement. [46] “Spin has surprises. Everybody thought it’s simple … and it turns out it’s much more complicated,” Aschenauer says. [45]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1517] viXra:1909.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-09 10:51:11

Calculation of the Standard Model Parameters and Particles Based on a Su(4) Preon Model

Authors: Jan Helm
Comments: 76 Pages.

This paper describes an extension and a new foundation of the Standard Model of particle physics based on a SU(4)-force called hyper-color. The hyper-color force is a generalization of the SU(2)-based weak interaction and the SU(1)-based right-chiral self-interaction, in which the W- and the Z-bosons are Yukawa residual-field-carriers of the hyper-color force, in the same sense as the pions are the residual-field-carriers of the color SU(3) interaction. Using the method of numerical minimization of the SU(4)-Lagrangian based on this model, the masses and the inner structure of leptons, quarks and weak bosons are calculated: the mass results are very close to the experimental values. We calculate also precisely the value of the Cabibbo angle, so the mixing matrices of the Standard model, CKM matrix for quarks and PMNS matrix for neutrinos can also be calculated. In total, we reduce the 28 parameters of the Standard Model to 2 masses and 2 parameters of the hyper-color coupling constant.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1516] viXra:1909.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-06 07:39:26

Understanding Neutrino Properties

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

In the quest to prove that matter can be produced without antimatter, the GERDA experiment at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory in Italy is looking for signs of neutrinoless double beta decay. [26] The announcement was made during the CHARM 2018 international workshop in Novosibirsk in Russia: a charming moment for this doubly charmed particle. [25] The group, in work published in Physical Review Letters, has now used powerful theoretical and computational tools to predict the existence of a "most strange" dibaryon, made up of two "Omega baryons" that contain three strange quarks each. [24] The nuclear physicists found that the proton's building blocks, the quarks, are subjected to a pressure of 100 decillion Pascal (10 35) near the center of a proton, which is about 10 times greater than the pressure in the heart of a neutron star. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been "squeezed" to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by "twisted light" can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1515] viXra:1909.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-06 03:41:33

Precise Proton Radius Measure

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 85 Pages.

York University researchers have made a precise measurement of the size of the proton—a crucial step towards solving a mystery that has preoccupied scientists around the world for the past decade. [47] Ten years ago, just about any nuclear physicist could tell you the approximate size of the proton. But that changed in 2010, when atomic physicists unveiled a new method that promised a more precise measurement. [46] “Spin has surprises. Everybody thought it’s simple … and it turns out it’s much more complicated,” Aschenauer says. [45] Approximately one year ago, a spectacular dive into Saturn ended NASA's Cassini mission—and with it a unique, 13-year research expedition to the Saturnian system. [44]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1514] viXra:1909.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-02 02:45:43

The Non-Abelian Field Current of the Self-Interacting Quantum Electron

Authors: Peter Leifer
Comments: 8 Pages.

Internal degrees of freedoms of the quantum electron (spin and charge) introduced by Dirac lead to the non-Abelian field configuration of the electron in the complex projective Hilbert space $CP(3)$ of the unlocated quantum states (UQS). Such fields represented by the coefficient functions of the local dynamical variables (LDV's) corresponding $SU(4)$ generators of the Poincar\'e group. These generators describe the deformation of the UQS by the dynamical shifts, boosts and rotations. Interaction of this non-Abelian field with the electrodynamics-like gauge field (internal+external) will suppress the divergency of the Jacobi vector field in the vicinity of the ```north pole" in $CP(3)$. Thereby, the stable ``bundle" of the nearby geodesics comprises the lump-like quantum self-interacting electron.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1513] viXra:1908.0581 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-28 09:28:10

Balloons for Particle Acceleration

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 80 Pages.

The innovative use of balloons provides a new, patented way for engineers to shape the metal heart of particle accelerators. [44] When energy is added to uranium under pressure, it creates a shock wave, and even a tiny sample will be vaporized like a small explosion. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1512] viXra:1908.0569 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-29 05:32:29

“Charm and Beauty Flavour of Neutrinos and Very Probably “colours“ of Neutrino Resonances and Their Helicity Polarisation, Cross Section, Mixing Angles and Non–Abelian Gauge Fields of Neutrinos“

Authors: Imrich Krištof
Comments: 12 Pages.

This paper according to the Author’s insight to the particle physics brings the next new conception and new point of view on neutrinos, their aroma respectively ”flavor” or ”colours”, their resonances, helicity, polarization, cross section, mixing angles, and new maths concept of Non–Abelian Gauge Fields of neutrinos. Aroma or ”flavor” and colour of Non–Zero Masses Particles, called neutrinos, their resonance and interference in ”Deep Inelastic Scattering” of leptons and neutrinos as their leptonic particles mainly of TAUON, Lepton τ (TAU) NEUTRINO IN SLAC (STANFORD LINEAR ACCELERATOR), here in 1967 Wolfgang Panofsky achieved detection of extraordinary high energy of electron and ”superheavy electron” TAUONS RESONANCES APPROXIMATELY ABOUT 18 GeV. Colours of Neutrinos ordered this particles among very similar to quarks, its extraordinary property is connected with Quark–gluons plasma, which “breathes” this super density state of matter, from full empty vacuum, so called The Hidden Energy of Quantum Vacuum. On the Day Theme is: - WHAT ARE IN EMPTY SPACES? - WHAT EASY IS EMPTY SPACE? - DOES ANYTHING EXIST IN A VACUUM STATE? - HOW MUCH OF INNER AND OUTER SPACE IS EMPTY? - IS NOT TRULY EMPTY BUT INSTEAD CONTAINS FLEETING ELECTRO-MAGNETIC WAVES AND PARTICLES? - THAT POP INTO AND OUT OF THE EXISTENCE. The main idea of the paper is ordered to neutrinos, their aroma “flavor” and colour in intention of YANG–MILLS AND GELL–MANN MURRAY THEORIES, SO CALLED CABIBBO UNIVERSALITY, IT´S MIXING OF C (CHARM OR CHARMONIUM) AND B (BEAUTY OR BOTTOM (BOTTOMIUM)) NEUTRINOS. YANG–MILLS RESPECTIVELY NON–ABELIAN GAUGE FIELDS IS CONNECTED WITH GAUGE FIELDS RESPECTIVELY GAUGE BOSONS (YANG–MILLS FIELDS → QUANTUM CHROMODYNAMICS IN EARLY 70’S). SITUATION IN YANG–MILLS TRIPLET γ (NEUTRAL PHOTON) W± GAUGE BOSONS (INTERMEDIARY), Z0 (electric neutral Z0 BOSON), Z0 (VECTOR) BOSON. IF WE WANT RETHINK ABOUT NEW EXOTIC FERMUONS TYPE ”SUPERHEAVY” ELECTRON "TAUON RESONANCES” CAN BE DECAYED TO NEW νC (CHARMONIUM NEUTRINO), CREATING “NEUTRINO GAS”, MOVING BETWEEN GAUGE FIELDS – LEFT HANDED VORTEX – (SINISTRAL). νB (BEAUTY NEUTRINO) HAS RIGT DIRECTION VORTEX (DEXTRAL), ACCORDING TO THE QUANTUM BELTS (RIGHT DIRECTION VORTEX DEXTRAL). THESE NEW NEUTRINOS (νC, νB) COULD LEAD TO DISSOLUTION OF PUZZLE PARTICLES OF A STANDARD MODEL (SM), LEADING TO THE NEW SUPER SYMMETRIC PARTNERS MODELS (SUSY). THIS CONCEPT IS DESCRIBED BY VORTEX FREE NEUTRINO NEUTRAL GAS. ALTHOUGH HAVE THESE RESONANCES (VORTEXES) CLEAR LEPTONIC REACTION WITH NEUTRINOS HAVE SMALL CROSS SECTION, CROSS SECTIONS ARE CLEAR WEAK. NEUTRAL STREAMS, WERE DISCOVERED IN YEAR 1973, EXACTLY ON PROCESSES: a) process: ����+��−→����+��− ELASTIC SCATTERING OF MUON NEUTRINO AND ELECTRON. Detected in bubble chamber GARGAMELLE CERN AND IN FERMI NATIONAL LABORATORY (FNAL) U.S.A.. b) process: ����+��−→��̅+���� (Gargamelle CERN)
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1511] viXra:1908.0490 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-25 02:27:17

Maximum Mass of Lightest Neutrino

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Neutrinos come in three flavours made up of a mix of three neutrino masses. While the differences between the masses are known, little information was available about the mass of the lightest species until now. [19] Nuclear physicists successfully measured the weak charge of the proton by shooting electrons at a cold liquid hydrogen target in an experiment carried out at the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. [18] The IceCube Neutrino Observatory in Antarctica is about to get a significant upgrade. [17] While these experiments seem miniature in comparison to others, they could reveal answers about neutrinos that have been hiding from physicists for decades. [16] In a paper published today in the European Physical Journal C, the ATLAS Collaboration reports the first high-precision measurement at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the mass of the W boson. [15]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1510] viXra:1908.0477 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-24 01:58:01

Strong Magnetic Fields with Neutrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI have developed a new method with which strong magnetic fields can be precisely measured. [16] After all, it promises the discovery of new magnetic phenomena that may even be used for quantum computers in the future. [15] But for fast things like biomagnetic fields produced by firing neurons, we need to do better than that, or we might miss out on some information." [14] U.S. Army-funded researchers at Brandeis University have discovered a process for engineering next-generation soft materials with embedded chemical networks that mimic the behavior of neural tissue. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12] UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. [11] Dr Martin Sweatman from the University of Edinburgh's School of Engineering has discovered a simple physical principle that might explain how life started on Earth. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1509] viXra:1908.0471 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-24 03:15:15

Laser-Produced Uranium Plasma

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 80 Pages.

When energy is added to uranium under pressure, it creates a shock wave, and even a tiny sample will be vaporized like a small explosion. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1508] viXra:1908.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-22 01:14:21

Superconducting Accelerator at Fermilab

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

It was a three-hour nighttime road trip that capped off a journey begun seven years ago. [28] Discovered more than 100 years ago, superconductivity continues to captivate scientists who seek to develop components for highly efficient energy transmission, ultrafast electronics or quantum bits for next-generation computation. [27] One of the greatest mysteries in condensed matter physics is the exact relationship between charge order and superconductivity in cuprate superconductors. [26] Cuprates hold the record high superconducting temperature at ambient pressure so far, but understanding their superconducting mechanism remains one of the great challenges of physical sciences listed as one of 125 quests announced by Science. [25] Now, scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech), the University of Tokyo and Tohoku University report curious multi-state transitions of these superconductors in which they change from superconductor to special metal and then to insulator. [24] Researchers at the Zavoisky Physical-Technical Institute and the Southern Scientific Center of RAS, in Russia, have recently fabricated quasi-2-D superconductors at the interface between a ferroelectric Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3 film and an insulating parent compound of La2CuO4. [23] Scientists seeking to understand the mechanism underlying superconductivity in "stripe-ordered" cuprates-copper-oxide materials with alternating areas of electric charge and magnetism-discovered an unusual metallic state when attempting to turn superconductivity off. [22] This discovery makes it clear that in order to understand the mechanism behind the enigmatic high temperature superconductivity of the cuprates, this exotic PDW state needs to be taken into account, and therefore opens a new frontier in cuprate research. [21] High-temperature (Tc) superconductivity typically develops from antiferromagnetic insulators, and superconductivity and ferromagnetism are always mutually exclusive. [20]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1507] viXra:1908.0435 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-22 02:43:52

Streamline Fusion Device

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Stellarators, twisty machines that house fusion reactions, rely on complex magnetic coils that are challenging to design and build. [29] It was a three-hour nighttime road trip that capped off a journey begun seven years ago. [28] Discovered more than 100 years ago, superconductivity continues to captivate scientists who seek to develop components for highly efficient energy transmission, ultrafast electronics or quantum bits for next-generation computation. [27] One of the greatest mysteries in condensed matter physics is the exact relationship between charge order and superconductivity in cuprate superconductors. [26] Cuprates hold the record high superconducting temperature at ambient pressure so far, but understanding their superconducting mechanism remains one of the great challenges of physical sciences listed as one of 125 quests announced by Science. [25] Now, scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech), the University of Tokyo and Tohoku University report curious multi-state transitions of these superconductors in which they change from superconductor to special metal and then to insulator. [24] Researchers at the Zavoisky Physical-Technical Institute and the Southern Scientific Center of RAS, in Russia, have recently fabricated quasi-2-D superconductors at the interface between a ferroelectric Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3 film and an insulating parent compound of La2CuO4. [23] Scientists seeking to understand the mechanism underlying superconductivity in "stripe-ordered" cuprates-copper-oxide materials with alternating areas of electric charge and magnetism-discovered an unusual metallic state when attempting to turn superconductivity off. [22] This discovery makes it clear that in order to understand the mechanism behind the enigmatic high temperature superconductivity of the cuprates, this exotic PDW state needs to be taken into account, and therefore opens a new frontier in cuprate research. [21] High-temperature (Tc) superconductivity typically develops from antiferromagnetic insulators, and superconductivity and ferromagnetism are always mutually exclusive. [20]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1506] viXra:1908.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-16 10:29:07

Accelerated Computing for Accelerated Particles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Fermilab scientists and other collaborators successfully tested a prototype machine-learning technology that speeds up processing by 30 to 175 times compared to traditional methods. [30] A potentially useful material for building quantum computers has been unearthed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), whose scientists have found a superconductor that could sidestep one of the primary obstacles standing in the way of effective quantum logic circuits. [29] Important challenges in creating practical quantum computers have been addressed by two independent teams of physicists in the US. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1505] viXra:1908.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-16 16:09:07

A Comparison of Bell’s Theorem and Malus’s Law: Action-at-a-Distance is not Required in Order to Explain Results of Bell’s Theorem Experiments

Authors: Austin J. Fearnley
Comments: 10 Pages.

This paper shows that, using counterfactual definiteness, there is an enforceable duality between results of Malus Law experiments and the results from Bell experiments. The results are shown here to be equivalent in the two experiments subject to extending the Malus experiment by doubling it to match the structure of the results table of a Bell experiment. The Malus intensities also need to be converted into counterfactual correlations in order to enable results in both experiments to be compared using a common statistic. It is therefore possible to use the duality to explain the more esoteric Bell results via the simpler Malus results. As Malus results involve singleton particles rather than matched pairs of particles then there is no requirement for action at a distance nor entanglement to feature in an explanation of Malus results and therefore, using the duality, neither in Bell results. The ‘magic’ in Bell’s Theorem results is not eliminated as it still exists contained within Malus results, and that ‘magic’ [of somehow exceeding the Bell Inequalities] remains unexplained by this paper, except it is shown that the ‘magic’ does not involve action-at-a-distance nor entanglement.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1504] viXra:1908.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-16 04:58:29

ATLAS Strong Supersymmetry

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

New particles sensitive to the strong interaction might be produced in abundance in the proton-proton collisions generated by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) – provided that they aren't too heavy. [30] Supersymmetry predicts that two basic classes of fundamental particles, fermions and bosons, accompany each other in the same representation. [29] A fraction of a second after the Big Bang, a single unified force may have shattered. Scientists from the CDF and DZero Collaborations used data from the Fermilab Tevatron Collider to re-create the early universe conditions. [28]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1503] viXra:1908.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-14 08:55:52

Super Proton Synchrotron

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

By the end of the second long shutdown (LS2) of CERN's accelerator complex, a nine-metre-long object with several hundred tonnes of shielding will be installed around the beam line of the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). [11] By measuring the angles between the top and antitop decay particles, the ATLAS experiment at CERN has not only measured this degree of correlation, but found it to be higher than what is predicted by calculations based on the Standard Model. [10] Higgs boson decaying into bottom quarks. Now, scientists are tackling its relationship with the top quark. [9] Usha Mallik and her team used a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to help build a sub-detector at the Large Hadron Collider, the world's largest and most powerful particle accelerator, located in Switzerland. They're running experiments on the sub-detector to search for a pair of bottom quarks-subatomic yin-and-yang particles that should be produced about 60 percent of the time a Higgs boson decays. [8] A new way of measuring how the Higgs boson couples to other fundamental particles has been proposed by physicists in France, Israel and the US. Their technique would involve comparing the spectra of several different isotopes of the same atom to see how the Higgs force between the atom's electrons and its nucleus affects the atomic energy levels. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1502] viXra:1908.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-15 08:38:59

Particle Physics and Energy Fields.

Authors: Brian Strom
Comments: 6 Pages.

In the first two papers on energy fields, we examined the basic principles for the interactions between energy fields, and analyzed the nature of potential, orbital and rotational energy fields. Here we apply those basic principles to particle physics and make further proposals. The results may provide an alternative explanation for the nature of particles, an alternative explanation for the behavior of particles in colliders, and an alternative explanation for the nature of matter and anti-matter.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1501] viXra:1908.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-10 10:00:29

Portable Radiation Detectors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Beginning in early 2012, IPL worked closely with a Japanese customer to understand what a better "gamma camera" would look like. [26] A team of researchers at the U.S. National Institute for Standards and Technology has found that electron current flow direction produced by the photon-drag effect is dependent on the environment in which a metal is sitting. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1500] viXra:1908.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-10 13:22:50

The Geometry of Particles and the Explanation of Their Creation and Decay

Authors: Jeff Yee, Lori Gardi
Comments: 21 pages

In this paper, subatomic particles are described by the formation of standing waves of energy as a result of energetic oscillations in the spacetime lattice. The creation of new particles with higher energies, or the decay of particles to lower energies, are described by the formation of wave center points that cause an increase or decrease in standing wave energy. The stability of such particles is found to be based on the geometric formation of these center points which allows standing waves to form to a defined boundary that becomes the particle's radius, or the collapse of its standing waves as particles split to become two or more particles, or completely annihilate. The oscillation energy calculation for a single wave center matches the upper range of the neutrino's estimated energy. It is assumed that this single wave center is the fundamental particle responsible for creating the neutrino. It will be shown in this paper mathematically - and possibly modeled in the near future with computer simulations - that this fundamental particle is responsible for the creation of higher order particles, including but not limited to the electron, proton and neutron.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1499] viXra:1908.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-11 03:57:07

Naturalness Begets Naturalness: an Emergent Definition

Authors: Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse
Comments: 16 Pages.

We offer a model based upon three `assumptions'. The first is geometric, that the vacuum wavefunction is comprised of Euclid's fundamental geometric objects of space - point, line, plane, and volume elements - components of the geometric representation of Clifford algebra. The second is electromagnetic, that physical manifestation follows from introducing the dimensionless coupling constant \textbf{$\alpha$}. The third takes the electron mass to define the scale of space. Such a model is arguably maximally `natural'. Wavefunction interactions are modeled by the geometric product of Clifford algebra. What emerges is more naturalness. We offer an emergent definition.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1498] viXra:1908.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-09 02:53:24

Top-Quark Decay

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

A key parameter examined by the ATLAS Collaboration at CERN is the top quark's "decay width", which is related to the particle's lifetime and decay modes. [31] As the heaviest known elementary particle, the top quark has a special place in the physics studied at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. [30] This allowed ATLAS to detect and measure an unprecedented number of events involving top-antitop quark pairs, providing ATLAS physicists with a unique opportunity to gain insight into the top quark's properties. [29]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1497] viXra:1908.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-09 08:02:30

Similarity Between Collider Events

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have recently developed a metric that can be used to capture the space of collider events based on the earth mover's distance (EMD), a measure used to evaluate dissimilarity between two multi-dimensional probability distributions. [13] Researchers have, for the first time, identified the sufficient and necessary conditions that the low-energy limit of quantum gravity theories must satisfy to preserve the main features of the Unruh effect. [12] Two teams of researchers working independently of one another have come up with an experiment designed to prove that gravity and quantum mechanics can be reconciled. [11] Bose, Marletto and their colleagues believe their proposals constitute an improvement on Feynman's idea. They are based on testing whether the mass could be entangled with a second identical mass via the gravitational field. [10] THREE WEEKS AGO, upon sifting through the aftermath of their protonsmashing experiments, physicists working at the Large Hadron Collider reported an unusual bump in their signal: the signature of two photons simultaneously hitting a detector. Physicists identify particles by reading these signatures, which result from the decay of larger, unstable particles that form during high-energy collisions. It's how they discovered the Higgs boson back in 2012. But this time, they had no idea where the photons came from. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1496] viXra:1908.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-08 06:51:49

Top-Quark Production

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

As the heaviest known elementary particle, the top quark has a special place in the physics studied at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. [30] This allowed ATLAS to detect and measure an unprecedented number of events involving top-antitop quark pairs, providing ATLAS physicists with a unique opportunity to gain insight into the top quark's properties. [29] The ATLAS collaboration has released its very first result utilising its entire Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Run 2 dataset, collected between 2015 and 2018. [28] The Antiproton Decelerator (AD), sometimes known as the Antimatter Factory, is the world's largest source of antimatter and has been operational since 2000. [27]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1495] viXra:1908.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-06 06:48:12

Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

In the Standard Model of particle physics, elementary particles acquire their masses by interacting with the Higgs field. This process is governed by a delicate mechanism: electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB). [19] Nuclear physicists successfully measured the weak charge of the proton by shooting electrons at a cold liquid hydrogen target in an experiment carried out at the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. [18] The IceCube Neutrino Observatory in Antarctica is about to get a significant upgrade. [17]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1494] viXra:1908.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-06 07:12:26

Higgs Boson Interactions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

Since discovering the particle in 2012, the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations have been hard at work studying the behaviour of the Higgs boson. [20] In the Standard Model of particle physics, elementary particles acquire their masses by interacting with the Higgs field. This process is governed by a delicate mechanism: electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB). [19] Nuclear physicists successfully measured the weak charge of the proton by shooting electrons at a cold liquid hydrogen target in an experiment carried out at the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. [18]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1493] viXra:1908.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-06 07:50:02

Magnetic Bottle Controls Fusion Power

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 80 Pages.

Scientists who use magnetic fields to bottle up and control on Earth the fusion reactions that power the sun and stars must correct any errors in the shape of the fields that contain the reactions. [43] Scientists seeking to capture and control on Earth fusion energy, the process that powers the sun and stars, face the risk of disruptions—sudden events that can halt fusion reactions and damage facilities called tokamaks that house them. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1492] viXra:1908.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-05 06:03:46

Antineutrino Monitor Nuclear Reactors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

Technology to measure the flow of subatomic particles known as antineutrinos from nuclear reactors could allow continuous remote monitoring designed to detect fueling changes that might indicate the diversion of nuclear materials. [20] Ereditato even dreams of replacing the design of one of the four massive DUNE far detector modules with a pixelated version. [19] Nuclear physicists successfully measured the weak charge of the proton by shooting electrons at a cold liquid hydrogen target in an experiment carried out at the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. [18]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1491] viXra:1908.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-02 09:05:10

Higgs Boson Discovery Channels

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Critically, the new results examine two of the Higgs boson decays that led to the particle's discovery in 2012: H→ZZ*→4ℓ, where the Higgs boson decays into two Z bosons, in turn decaying into four leptons (electrons or muons); and H→γγ where the Higgs boson decays directly into two photons.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1490] viXra:1908.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-02 09:23:51

28 Gev Particle

Authors: Theodore M Lach
Comments: 15 Pages.

Over 20 years ago I published a paper via arXiv titled "Masses of the subnuclear particles". In that paper there was a prediction of a 27 GeV lepton in the heaviest generation the fifth generation. Today my refined value is 27.5 +/- 0.5 GeV. This discovery of a particle near 28 GeV confirms what I believe.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1489] viXra:1908.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-03 03:33:32

Pixels Powered

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

Ereditato even dreams of replacing the design of one of the four massive DUNE far detector modules with a pixelated version. [19] Nuclear physicists successfully measured the weak charge of the proton by shooting electrons at a cold liquid hydrogen target in an experiment carried out at the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. [18] The IceCube Neutrino Observatory in Antarctica is about to get a significant upgrade. [17]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1488] viXra:1907.0602 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-31 02:12:07

Strengthen the Weak Force Signal

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Nuclear physicists successfully measured the weak charge of the proton by shooting electrons at a cold liquid hydrogen target in an experiment carried out at the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. [18] The IceCube Neutrino Observatory in Antarctica is about to get a significant upgrade. [17] While these experiments seem miniature in comparison to others, they could reveal answers about neutrinos that have been hiding from physicists for decades. [16] In a paper published today in the European Physical Journal C, the ATLAS Collaboration reports the first high-precision measurement at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the mass of the W boson. [15]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1487] viXra:1907.0587 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-29 10:36:03

Particle Confinement in Fusion Plasmas

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 81 Pages.

A team of fusion researchers succeeded in proving that energetic ions with energy in mega electron volt (MeV) range are superiorly confined in a plasma for the first time in helical systems. [44] Now, physicists have confirmed that an updated computer code could help to predict and ultimately prevent such leaks from happening. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1486] viXra:1907.0538 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-26 06:51:17

Physics from Social Networks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 74 Pages.

The researchers say their new technique is the first to relate multitudes of particle collisions to each other, similar to a social network. [43] Now, a team of Virginia Tech chemistry and physics researchers have advanced quantum simulation by devising an algorithm that can more efficiently calculate the properties of molecules on a noisy quantum computer. [42] Physicists at ETH Zurich have now demonstrated an elegant way to relax this intrinsic incompatibility using a mechanical oscillator formed by a single trapped ion, opening up a route for fundamental studies and practical uses alike. [41] Physical experiments were performed by Schiffer's team at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and were funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. [40] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1485] viXra:1907.0507 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-27 04:36:06

How to Make Theoretical Physics Valid for the Longest

Authors: Lubomir Vlcek
Comments: 18 Pages. Einstein's theory works only for v < 0.1c.

To construct Theoretical Physics ONLY ON EXPERIMENTAL BASICS. „The first principle is that you must not fool yourself and you are the easiest person to fool.“ R. P. FEYNMAN "The difference between a good experiment and a good theory is in the fact that the theory gets old quickly and it is replaced by another one, based on more perfect ideas. It will be forgotten quickly. The experiment is something else. The experiment, which has been thought well and performed carefully, will step in the science forever. It will become its part. It is possible to explain such experiment differently in different periods of times." P. L. KAPICA
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1484] viXra:1907.0462 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-25 01:55:34

Instability in Fusion Plasmas

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 80 Pages.

Now, physicists have confirmed that an updated computer code could help to predict and ultimately prevent such leaks from happening. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1483] viXra:1907.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-23 01:07:31

Higgs Boson Decays into Muon Pairs

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

In the Standard Model, the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism predicts the Higgs boson will interact with matter particles (quarks and leptons, known as fermions) with a strength proportional to the particle's mass. [9] Usha Mallik and her team used a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to help build a sub-detector at the Large Hadron Collider, the world's largest and most powerful particle accelerator, located in Switzerland. They're running experiments on the sub-detector to search for a pair of bottom quarks-subatomic yin-and-yang particles that should be produced about 60 percent of the time a Higgs boson decays. [8] A new way of measuring how the Higgs boson couples to other fundamental particles has been proposed by physicists in France, Israel and the US. Their technique would involve comparing the spectra of several different isotopes of the same atom to see how the Higgs force between the atom's electrons and its nucleus affects the atomic energy levels. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1482] viXra:1907.0403 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-21 11:31:46

Modeling that Predicts Elementary Particles and Explains Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and Galaxy Formation Data

Authors: Thomas J. Buckholtz
Comments: 42 pages

We propose steps forward regarding the following challenges in elementary particle physics, cosmology, and astrophysics. Predict new elementary particles. Describe mechanisms governing the rate of expansion of the universe. Describe dark matter. Explain ratios of effects of dark matter to effects of ordinary matter. Describe the formation and evolution of galaxies. Integrate modeling that provides those predictions, descriptions, and explanations and modeling that traditional physics theory includes.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1481] viXra:1907.0384 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-19 09:20:45

Quantum Chromodynamics Simulations

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Over the last few decades, the exponential increase in computer power and accompanying increase in the quality of algorithms has enabled theoretical and particle physicists to perform more complex and precise simulations of fundamental particles and their interactions. [26] A collaboration of scientists from five of the world's most advanced x-ray sources in Europe, Japan and the US, has succeeded in verifying a basic prediction of the quantum-mechanical behavior of resonant systems. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1480] viXra:1907.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-19 09:35:10

Cracks in Magnetic Mirrors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 81 Pages.

Referred to as 'magnetic mirrors', these devices have been known to be a relatively easy way to confine plasma since the 1950s, but they have also proven to be inherently leaky. [44] If you're not a plasma physicist, exploding electrical wires underwater may sound like a bad idea. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1479] viXra:1907.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 10:20:16

Non-Interactive Mechanics

Authors: Nishant kumar sharma
Comments: 26 Pages.

The theory of new type of particles called non-intractable particles, these are the particles which attend every mass state in universe, These Particle Explains The Contraction Of Fermions In Fermi-Dirac Statics These Particles Moves In Straight Line And Remain Same In Quantum ,Classical And Relativistic Systems, with it defining the statistic of Non-Intractable particles, The relation Of Particle-Matter Union N+M = 0 ,the equations of Non-Interactive Mechanics, For Matter Particle Relation And Nucleus Energy , Mass , Radius Detection , Ramanujan Entering The Way By Which Non-Intractable Particles Emit, Ramanujan Effect Way Of Exchange Of Particles By Matter. structure of Nucleus and Atom according to Non-Interactive Mechanics, proof of Dirac Particle-Antiparticle theory, Nishant Effect -The process by which Non-Interactive particles react with matter And Need Of Improvement In Equations Where Mass Is Mentioned Such As N+M In Place Of M Only. with this the proofs of Nishant effect 1. Linear harmonic oscillator 2. Plank’s Quantum Hypothesis 3. Mass- energy relation E=mc^2 4.Non-Intractable Particles 20817.22 m/sec Faster Than The Detected velocity of light 5. The Relativistic relation E^2=P^2C^2+m^2c^4 , A Proof Of Equations where Mass Is Mentioned Should Be Written As E = (N+M) C^2.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1478] viXra:1907.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 13:12:47

Testing the Number of Space-Time Dimensions by the 5.9 Years Repeated Millikan’s Oil Drop Experiments

Authors: E Koorambas
Comments: 21 Pages.

Abstract. The basic motive of the five dimensional Kaluza–Klein theory is the unification of gravity and electromagnetism. A feature of these theories was the relation between the electromagnetic coupling e2, and gravitational coupling GN and the radius of the fifth dimension Rc. The radius of the fifth dimension Rc is thus fixed by the elementary electric charge. From the known value of the elementary charge, we find that Rc is of the order of the Planck length. Based on The five-dimensional Kaluza–Klein theory, we show that if the observed harmonic pattern of the laboratory-measured values of GN is due to some environmental or theoretical errors, these errors must also affect the elementary electric charge e. We calculate the values of fundamental electric charge e predicted by 3+1 and 4+1 dimensional space-time model respectively. We find that in the case of 4+1 the fundamental electric charge e values are oscillated with the 5.9 year LOD oscillation cycle, while in the case of 3+1 spacetime dimensions the fundamental electric charge e is constant and perfect fitted to the straight line. Furthermore, we propose that the number of space-time dimensions can be reveal by the 5,9years repeated Millikan’s oil drop experiments.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1477] viXra:1907.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 10:26:22

Charge Asymmetry in Top-Quark Pairs

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

This allowed ATLAS to detect and measure an unprecedented number of events involving top-antitop quark pairs, providing ATLAS physicists with a unique opportunity to gain insight into the top quark's properties. [29] The ATLAS collaboration has released its very first result utilising its entire Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Run 2 dataset, collected between 2015 and 2018. [28] The Antiproton Decelerator (AD), sometimes known as the Antimatter Factory, is the world's largest source of antimatter and has been operational since 2000. [27]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1476] viXra:1907.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 12:21:41

IceCube Research Upgrade

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

The IceCube Neutrino Observatory in Antarctica is about to get a significant upgrade. [17] While these experiments seem miniature in comparison to others, they could reveal answers about neutrinos that have been hiding from physicists for decades. [16] In a paper published today in the European Physical Journal C, the ATLAS Collaboration reports the first high-precision measurement at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the mass of the W boson. [15] A team of researchers at the University of Michigan has conducted a thought experiment regarding the nature of a universe that could support life without the weak force. [14] The international T2K Collaboration announces a first indication that the dominance of matter over antimatter may originate from the fact that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently during those oscillations. [13] Neutrinos are a challenge to study because their interactions with matter are so rare. Particularly elusive has been what's known as coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, which occurs when a neutrino bumps off the nucleus of an atom. [12] Lately, neutrinos-the tiny, nearly massless particles that many scientists study to better understand the fundamental workings of the universe-have been posing a problem for physicists. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1475] viXra:1907.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 05:59:16

A Note on Jordan Algebras, Three Generations and Exceptional Periodicity

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 11 Pages. Submitted to Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras

It is shown that the algebra $ {{\bf J } }_3 [ { \bf C \otimes O } ] \otimes {\bf Cl(4,C) } $ based on the Exceptional Jordan algebra of the complexified octonions, and the complex Clifford algebra in $ {\bf 4D}$, is rich enough to describe all the spinorial degrees of freedom of three generations of fermions in ${\bf 4D}$, and include additional fermionic dark matter candidates. We extend these results to the Magic Star algebras of Exceptional Periodicity developed by Marrani-Rios-Truini and based on the Vinberg cubic $ {\bf T } $ algebras which are generalizations of exceptional Jordan algebras. It is found that there is a one-to-one correspondence among the real spinorial degrees of freedom of ${\bf 4}$ generations of fermions in $ {\bf 4D}$ with the off-diagonal entries of the spinorial elements of the $pair$ $ {\bf T}_3^{ 8, n}, ( {\bf {\bar T}}_3^{ 8, n } ) $ of Vinberg matrices at level $n = 2$. These results can be generalized to higher levels $ n > 2 $ leading to a higher number of generations beyond $ {\bf 4 } $. Three $pairs$ of ${\bf T}$ algebras and their conjugates $ {\bf {\bar T} }$ were essential in the Magic Star construction of Exceptional Periodicity \cite{Alessio} that extends the $ {\bf e}_8$ algebra to $ {\bf e}_8^{ (n) } $ with $ n $ integer.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1474] viXra:1907.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-12 05:32:11

Experimental Mini-Accelerator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 74 Pages.

Scientists at DESY have achieved a new world record for an experimental type of miniature particle accelerator: For the first time, a terahertz powered accelerator more than doubled the energy of the injected electrons. [43] Electrical engineers in the accelerator physics group at TU Darmstadt have developed a design for a laser-driven electron accelerator so small it could be produced on a silicon chip. [42] Using short laser pulses, a research team led by Misha Ivanov of the Max Born Institute in Berlin, together with scientists from the Russian Quantum Center in Moscow, has shed light on the extremely rapid processes taking place within these novel materials. [41]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1473] viXra:1907.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-10 07:24:54

Quantum Entanglement Inside Protons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 74 Pages.

Using data from the CMS experiment there, the researchers studied the entropy resulting from entanglement within the proton. [44] A German-Austrian research team is now presenting the largest entangled quantum register of individually controllable systems to date, consisting of a total of 20 quantum bits. [43] Neill is lead author of the group's new paper, "A blueprint for demonstrating quantum supremacy with superconducting qubits," now published in the journal Science. [42] Physicists at ETH Zurich have now demonstrated an elegant way to relax this intrinsic incompatibility using a mechanical oscillator formed by a single trapped ion, opening up a route for fundamental studies and practical uses alike. [41] Physical experiments were performed by Schiffer's team at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and were funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. [40] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1472] viXra:1907.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-09 10:09:07

Laser-Driven Microbubbles Vacuum

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 81 Pages.

A vacuum is generally thought to be nothing but empty space. But in fact, a vacuum is filled with virtual particle-antiparticle pairs of electrons and positrons that are continuously created and annihilated in unimaginably short time-scales. [44] If you're not a plasma physicist, exploding electrical wires underwater may sound like a bad idea. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1471] viXra:1907.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-08 22:38:51

The Geometry of Spacetime and the Unification of the Electromagnetic, Gravitational and Strong Forces

Authors: Jeff Yee, Lori Gardi
Comments: 26 pages

In this paper, a spacetime structure consisting of a body-centered cubic lattice is modeled classically as a spring-mass system, where the components of each unit cell in the lattice are based on the fundamental units discovered by Max Planck, and the common forces that govern the motion of particles in spacetime is defined and unified by geometric shapes as the spacetime lattice oscillates.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1470] viXra:1907.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-02 15:39:43

Leptoquarks and Charged Higgs Using Preon Model #9

Authors: Austin J. Fearnley
Comments: 14 Pages.

A CERN article of May 2019 hints at a possible use of two non-Standard Model bosons in decays of the bottom quark (b --> c τ ν'). Three paths are explored in the present paper and exact properties of the hypothetical charged higgs and leptoquark are derived using Preon Model #9 which is a minor adaption of Preon Model #6 (Fearnley, May 2015). Finding these structures does not guarantee the existence of these new particles nor their use in the bottom decay paths as the preon model says nothing about energy requirements. The leptoquark found here has electric charge +2/3, spin zero, weak isospin +0.5, and a strong colour charge (red, green or blue). The charged higgs found here has electric charge -1, spin zero, weak isospin -0.5 and no colour charge. The leptoquark has as many preons as the higgs (16 preons in Model #9) whereas the charged higgs has 24 preons: which makes this charged higgs occupy a higher generation category than the higgs.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1469] viXra:1906.0514 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-26 12:41:21

Speculations on Composite Quarks

Authors: Risto Raitio
Comments: 10 Pages. Scanned copy of the old preprint RITP 1-74.

We propose a simple field theoretic quark model in which the quarks are composite. This quark-hadron bootstrap is the new feature of the model. States like N*(1470) and p'(1600) are interpreted as containing quark excitations. The ratio sigma(e+e- -> hadrons)/sigma(e+e- -> mu+mu-) should grow with energy but not necessarily indefinitely. Remarks on proton-proton diffraction dissociation at the ISR energy range are made.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1468] viXra:1906.0513 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-26 12:41:29

Quark Model Without Scaling Property

Authors: Risto Raitio
Comments: 19 Pages. Scanned copy of the old preprint RITP 12-74. [In title, 'without Scaling' should read 'with Approximate Scaling'.]

We propose a simple field theoretic quark model in which the quarks are composite. This quark bootstrap is the new feature of the model. Applications to spectroscopy and deep inelastic processes are considered. A number of testable predictions are given. In particular, the ratio R = sigma(e+e- -> hadrons)/sigma(e+e- -> mu+mu-) is predicted to grow linearly with Q^2 at least until Q^2 ~ 36 GeV^2, where R is about 7, and drop thereafter towards a value of about one.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1467] viXra:1906.0440 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 00:38:21

A New Unified Electro-Gravity Theory for the Electron

Authors: Nirod K. Das
Comments: 11 Pages.

A rigorous model for an electron is presented by generalizing the Coulomb's Law or Gauss's Law of electrostatics, using a unified theory of electricity and gravity. The permittivity of the free-space is allowed to be variable, dependent on the energy density associated with the electric field at a given location, employing generalized concepts of gravity and mass/energy density. The electric field becomes a non-linear function of the source charge, where concept of the energy density needs to be properly defined. Stable solutions are derived for a spherically symmetric, surface-charge distribution of an elementary charge. This is implemented by assuming that the gravitational field and its equivalent permittivity function is proportional to the energy density, as a simple first-order approximation, with the constant of proportionality referred to as the Unifield Electro-Gravity (UEG) constant. The stable solution with the lowest mass/energy is assumed to represent a ``static'' electron without any spin. Further, assuming that the mass/energy of a static electron is half of the total mass/energy of an electron including its spin contribution, the required UEG constant is estimated. More fundamentally, the lowest stable mass of a static elementary charged particle, its associated classical radius, and the UEG constant are related to each other by a dimensionless constant, independent of any specific value of the charge or mass of the particle. This dimensionless constant is numerologically suspected to be closely related to the the fine structure constant. This finding may carry greater fundamental significance, with scope of the UEG theory covering other elementary particles in the standard model of particle physics.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1466] viXra:1906.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 01:03:31

A Generalized Unified Electro-Gravity (UEG) Model Applicable to All Elementary Particles

Authors: Nirod K. Das
Comments: 18 Pages.

The Unified Electro-Gravity (UEG) theory, originally developed to model an electron, is generalized to model a variety of composite charged as well as neutral particles, which may constitute all known elementary particles of particle physics. A direct extension of the UEG theory for the electron is possible by modifying the functional dependence between the electro-gravitational field and the energy density, which would lead to a general class of basic charged particles carrying different levels of mass/energy, with the electron mass at the lowest level. The basic theory may also be extended to model simple composite neutral particles, consisting of two layers of surface charges of equal magnitudes but opposite signs. The model may be similarly generalized to synthesize more complex structures of composite charged or neutral particles, consisting of increasing levels of charged layers. Depending upon its specific basic or composite structure, a particle could be highly stable like an electron or a proton, or relatively unstable in different degrees, which may be identified with other known particles of the standard model of particle physics. The generalized UEG model may provide a new unified paradigm for particle physics, as a substitute for the standard model currently used, making the weak and strong forces of the standard model redundant.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1465] viXra:1906.0438 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 01:13:56

Unified Electro-Gravity (UEG) Theory and Quantum Electrodynamics

Authors: Nirod K. Das
Comments: 13 Pages.

The Unified Electro-Gravity (UEG) theory, originally developed to model a stable static charge, is extended to a spinning charge using a ``quasi-static'' UEG model. The results from the new theory, evaluated in comparison with concepts and parameters from basic quantum mechanics (QM) and quantum electrodynamics (QED), show that the QM and the QED trace their fundamental origins to the UEG theory. The fine structure constant and the electron g-factor, which are key QED parameters, can be directly related to the proportionality constant (referred to as the UEG constant) used in the UEG theory. A QM wave function is shown to be equivalent to a space-time ripple in the permittivity function of the free space, produced by the UEG fields surrounding a spinning charge, and the basic QM relationships between energy and frequency naturally emerge from the UEG model. Further extension and generalization of the theory may also explain all other quantum mechanical concepts including particle-wave duality, frequency shift in electrodynamic scattering, and charge quantization, leading to full unification of the electromagnetics and gravity with the quantum mechanics.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1464] viXra:1906.0435 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 04:16:00

A Molecular Structure of an Atomic Nucleus

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this work we extend our work on a quantum dynamics of beta decay to show that an atomic nucleus can be described as a molecule which is supposed to be formed by bonding atoms as described in molecular physics. However, there is only one type of atom in our formulation and that atom is the neutron which has been shown to possess the physical structure of a dwarf hydrogen-like atom under the influence of a generalised Yukawa MGESCP potential rather than the Coulomb potential as in the case of the normal hydrogen atom. We construct Schrödinger wave equation to describe the deuteron as a molecular ion which has similar physical structure to the molecular ion of the hydrogen molecule. We also construct Schrödinger wave equation to describe the deuterium and obtain the corresponding energy spectrum, by showing that the deuterium has a similar physical structure to that of a helium atom. As a further discussion, we suggest possible structures for nuclei with high numbers of protons and neutrons and show that these nuclei may form narrow lattices therefore they could fold to form three-dimensional spherical structures by layers of shells by bonding similar to hydrogen bonding.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1463] viXra:1906.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 02:00:39

Proton Radius Problem

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 86 Pages.

Ten years ago, just about any nuclear physicist could tell you the approximate size of the proton. But that changed in 2010, when atomic physicists unveiled a new method that promised a more precise measurement. [46] "Spin has surprises. Everybody thought it's simple … and it turns out it's much more complicated," Aschenauer says. [45] Approximately one year ago, a spectacular dive into Saturn ended NASA's Cassini mission-and with it a unique, 13-year research expedition to the Saturnian system. [44] Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, and their colleagues from the international ALICE collaboration recently collided xenon nuclei, in order to gain new insights into the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (the QGP)-the matter that the universe consisted of up to a microsecond after the Big Bang. [43] The energy transfer processes that occur in this collisionless space plasma are believed to be based on wave-particle interactions such as particle acceleration by plasma waves and spontaneous wave generation, which enable energy and momentum transfer. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning-all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1462] viXra:1906.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 09:52:01

The Mass vs Nothingness12

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

as a hypothesis a mass takes more volume outside of itself than inside of itself and that this mass(an accumulation of photons) which have seperation between themselves inside a mass
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1461] viXra:1906.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-18 08:33:45

Supercomputers aid Gamma Ray Research

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

UC San Diego mechanical and aerospace engineering graduate student Tao Wang recently demonstrated how an extremely strong magnetic field, similar to that on the surface of a neutron star, can be not only generated but also detected using an X-ray laser inside a solid material. [33] Combining principles from computational fluid dynamics and acoustics, researchers at the TU Berlin have developed an analytical model that could simplify the process of designing Helmholtz resonators, a type of noise cancelling structure used in airplanes, ships, and ventilation systems. [32] During this run, from 2015 to 2018, LHC experiments produced unprecedented volumes of data with the machine's performance exceeding all expectations. [31] The proposal envisages a new 100km circumference tunnel that would be bored through the Earth, encircling the city of Geneva and the surrounding countryside. [30] On Wednesday, 25 July, for the very first time, operators injected not just atomic nuclei but lead "atoms" containing a single electron into the LHC. [29] The case for an ambitious new particle accelerator to be built in the United States has just gotten a major boost.[27] Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1460] viXra:1906.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 02:28:58

Walk Through CERN Corridors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 85 Pages.

Forty years ago, in 1979, experiments at the DESY laboratory in Germany provided the first direct proof of the existence of gluons—the carriers of the strong force that "glue" quarks into protons, neutrons and other particles known collectively as hadrons.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1459] viXra:1906.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-17 13:30:48

An Attempt to Colour Confinement

Authors: Deep Jyoti Dutta
Comments: 2 Pages.

This note is presented with a single aim; the aim is to deduce a mathematical method to simply interpret the phenomena of color confinement. The derivation is something that arises from profound theoretical mechanisms of strong interaction.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1458] viXra:1906.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-15 01:57:34

Laser Produces Terahertz Pulses

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A team of scientists from DESY and the University of Hamburg has achieved an important milestone in the quest for a new type of compact particle accelerator. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1457] viXra:1906.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-15 02:12:16

Intense X-ray and Gamma-ray Radiation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

International group of researchers including scientists from Skoltech have invented a new method for the generation of intense X-ray and gamma-ray radiation based on nonlinear Compton scattering. [37] This is where the concept of X-ray communications (XCOM) come into play, which offer even more in the way of advantages than lasers. For one, X-rays have much shorter wavelengths than both radio waves and lasers and can broadcast in tighter beams. [36]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1456] viXra:1906.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-12 18:36:00

The Magnitude of Electromagnetic Time Dilation.

Authors: Howard A. Landman
Comments: 8 Pages.

Theories unifying gravity and electromagnetism naturally give rise to the question of whether there might be a time dilation associated with the electromagnetic 4-potential. We show here that the magnitude of EM time dilation can be computed from elementary considerations that are independent of specific unified theories. We further show that the electrostatic part of the effect is well within reach of experiment, while the magnetic part is not.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1455] viXra:1906.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-11 20:39:30

Core Issues in "Foundations of QFT: 2019 Annual Philosophy of Physics Conference"

Authors: Michaele Suisse, Peter Cameron
Comments: 2 Pages.

This year's workshop is focused on three core issues. Paraphrasing and rearranging their order, we examine optimal mathematical formalisms for the wavefunction and its interactions (particularly in light of the problem of renormalization), phenomenological foundations, and relativistic extensions of quantum mechanics.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1454] viXra:1906.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-12 05:08:16

A Quantum Dynamics of Beta Decay

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this work we re-examine a model of the nucleons that involve the weak interaction which was once considered by Heisenberg; that is a neutron may have the structure of a dwarf hydrogen-like atom. We formulate a quantum dynamics for the associated interaction that involves the beta decay in terms of a mixed Coulomb-Yukawa potential and the More General Exponential Screened Coulomb Potential (MGESCP), which has been studied and applied to various fields of physics. We show that all the components that form the MGESCP potential can be derived from Dirac equation which in turns can be derived from a general system of linear first order partial differential equations. There are many interesting features that emerge from the MGESP potential, such as the MGESP potential can be reduced to the potential that has been proposed to describe the interaction between the quarks for strong force in particle physics, and the energy spectrum of the bound states of the dwarf hydrogen-like atom is continuous with respect to distance. This result leads to an unexpected implication that a proton and an electron may also interact strongly at short distances. We also show that the Yukawa potential when restrained can generate and determine the mathematical structures of fundamental particles associated with the strong and weak fields.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1453] viXra:1906.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-10 15:52:03

Derivation of the Sum-of-Squares Relationship

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 8 Pages.

The sum-of-squares relationship connects the square of elementary particle masses to the square of the Fermi scale. It constrains the spectrum of free parameters in the Standard Model (SM) and it suggests a straightforward resolution to the hierarchy problem. Here we show that this relationship follows from the minimal fractal structure of spacetime near the Fermi scale and supports the view that Dark Matter behaves as long-range multifractal replica of the SM.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1452] viXra:1906.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-10 05:03:24

Waltz of LHC Magnets

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 84 Pages.

Major endeavors are underway in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) over the past few weeks, with the extraction of magnets from the accelerator tunnel. [46] The energies of proton beams produced by laser-driven particle accelerators could be doubled, without any increase in laser intensity. [45] Approximately one year ago, a spectacular dive into Saturn ended NASA's Cassini mission-and with it a unique, 13-year research expedition to the Saturnian system. [44] Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, and their colleagues from the international ALICE collaboration recently collided xenon nuclei, in order to gain new insights into the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (the QGP)-the matter that the universe consisted of up to a microsecond after the Big Bang. [43] The energy transfer processes that occur in this collisionless space plasma are believed to be based on wave-particle interactions such as particle acceleration by plasma waves and spontaneous wave generation, which enable energy and momentum transfer. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning-all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1451] viXra:1906.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-07 09:50:24

Pentaquark Molecule-Like Structure

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

A team of researchers working on the LHCb collaboration has found evidence showing that a pentaquark they have observed has a molecule-like structure. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1450] viXra:1906.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-06 09:33:34

Laser Boost Proton-Beam Energies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 84 Pages.

The energies of proton beams produced by laser-driven particle accelerators could be doubled, without any increase in laser intensity. [45] Approximately one year ago, a spectacular dive into Saturn ended NASA's Cassini mission—and with it a unique, 13-year research expedition to the Saturnian system. [44] Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, and their colleagues from the international ALICE collaboration recently collided xenon nuclei, in order to gain new insights into the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (the QGP) – the matter that the universe consisted of up to a microsecond after the Big Bang. [43] The energy transfer processes that occur in this collisionless space plasma are believed to be based on wave-particle interactions such as particle acceleration by plasma waves and spontaneous wave generation, which enable energy and momentum transfer. [42]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1449] viXra:1906.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-06 02:07:25

Plasma Using Nanowires

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 81 Pages.

Physicists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena have now managed to solve some of these problems, and they have reported on their results in the renowned research journal Physical Review X. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1448] viXra:1906.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-04 08:10:10

Model Heavy Nuclei

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Modelling the properties of atomic nuclei is a demanding task. It requires a theory that we can apply to a large variety of nuclear species regardless of their masses. [31] A careful re-analysis of data taken at the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility has revealed a possible link between correlated protons and neutrons in the nucleus and a 35-year-old mystery. [30] The nuclear force that holds protons and neutrons together in the center of atoms has a non-central component-the tensor force, which depends on the spin and relative position of the interacting particles. [29] Physicists at the TU Darmstadt and their collaboration partners have performed laser spectroscopy on cadmium isotopes to confirm an improved model of the atomic nucleus. [28] Protons in neutron-rich nuclei have a higher average energy than previously thought, according to a new analysis of electron scattering data that was first collected in 2004. [27] Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1447] viXra:1906.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-01 03:45:36

Magnetized Plasma Jet in Laboratory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 81 Pages.

The team created the jets using the OMEGA Laser Facility at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1446] viXra:1905.0613 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-31 08:42:01

Weak Gravity Unification with the Quantum Vacuum

Authors: M. A. Thomas
Comments: 41 Pages. PDF of a PPT. presentation 41 Slides

A low energy gauge theory coupled to a scalar tensor has a precise interrelationship to Monster group symmetry (hidden) across a slight energetic vacuum change from the near flat Minkowski type gentle curving space time of the regular uud-ddu (proton neutron) flavor fields to more extremal space time curvature near a neutron (or black hole) star in the ddu-ddu (neutron )flavor fields. The nature of the scalar tensor only slightly violates EP in the weak gravity realm. In addition it is suggested that a highly symmetric version of Scalar Tensor Theory is the correct theory operating in the realm of Newton-Einstein Gravity.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1445] viXra:1905.0612 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-31 08:52:05

SLAC Fires Up Electron Gun

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 71 Pages.

Crews at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory have powered up a new electron gun, a key component of the lab's upgrade of its Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) X-ray laser, and last night it fired its first electrons. [41] In April, work began on one of the major projects scheduled for the second long shutdown (LS2) of the CERN accelerators: improving the electrical insulation of over 1200 magnets in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). [40] DESY scientists have created a miniature particle accelerator for electrons that can perform four different functions at the push of a button. [39]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1444] viXra:1905.0605 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-31 12:54:22

The Mass vs Nothingness Theory7

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

how does a photon act as a wave imagine a mass and part of that mass is with some space inside it and then the space goes inside the mass volume round and round that is how an electromagnetic wave act
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1443] viXra:1905.0600 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-30 09:51:33

On the Emergence of Dark Matter from Coherent Quantum States

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 2 Pages. First draft: abstract, plan of work and references only.

Recent work suggests that Dark Matter behaves as large-scale dimensional condensate of Cantor Dust, a topological structure arising from the minimal fractal geometry of spacetime above the electroweak scale. Here we show that the spectrum of the quantum harmonic oscillator in the number basis stands in a one-to-one correspondence with the formation of Cantor Dust. The correspondence becomes exact upon applying an unbounded number of scaling iterations to a generic fractal set.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1442] viXra:1905.0591 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-31 02:50:56

Spring-Clean for LHC Magnets

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

In April, work began on one of the major projects scheduled for the second long shutdown (LS2) of the CERN accelerators: improving the electrical insulation of over 1200 magnets in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). [40] DESY scientists have created a miniature particle accelerator for electrons that can perform four different functions at the push of a button. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1441] viXra:1905.0568 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-29 21:38:45

Cl(16) Science, Art, Music

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 423 Pages.

There is a realistic Physics model, based on Real Clifford Algebras including Cl(16) and Cl(1,25). Part I describes Real Clifford Algebras. Part II of this book describes Clifford Algebra Physics and its calculations of Force Strengths, Particle Masses, Dark Energy : Dark Matter : Ordinary Matter ratio, Kobayashi-Maskawa Parameters, and 3 mass states of Higgs-Truth Quark Nambu-Jona-Lasinio System as they appear in Fermilab and LHC data. Part III describes how Clifford Algebra Physics is related to Art (specifically to The Large Glass by Marcel Duchamp) and to Music (specifically to the Grosse Fugue by Ludwig van Beethoven) and to Archetypes of the Red Book by Carl Gustav Jung. Part IV describes History: Universe - Humanity - my family. Part V describes Deuterium fusion D+D+D+D to He+He + 47.6 MeV by Klein Paradox Quantum Tunnelling in Palladium Clusters.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1440] viXra:1905.0536 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-29 01:37:46

Cold Case of Cold Fusion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

Scientists from the University of British Columbia (UBC), the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the University of Maryland, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and Google are conducting a multi-year investigation into cold fusion, a type of benign nuclear reaction hypothesized to occur in benchtop apparatus at room temperature. [39] University of British Columbia researchers have found a new system that could help yield 'warmer' quantum technologies. [38] A QEG team has provided unprecedented visibility into the spread of information in large quantum mechanical systems, via a novel measurement methodology and metric described in a new article in Physics Review Letters. [37]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1439] viXra:1905.0534 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-27 08:41:33

Colliding Laser Proton Beams

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 84 Pages.

Researchers from Sweden's Chalmers University of Technology and the University of Gothenburg present a new method which can double the energy of a proton beam produced by laser-based particle accelerators. [45] Approximately one year ago, a spectacular dive into Saturn ended NASA's Cassini mission—and with it a unique, 13-year research expedition to the Saturnian system. [44] Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, and their colleagues from the international ALICE collaboration recently collided xenon nuclei, in order to gain new insights into the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (the QGP) – the matter that the universe consisted of up to a microsecond after the Big Bang. [43]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1438] viXra:1905.0471 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 11:33:45

Quantum Chromodynamics on Lattice: State-of-the-Art and New Methods with New Results

Authors: Jan Helm
Comments: 55 Pages.

This paper consists of two parts. Part A is a state-of-the-art report in quantum chromodynamics. Here is presented in a concise form: the QCD gauge-theory, the standard model and its particles, the perturbative QCD (QCD/QED Feynman diagrams with results), QCD on-lattice with Wilson loops. Part B describes a new numerical QCD calculation method (direct minimization of QCD-QED-action) and its results for the first-generation (u,d) hadrons. Here we start with the standard color-Lagrangian LQCD=LDirac+Lgluon , model the quarks qi as parameterized gaussians, and the gluons Agi as Ritz-Galerkin-expansion. We minimize the Lagrangian with parameters par=(par(q),{αk},par(Ag)) for first-generation hadrons (nucleons, pseudo-scalar mesons, vector mesons). The resulting parameters yield the correct masses, correct magnetic moments for the nucleons, the gluon-distribution and the quark-distribution with interesting insights into the hadron structure.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1437] viXra:1905.0465 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 00:50:46

Nuclear Barnett Effect

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Nuclear Barnett Effect Using a different method from that employed by Barnett, two researchers at NYU observed an alternative version of this effect called the nuclear Barnett effect, which results from the magnetization of protons rather than electrons. [26] Recently, scientists suggested switching from electron to nuclear transitions that may considerably increase the precision of clocks due to higher frequency. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been "squeezed" to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by "twisted light" can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1436] viXra:1905.0458 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 04:12:21

Supersymmetry by ATLAS

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

If these superpartners exist and are not too massive, they will be produced at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and could be hiding in data collected by the ATLAS detector. [30] Supersymmetry predicts that two basic classes of fundamental particles, fermions and bosons, accompany each other in the same representation. [29] A fraction of a second after the Big Bang, a single unified force may have shattered. Scientists from the CDF and DZero Collaborations used data from the Fermilab Tevatron Collider to re-create the early universe conditions. [28]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1435] viXra:1905.0433 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 23:20:18

The Electron Charge Explained

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 376 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

The electron charge explained “The photon inside the electron is the charge, is the electric field inside a volume equivalent with the electric field created by an electric charge. An electric field surrounds an electric charge; the same thing inside the electron, the electric field of the photon surrounds the center of the electron. Electric charge doesn't exist, was invented by scientists because they were not capable to explain the electric charge and what is inside the electron!” Adrian Ferent “The photon inside the electron, inside the volume, gives the electric charge to electron” Adrian Ferent “Virtual photons do not exist, that is why Quantum Field Theory (QFT) is wrong and Ferent Quantum Gravity (FQG) is right” Adrian Ferent “If an electron emits a photon, does not loose the electric charge because the energy of the emitted photon is much smaller than gamma ray energy” Adrian Ferent “The electron has an electric field due to the photon inside the electron” Adrian Ferent “Due to the photon inside the electron, the electron interacts with the electromagnetic field” Adrian Ferent “I discovered Dark Matter in electron and positron collision” Adrian Ferent Scientists do not understand the electron that is why they say the photon is absorbed by the atom not by the electron. “Virtual photons do not exist, that is why Quantum Field Theory (QFT) is wrong and Ferent Quantum Gravity (FQG) is right” Adrian Ferent What you learned from your professors, from peer-reviewed journals, from your books, from the greatest scientists about electric Charge is wrong. When they can not explain something, they said it is a Fundamental Property like the electric Charge! “If an electron emits a photon, does not loose the electric charge because the energy of the emitted photon is much smaller than gamma ray energy” Adrian Ferent You learned from your professors that the Electric charge is the Physical Property of matter! This Physical Property of matter causes to experience a force when is placed in an electromagnetic field. The elementary charge is a fundamental physical constant. The elementary charge of the electron, e, is about 1.6 × 10^(-19) coulombs. An electric charge has an electric field and if the charge is moving it also generates a magnetic field. “The electron has an electric field due to the photon inside the electron” Adrian Ferent Charge quantization means the charge of any object is an integer multiple of the elementary charge (exceptions are quarks). An electron is under the influence of electromagnetic radiation. The photons of this radiation would interact with the electron; the electron absorbs the photon and the electron gain energy. “Due to the photon inside the electron, the electron interacts with the electromagnetic field” Adrian Ferent “I discovered Dark Matter in electron and positron collision” Adrian Ferent DMe is the Dark Matter inside the electron DMp is the Dark Matter inside the positron 223. I am the first who discovered that the photon inside the electron is the charge, is the electric field inside a volume equivalent with the electric field created by an electric charge 224. I am the first who discovered that an electric field surrounds an electric charge; the same thing inside the electron, the electric field of the photon surrounds the center of the electron. 225. I am the first who discovered that the Electric charge doesn't exist, was invented by scientists because they were not capable to explain the electric charge and what is inside the electron 226. I am the first who discovered that the Virtual photons do not exist, that is why Quantum Field Theory (QFT) is wrong and Ferent Quantum Gravity (FQG) is right 227. I am the first who discovered that if an electron emits a photon, does not loose the electric charge because the energy of the emitted photon is much smaller than gamma ray energy 228. I am the first who discovered that the electron has an electric field due to the photon inside the electron 229. I am the first who discovered that due to the photon inside the electron, the electron interacts with the electromagnetic field
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1434] viXra:1905.0425 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 08:05:19

Uncover the Logic of Fine Structure Constant

Authors: Jianfei Chen
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper, author introduced two theories, energy spiral as a unified field and dual resonance for energy transfer. This paper is based on these theories. Through studying formation process of particles, as was indicated that: vacuum particles and 12 basic particles are existing in the vacuum, which will become protons or electrons. In the hydrogen atomic, the external vacuum energy affects on the energy spiral of the electron, then revolution energy and rotation energy of the electron are determined, finally the parameters of Bohr structure are determined. And logical value of Fine Structure constant is obtained. [alpha=sqrt[4]{2}pi/512]. This data is supported by the calculation results of experimental data.Email: eastear@outlook.com eastear@163.com
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1433] viXra:1905.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 20:20:13

Particle Wave Duality is False

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

if you push a mass to the speed of light it takes a lot of work now if you push a larger mass it take a larger work to push it at a time larger by the larger mass/mass coefficient velocity here is all that matters do you think electromagnetic waves has inertia if it has mass do waves have inertia? arent waves propagation of momentum? waves are because of masses hitting each other and inertia of these masses in some way there is nothing called a wave so the principle of mass wave duality is wrong
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[1017] viXra:1908.0569 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-29 11:34:21

“Charm and Beauty Flavour of Neutrinos and Very Probably “colours“ of Neutrino Resonances and Their Helicity, Polarisation, Cross Section, Mixing Angles and Non–Abelian Gauge Fields of Neutrinos“

Authors: Imrich Krištof
Comments: 12 Pages.

This paper according to the Author’s insight to the particle physics brings the next new conception and new point of view on neutrinos, their aroma respectively ”flavor” or ”colours”, their resonances, helicity, polarization, cross section, mixing angles, and new maths concept of Non–Abelian Gauge Fields of neutrinos. Aroma or ”flavor” and colour of Non–Zero Masses Particles, called neutrinos, their resonance and interference in ”Deep Inelastic Scattering” of leptons and neutrinos as their leptonic particles mainly of TAUON, Lepton τ (TAU) NEUTRINO IN SLAC (STANFORD LINEAR ACCELERATOR), here in 1967 Wolfgang Panofsky achieved detection of extraordinary high energy of electron and ”superheavy electron” TAUONS RESONANCES APPROXIMATELY ABOUT 18 GeV. Colours of Neutrinos ordered this particles among very similar to quarks, its extraordinary property is connected with Quark–gluons plasma, which “breathes” this super density state of matter, from full empty vacuum, so called The Hidden Energy of Quantum Vacuum. On the Day Theme is: - WHAT ARE IN EMPTY SPACES? - WHAT EASY IS EMPTY SPACE? - DOES ANYTHING EXIST IN A VACUUM STATE? - HOW MUCH OF INNER AND OUTER SPACE IS EMPTY? - IS NOT TRULY EMPTY BUT INSTEAD CONTAINS FLEETING ELECTRO-MAGNETIC WAVES AND PARTICLES? - THAT POP INTO AND OUT OF THE EXISTENCE. The main idea of the paper is ordered to neutrinos, their aroma “flavor” and colour in intention of YANG–MILLS AND GELL–MANN MURRAY THEORIES, SO CALLED CABIBBO UNIVERSALITY, IT´S MIXING OF C (CHARM OR CHARMONIUM) AND B (BEAUTY OR BOTTOM (BOTTOMIUM)) NEUTRINOS. YANG–MILLS RESPECTIVELY NON–ABELIAN GAUGE FIELDS IS CONNECTED WITH GAUGE FIELDS RESPECTIVELY GAUGE BOSONS (YANG–MILLS FIELDS → QUANTUM CHROMODYNAMICS IN EARLY 70’S). SITUATION IN YANG–MILLS TRIPLET γ (NEUTRAL PHOTON) W± GAUGE BOSONS (INTERMEDIARY), Z0 (electric neutral Z0 BOSON), Z0 (VECTOR) BOSON. IF WE WANT RETHINK ABOUT NEW EXOTIC FERMIONS TYPE ”SUPERHEAVY” ELECTRON "TAUON RESONANCES” CAN BE DECAYED TO NEW νC (CHARMONIUM NEUTRINO), CREATING “NEUTRINO GAS”, MOVING BETWEEN GAUGE FIELDS – LEFT HANDED VORTEX – (SINISTRAL). νB (BEAUTY NEUTRINO) HAS RIGT DIRECTION VORTEX (DEXTRAL), ACCORDING TO THE QUANTUM BELTS (RIGHT DIRECTION VORTEX DEXTRAL). THESE NEW NEUTRINOS (νC, νB) COULD LEAD TO DISSOLUTION OF PUZZLE PARTICLES OF A STANDARD MODEL (SM), LEADING TO THE NEW SUPER SYMMETRIC PARTNERS MODELS (SUSY). THIS CONCEPT IS DESCRIBED BY VORTEX FREE NEUTRINO NEUTRAL GAS. ALTHOUGH HAVE THESE RESONANCES (VORTEXES) CLEAR LEPTONIC REACTION WITH NEUTRINOS HAVE SMALL CROSS SECTION, CROSS SECTIONS ARE CLEAR WEAK. NEUTRAL STREAMS, WERE DISCOVERED IN YEAR 1973, EXACTLY ON PROCESSES: a) process: �������� ����������������+����������������→�������� ����������������+���������������� ELASTIC SCATTERING OF MUON NEUTRINO AND ELECTRON. Detected in bubble chamber GARGAMELLE CERN AND IN FERMI NATIONAL LABORATORY (FNAL) U.S.A.. b) process: ����������������→����������������+���������������� ���������������� (Gargamelle CERN)
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1016] viXra:1908.0193 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-09 14:55:48

The Geometry of Particles and the Explanation of Their Creation and Decay

Authors: Jeff Yee, Lori Gardi
Comments: 22 pages

In this paper, subatomic particles are described by the formation of standing waves of energy as a result of energetic oscillations in the spacetime lattice. The creation of new particles with higher energies, or the decay of particles to lower energies, are described by the formation of wave center points that cause an increase or decrease in standing wave energy. The stability of such particles is found to be based on the geometric formation of these center points which allows standing waves to form to a defined boundary that becomes the particle's radius, or the collapse of its standing waves as particles split to become two or more particles, or completely annihilate. The oscillation energy calculation for a single wave center matches the upper range of the neutrino's estimated energy. It is assumed that this single wave center is the fundamental particle responsible for creating the neutrino. It will be shown in this paper mathematically - and possibly modeled in the near future with computer simulations - that this fundamental particle is responsible for the creation of higher order particles, including but not limited to the electron, proton and neutron.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1015] viXra:1907.0337 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-18 19:09:46

Testing the Number of Space-Time Dimensions by the 5.9 Years Repeated Millikan’s Oil Drop Experiments

Authors: E Koorambas
Comments: 21 Pages. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 444 Castro Street, Suite 900, Mountain View, Califor

The basic motive of the five-dimensional Kaluza–Klein theory is the unification of gravity and electromagnetism. A feature of these theories was the relation between the electromagnetic coupling e, and gravitational coupling GN and the radius of the fifth dimension Rc. The radius of the fifth dimension Rc is thus fixed by the elementary electric charge. From the known value of the elementary charge, we find that Rc is of the order of the Planck length. Based on The five-dimensional Kaluza–Klein theory, we show that if the observed harmonic pattern of the laboratory-measured values of GN is due to some environmental or theoretical errors, these errors must also affect the elementary electric charge e. We calculate the values of fundamental electric charge e predicted by 3+1 and 4+1 dimensional space-time model respectively. We find that in the case of 4+1 the fundamental electric charge e values are oscillated with the 5.9 year LOD oscillation cycle, while in the case of 3+1 spacetime dimensions the fundamental electric charge e is constant and perfect fitted to the straight line. Furthermore, we propose that the number of space-time dimensions can be reveal by the 5,9 years repeated Millikan’s oil drop experiments.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1014] viXra:1907.0129 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-09 14:58:05

The Geometry of Spacetime and the Unification of the Electromagnetic, Gravitational and Strong Forces

Authors: Jeff Yee, Lori Gardi
Comments: 31 pages

In this paper, a spacetime structure consisting of a body-centered cubic lattice is modeled classically as a spring-mass system, where the components of each unit cell in the lattice are based on the fundamental units discovered by Max Planck, and the common forces that govern the motion of particles in spacetime is defined and unified by geometric shapes as the spacetime lattice oscillates.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1013] viXra:1907.0129 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-08 21:17:16

The Geometry of Spacetime and the Unification of the Electromagnetic, Gravitational and Strong Forces

Authors: Jeff Yee, Lori Gardi
Comments: 26 pages

In this paper, a spacetime structure consisting of a body-centered cubic lattice is modeled classically as a spring-mass system, where the components of each unit cell in the lattice are based on the fundamental units discovered by Max Planck, and the common forces that govern the motion of particles in spacetime is defined and unified by geometric shapes as the spacetime lattice oscillates.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1012] viXra:1907.0038 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-06 04:44:25

Leptoquarks and Charged Higgs Using Preon Model #9

Authors: Austin J Fearnley
Comments: 15 Pages.

A CERN article of May 2019 hints at a possible use of two non-Standard Model bosons in decays of the bottom quark (b --> c τ ν'). Three paths are explored in the present paper and exact properties of the hypothetical charged higgs and leptoquark are derived using Preon Model #9 which is a minor adaption of Preon Model #6 (Fearnley, May 2015). Finding these structures does not guarantee the existence of these new particles nor their use in the bottom decay paths as the preon model says nothing about energy requirements. The leptoquark found here has electric charge +2/3, spin zero, weak isospin +0.5, and a strong colour charge (red, green or blue). The charged higgs found here has electric charge -1, spin zero, weak isospin -0.5 and no colour charge. The leptoquark has as many preons as the higgs (16 preons in Model #9) whereas the charged higgs has 24 preons: which makes this charged higgs occupy a higher generation category than the higgs.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1011] viXra:1906.0512 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-24 14:17:53

An Axiomatic Model of Science

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 90 Pages.

Here we present a mathematical model formalizing the practice of science in nature. Under the premise that science is the best methodology to understand the World, then presumably a formalization of such is its best mathematical framework. Axiomatic science is a significant improvement over the informal practice of science and it has numerous desirable properties. Axiomatic science is a model of science and of physics, and as such, it contains a 'science' part and a 'physics' part. Axiomatic science is able to derive the 'physics' part, including the laws of physics, using the 'science' part as the starting point. Axiomatic science thus explains the origins of the laws of physics as a theorem of the formal practice of science. Finally, axiomatic science is 'clarification tool par excellence' for the foundation of physics.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1010] viXra:1906.0512 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-22 10:12:15

An Axiomatic Model of Science

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 90 Pages.

Here we present a mathematical model formalizing the practice of science in nature. Under the premise that science is the best methodology to understand the World, then presumably a formalization of such is its best mathematical framework. Axiomatic science is a significant improvement over the informal practice of science and it has numerous desirable properties. Axiomatic science is a model of science and of physics, and as such, it contains a 'science' part and a 'physics' part. Axiomatic science is able to derive the 'physics' part, including the laws of physics, using the 'science' part as the starting point. Axiomatic science thus explains the origins of the laws of physics as a theorem of the formal practice of science. Finally, axiomatic science is 'clarification tool par excellence' for the foundation of physics.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1009] viXra:1906.0512 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-21 13:43:49

An Axiomatic Model of Science

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 87 Pages.

Here we present a mathematical model formalizing the practice of science in nature. Under the premise that science is the best methodology to understand the World, then presumably a formalization of such is its best mathematical framework. Axiomatic science is a significant improvement over the informal practice of science and it has numerous desirable properties. Axiomatic science is a model of science and of physics, and as such, it contains a 'science' part and a 'physics' part. Axiomatic science is able to derive the 'physics' part, including the laws of physics, using the 'science' part as the starting point. Axiomatic science thus explains the origins of the laws of physics as a theorem of the formal practice of science. Finally, axiomatic science is 'clarification tool par excellence' for the foundation of physics.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1008] viXra:1906.0512 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-02 12:34:27

An Axiomatic Model of Science

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 48 Pages.

Here we present a mathematical model formalizing the practice of science in nature. Under the premise that science is the best methodology to understand the World, then presumably a formalization of such is its best mathematical framework. Axiomatic science is a significant improvement over the informal practice of science and it has numerous desirable properties. Axiomatic science is a model of science and of physics, and as such, it contains a 'science' part and a 'physics' part. Axiomatic science is able to derive the 'physics' part, including the laws of physics, using the 'science' part as the starting point. Axiomatic science thus explains the origins of the laws of physics as a theorem of the formal practice of science. Finally, axiomatic science is 'clarification tool par excellence' for the foundation of physics.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1007] viXra:1906.0440 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-12 04:41:58

A New Unified Electro-Gravity Theory for the Electron

Authors: Nirod K. Das
Comments: 13 Pages. Revised version, with some refinement and a new validation of the theory.

A rigorous model for the electron is presented by generalizing the Coulomb's Law or Gauss's Law of electrostatics, using a unified theory of electricity and gravity. The permittivity of the free-space is allowed to be variable, dependent on the energy density associated with the electric field at a given location, employing generalized concepts of gravity and mass/energy density. The electric field becomes a non-linear function of the source charge, where concept of the energy density needs to be properly defined. Stable solutions are derived for a spherically symmetric, surface-charge distribution of an elementary charge. This is implemented by assuming that the gravitational field and its equivalent permittivity function is proportional to the energy density, as a simple first-order approximation, with the constant of proportionality referred to as the Unifield Electro-Gravity (UEG) constant. The stable solution with the lowest mass/energy is assumed to represent a ``static'' electron without any spin. Further, assuming that the mass/energy of a static electron is half of the total mass/energy of an electron including its spin contribution, the required UEG constant is estimated. More fundamentally, the lowest stable mass of a static elementary charged particle, its associated classical radius, and the UEG constant are related to each other by a dimensionless constant, independent of any specific value of the charge or mass of the particle. This dimensionless constant is numerologically found to be closely related to the the fine structure constant. This possible origin of the fine structure constant is further strengthened by applying the proposed theory to successfully model the Casimir effect, from which approximately the same above relationship between the UEG constant, electron's mass and classical radius, and the fine structure constant, emerges.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1006] viXra:1906.0206 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-25 08:33:51

The Magnitude of Electromagnetic Time Dilation.

Authors: Howard A. Landman
Comments: 8 Pages.

Theories unifying gravity and electromagnetism naturally give rise to the question of whether there might be a time dilation associated with the electromagnetic 4-potential. We show here that the magnitude of EM time dilation can be computed from elementary considerations that are independent of specific unified theories. We further show that the electrostatic part of the effect is well within reach of experiment, while the magnetic part is not.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1005] viXra:1906.0181 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-02 03:56:17

A Quantum Dynamics of Heisenberg Model of the Neutron Associated with Beta Decay

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 18 Pages.

In this work we re-examine a model of the nucleons that involve the weak interaction which was once considered by Heisenberg; that is a neutron may have the structure of a dwarf hydrogen-like atom. We formulate a quantum dynamics for the Heisenberg model of the neutron associated with interaction that involves the beta decay in terms of a mixed Coulomb-Yukawa potential and the More General Exponential Screened Coulomb Potential (MGESCP), which has been studied and applied to various fields of physics. We show that all the components that form the MGESCP potential can be derived from a general system of linear first order partial differential equations similar to Dirac relativistic equation in quantum mechanics. There are many interesting features that emerge from the MGESCP potential, such as the MGESCP potential can be reduced to the potential that has been proposed to describe the interaction between the quarks for strong force in particle physics, and the energy spectrum of the bound states of the dwarf hydrogen-like atom is continuous with respect to distance. This result leads to an unexpected implication that a proton and an electron may also interact strongly at short distances. We also show that the Yukawa potential when restrained can generate and determine the mathematical structures of fundamental particles associated with the strong and weak fields.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1004] viXra:1906.0171 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-11 13:46:01

Derivation of the Sum-of-Squares Relationship

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 8 Pages.

The sum-of-squares relationship connects the square of elementary particle masses to the square of the Fermi scale. It constrains the spectrum of free parameters in the Standard Model (SM) and it suggests a straightforward resolution to the hierarchy problem. Here we show that this relationship follows from the minimal fractal structure of spacetime near the Fermi scale and supports the view that Dark Matter behaves as long-range multifractal replica of the SM.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1003] viXra:1905.0568 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-03 23:42:48

Cl(16) Science, Art, Music

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 426 Pages.

There is a realistic Physics model, based on Real Clifford Algebras including Cl(16) and Cl(1,25). Part I describes Real Clifford Algebras. Part II of this book describes Clifford Algebra Physics and its calculations of Force Strengths, Particle Masses, Dark Energy : Dark Matter : Ordinary Matter ratio, Kobayashi-Maskawa Parameters, and 3 mass states of Higgs-Truth Quark Nambu-Jona-Lasinio System as they appear in Fermilab and LHC data. Part III describes how Clifford Algebra Physics is related to Art (specifically to The Large Glass by Marcel Duchamp) and to Music (specifically to the Grosse Fugue by Ludwig van Beethoven) and to Archetypes of the Red Book by Carl Gustav Jung. Part IV describes History: Universe - Humanity - my family. Part V describes Deuterium fusion D+D+D+D to He+He + 47.6 MeV by Klein Paradox Quantum Tunnelling in Palladium Clusters. Version 4 (v4) adds Prologue and Epilogue. Version 5 (v5) adds remarks about Dark Energy: TeraHertz Josephson Junctions and Neutrino Mass; Raisin-Bread Cosmology; Pioneer Anomaly at Uranus Orbit Raisin/Bread Boundary; and Alcubierrre Warp Drive with Conformal Dark Energy and 5-Tetrahedra Pentagonal DiPyramids. Version 6 (v 6) adds material about history. Version 7 (v7) adds some further details.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1002] viXra:1905.0568 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-21 18:35:16

Cl(16) Science, Art, Music

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 426 Pages.

There is a realistic Physics model, based on Real Clifford Algebras including Cl(16) and Cl(1,25). Part I describes Real Clifford Algebras. Part II of this book describes Clifford Algebra Physics and its calculations of Force Strengths, Particle Masses, Dark Energy : Dark Matter : Ordinary Matter ratio, Kobayashi-Maskawa Parameters, and 3 mass states of Higgs-Truth Quark Nambu-Jona-Lasinio System as they appear in Fermilab and LHC data. Part III describes how Clifford Algebra Physics is related to Art (specifically to The Large Glass by Marcel Duchamp) and to Music (specifically to the Grosse Fugue by Ludwig van Beethoven) and to Archetypes of the Red Book by Carl Gustav Jung. Part IV describes History: Universe - Humanity - my family. Part V describes Deuterium fusion D+D+D+D to He+He + 47.6 MeV by Klein Paradox Quantum Tunnelling in Palladium Clusters. Version 4 (v4) adds Prologue and Epilogue. Version 5 (v5) adds remarks about Dark Energy: TeraHertz Josephson Junctions and Neutrino Mass; Raisin-Bread Cosmology; Pioneer Anomaly at Uranus Orbit Raisin/Bread Boundary; and Alcubierrre Warp Drive with Conformal Dark Energy and 5-Tetrahedra Pentagonal DiPyramids. Version 6 (v 6) adds material about history.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1001] viXra:1905.0568 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-27 12:34:15

Cl(16) Science, Art, Music

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 426 Pages.

There is a realistic Physics model, based on Real Clifford Algebras including Cl(16) and Cl(1,25). Part I describes Real Clifford Algebras. Part II of this book describes Clifford Algebra Physics and its calculations of Force Strengths, Particle Masses, Dark Energy : Dark Matter : Ordinary Matter ratio, Kobayashi-Maskawa Parameters, and 3 mass states of Higgs-Truth Quark Nambu-Jona-Lasinio System as they appear in Fermilab and LHC data. Part III describes how Clifford Algebra Physics is related to Art (specifically to The Large Glass by Marcel Duchamp) and to Music (specifically to the Grosse Fugue by Ludwig van Beethoven) and to Archetypes of the Red Book by Carl Gustav Jung. Part IV describes History: Universe - Humanity - my family. Part V describes Deuterium fusion D+D+D+D to He+He + 47.6 MeV by Klein Paradox Quantum Tunnelling in Palladium Clusters. Version 4 (v4) adds Prologue and Epilogue. Version 5 (v5) adds remarks about Dark Energy: TeraHertz Josephson Junctions and Neutrino Mass; Raisin-Bread Cosmology; Pioneer Anomaly at Uranus Orbit Raisin/Bread Boundary; and Alcubierrre Warp Drive with Conformal Dark Energy and 5-Tetrahedra Pentagonal DiPyramids.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1000] viXra:1905.0568 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-23 08:49:17

Cl(16) Science, Art, Music

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 426 Pages.

There is a realistic Physics model, based on Real Clifford Algebras including Cl(16) and Cl(1,25). Part I describes Real Clifford Algebras. Part II of this book describes Clifford Algebra Physics and its calculations of Force Strengths, Particle Masses, Dark Energy : Dark Matter : Ordinary Matter ratio, Kobayashi-Maskawa Parameters, and 3 mass states of Higgs-Truth Quark Nambu-Jona-Lasinio System as they appear in Fermilab and LHC data. Part III describes how Clifford Algebra Physics is related to Art (specifically to The Large Glass by Marcel Duchamp) and to Music (specifically to the Grosse Fugue by Ludwig van Beethoven) and to Archetypes of the Red Book by Carl Gustav Jung. Part IV describes History: Universe - Humanity - my family. Part V describes Deuterium fusion D+D+D+D to He+He + 47.6 MeV by Klein Paradox Quantum Tunnelling in Palladium Clusters. Version 4 (v4) adds Prologue and Epilogue.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[999] viXra:1905.0568 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-16 14:29:54

Cl(16) Science, Art, Music

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 423 Pages.

There is a realistic Physics model, based on Real Clifford Algebras including Cl(16) and Cl(1,25). Part I describes Real Clifford Algebras. Part II of this book describes Clifford Algebra Physics and its calculations of Force Strengths, Particle Masses, Dark Energy : Dark Matter : Ordinary Matter ratio, Kobayashi-Maskawa Parameters, and 3 mass states of Higgs-Truth Quark Nambu-Jona-Lasinio System as they appear in Fermilab and LHC data. Part III describes how Clifford Algebra Physics is related to Art (specifically to The Large Glass by Marcel Duchamp) and to Music (specifically to the Grosse Fugue by Ludwig van Beethoven) and to Archetypes of the Red Book by Carl Gustav Jung. Part IV describes History: Universe - Humanity - my family. Part V describes Deuterium fusion D+D+D+D to He+He + 47.6 MeV by Klein Paradox Quantum Tunnelling in Palladium Clusters.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[998] viXra:1905.0568 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-13 23:36:48

Cl(16) Science, Art, Music

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 423 Pages.

There is a realistic Physics model, based on Real Clifford Algebras including Cl(16) and Cl(1,25). Part I describes Real Clifford Algebras. Part II of this book describes Clifford Algebra Physics and its calculations of Force Strengths, Particle Masses, Dark Energy : Dark Matter : Ordinary Matter ratio, Kobayashi-Maskawa Parameters, and 3 mass states of Higgs-Truth Quark Nambu-Jona-Lasinio System as they appear in Fermilab and LHC data. Part III describes how Clifford Algebra Physics is related to Art (specifically to The Large Glass by Marcel Duchamp) and to Music (specifically to the Grosse Fugue by Ludwig van Beethoven) and to Archetypes of the Red Book by Carl Gustav Jung. Part IV describes History: Universe - Humanity - my family. Part V describes Deuterium fusion D+D+D+D to He+He + 47.6 MeV by Klein Paradox Quantum Tunnelling in Palladium Clusters.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics