High Energy Particle Physics

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[1304] viXra:1811.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-13 02:30:14

The Volkov Solution of the Dirac Equation with the Higgs Field

Authors: Miroslav Pardy
Comments: 8 Pages. The original ideas

We determine the power radiation formula of the electron moving in the plane wave Higgs potential from the Volkov solution of the Dirac equation. The Higgs potential is here the vector extension of the scalar Higgs potential. The Higgs bosons mass is involved in the power radiation formula. The article represents the unification of the particle and the laser physics.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1303] viXra:1811.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-13 02:49:53

What is a Neutrino?

Authors: Michael Tzoumpas
Comments: 4 Pages.

The emission of antineutrinos is interpreted by the inductive-inertial phenomenon as independent E/M formations, which are created when a neutron breaks down into a proton and an electron (beta decay). Specically, at the contact limits of the neutron quarks, due to the acceleration of the surface charges of the neutron cortex, the adjacent opposite units are strongly accelerated, causing grouping units outside the neutron cortex as independent E/M formations of one spindle.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1302] viXra:1811.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-09 07:53:59

Spacetime at Quarks Scale

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Most physicists believe that the structure of spacetime is formed in an unknown way at the Planck scale, i.e., at a scale close to one trillionth of a trillionth of a metre. [30] In a recent study, the CMS collaboration describes how it has sifted through data from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to try and spot dark quarks. [29] Physicists in Italy are about to start up a new experiment designed to hunt for hypothetical particles such as the “dark photon” and carriers of a possible fifth force of nature. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1301] viXra:1811.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-08 08:40:31

Four Top Quarks At Once

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 69 Pages.

A promising testbed for such new physics is "four-top-quark production," an elusive Standard Model process that has not yet been observed experimentally. [40] Compared with the previous method of data pre-processing, the new machine-learning-based method has quadrupled quality metrics for the identification of particles on the calorimeter. [39] From the data collected by the LHCb detector at the Large Hadron Collider, it appears that the particles known as charm mesons and their antimatter counterparts are not produced in perfectly equal proportions. [38] The OPERA experiment, located at the Gran Sasso Laboratory of the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), was designed to conclusively prove that muon-neutrinos can convert to tau-neutrinos, through a process called neutrino oscillation, whose discovery was awarded the 2015 Nobel Physics Prize. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino—the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1300] viXra:1811.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-08 10:24:14

New Concept of Elementary Particles Classification

Authors: Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis
Comments: 6 pages, 2 figures

In contemporary physics elementary particles are classified by energy, live time and other properties. In contradiction to this very basic principle of contemporary physics, this article proposes a new concept that particles in the gravitation field like in the electric field have allowed energy levels. Only four elementary particles, i.e., electron, proton, photon and neutrino are in the ground state. They are intrinsically elementary particles. All other particles are excited states of said intrinsic particles in the gravitation field of Earth.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1299] viXra:1811.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-08 20:22:54

Action and Holographic Principle

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 2 Pages.

Applying the holographic principle to action
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1298] viXra:1811.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-07 14:43:27

Theory of Fermion Masses, Mixing Angles, Lagrangian Potentials and Beta Decays, Based on Higgs Bosons Arising from the Scaler Fields of a Kaluza Klein Theory Given Five-Dimensional General Covariance by Dirac’s Quantum Theory of the Electron

Authors: Jay R. Yablon
Comments: 162 Pages.

Why the twelve elementary fermions have the masses they have, (and what the neutrino masses actually are) is one of the deepest unsolved mysteries of modern physics. We crack this puzzle using a theory of fermion masses which succeeds in reparameterizing all twelve fermion masses in terms of other known parameters for which the theoretical interconnection to these masses have not heretofore been understood. The first step is to “repair” long-recognized perplexities of Kaluza-Klein theory using Dirac’s quantum theory of the electron to enforce general covariance across all five dimensions. One consequence of this is the emergence of a modified Dirac equation for fermions which naturally contains the Kaluza-Klein scaler. After establishing a connection between this Kaluza-Klein scaler and the standard model Higgs scaler, we use the latter to connect the known masses of all the quarks and charged leptons to the CKM and PMNS mixing angles and several other parameters which have heretofore not been theoretically connected to these masses. Then, after using the Newton gravitational constant and the Fermi vacuum to establish a sum of neutrino masses in the exact range expected from experiments, it also becomes possible to predict the rest masses of the three neutrinos. Also predicted are the existence and rest mass of a second leptonic Higgs boson, and tighter values for several other known parameters including the mass of the established Higgs boson. Also uncovered is a new, deep role for the cosmological neutrino background (CvB) and the Higgs boson in triggering and facilitating weak interaction beta decay events.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1297] viXra:1811.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-04 06:41:07

Correction to the Yinyang Logic Schema

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to the author by email at: info@ersatz-systems dot com.

The operator described as an addition rule ⨣ is mistaken as such because it is not bivalent and exact, but rather a vector space and probabilistic. The operator ⨣ is re-named as "the operator rules of classical logic" because of the following schema: 01 Or 01 = 01; 10 Or 10 = 10; 01 And 10 = 00; 00 Or 11 = 11.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1296] viXra:1811.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-02 12:43:56

Antimatter Gravity at CERN

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Two new experiments at CERN, ALPHA-g and GBAR, have now started their journey towards answering this question. [25] Mysterious radiation emitted from distant corners of the galaxy could finally be explained with efforts to recreate a unique state of matter that blinked into existence in the first moments after the Big Bang. [24] Researchers at Oregon State University have confirmed that last fall's union of two neutron stars did in fact cause a short gamma-ray burst. [23] Quark matter – an extremely dense phase of matter made up of subatomic particles called quarks – may exist at the heart of neutron stars. [22] When a massive astrophysical object, such as a boson star or black hole, rotates, it can cause the surrounding spacetime to rotate along with it due to the effect of frame dragging. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1295] viXra:1811.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-02 14:16:28

The Bumps in the Di-Muon Mass Spectra at 28.3 GeV in the LHC Data and 30.4 GeV in the LEP Data

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

The atom-like structure of baryons described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that for colliding nucleons we should observe an excess in the di-muon mass spectra at 28.3 GeV with a natural width 1.5 GeV while for colliding electrons should be respectively 30.2 GeV and 1.6 GeV. Obtained here results are consistent with the initial results obtained in the CMS and ALEPH experiments.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1294] viXra:1811.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-03 06:05:38

Estimation and Prediction of Neutrino Mass Based on the Kinetic Theory of Gases

Authors: Hejie Lin, Tsung-Wu Lin
Comments: 6 Pages.

Neutrinos and molecules co-exist in space. Because both have physical properties of mass and speed, it is a logical assumption that neutrinos can interact with molecules according to the kinetic theory of gases. If neutrinos interact with gases such as nitrogen and oxygen, the mass of neutrino can be estimated using the kinetic theory of gases. According to the kinetic theory of gases, the estimated mass of a neutrino is 6.27 x 10^-38 [kg] or 0.0352 [eV/c^2]. The goal of this estimation is to predict an approximate mass of neutrinos.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1293] viXra:1811.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-01 08:29:32

Machine Learning Particle at LHC

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 68 Pages.

Compared with the previous method of data pre-processing, the new machine-learning-based method has quadrupled quality metrics for the identification of particles on the calorimeter. [39] From the data collected by the LHCb detector at the Large Hadron Collider, it appears that the particles known as charm mesons and their antimatter counterparts are not produced in perfectly equal proportions. [38] The OPERA experiment, located at the Gran Sasso Laboratory of the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), was designed to conclusively prove that muon-neutrinos can convert to tau-neutrinos, through a process called neutrino oscillation, whose discovery was awarded the 2015 Nobel Physics Prize. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino— the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved funding and start of construction for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, which will begin operations in the early 2020s to hunt for hypothetical dark matter particles called weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. [32] Thanks to low-noise superconducting quantum amplifiers invented at the University of California, Berkeley, physicists are now embarking on the most sensitive search yet for axions, one of today's top candidates for dark matter. [31]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1292] viXra:1811.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-01 21:06:55

On The Origin of Physical States

Authors: Wei Xu
Comments: 9 Pages. This historic artical was wrriten in 2015.

For the first time in mankind history, all properties of elementary particles are uncovered and described concisely and systematically.

Aligning with the synthesis of the virtual and physical worlds in a hierarchical taxonomy of the universe, this theory refines the topology framework of universe, and presents a new perspective of the Yin Yang natural laws that, through the processes of creation and reproduction, the fundamental elements generate an infinite series of circular objects and a Yin Yang duality of dynamic fields that are sequenced and transformed states of matter between the virtual and physical worlds.

Once virtual objects are transformed, they embody various enclaves of energy states, known as dark energy, quarks, leptons, bosons, protons, and neutrons, characterized by their incentive oscillations of timestate variables in a duality of virtual realities: energy and time, spin and charge, mass and space, symmetry and asymmetry. 

As a consequence, it derives the fully-scaled quantum properties of physical particles in accordance with numerous historical experiments, and has overcome the limitations of Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle and the Standard Model, towards concisely exploring physical nature and beyond...


Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1291] viXra:1810.0420 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-26 03:38:56

Loop and String

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 6 Pages.

Loop and string, holographic principle
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1290] viXra:1810.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-22 22:22:43

Geisteswissenschaft and Cl(16) Physics

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 225 Pages.

Geisteswissenschaft is the term Rudolf Steiner used for study of the Spirit World and how it relates to the Physical World described by Cl(16) - E8 - Fr3(O) - Cl(1,25) Physics of viXra 1807.0166 and 1804.0121 (called herein Cl(16) Physics) and to Human History, including the Human HIstory shown by the National Geographic Genographic project. Cl(16) Physics shows that orr Universe originated with Finkelstein Iteration of Real Clifford Algebras from the Void ( First Grothendieck Universe ) to Cl(16) ( Second Grothendieck Universe) whose BiVectors and two quarter-Spinors ( ++ and -- ) give Cl(16) Physics and whose TriVectors give Fr3(O) String Theory leading to a Cl(1,25) Algebraic Quantum Field Theory ( AQFT ) that generalizes Hyperfinite II1 von Neumann factor Fock Space from 2-Periodic Complex Clifford Algebra to 8-Periodic Real Clifford Algebra to get the Third Grothendieck Universe. Rudolf Steiner used his Geisteswissenschaft to construct the First Goetheneanum in 1913 (it was burned down by arson in 1922) with structural designs corresponding to the structure of Cl(16) Physics. He viewed History as a succession of 7 cultures which I would call (also using the chronology of Manetho): Polarea (during Octonionic Inflation) (Spirit World) - Hyperborea (Quaternionic, following Inflation) (Spirit World) - Lemuria (50,000 years ago) (Spirit and Physical Worlds) - Angkor and Rig Veda - Atlantis (40,000 years ago) (Sprit and Physical Worlds) - Pyramids and Sphinx - Era of Demigods - connection with Spirit World declines - Era of Spirits of the Dead - Spirit World is only a memory - Era of Mortal Humans - Technology dominates Spirit until 2012.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1289] viXra:1810.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-20 06:49:53

Biermann Battery Effect

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 82 Pages.

The new findings reveal through computer simulations a previously unknown role for the Biermann effect that could improve understanding of reconnection—the snapping apart and violent reconnection of magnetic field lines in plasmas that gives rise to northern lights, solar flares and geomagnetic space storms that can disrupt cell-phone service and electric grids on Earth. [44] Schematic of a magnetic nozzle rf plasma thruster (helicon plasma thruster) having two open source exits and photographs of the three operation modes in the laboratory test. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1288] viXra:1810.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-20 00:35:17

Dark Matter Gives Mass to the Elementary Particles. Higgs Mechanism is Wrong

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 227 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

Dark Matter gives Mass to the elementary particles. Higgs mechanism is wrong “The Ferent mechanism: the interaction energy of gravitons emitted by Dark Matter gives mass to the elementary particles” Adrian Ferent “In Ferent Quantum Gravity, Gravitation gives mass to the elementary particles” Adrian Ferent “Ferent Quantum Gravity explains how mass mediates gravitational interaction between bodies, with Matter and Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Einstein did not understand Gravitation, he calculated Gravitation” Adrian Ferent “What you learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists…about Particles is wrong; because you learned about Particles without Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “In Ferent Quantum Gravity theory heavier elementary particles have more Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “In Ferent Quantum Gravity theory the mass generation mechanism is caused by an internal field the Gravitational field; in Higgs mechanism, there is an external field, the Higgs field.” Adrian Ferent “Ferent Quantum Gravity theory is right, because where only few Higgs boson detected, with very short life, that is why the Higgs field is not like syrup or honey and that is why the Higgs mechanism is wrong” Adrian Ferent Higgs Boson, the so-called “God particle” is a fraud. Nobel Prize fraud: in 2013 the Nobel Prize in physics was awarded jointly to François Englert and Peter Higgs "for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider." Nobel Prize in physics was a fraud because: François Englert and Peter Higgs did not discover a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles! At CERN they did not detect the Higgs boson, they detected a new particle in the mass region around 126 GeV! “The reaction of the Swedish Academy to Higgs boson discovery appears to be a result of being beguiled by CERN’s attempts to justify the billions of dollars of public money being spent.“ The same thing with LIGO, one billion of dollars of public money being spent and zero results! Another fraud was the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics, awarded for a project, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO), not for a scientific discovery; they did not detect anything. In Ferent Quantum Gravity theory, LIGO is a fraud. Since they received the Nobel Prize they did not detect gravitational waves, because: “Einstein’s gravitational waves do not exist, how they can detect them?” Adrian Ferent “Einstein did not understand Gravitation, he calculated Gravitation” Adrian Ferent “Gravitational waves are carried by gravitons” Adrian Ferent More money will be spent on Einstein’s wrong gravitation theory with LISA, the European Space Agency mission designed to detect the gravitational waves, tiny ripples in the fabric of space-time! “In Ferent Quantum Gravity theory Supermassive Black Holes have very small mass” Adrian Ferent “Everything what you learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists…about Dark Matter and Black Holes is wrong” Adrian Ferent In the last 100 years your professors, the greatest scientists, the journals… have made money preaching a wrong theory, Einstein’s Gravitation theory and any new theory like Ferent Quantum Gravity theory based on Gravitons is not accepted. We are in 2018, not in 1633 when Galileo was judged refusing to accept that the Earth was the immovable center of the universe. All quantum gravity theories like String theory, LQG… are wrong theories because Einstein’s Gravitation theory is wrong and are limited to speed of light. “In Ferent Quantum Gravity, Gravitation gives mass to the elementary particles” Adrian Ferent The mass generation mechanism is a theory that describes the origin of mass. The mass generation mechanism is one of the most burning problem of the modern particle physics. The problem is complex because the primary role of mass is to mediate gravitational interaction between bodies. “Ferent Quantum Gravity explains how mass mediates gravitational interaction between bodies, with Matter and Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent The elementary particles that make up matter leptons and quarks are fermions; the elementary bosons are force carriers that function as the 'glue' holding matter together. The Higgs mechanism doesn't explain the source of any masses, the Higgs mechanism is not a mechanism for generating mass. The Higgs boson does not give other particles mass; the Higgs boson is a quantized manifestation of a Higgs field that not generates mass through its interaction with other particles. Particles drag through the Higgs field by exchanging virtual Higgs particles with it. How scientists explain how elementary particles get their masses, with syrup and honey: Except for massless photons and gluons, "all elementary particles get their masses from their interactions with the [Higgs] field, kind of like being 'slowed down' by passing through a thick syrup," “The Higgs field is likened to a rich and creamy soup, or maybe a dense and heavy fog, or even a vat of thick and goopy honey… impeding the free travel of carefree electrons and quarks.” Most of the mass in particles like protons, nuclei, and atoms does not come from the Higgs mechanism, but from the binding energy that holds these particles together. The energy of the interaction between quarks and gluons is what gives protons and neutrons their mass. “Unification between Matter and Dark Matter: Adrian Ferent “The elementary particles contain Dark Matter with the mass much smaller than particles mass, but with much higher energy” Adrian Ferent That is why: “The electrons contain Dark Matter with the mass much smaller than electrons mass, but with much higher energy” Adrian Ferent “The Ferent mechanism: the interaction energy of gravitons emitted by Dark Matter gives mass to the elementary particles” Adrian Ferent “Because the elementary particles contain Dark Matter with the mass much smaller than particles mass, Dark Matter is not detected at CERN” Adrian Ferent “What you learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists…about Particles is wrong; because you learned about Particles without Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “In Ferent Quantum Gravity, Gravitation gives mass to the elementary particles” Adrian Ferent “In Ferent Quantum Gravity theory heavier elementary particles have more Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “In Ferent Quantum Gravity theory the mass generation mechanism is caused by an internal field the Gravitational field; in Higgs mechanism, there is an external field, the Higgs field.” Adrian Ferent “Ferent Quantum Gravity theory is right, because where only few Higgs boson detected, with very short life, that is why the Higgs field is not like syrup or honey and that is why the Higgs mechanism is wrong” Adrian Ferent “Physics is much more complicated than you learned, with Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent 121. I am the first who discovered the Ferent mechanism: the interaction energy of gravitons emitted by Dark Matter gives mass to the elementary particles 122. I am the first who discovered that Gravitation gives mass to the elementary particles 123. I am the first who explained how mass mediates gravitational interaction between bodies, with Matter and Dark Matter 124. I am the first who explained that Einstein did not understand Gravitation, he calculated Gravitation 125. I am the first who explained what you learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists…about Particles is wrong; because you learned about Particles without Dark Matter 126. I am the first who discovered that in Ferent Quantum Gravity theory heavier elementary particles have more Dark Matter 127. I am the first who explained that in Ferent Quantum Gravity theory the mass generation mechanism is caused by an internal field the Gravitational field; in Higgs mechanism, there is an external field, the Higgs field 128. I am the first who explained that Ferent Quantum Gravity theory is right, because where only few Higgs boson detected, with very short life, that is why the Higgs field is not like syrup or honey and that is why the Higgs mechanism is wrong
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1287] viXra:1810.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-18 10:32:42

Accelerator Cavity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 83 Pages.

Particle accelerators are made of structures called cavities, which impart energy to the particle beam, kicking it forward. [45] As an alternative cost-cutting option to accelerate particles more efficiently, the wakefield accelerator has been suggested. Physicists send a beam of either electrons, protons, or a laser through a plasma. [44] A KAIST research team successfully identified the underlying principles behind electron heating, which is one of the most important phenomena in plasmas. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1286] viXra:1810.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-17 07:07:55

What is the Spin of the Particles?

Authors: Michael Tzoumpas
Comments: 5 Pages.

According to the unified theory of dynamic space it is described the first (Universal) and the second (local) space deformation, which change the geometric structure of the isotropic space. These geometric deformations created the dynamic space, the Universe, and the space holes (bubbles of empty space), the early form of matter. The neutron cortex is structured around these space holes with the electrically opposite elementary units (in short: units) at the light speed. So, an electrical and geometric deformation of the neutron cortex occurs, as the third space deformation, resulting in the creation of surface electric charges (quarks), to which the particles spin is due. Additionally, the "paradox" magnetic dipole moment of neutron is interpreted.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1285] viXra:1810.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-18 05:03:29

Study Supports Standard Model

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

In a new study, researchers at Northwestern, Harvard and Yale universities examined the shape of an electron's charge with unprecedented precision to confirm that it is perfectly spherical. [20] Recently, extensive study shows that the parity-time symmetry breaking in open systems leads to exceptional points, promising for novel applications leasers and sensing. [19] A recent discovery by William & Mary and University of Michigan researchers transforms our understanding of one of the most important laws of modern physics. [18] Now, a team of physicists from The University of Queensland and the NÉEL Institute has shown that, as far as quantum physics is concerned, the chicken and the egg can both come first. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating—something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1284] viXra:1810.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-15 08:32:42

Acceleration of Electron in Plasma Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 82 Pages.

As an alternative cost-cutting option to accelerate particles more efficiently, the wakefield accelerator has been suggested. Physicists send a beam of either electrons, protons, or a laser through a plasma. [44] A KAIST research team successfully identified the underlying principles behind electron heating, which is one of the most important phenomena in plasmas. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1283] viXra:1810.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-12 08:57:12

Finding Gluon Inside the Pion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 84 Pages.

Researchers from NC State University have determined the probability of finding a gluon inside the pion. [44] An international joint research group led by Osaka University demonstrated that it was possible to efficiently heat plasma by focusing a relativistic electron beam (REB) accelerated by a high-intensity, short-pulse laser with the application of a magnetic field of 600 tesla (T), about 600 times greater than the magnetic energy of a neodymium magnet (the strongest permanent magnet). [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1282] viXra:1810.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-10 04:30:07

Fusion Power Plants

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 83 Pages.

A class exercise at MIT, aided by industry researchers, has led to an innovative solution to one of the longstanding challenges facing the development of practical fusion power plants: how to get rid of excess heat that would cause structural damage to the plant. [44] Schematic of a magnetic nozzle rf plasma thruster (helicon plasma thruster) having two open source exits and photographs of the three operation modes in the laboratory test. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1281] viXra:1810.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-03 06:45:52

Excess of Electron Neutrinos

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

A pair of researchers with the Niels Bohr Institute in Denmark has come up with a possible explanation for the excess of electron neutrinos detected by researchers at the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. [18] The largest liquid-argon neutrino detector in the world has just recorded its first particle tracks, signaling the start of a new chapter in the story of the international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE). [17] While these experiments seem miniature in comparison to others, they could reveal answers about neutrinos that have been hiding from physicists for decades. [16] In a paper published today in the European Physical Journal C, the ATLAS Collaboration reports the first high-precision measurement at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the mass of the W boson. [15] A team of researchers at the University of Michigan has conducted a thought experiment regarding the nature of a universe that could support life without the weak force. [14] The international T2K Collaboration announces a first indication that the dominance of matter over antimatter may originate from the fact that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently during those oscillations. [13] Neutrinos are a challenge to study because their interactions with matter are so rare. Particularly elusive has been what's known as coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, which occurs when a neutrino bumps off the nucleus of an atom. [12]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1280] viXra:1810.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-02 10:56:16

Supersymmetry Breaking

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Supersymmetry predicts that two basic classes of fundamental particles, fermions and bosons, accompany each other in the same representation. [29] A fraction of a second after the Big Bang, a single unified force may have shattered. Scientists from the CDF and DZero Collaborations used data from the Fermilab Tevatron Collider to recreate the early universe conditions. [28] Now researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI have helped to better understand the first minutes of the universe: They collected artificially produced beryllium-7 and made it into a sample that could be investigated. [27] Researchers have developed a new way to improve our knowledge of the Big Bang by measuring radiation from its afterglow, called the cosmic microwave background radiation. [26] The group's results reinforce a disagreement over the value of the Hubble constant as measured directly and as calculated via observations of primordial radiation – a disparity, say the researchers, which likely points to new physics. [25] Neutron stars consist of the densest form of matter known: a neutron star the size of Los Angeles can weigh twice as much as our sun. [24] Supermassive black holes, which lurk at the heart of most galaxies, are often described as "beasts" or "monsters". [23] The nuclei of most galaxies host supermassive black holes containing millions to billions of solar-masses of material. [22] New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. [21] Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. [19]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1279] viXra:1810.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-02 11:24:59

Lifetime Hierarchy of Subatomic Particles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Researchers in the College of Arts and Sciences have determined that the lifetime of the so-called charmed omega—part of a family of subatomic particles called baryons—is nearly four times longer than previously thought. [27] Prof. Witek led a five-member group of physicists from Cracow searching for nonresonant decays of charmed baryon Lambda c in data collected in 2011 and 2012 by the international LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider in Geneva. [26] The announcement was made during the CHARM 2018 international workshop in Novosibirsk in Russia: a charming moment for this doubly charmed particle. [25] The group, in work published in Physical Review Letters, has now used powerful theoretical and computational tools to predict the existence of a "most strange" dibaryon, made up of two "Omega baryons" that contain three strange quarks each. [24] The nuclear physicists found that the proton's building blocks, the quarks, are subjected to a pressure of 100 decillion Pascal (10 35) near the center of a proton, which is about 10 times greater than the pressure in the heart of a neutron star. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1278] viXra:1810.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-01 08:48:16

Antarctica Don't Fit Standard Model

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

A team of researchers at Penn State University has found new evidence that suggests some particles detected in Antarctica do not fit the Standard Model. [30] In a recent study, the CMS collaboration describes how it has sifted through data from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to try and spot dark quarks. [29] Physicists in Italy are about to start up a new experiment designed to hunt for hypothetical particles such as the " dark photon " and carriers of a possible fifth force of nature. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] " We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit. " [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1277] viXra:1809.0592 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-29 06:08:35

In-depth Analysis of New Weak Interaction Model

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 15 Pages. 9 figures; Include Chinese version

In this paper, I deeply analyze the weak interaction model I have established. The interaction between neutrinos and electrons, neutrinos and photons, neutrinos and neutrinos is discussed. I point out that the interaction strength of neutrinos with various other particles is also affected by the duration of an interaction. Since the interaction time of neutrinos with slower particles is shorter, the intensity of interaction is relatively small. The interaction of neutrinos with photons and neutrinos themselves, because all particles are running at the speed of light, the interaction can last for a long time, resulting in the increasing interaction strength between neutrino and photon, so that the Mössbauer effect can be used for detection. To this end, the paper gives some problems that should be paid attention to when using the Mössbauer effect to detect neutrinos.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1276] viXra:1809.0551 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-27 10:49:34

Differentiation Under the Loop Integral: a New Method of Renormalization in Quantum Field Theory

Authors: Brian Slovick
Comments: 11 Pages.

In the conventional approach of renormalization, divergent loop integrals are regulated and combined with counterterms consistent with a set of renormalization conditions. While successful, the process of regularization is tedious and must be applied judiciously to ensure gauge-invariant results. In this Letter, I show that by recasting the renormalization conditions as initial conditions of differential equations, the need for regularization disappears because the process of differentiating under the loop integrals renders them finite. I apply this approach to successfully renormalize scalar $\phi^4$ theory and QED to one-loop order. Beyond considerable technical simplifications, the ability to perform renormalization without introducing a regulator or counterterms may lead to a more fundamental description of quantum field theory free of ultraviolet divergences.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1275] viXra:1809.0542 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-26 08:40:11

Generation of High-Density Plasma

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 82 Pages.

An international joint research group led by Osaka University demonstrated that it was possible to efficiently heat plasma by focusing a relativistic electron beam (REB) accelerated by a high-intensity, short-pulse laser with the application of a magnetic field of 600 tesla (T), about 600 times greater than the magnetic energy of a neodymium magnet (the strongest permanent magnet). [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1274] viXra:1809.0540 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-26 10:57:42

Ultra-Rare B-Meson Decay

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

The rareness of this decay is due to the coincidence of two factors: First, the decay requires quantum loops with several weak interaction vertices, some of which have a low probability to occur; second, angular momentum conservation constrains the decay products of the scalar B 0 or Bs meson into a highly unlikely configuration. [29] A team of Ohio University nuclear physicists has proposed a new theoretical model for calculating pairing properties of atomic nuclei including those found in extreme astrophysical environments. [28] In nature, the nuclear reactions that form stars are often accompanied by astronomically high amounts of energy, sometimes over billions of years. [27] Dark matter halos are theoretical bodies inside which galaxies are suspended; the halo's mass dominates the total mass. [26] An international team of researchers extended their results from a previous study to directly measure the cosmic-ray all-electron (electron + positron) spectrum in an energy range from 11 GeV to 4.8 TeV with the Calorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET). [25] Mysterious radiation emitted from distant corners of the galaxy could finally be explained with efforts to recreate a unique state of matter that blinked into existence in the first moments after the Big Bang. [24] Researchers at Oregon State University have confirmed that last fall's union of two neutron stars did in fact cause a short gamma-ray burst. [23] Quark matter – an extremely dense phase of matter made up of subatomic particles called quarks – may exist at the heart of neutron stars. [22] When a massive astrophysical object, such as a boson star or black hole, rotates, it can cause the surrounding spacetime to rotate along with it due to the effect of frame dragging. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1273] viXra:1809.0533 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-27 02:33:38

Electron Properties Explained as Quantum Field Effects

Authors: Ray Fleming
Comments: 9 Pages.

Electrons are surrounded by the quantum field, so it is necessary to understand the response of the quantum field to the presence of an electron in order to completely understand it. Given the quantum field particle pair model, and consequently polar nature of the quantum field, we can reinterpret Gauss’s Law so that polarization causes charge rather than charge causing polarization. That is how unit charge is independent of particles, and thus the same for all free particles. It is also important to note that as the quantum field becomes polarized, rotation is induced, leading to the spin quantum and magnetic moment. The author has previously shown that mass-energy can be explained as a quantum field effect since, as Dirac first hypothesized, a particle must exert energy for a particle to exist in the quantum field, which equals its mass-energy. This is also true for quantum fluctuation particle pairs, such that their energy and energy continuum are due to the instantaneous local energy of the quantum field exerted on individual quantum fluctuations. Likewise, frequency and wavelength are also a function of this quantum field interaction. This origin of frequency and wavelength also gives us the origin of time and spatial dimensions. An electron behaves like it has a central bare electron that acts as a negative polarizer and is matter as opposed to antimatter. Its remaining properties, including charge, spin, magnetic moment, and mass are explainable as quantum field effects.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1272] viXra:1809.0532 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-27 02:35:53

Particle Spin and Magnetic Moment as Quantum Field Effects

Authors: Ray Fleming
Comments: 7 Pages.

In a prior paper the author explained how the physical constants arise due to the polarizability and van der Waals torque of the quantum field of standard model quantum field theory. A more detailed development of how spin and magnetic moment arise from the quantum field is presented here. Recognizing that a central charge causes polarization of the quantum field, it is a simple matter to explain how the polarization process, rather than being random, leads to quantum dipole rotation on a common axis. This leads to spin and magnetic moment even when the central charge is static. This model also shows why the g-factor is approximately two instead of one, and how a semi-classical electron model can avoid the speed of light limit problem. This model can also be applied to protons by considering that a proton’s magnetic moment is due to its actual radius rather than its Compton wavelength. The neutron magnetic moment is also predicted by this model more accurately than the quark model by assuming an orthogonal combination of the electron and proton magnetic fields.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1271] viXra:1809.0531 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-27 02:37:58

Electrons and Protons Are Produced Together

Authors: Ray Fleming
Comments: 3 Pages.

Since electrons and protons exist we know that they either can be produced or have existed for infinity. The universe, to the best of our knowledge, is electrically neutral indicating that the number of electrons and protons is equal. So, if electrons and protons can be produced, their production rate must be equal to many decimal places. Given the differences between electrons and protons we would not expect this to be the case unless they are produced together in an interaction. The existence of the quantum field of mainstream quantum field theory shows us that energy is available to account for electron and proton production. And, under the particle pair model for the quantum field, a version of the particles already exists allowing for particle production to be a simple conversion process that conserves energy. It is incumbent on physicists to take the question of electron and proton production seriously as humans should be able to understand and replicate electron and proton production.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1270] viXra:1809.0492 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-23 08:39:53

International Neutrino Experiment

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

The largest liquid-argon neutrino detector in the world has just recorded its first particle tracks, signaling the start of a new chapter in the story of the international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE). [17] While these experiments seem miniature in comparison to others, they could reveal answers about neutrinos that have been hiding from physicists for decades. [16] In a paper published today in the European Physical Journal C, the ATLAS Collaboration reports the first high-precision measurement at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the mass of the W boson. [15] A team of researchers at the University of Michigan has conducted a thought experiment regarding the nature of a universe that could support life without the weak force. [14] The international T2K Collaboration announces a first indication that the dominance of matter over antimatter may originate from the fact that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently during those oscillations. [13] Neutrinos are a challenge to study because their interactions with matter are so rare. Particularly elusive has been what's known as coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, which occurs when a neutrino bumps off the nucleus of an atom. [12] Lately, neutrinos – the tiny, nearly massless particles that many scientists study to better understand the fundamental workings of the universe – have been posing a problem for physicists. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1269] viXra:1809.0465 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-21 07:02:17

Phase Transition in QCD

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 81 Pages.

The building blocks of matter in our universe were formed in the first 10 microseconds of its existence, according to the currently accepted scientific picture. [43] In a recent experiment at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln, plasma electrons in the paths of intense laser light pulses were almost instantly accelerated close to the speed of light. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino— the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1268] viXra:1809.0463 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-21 09:03:01

Supercomputer QCD Simulation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 83 Pages.

The interactions of quarks and gluons are computed using lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD)—a computer-friendly version of the mathematical framework that describes these strong-force interactions. [44] The building blocks of matter in our universe were formed in the first 10 microseconds of its existence, according to the currently accepted scientific picture. [43] In a recent experiment at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln, plasma electrons in the paths of intense laser light pulses were almost instantly accelerated close to the speed of light. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1267] viXra:1809.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-19 09:44:00

Hunt for Leptoquarks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

These leptoquarks are proposed in theories attempting to unify the strong, weak and electromagnetic forces. [11] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines also the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1266] viXra:1809.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-17 10:14:58

Supersymmetric Preons II: Dynamic SUSY Breaking

Authors: Risto Raitio
Comments: 8 Pages.

The supersymmetric preon model [1] is based on simplest possible superfields of which the standard model can be constructed. The preon model offers a natural framework for supersymmetry breaking mediated dynamically by gravity. The SUSY breaking interaction Lagrangian contains supersymmetric preon, aka. `hidden' and visible sector MSSM fields. The low energy limit of the preon model is proposed to be the standard model with broken supersymmetry.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1265] viXra:1809.0356 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-17 13:10:08

Theory of Electron in Uniform Magnetic Field Inside Cathode Ray Tube and Possible Prediction of New Particles

Authors: Deep Jyoti Dutta
Comments: 5 Pages.

This Paper essentially focuses on the weird new form of mathematical equation that absolutely shows justification of an electron in uniform magnetic field. This paper also shows the alternate method to calculate electron’s charge to mass ratio. This note also makes possible speculations about the two new elementary particles. This work however also describes the very early brilliant experimental observations of Sir Thomson in Cambridge, England and its impact on this modern theoretical study. The main attractive part is the general prediction which needs to be vindicated by experiments.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1264] viXra:1809.0353 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-17 13:19:38

Dynamical Pattern of Elementary Particles

Authors: Deep Jyoti Dutta
Comments: 8 Pages.

This purpose of this present paper is to present the simple idea to introduce a mathematical model to predict some possible particles (and may be its systems) that might exist beyond standard model of particle physics. The idea that is discussed in this present note must somehow* be the particle does not belong to fermions or bosons but more exotic. This paper is purely theoretical which gives hypothetical flavor of particles that possibly claims to exist in nature, based on the weird but interesting mathematical sketch. This note has been done by keeping one sentences in mind that the existing particles can reveal the zoo of other unknown particles.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1263] viXra:1809.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-15 06:56:17

Theoretical Measurements of Mass and Charge of W Bosons, and Possible Elementary Fractional Charge Gauge and Elementary Integer Charge Scalar Bosons

Authors: Deep Jyoti Dutta
Comments: 15 Pages.

The nature’s beautiful symmetry defines its original scenery which is very simple if one can grasp the mathematical idea associated with it. The first purpose of this note is to present the abstract mathematical methodology (not abstract as nature’s beautiful symmetry arrangements) can also be called as mathematical scheme which justifies the charge, spin and mass of electroweak bosons which is our original choice. The second primary fundamental essence of this note is to attempt the prediction of fractional charged boson that might exist in nature with definite spin basically spin equivalent to gauge boson and a scalar boson of integer charge with an approximate mass. The mass mentioned in this note is our mass calculation limit which may change. Both particles are predicted as elementary. For this note we have taken only elementary gauge boson with charge i.e. w boson to develop mathematical rules to predict another new gauge charged boson.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1262] viXra:1809.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-15 06:59:05

Dual Spin Statistics in Hadrons

Authors: Deep Jyoti Dutta
Comments: 2 Pages.

vindicated by experimental approaches in super energetic accelerators. The predicted particles are strongly interacting composite particles with “colored quarks” as its basic constituents.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1261] viXra:1809.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-15 07:01:22

On The Special Strongly Interacting Baryons*

Authors: Deep Jyoti Dutta
Comments: 1 Page.

Physics of strongly interacting particles are well known in terms of simplified mathematical models. This note mathematically shows the evidence of particles called baryons of special type, means with special quark combinations. The certainty of this paper must be an experimental approach in high energy accelerators.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1260] viXra:1809.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-14 11:04:41

Optical Rocket Plasma Accelerator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 79 Pages.

In a recent experiment at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln, plasma electrons in the paths of intense laser light pulses were almost instantly accelerated close to the speed of light. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino— the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1259] viXra:1809.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-14 02:36:09

On The Origin of Mass of Fundamental Particles

Authors: Deep Jyoti Dutta
Comments: 2 Pages.

This paper aims to give basic theoretical approach in order to interpret the origin of masses in elementary particles. This solution of mass problem is very crucial and forms a fundamental base in theoretical particle physics. For particle and nuclear physicists this solutions is a holy grail in particle physics. Particles of group fermions and bosons are evolved without mass this means these were massless [1] at the beginning, but soon they acquire mass by an interaction which is called as mechanism known Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1258] viXra:1809.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-11 15:21:12

A Note on Incompatibility of the Dirac-like Field Operator with the Majorana Anzats

Authors: Valeriy Dvoeglazov
Comments: 7 Pages.

We investigate some subtle points of the Majorana(-like) theories.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1257] viXra:1809.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-07 10:04:29

Overview of Cl(16) Physics with Pd-D Fusion

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 41 Pages.

This is a pdf file of 40 slides about the Basic Ideas of Cl(16) Physics with Pd-D Fusion. It is only an Overview of Basic Ideas. Details are in vixra 1807.0166v2.pdf and vixra 1603.0098v2.pdf and my viXra pages and my web sites including valdostamuseum.com/hamsmith/ The Slideshow in mov format is on the web at valdostamuseum.com/hamsmith/Cl16PdD.mov The mov slides have no audio narration because I think that audio would distract from video presentation of the slides.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1256] viXra:1809.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-05 20:20:06

Significance of the Axial Doppler Shift Shown by Observing Items on a Conveyor Belt

Authors: Samuel Lewis Reich, Winston G. Perera
Comments: 10 Pages.

The following shows three reasons to consider the axial Doppler shift dilation or compression of time for the observer as opposed to just considering the transverse Doppler shift as that. At present most writing call only the transverse that. Because high energy beams are noisy for various reasons and it is impossible to make control experiments on objects light years away, the error remains. The following also shows the Doppler equations apply to motion of all periodic things (objects on conveyor belt or a beam of bullets not just waves). The three reasons are: One, the axial shift in only dependent on the geometry and velocities, which are relations between various time and space dimensions between the source and the observer. Two, the axial shift affects the rate of periodic things in a moving line are observed and rate (frequency) = 1/time. Three, there are no exceptions; the axial shift changes all rates observer sees from the source. The lack of an axial shift is the only error or inconsistency addressed by this paper. With the exception that this paper will prove that length of anything along any axis appears to a moving observer to be 1/K times as big as to a stationary observer. Where K is the resultant shift of frequency of both axil and transverse Doppler shift that light moving along that axis would have. Because frequency times wave length= c velocity if light (same in all reference planes) and wave length is distance. Most writers just assume only the moving direction changes.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1255] viXra:1809.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-05 20:34:49

Theory of Fermion Masses, Mixing Angles and Beta Decays Fitting Experimental Data

Authors: Jay R. Yablon
Comments: 121 Pages. In this draft, all twelve fermion masses are explained as a function of other parameters.

We require all components of the Kaluza-Klein metric tensor to be generally-covariant across all five dimensions by deconstructing the metric tensor into Dirac-type square root operators. This decouples the fifth dimension from the Kaluza-Klein scalar, makes this dimension timelike not spacelike, makes the metric tensor inverse non-singular, covariantly reveals the quantum fields of the photon, makes Kaluza-Klein fully compatible with Dirac theory, and roots this fifth dimension in the physical reality of the chiral, pseudo-scalar and pseudo-vector particles abundantly observed in particle physics based on Dirac’s gamma-5 operator, thereby “repairing” all of the most perplexing problem in Kaluza-Klein theory. Albeit with additional new dynamics expected, all the benefits of Kaluza-Klein theory are retained, insofar as providing a geometrodynamic foundation for Maxwell’s equations, the Lorentz Force motion and the Maxwell-Stress energy tensor, and insofar as supporting the viewpoint that the fifth dimension is, at bottom, the matter dimension. We find that the Kaluza-Klein scalar must be a massless, luminous field quantum to solve long-standing problems arising from a non-zero scalar field gradient. This luminous scalar is connected to the standard model Higgs field, then used to generate rest masses for fermions through spontaneous symmetry breaking, whereby all quark and lepton masses are directly reparameterized in terms of the CKM and PMNS mixing angles. A second leptonic Higgs boson is predicted along with its mass, and the masses of the three neutrinos are also predicted. Finally, we suggest multiple pathways for continued development.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1254] viXra:1809.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-03 10:54:15

On the Harmonic Compression of Light Wave

Authors: Tejas Chandrakant Thakare
Comments: 3 Pages. Please feel free to comment/ discuss on this study.

In this paper, by taking consideration of some assumptions, the mechanism behind dual nature of light is proposed. After great wave-particle struggle physics is now reached to the fact that, light shows dual nature and in order to give possible reason behind dual nature of light I have taken little bit help from the classical mechanics. During explanation of the mechanism behind dual nature of light I have also discussed about the photoelectric effect and double slit experiment.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1253] viXra:1809.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-01 08:27:02

Quark Condensate and Confining Potentials

Authors: P. R. Silva
Comments: 10 pages and 14 references

Two seminal ideas are considered in this paper. One of them was introduced by Tryon [Nature 246, 396(1973)], dealing with the possibility of the universe being created from nothing. The other one was proposed by Thompson [J. Phys. A9, L25(1976)], in order to study the critical behavior of a cooperative system. Both ideas are implemented conjointly with the use of linear and quadratic confining potentials as a means to make estimates of the quark condensate of the QCD. In accomplishing this task, the MIT bag model by Chodos et al. [Phys. Rev. D9, 3471(1974)] is also taken in account.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1252] viXra:1809.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-01 08:54:48

New Physics Persist in LHC Data

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

For some time now, researchers have noted several anomalies in the decays of beauty mesons in the data coming in from the LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. [12] The first full characterization measurement of an accelerator beam in six dimensions will advance the understanding and performance of current and planned accelerators around the world. [11] Researchers have found a way to accelerate antimatter in a 1000x smaller space than current accelerators, boosting the science of exotic particles. [10] THREE WEEKS AGO, upon sifting through the aftermath of their protonsmashing experiments, physicists working at the Large Hadron Collider reported an unusual bump in their signal: the signature of two photons simultaneously hitting a detector. Physicists identify particles by reading these signatures, which result from the decay of larger, unstable particles that form during high-energy collisions. It's how they discovered the Higgs boson back in 2012. But this time, they had no idea where the photons came from. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1251] viXra:1808.0681 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-31 11:45:40

Dark Quarks and Pions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

In a recent study, the CMS collaboration describes how it has sifted through data from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to try and spot dark quarks. [29] Physicists in Italy are about to start up a new experiment designed to hunt for hypothetical particles such as the " dark photon " and carriers of a possible fifth force of nature. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] " We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit. " [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter—the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1250] viXra:1808.0673 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-30 07:09:53

Electrons in Proton-Driven Plasma

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 78 Pages.

Early in the morning on Saturday, 26 May 2018, the AWAKE collaboration at CERN successfully accelerated electrons for the first time using a wakefield generated by protons zipping through a plasma. [12] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino— the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1249] viXra:1808.0648 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-29 08:38:09

Bifurcations and the Dynamic Content of Particle Physics

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 11 Pages. Work in progress.

We have recently conjectured that the flow from the ultraviolet (UV) to the infrared (IR) sector of any multivariable field theory approaches chaotic dynamics in a universal way. A key assumption of this conjecture is that the flow evolves in far-from-equilibrium conditions and it implies that the end-point attractor of effective field theories replicates the geometry of multifractal sets. Our conclusions are further reinforced here in the framework of nonlinear dynamical systems and bifurcation theory. In particular, it is found that steady-state perturbations near the IR attractor induce formation of Dark Matter structures while oscillatory perturbations lead to the field content of the Standard Model.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1248] viXra:1808.0622 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-28 13:01:54

Higgs Boson Gives Mass to Bottom Quarks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

The Standard Model of particle physics predicts that about 60% of the time a Higgs boson will decay to a pair of bottom quarks, the second-heaviest of the six flavours of quarks. [10] On 9 July, at the 2018 International Conference on High Energy Physics (ICHEP) in Seoul (South Korea), the ATLAS experiment reported a preliminary result establishing the observation of the Higgs boson decaying into pairs of b quarks, furthermore at a rate consistent with the Standard Model prediction. [9] Usha Mallik and her team used a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to help build a sub-detector at the Large Hadron Collider, the world's largest and most powerful particle accelerator, located in Switzerland. They're running experiments on the sub-detector to search for a pair of bottom quarks— subatomic yin-and-yang particles that should be produced about 60 percent of the time a Higgs boson decays. [8] A new way of measuring how the Higgs boson couples to other fundamental particles has been proposed by physicists in France, Israel and the US. Their technique would involve comparing the spectra of several different isotopes of the same atom to see how the Higgs force between the atom's electrons and its nucleus affects the atomic energy levels. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1247] viXra:1808.0608 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-27 10:22:12

Temperature of Proto DUNE

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 77 Pages.

The thermometer was constructed by the Instituto de Física Corpuscular in Valencia, Spain, and then shipped to CERN in three delicate pieces. [42] The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment or DUNE is a U.S.-led international experiment that focuses on neutrinos, subatomic particles that may offer an answer to the lingering mystery of the universe's matter-antimatter imbalance. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1246] viXra:1808.0591 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-25 10:26:03

Plasma Density Limit

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 79 Pages.

Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino— the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1245] viXra:1808.0518 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-22 12:21:39

Anti-Hydrogen Research

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Swansea University scientists working at CERN have published a study detailing a breakthrough in antihydrogen research. [25] Mysterious radiation emitted from distant corners of the galaxy could finally be explained with efforts to recreate a unique state of matter that blinked into existence in the first moments after the Big Bang. [24] Researchers at Oregon State University have confirmed that last fall's union of two neutron stars did in fact cause a short gamma-ray burst. [23] Quark matter – an extremely dense phase of matter made up of subatomic particles called quarks – may exist at the heart of neutron stars. [22] When a massive astrophysical object, such as a boson star or black hole, rotates, it can cause the surrounding spacetime to rotate along with it due to the effect of frame dragging. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1244] viXra:1808.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-20 10:09:21

Protons in Neutron-Rich Nuclei

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Protons in neutron-rich nuclei have a higher average energy than previously thought, according to a new analysis of electron scattering data that was first collected in 2004. [27] Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1243] viXra:1808.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-20 02:47:33

Analysis of Muon Count Variations According to Detector's Measuring Scale

Authors: Gi Hoon Bae
Comments: 6 Pages.

I have analyzed muon count variations according to detector's measuring scale, calculated declining tendency and analyzed result value, inferring some reason, as a experiment hypothesis, "All muons which come to surface probably will result in those having a maximum of vertical incidences about a ground as a minimum distance." I calculated a limit moving distance based on muon's life span and muon's average velocity, and showed muon's maximum incidence scale for the earth's surface based on muon's average emergence altitude for the hypothesis' proof. After performing the experiment theoretically, I analyzed the measured data by LSM(Least Square Method). Conclusively, I discovered that as the detector's measuring scale gains each 10 degree, muons which are measured per 10 minute decrease averagely each 9.0667 approx, and I saw that on the 30°-40° point and 50°-60° point, muon counts are radically decreased.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1242] viXra:1808.0261 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-19 01:51:53

Interference Model to Calculate the Lepton Masses

Authors: Dezso Sarkadi
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper, we extend the original idea of de Broglie matter-waves into a special physical interaction form which has been abbreviated as mass interference. We postulated that all elementary particles could form a two-particle quantum state containing two standing matter-waves. The estimable mass of the particles is the result of this standing matter-wave interference. For the practical use of the newly introduced mass interference interaction model, we have created a generalized form of the quantized harmonic oscillator known from Quantum Mechanics. Utilizing this new theory, we are presenting two successful calculation methods for the theoretical determination of the lepton masses. This new simple theory has been strengthened by the direct presence of the physical relation between the leptons and the neutrons, which has long been recognized.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1241] viXra:1808.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-19 02:31:15

Nonlinear Quantum Field Theory

Authors: Alexander G. KYRIAKOS
Comments: 286 Pages.

The author proposes a special nonlinear quantum field theory. In a linear approximation, this theory mathematically can be presented in the form of the Standard Model (SM) theory. The richer physical structure of this nonlinear theory makes it possible to exceed the limits of SM and remove its known incompleteness. We show that nonlinearity of the field is critical for the appearance of charges and masses of elementary particles, for confinement of quarks, and many other effects, whose description within the framework of SM causes difficulties. In this case, the mechanism of generation of masses is mathematically similar to Higgs's mechanism, but it is considerably simpler. The proposed theory does not examine the theory of gravity, but give the base to build Lorentz-invariant gravitation theory. The book is intended for undergraduate and graduate students studying the theory of elementary particles, as well as for specialists working in this field.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1240] viXra:1808.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-18 10:11:27

A Model of Baryons (Revised)

Authors: R. Wayte
Comments: 28 Pages.

Baryons are considered to be intricate particles having real geometrical structure based on our earlier proton design. Inherent baryon spin is proportional to mass and radius. The well-known octets and decuplets fit into groups wherein mass-squared is associated with quantised-action. Magnetic moments are described in terms of a spin-loop and coupled electron(s). Lifetime of a baryon is governed by action of guidewave coherence around these structures.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1239] viXra:1808.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-15 04:05:47

Radio Waves and Plasmas Interact

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 78 Pages.

Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles present new research on a curious cosmic phenomenon known as "whistlers"—very low frequency packets of radio waves that race along magnetic field lines. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1238] viXra:1808.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-11 04:58:37

Particle Accelerator in Six Dimensions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

The first full characterization measurement of an accelerator beam in six dimensions will advance the understanding and performance of current and planned accelerators around the world. [11] Researchers have found a way to accelerate antimatter in a 1000x smaller space than current accelerators, boosting the science of exotic particles. [10] THREE WEEKS AGO, upon sifting through the aftermath of their protonsmashing experiments, physicists working at the Large Hadron Collider reported an unusual bump in their signal: the signature of two photons simultaneously hitting a detector. Physicists identify particles by reading these signatures, which result from the decay of larger, unstable particles that form during high-energy collisions. It's how they discovered the Higgs boson back in 2012. But this time, they had no idea where the photons came from. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1237] viXra:1808.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-09 09:58:43

Diamond Improve Laser Fusion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

Osaka University-led researchers demonstrated that the perturbation of laser imprinting on a capsule for nuclear fusion fuel made from stiff and heavy materials was mitigated. [38] Scientists found that relatively slow electrons are produced when intense lasers interact with small clusters of atoms, upturning current theories. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1236] viXra:1808.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-09 10:57:03

Mini Antimatter Accelerator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Researchers have found a way to accelerate antimatter in a 1000x smaller space than current accelerators, boosting the science of exotic particles. [10] THREE WEEKS AGO, upon sifting through the aftermath of their protonsmashing experiments, physicists working at the Large Hadron Collider reported an unusual bump in their signal: the signature of two photons simultaneously hitting a detector. Physicists identify particles by reading these signatures, which result from the decay of larger, unstable particles that form during high-energy collisions. It's how they discovered the Higgs boson back in 2012. But this time, they had no idea where the photons came from. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1235] viXra:1808.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-10 04:34:38

Topological Skyrme Model with Wess-Zumino Anomaly term and their Representations

Authors: Syed Afsar Abbas
Comments: 10 Pages.

Our model here, the Skyrme-Wess-Zumino model, is Skyrme lagrangian sup- plemented with the Wess-Zumino anomaly term. It is commonly believed that spin-half octet and spin three-half decuptet are the lowest dimensional repre- sentations that the three-flavour Skyrmions would correspond to. We study the effect of including the electric charges consistently in these analysis. We show that indeed this leads to significant improvement in our understanding of proper reprentations of two-flavour and three-flavour Skyrmionic representations
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1234] viXra:1808.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-09 04:25:50

More Accurate Analysis of Redshift Caused by Photon Neutrino Interaction

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 15 Pages. 1 table, 2 figures. Include Chinese version

In experiments on gravitational redshift in the past, there were many additional redshifts that could not be explained by known theories. In 1990, Potzel used the higher-precision Mössbauer effect to verify the gravitational redshift, and found additional redshift data that could not be explained by existing theories. I assume that these extra redshifts are caused by photon neutrino interactions. On the basis of this, through the further analysis of the results of the Potzel experiment, a more accurate spectral redshift value caused by photon neutrino interaction is obtained. At the same time, the analysis results are used to explain the extra solar redshift of the 500 nm spectrum at the limb. These extra redshift values also exceed the value of the theoretical gravitational redshift and cannot be explained by other reasons. The results of this paper show that the redshift caused by the photon neutrino interaction is in good agreement with the actual observation compared to other hypotheses.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1233] viXra:1808.0048 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-04 19:07:39

Kuku

Authors: Kuku
Comments: 25 Pages.

kuku
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1232] viXra:1808.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-03 05:31:15

Charmed Particle No Anomalies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Prof. Witek led a five-member group of physicists from Cracow searching for nonresonant decays of charmed baryon Lambda c in data collected in 2011 and 2012 by the international LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider in Geneva. [26] The announcement was made during the CHARM 2018 international workshop in Novosibirsk in Russia: a charming moment for this doubly charmed particle. [25] The group, in work published in Physical Review Letters, has now used powerful theoretical and computational tools to predict the existence of a "most strange" dibaryon, made up of two "Omega baryons" that contain three strange quarks each. [24] The nuclear physicists found that the proton's building blocks, the quarks, are subjected to a pressure of 100 decillion Pascal (10 35) near the center of a proton, which is about 10 times greater than the pressure in the heart of a neutron star. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1231] viXra:1807.0527 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-31 10:44:28

Quantum Interpretation of the Nucleon Anomalous Magnetic Moment

Authors: Michaele Suisse, Peter Cameron
Comments: 2 Pages.

A century’s proliferation of Quantum Interpretations has been driven by an incomplete understanding of the measurement problem, by an incomplete understanding of the unobservable wavefunction and its unobservable interactions. Yet it remains that the observer effect - observing a phenomenon necessarily changes that phenomenon - is at the historical foundation of quantum mechanics. The semantic confusion, that wavefunction interactions are unobservable yet the observer effect is irrefutable, can be resolved by considering the difference between simple passive measurement and active transfer function measurement. In the first, one registers whatever lump of energy lands upon a sensor, and there is no observer effect. In the second, one excites the system of interest and measures the response, and there is an observer effect. Magnetic moment measurements are transfer function measurements. To measure an amplitude one must align the spin, applying a magnetic field to separate the energy eigenstates, and excite the system to measure their difference. A paper presented to Spin 2016 suggests that the measured anomaly is not an intrinsic property of the fermionic proton, but rather an observer effect. In our presentation to Spin 2018 we propose to extend the Spin 2016 interpretation to the neutron anomalous moment.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1230] viXra:1807.0488 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-30 07:53:38

LHC Gamma Factory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

On Wednesday, 25 July, for the very first time, operators injected not just atomic nuclei but lead "atoms" containing a single electron into the LHC. [29] The case for an ambitious new particle accelerator to be built in the United States has just gotten a major boost.[27] Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1229] viXra:1807.0456 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-26 11:01:42

Electron-Ion Collider

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

The case for an ambitious new particle accelerator to be built in the United States has just gotten a major boost.[27] Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1228] viXra:1807.0434 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-25 10:54:26

Undetectable Quarks and Gluons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

The case for an ambitious new particle accelerator to be built in the United States has just gotten a major boost.[27] Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1227] viXra:1807.0423 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-26 03:30:34

Estimation of Redshift Effect of Neutrino Photon Interaction and Discussion on the New Neutrino Detection Device

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 13 Pages. 2 figures; Include Chinese version

This paper assumes that the red shift of the galaxies' spectrum is due to the interaction of photons with neutrinos in the universe space. Using the available data, a rough estimate of the amount of redshift that this effect can produce is obtained, yielding an order of magnitude for the neutrino photon interaction to produce a redshift effect. On this basis, this paper designs two devices that can be used to detect the number of neutrinos through this effect.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1226] viXra:1807.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-24 10:21:54

Neutrons Look for Dark Energy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

These experiments provide limits for possible new particles or fundamental forces, which are a hundred thousand times more restrictive than previous estimations. [17] While these experiments seem miniature in comparison to others, they could reveal answers about neutrinos that have been hiding from physicists for decades. [16] In a paper published today in the European Physical Journal C, the ATLAS Collaboration reports the first high-precision measurement at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the mass of the W boson. [15] A team of researchers at the University of Michigan has conducted a thought experiment regarding the nature of a universe that could support life without the weak force. [14] The international T2K Collaboration announces a first indication that the dominance of matter over antimatter may originate from the fact that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently during those oscillations. [13] Neutrinos are a challenge to study because their interactions with matter are so rare. Particularly elusive has been what's known as coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, which occurs when a neutrino bumps off the nucleus of an atom. [12] Lately, neutrinos – the tiny, nearly massless particles that many scientists study to better understand the fundamental workings of the universe – have been posing a problem for physicists. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1225] viXra:1807.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-22 21:01:43

Schwinger Sources

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 27 Pages.

In E8-Cl(16) Physics, elementary particles are not point particles in or with smooth manifold structures but are finite Schwinger Source regions with size scale from Planck 10^(-33) cm to Source Region Boundaries at scale 10^(-24) cm. At scales larger than 10^(-24) cm spacetime and other relevant structures can be usefully and accurately considered to be smooth manifolds, thus permitting use of Armand Wyler’s methods of calculating force strengths, particle masses, etc.At Schwinger Source scales Planck 10^(-33) cm to scale 10^(-24) cm the internal structure of Schwinger Sources is QuasiCrystal Lattice derived from E8 Lattices, permitting Indra’s Net BlockChain Physics of Schwinger Source Indra Jewels.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1224] viXra:1807.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-19 12:59:18

Massive Sterile (Ghost) Neutrino Equation, MSN

Authors: Vito R. D'Angelo
Comments: 2 Pages.

It is postulated that the massive sterile (ghost) neutrino, symbol MSN, has a mass of 6.64743835x10^-33 kg. Utilizing the standard model equation of the electron rest mass divided by the inverse fine structure constant, within the 2014 NIST CODATA uncertainty limits.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1223] viXra:1807.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-15 11:46:15

„Neutrinos, Luxons, Preons, Quantons, Strangelets and Twistors Like a Dark Matter and Dark Energy, Feat. Mr. NEUTRINO“

Authors: Imrich Krištof
Comments: 26 Pages.

This article is focused on the most non–clarified situation of Particle Physics, like for example Neutrinos, Quantons, Preons, Luxons and subatomic and atomic scales microphenomenons Twistors and Strangelets. The main part of this article is dedicated to dark matter and energy and flashback significance of Mr. Neutrino, respectively the outstanding atomic scientist Bruno Pontecorvo and his contribution to High Energy Particle Physics and Nuclear Physics, by his discoveries in scientific field, so called NEUTRINO OSCILLATIONS and other quantum phenomenas. Although this article says about, for example – mixing angles θ [théta] of neutrinos, their “VIRTUAL TRANSMUTATION”, DIRAC AND MAJORANA NEUTRINOS. The most interesting part of the text is focused on infraparticles – goldstinos and preons–models of lepton, quarks and gauge bosons as composite objects. Not in the ending part of this text is described, also, so called – The Suzuki Model (Lagrangian Based Suzuki’s Ideas). Included is also new concept of wave particle duality – wavicle and quanticle (including wave + particle). The text involved the briefly biography of Mr. Neutrino respectively nuclear scientist Bruno Pontecorvo.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1222] viXra:1807.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-16 08:50:26

Neutron Spin Structure, Yang-Mills Theory, and the Mass Gap

Authors: Peter Cameron
Comments: 2 Pages. submitted to the 23rd International Spin Symposium in Ferrara, Italy (September 2018)

An analysis of proton structure and spin based upon an electromagnetic model of geometric wavefunction interactions was presented to Spin 2016. A key point of that analysis was the supposition that only observed components of the eight-component Pauli wavefunction (electric charge, magnetic flux quantum, and magnetic moment) comprise the stable proton wavefunction. The dark components (magnetic charge, electric flux quantum, electric moment) cannot couple to the photon due to topological symmetry breaking of pseudoscalar magnetic charge. Their impedance mismatch to the vacuum wavefunction and the resulting differential phase shift is the causal agent of decoherence, rendering wavefunctions containing dark components unstable. An unstable neutron wavefunction might then be extracted from the S-matrix by swapping one or more dark components for visible. Several possibilities exist. This Spin 2018 abstract submission proposes to explore those possibilities, in hope of extending the Spin 2016 analysis to the neutron geometric wavefunction, thereby improving understanding of the anomalous moment and illuminating the foundation of this Yang-Mills isospin pair.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1221] viXra:1807.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-13 13:08:35

Muon Magnetic Anomaly

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

National Laboratory and their collaborators have just released the most precise prediction of how subatomic particles called muons—heavy cousins of electrons— "wobble" off their path in a powerful magnetic field. [14] Muons are mysterious, and scientists are diving deep into the particle to get a handle on a property that might render it—and the universe—a little less mysterious. [13] For elementary particles, such as muons or neutrinos, the magnetic force applied to such charges is unique and immutable. However, unlike the electric charge, the magnetic force strength is not quantised. [12] Particle physics and decorative glassware are two disciplines that don't often meet. But given the striking results of a recent artist-scientist collaboration, perhaps that could change. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1220] viXra:1807.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-12 07:28:47

Ultrashort Electron Flashes on Nucleus

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1219] viXra:1807.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-11 08:14:20

Top Quarks Spin Together

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

By measuring the angles between the top and antitop decay particles, the ATLAS experiment at CERN has not only measured this degree of correlation, but found it to be higher than what is predicted by calculations based on the Standard Model. [10] Higgs boson decaying into bottom quarks. Now, scientists are tackling its relationship with the top quark. [9] Usha Mallik and her team used a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to help build a sub-detector at the Large Hadron Collider, the world's largest and most powerful particle accelerator, located in Switzerland. They're running experiments on the sub-detector to search for a pair of bottom quarks— subatomic yin-and-yang particles that should be produced about 60 percent of the time a Higgs boson decays. [8] A new way of measuring how the Higgs boson couples to other fundamental particles has been proposed by physicists in France, Israel and the US. Their technique would involve comparing the spectra of several different isotopes of the same atom to see how the Higgs force between the atom's electrons and its nucleus affects the atomic energy levels. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1218] viXra:1807.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-09 08:18:25

W and Z Bosons Emitted by Quarks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 78 Pages.

Two among the rarest processes probed so far at the Large Hadron Collider, the scattering between W and Z bosons emitted by quarks in proton-proton collisions, have been established by the ATLAS experiment at CERN. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino— the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1217] viXra:1807.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-09 10:08:44

Revolutionary Neutrino Detector

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 72 Pages.

A revolutionary new kind of neutrino detector, designed in part by scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory, sits at the heart of the MicroBooNE experiment at DOE's Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab). [40] Researchers in Germany have started collecting data with a 60 million euro ($71 million) machine designed to help determine the mass of the universe's lightest particle. [39] By analyzing data collected over eight years ago, scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory have made a potentially groundbreaking discovery. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino—the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved funding and start of construction for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, which will begin operations in the early 2020s to hunt for hypothetical dark matter particles called weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. [32]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1216] viXra:1807.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-09 10:57:35

On the Neutrino’s Model Based on Virtual Space-time and the New Neutrino Detecting Method

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 26 Pages. 5 figures. Include Chinese version

In this paper, I build a new neutrino model based on the hypothesis of existing of virtual space-time. I assume that a neutrino is a signal of special electromagnetic wave that across over the real and virtual space-time. I also analyze the interactions between neutrino and photon based on this new model. A new particles decay diagram was given for describing the interactions among neutrinos and parts of particles. I also assume a new neutrinos detecting method in this paper.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1215] viXra:1807.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-10 07:37:20

Higgs Boson Decaying to Bottom Quarks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

ATLAS experiment reported a preliminary result establishing the observation of the Higgs boson decaying into pairs of b quarks, furthermore at a rate consistent with the Standard Model prediction. [9] Usha Mallik and her team used a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to help build a sub-detector at the Large Hadron Collider, the world's largest and most powerful particle accelerator, located in Switzerland. They're running experiments on the sub-detector to search for a pair of bottom quarks— subatomic yin-and-yang particles that should be produced about 60 percent of the time a Higgs boson decays. [8] A new way of measuring how the Higgs boson couples to other fundamental particles has been proposed by physicists in France, Israel and the US. Their technique would involve comparing the spectra of several different isotopes of the same atom to see how the Higgs force between the atom's electrons and its nucleus affects the atomic energy levels. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1214] viXra:1807.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-10 08:06:45

Disconnectedness Experiments Negating the Validity of the Standard Model

Authors: Bowen Liu
Comments: 12 Pages.

In the history of physics it has no precedent the disconnectedness experiment that verifies physical object being outside of our geometry. The purpose of this paper is to provide crucial experiments to show that absolute connectedness assumption the Standard Model relied on is invalid, and to negate the validity of the Standard Model. The disconnectedness experiment negates the nonempty intersection between current geometry and micro-geometry in the depth direction and transitional region between them, and shows that micro-geometry disconnects to current geometry in the depth direction, micro-geometry is the other geometry outside current geometry, and the relationship between the two geometries can only be non-one-one mapping instead of evolution. The logical procedure of negating the validity of SM is as follows. (1) To give the definition of spatial disconnectedness in the depth direction and to determine the elements of the nonempty intersection. (2) To reduce every quantum experiment to reprocess disconnectedness experiment to prove that there is no non-empty intersection between the two geometries, i.e., they are not connected. (3) The spatial connectedness, among all geometrical concepts, is one of the most primitive topological concepts; once the spatial connectedness is invalid, all physical theories based on the connectedness are invalid, and the geometric foundation of SM is invalid. We complete the proof of the invalidity of the Standard Model. Our proof shows that all kinds of micro-forms (including Higgs particles) are secondary existing form of matter in current geometry, but not primitive form. The Standard Model, as a theory of extrinsic particles, is not the ultimate model of the universe physicists have coveted, but is idealist theory based on distorted idealization.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1213] viXra:1807.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-08 16:12:14

Cl(16) Physics: E8 Lagrangian and Fr3(O) String Theory

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 16 Pages.

Our Universe originated with Finkelstein Iteration of Real Clifford Algebras from the Void ( First Grothendieck Universe ) to Cl(16) ( Second Grothendieck Universe) whose BiVectors and two quarter-Spinors ( ++ and -- ) give E8 Physics and whose TriVectors give Fr3(O) String Theory leading to an Algebraic Quantum Field Theory ( AQFT ) that generalizes Hyperfinite II1 von Neumann factor Fock Space from 2-Periodic Complex Clifford Algebra to 8-Periodic Real Clifford Algebra to get the Third Grothendieck Universe.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1212] viXra:1807.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-09 06:06:18

Plasma Accelerator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 77 Pages.

Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino— the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1211] viXra:1807.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-07 09:01:58

Neutron-Rich Isotopes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

CERN's nuclear physics facility, ISOLDE, has minted a new coin in its impressive collection of isotopes. [27] In the case of several light nuclei, experimental confirmation of the individualism or family nature of nucleons will now be simpler, thanks to predictions presented by Polish physicists from Cracow and Kielce. [26] The identification of the magic number of six provides an avenue to investigate the origin of spin–orbit splittings in atomic nuclei. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1210] viXra:1807.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-08 04:57:25

Talk about the Higgs

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

It is six years ago that the discovery of the Higgs boson was announced, to great fanfare in the world's media, as a crowning success of CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC). [9] Usha Mallik and her team used a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to help build a sub-detector at the Large Hadron Collider, the world's largest and most powerful particle accelerator, located in Switzerland. They're running experiments on the sub-detector to search for a pair of bottom quarks— subatomic yin-and-yang particles that should be produced about 60 percent of the time a Higgs boson decays. [8] A new way of measuring how the Higgs boson couples to other fundamental particles has been proposed by physicists in France, Israel and the US. Their technique would involve comparing the spectra of several different isotopes of the same atom to see how the Higgs force between the atom's electrons and its nucleus affects the atomic energy levels. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1209] viXra:1807.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-05 18:39:28

Putrescine, Cadaverine, Spermine and Spermidine – Enhanced Precatalyst Preparation Stabilization and Initiation (EPPSI) Nano Molecules.

Authors: Alireza Heidari, Ricardo Gobato
Comments: 14 Pages. Parana J. Sci. Educ., v.4, n.5, (1-14), July 1, 2018. ISSN 2447-6153

In the current study, we study Putrescine, Cadaverine, Spermine and Spermidine–Enhanced Precatalyst Preparation Stabilization and Initiation (EPPSI) Nano molecules incorporation into the Nano Polymeric Matrix (NPM) by immersion of the Nano Polymeric Modified Electrode (NPME) as molecular enzymes and drug targets for human cancer cells, tissues and tumors treatment under synchrotron and synchrocyclotron radiations.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1208] viXra:1807.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-02 06:26:33

Matter and Antimatter Light Interaction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 69 Pages.

It is one of the greatest mysteries in the universe: Why is there so much more matter than antimatter? [39] From the data collected by the LHCb detector at the Large Hadron Collider, it appears that the particles known as charm mesons and their antimatter counterparts are not produced in perfectly equal proportions. [38] The OPERA experiment, located at the Gran Sasso Laboratory of the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), was designed to conclusively prove that muon-neutrinos can convert to tau-neutrinos, through a process called neutrino oscillation, whose discovery was awarded the 2015 Nobel Physics Prize. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino—the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved funding and start of construction for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, which will begin operations in the early 2020s to hunt for hypothetical dark matter particles called weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. [32] Thanks to low-noise superconducting quantum amplifiers invented at the University of California, Berkeley, physicists are now embarking on the most sensitive search yet for axions, one of today's top candidates for dark matter. [31]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1207] viXra:1806.0466 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-30 09:39:07

Great Unification Theory :A Solution

Authors: Jean Claude Dutailly
Comments: 94 Pages.

The paper presents a unified model representing the gravitational, electromagnetic, weak and strong fields, fermions and bosons, in the Geometry of General Relativity. It is based on a group belonging to the Clifford algebra Cl(C,4), acting on the algebra itself. It uses an original real structure on the Clifford algebra, accounting for the physical specificities of the geometry. An explicit expression of the group, its action and of the vector states and charges of the known fermions is given. Bosons are represented as discontinuities in the derivative of the potential of the force field. No additional dimension, physical object or exotic property are required. The model appears as the continuation and extension of the Spinor model of Mechanics which holds at any scale.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1206] viXra:1806.0458 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-29 08:39:31

The Standard Model Hadrons Quark Confinement and Photons

Authors: Claude Michael Cassano
Comments: 9 Pages.

An examination of fermion interactions, hadrons, hadron interactions, and hadron decay processes are analyzed via E/B field S_sub_R matrix architecture.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1205] viXra:1806.0455 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-29 09:45:59

Demonstrating the Necessary Existence of the Higgs Family of Bosons for Balanced Neutron to Proton, Electron and Neutrino Phase Transformation

Authors: Luke Kenneth Casson Leighton
Comments: 4 Pages.

Matching existing data (in this case what is known as "decay models") is a critical part of a new theory's viability. Up until this paper the Extended Rishon Model phase transforms (aka "decay models") for the neutron to proton, electron and neutrino have not properly matched. This paper therefore describes a breakthrough which sucessfully creates a sequence of phase transforms, that, in the process, require the existence of a family of Higgs Bosons (known in ERM terminology as ultra-proton and ultra-neutron). Importantly and paradoxically, energy (i.e. phases) are completely conserved during the creation (and destruction) of intermediary particles. Prior logical reasoning and deduction is thus invalidated.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1204] viXra:1806.0435 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-29 01:48:40

Big Bang and Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

At the Japanese Research Center for Particle Physics KEK, the new particle accelerator experiment Belle II started operation after eight years of construction. [30] Astrophysicists from the University of Surrey and the University of Edinburgh have created a new method to measure the amount of dark matter at the centre of tiny "dwarf" galaxies. [29] A research team of multiple institutes, including the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and University of Tokyo, released an unprecedentedly wide and sharp dark matter map based on the newly obtained imaging data by Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1203] viXra:1806.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-27 11:08:22

Nobelium with Laser Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

For the first time, this technique was now extended to precisely measure the optical excitation of atomic levels in the atomic shell of three isotopes of the heavy element nobelium, which contain 102 protons in their nuclei and do not occur naturally. [27] In the case of several light nuclei, experimental confirmation of the individualism or family nature of nucleons will now be simpler, thanks to predictions presented by Polish physicists from Cracow and Kielce. [26] The identification of the magic number of six provides an avenue to investigate the origin of spin–orbit splittings in atomic nuclei. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1202] viXra:1806.0388 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-27 05:13:26

Cellular Automata and E8 Root Vector Physics

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 32 Pages.

This paper discusses the relationship between the 256 Elementary Cellular Automata and the 240 Root Vectors of E8 and the E8 Physics Lagrangian. For futher aspects of E8 Physics see these papers: viXra 1804.0121 (441 pages); viXra 1806.0361 (115 pages); and my web site at valdostamuseum.com/hamsmith/ and files thereon including valdostamuseum.com/hamsmith/E8ResultsOriginVSHORT.pdf (62 pages).
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1201] viXra:1806.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-25 10:56:15

What Mean Angle of 18 Degrees for Long Lived Elementary Particles?

Authors: Yuri Danoyan
Comments: 6 Pages. New point of view old idea

Enigmatic link revealed between the values of mass some elementary particles,function of tangent and angle of 18 degrees. Shown the relationship 18 degrees with Golden ratio. It is surprising that, along with the angle of 18 degrees, the ratio of the mass of the proton and electron were a multiple of 18.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1200] viXra:1806.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-26 05:32:25

Derivation of the Local Lorentz Gauge Transformation of a Dirac Spinor Field in Quantum Einstein-Cartan Theory

Authors: Rainer W. Kühne
Comments: 6 Pages.

I examine the groups which underly classical mechanics, non-relativistic quantum mechanics, special relativity, relativistic quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, quantum flavourdynamics, quantum chromodynamics, and general relativity. This examination includes the rotations SO(2) and SO(3), the Pauli algebra, the Lorentz transformations, the Dirac algebra, and the U(1), SU(2), and SU(3) gauge transformations. I argue that general relativity must be generalized to Einstein-Cartan theory, so that Dirac spinors can be described within the framework of gravitation theory.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1199] viXra:1806.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-24 12:43:34

E8 Physics: Results and Origins

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 115 Pages.

My view of the Origins of E8 Physics is that its basic structure of Real Clifford Algebras was known in Ancient Africa and reflected in the Giza Pyramids as of 36,000 years ago, and that is only very recently have understanding of Math and Experiment advanced far enough to rediscover the Algebraic Quantum Field Theory of E8 Physics. This is an outline of my view of the Results of E8 Physics calculations of Force Strenghts, Particle Masses, ... etc and my view of the Origins of its ideas. It is 115 pdf pages that are intended to be presented as a slide show. For details, see viXra 1804.0121.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1198] viXra:1806.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-22 06:40:33

Quark-Gluon Plasma Quantum Rotation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 71 Pages.

Quark-gluon plasma is formed as a result of high-energy collisions of heavy ions. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. [39] "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino— the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved funding and start of construction for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, which will begin operations in the early 2020s to hunt for hypothetical dark matter particles called weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. [32] Thanks to low-noise superconducting quantum amplifiers invented at the University of California, Berkeley, physicists are now embarking on the most sensitive search yet for axions, one of today's top candidates for dark matter. [31]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1197] viXra:1806.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-21 01:02:54

An Interesting Prediction Regarding Anti­-8be

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 1 Page.

a brief review of my prediction about anti-8Be
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1196] viXra:1806.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-21 03:36:43

Particle Nature of Light and It’s Interaction with Matter

Authors: Arjun Dahal
Comments: 8 Pages. ©2017-2018 Journal of St. Xavier's Physics Council

Following the Einstein’s 1905 paper on photoelectric effect, the concept of particle nature of light took birth in the physics community, which stated that light is composed of many small particles known as photons. When the light or any electromagnetic radiation with high frequency strikes on the metal surface, it emits photoelectrons from the metals. Similarly when X-rays are incident on elements with low atomic number, elastic interaction takes place resulting in change in the wavelength of scattered beam along with the change in direction. Further, when γ-rays interact with matter, then it gets disappeared and converts itself into electron-positron pair known as pair production. Through this article we have attempted to study the particle nature of light and how it interacts with matter under the certain conditions to form new physical phenomena, and their applications to determine the crystal structures, Gravitational Red shift, Information on Black Holes and for Medical purposes.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1195] viXra:1806.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-21 06:09:24

The Standard Model Architecture and Interactions

Authors: Claude Michael Cassano
Comments: 6 Pages.

Based on my 1984 linearization of the Klein-Gordon equations, potential functions generalizations of the electric and magnetic field strengths form a basis from which a compound model simply constructs the leptons; the simple differences between the quarks and leptons; how the quarks arose from the leptons; why there are these two types of fermions; and why there are precisely three generations for each of these types. The most elementary particle interactions classify the interactions between strong and weak, and further still between the W and Z type of weak interactions. Two simple conservation requirements give rise to all the fundamental particle interactions, and describe the structure of the weak intermediate envelopes. Further, a simple charge function determines the charge of every object. Further still, the only free assignable parameters for the entire model are four mass constants for each fermion generation. This is essentially a summary of my book: "A Mathematical Preon Foundation for the Standard Model"; but starting from the different standpoint of my Helmholtzian operator matrix product, rather than my constructive algebras (developed primarily in "Reality is a Mathematical Model" and "The Weighted Matrix Product").
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1194] viXra:1806.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-15 06:57:00

Detecting Clumps in Atomic Nuclei

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

In the case of several light nuclei, experimental confirmation of the individualism or family nature of nucleons will now be simpler, thanks to predictions presented by Polish physicists from Cracow and Kielce. [26] The identification of the magic number of six provides an avenue to investigate the origin of spin–orbit splittings in atomic nuclei. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1193] viXra:1806.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-16 06:38:56

Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 75 Pages.

The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment or DUNE is a U.S.-led international experiment that focuses on neutrinos, subatomic particles that may offer an answer to the lingering mystery of the universe's matter-antimatter imbalance. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino— the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1192] viXra:1806.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-16 12:35:21

Charge Stability Approach to Finite Quantum Field Theory: An Alternative to Renormalization

Authors: Clyde Dean Chlouber
Comments: 17 Pages.

This paper analyses charge stability and applies the resulting stability principle to resolve divergence issues in quantum field theory without renormalization. For quantum electrodynamics (QED), stability is enforced by requiring that the positive electromagnetic field energy be balanced by a negative interaction energy between the observed electron charge and a local vacuum potential. Then in addition to the observed core mechanical mass m, an electron system consists of two electromagnetic mass components of equal magnitude M but opposite sign; consequently, the net electromagnetic mass is zero. Two virtual, electromagnetically dressed mass levels m±M, constructed to form a complete set of mass levels and isolate the electron-vacuum interaction, provide essential S-matrix corrections for radiative processes involving infinite field actions. Total scattering amplitudes for radiative corrections are shown to be convergent in the limit M → ∞ and equal to renormalized amplitudes when Feynman diagrams for all mass levels are included. In each case, the infinity in the core mass amplitude is canceled by the average amplitude for electromagnetically dressed mass levels, which become separated in intermediate states and account for the stabilizing interaction energy between an electron and its surrounding polarized vacuum. In this manner, S-matrix corrections in QED are shown to be finite for any order diagram in perturbation theory, all the while maintaining the mass and charge at their physically observed values. Charge stability corrections, applied to one-loop diagrams of non-Abelian gauge theory, also yield finite results without renormalization. The results demonstrate that quantum field theory is scale invariant.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1191] viXra:1806.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-18 07:21:24

Deeper Into the Stuff of the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

University of Virginia physicists have recently played key roles in new particle physics discoveries. [22] A new result from the Q-weak experiment at the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility provides a precision test of the weak force, one of four fundamental forces in nature. [21] The most surprising result from beta decay is that nature is not ambidextrous, but is "left-handed." [20] This week, a group of scientists working on the MiniBooNE experiment at the Department of Energy's Fermilab reported a breakthrough: They were able to identify exactly-known-energy muon neutrinos hitting the atoms at the heart of their particle detector. [19] In a study published in Physical Review Letters, collaborators of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an experiment led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, have shown they can shield a sensitive, scalable 44-kilogram germanium detector array from background radioactivity. [18] The study has put the most stringent limits on the probability of a rare event—a neutrinoless double beta decay of tellurium-130 nuclei. This event can only occur if a neutrino can be its own antiparticle. [17] While these experiments seem miniature in comparison to others, they could reveal answers about neutrinos that have been hiding from physicists for decades. [16] In a paper published today in the European Physical Journal C, the ATLAS Collaboration reports the first high-precision measurement at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the mass of the W boson. [15] A team of researchers at the University of Michigan has conducted a thought experiment regarding the nature of a universe that could support life without the weak force. [14] The international T2K Collaboration announces a first indication that the dominance of matter over antimatter may originate from the fact that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently during those oscillations. [13]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1190] viXra:1806.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-13 06:14:48

Satanic Conspiracy at the RHIC

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 3 Pages.

a critical review of arXiv ref 1507.07158 and recommendations
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1189] viXra:1806.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-11 07:17:13

Find the Mass of Neutrino

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 68 Pages.

Researchers in Germany have started collecting data with a 60 million euro ($71 million) machine designed to help determine the mass of the universe's lightest particle. [39] By analyzing data collected over eight years ago, scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory have made a potentially groundbreaking discovery. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino— the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved funding and start of construction for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, which will begin operations in the early 2020s to hunt for hypothetical dark matter particles called weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. [32] Thanks to low-noise superconducting quantum amplifiers invented at the University of California, Berkeley, physicists are now embarking on the most sensitive search yet for axions, one of today's top candidates for dark matter. [31]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1188] viXra:1806.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-12 03:17:41

Revolutionary Accelerator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 73 Pages.

Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino— the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved funding and start of construction for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, which will begin operations in the early 2020s to hunt for hypothetical dark matter particles called weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. [32]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1187] viXra:1806.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-10 06:50:21

Hadronic Fission and Tetraquark Particles

Authors: Peiman Ghasemi
Comments: 3 Pages.

Hadronic fission and fusion equations
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1186] viXra:1806.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-08 09:21:35

Enhancing Particle Beam

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 69 Pages.

The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino— the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved funding and start of construction for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, which will begin operations in the early 2020s to hunt for hypothetical dark matter particles called weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. [32] Thanks to low-noise superconducting quantum amplifiers invented at the University of California, Berkeley, physicists are now embarking on the most sensitive search yet for axions, one of today's top candidates for dark matter. [31]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1185] viXra:1806.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-07 21:41:11

Piercing the Veil of Modern Physics. Part 3 & Superconductivity (in Chinese)

Authors: DING Jian, HU Xiuqin
Comments: 43 Pages. I firmly believe that a single spark can start great creative conflagrations.

This article (Superconductivity chapters) as the third part of the full text, at the level of electro-ultimate particles, is the result by virtue of superconductivity to further research: 1. The electro-ultimate particle renders as the negative charge of one unit, which is a unified body. It is made up of both the ultimate particle portion of possessing one unit positive charge and the negative charge portion that renders as two units. All the mass is concentrated in the ultimate particle portion, the mass of the charge portion is equal to zero but cannot exist on its own, so it can only belong to the category of the "electro-hole". The two are the most fundamental matter and antimatter. When they meet, the process of converting into the electro-ultimate particle is annihilation. 2. It can be inferred that the ultimate particles and "being emptiness" are the most fundamental existence in reality. An ultimate particle existing in this being emptiness, around it there will be accordingly to render as the characteristics of negative charge. This is the most fundamental charge layer, but also the root cause of spin. It also means that the number of all matter and antimatter in the universe must be equal. Furthermore, the interaction between the ultimate particle and charge portion follows Lenz's law. This is the root cause of inertia. And the change of the two that there is a logical order, so there is also sure to be a time lag. This is the root cause of wave. 3. Inside every one of high-density particles, the adjacent ultimate particles are already in contact with each other closely. According to the Meissner effect, all of the charges can only be attached to the surfaces of them to moving at high speed. This is the charge layer. And each high-density particle can only possess one charge layer. 4. A high-density particle is located in a certain position of the conductor structure and only responsible for transferring charges, which is the superconducting state at the microscopic level. This means that all of those particles, entities and even celestial bodies, as long as formed only by two kinds of nuclear forces (whose essence is electromagnetic force), they themselves should be superconductors at almost all temperatures. 5. The first kind of nuclear force exists in the interior of high-density particles. There are powerful repulsive forces between the ultimate particles which are already in contact with each other. At the same time, they are also subject to the electromagnetic binding force generated by the charge layer. These powerful repulsive forces, are precisely the root cause of electromagnetic radiation. And the spin dominated by the charge layer also becomes an intrinsic property of high-density particles themselves. The result is that with the charge layer as the boundary, its inside and outside acting forces have reached a dynamic balance. This is the root cause of de Broglie's matter wave. Its internal mechanism, like a very tight tug-of-war competition, the balance point between the two sides is always in a reciprocating swing state. 6. The second kind of nuclear force is less powerful than the former. As there are shared parts between the charge layers of adjacent high-density particles, the combined action of the electric field force and superconducting electromagnetic force can also confine a certain degree of internal binding energy. The fission or decay of an atomic nucleus is related to this. 7. Inside an atomic nucleus, the main component of the gluon is the charges. Its so-called bundling function is two kinds of nuclear forces. And the quark has only one charge layer, which is formed by the charges in the gluon. Therefore, the quark is a relatively large high-density particle, whose shape is like a pile of tree roots and there are different spins at different locations. As for neutrons or protons, they themselves are two forms of the existence of quarks. 8. The single charge layer is the lack of resistance to those high-density particles or entities with positron features, which come from both the inside and outside sides at the same time. This will provide the possibility for us to reasonably control and use the nuclear energy with the highest mass-energy ratio in the universe. 9. The so-called magnetic field lines, whose essence is the electro-ultimate particles or the stream of charged particles derived therefrom. And electromagnetic radiation should be the root cause of the growth of all things. The evolution of the universe is derived from such a microscopic physical phenomenon, and from the quantitative to qualitative change results. 10. In the interior of the Earth, a great deal of electromagnetic radiation is generated at every moment. This is the root cause of our global warming and earthquakes. In which there is shorter wavelength part, that is, the main body of energy is converted into geothermal heat. And only the far infrared light with relatively longer wavelength can pass through the Earth's crust and even radiate into the space. Therefore, it can be through satellite scanning to establish the dynamic far-infrared spectrum of Earth's crust that changes over time. In this way, both the geothermal resources can be rationally utilized and it is also beneficial to prevent the occurrence of earthquakes.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1184] viXra:1806.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-06 19:04:08

The Relation of Electric and Magnetic Field Laws to Matter Laws

Authors: Jeff Yee, Lori Gardi
Comments: 16 pages

The equations for calculating the energy and forces of matter are shown to be the equivalent of the equations for calculating electric and magnetic field energy and forces. The laws are equivalent when expressed mathematically for a single electron particle as it is the commonality between matter and the electric/magnetic fields.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1183] viXra:1806.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-06 02:17:46

Mono-Energetic Neutrinos

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino— the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved funding and start of construction for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, which will begin operations in the early 2020s to hunt for hypothetical dark matter particles called weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. [32] Thanks to low-noise superconducting quantum amplifiers invented at the University of California, Berkeley, physicists are now embarking on the most sensitive search yet for axions, one of today's top candidates for dark matter. [31] The Axion Dark Matter Experiment (ADMX) at the University of Washington in Seattle has finally reached the sensitivity needed to detect axions if they make up dark matter, physicists report today in Physical Review Letters. [30]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1182] viXra:1806.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-04 07:11:47

Antineutrino Oscillation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino— the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved funding and start of construction for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, which will begin operations in the early 2020s to hunt for hypothetical dark matter particles called weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. [32] Thanks to low-noise superconducting quantum amplifiers invented at the University of California, Berkeley, physicists are now embarking on the most sensitive search yet for axions, one of today's top candidates for dark matter. [31] The Axion Dark Matter Experiment (ADMX) at the University of Washington in Seattle has finally reached the sensitivity needed to detect axions if they make up dark matter, physicists report today in Physical Review Letters. [30] Now our new study – which hints that extremely light particles called neutrinos are likely to make up some of the dark matter – challenges our current understanding of its composition. [29]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1181] viXra:1806.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-04 09:10:35

Lepton Colliders

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

Lepton Colliders "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino— the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved funding and start of construction for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, which will begin operations in the early 2020s to hunt for hypothetical dark matter particles called weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. [32] Thanks to low-noise superconducting quantum amplifiers invented at the University of California, Berkeley, physicists are now embarking on the most sensitive search yet for axions, one of today's top candidates for dark matter. [31] The Axion Dark Matter Experiment (ADMX) at the University of Washington in Seattle has finally reached the sensitivity needed to detect axions if they make up dark matter, physicists report today in Physical Review Letters. [30]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1180] viXra:1806.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-04 09:53:44

Higgs Boson and Top Quark

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

Higgs boson decaying into bottom quarks. Now, scientists are tackling its relationship with the top quark. [9] Usha Mallik and her team used a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to help build a sub-detector at the Large Hadron Collider, the world's largest and most powerful particle accelerator, located in Switzerland. They're running experiments on the sub-detector to search for a pair of bottom quarks— subatomic yin-and-yang particles that should be produced about 60 percent of the time a Higgs boson decays. [8] A new way of measuring how the Higgs boson couples to other fundamental particles has been proposed by physicists in France, Israel and the US. Their technique would involve comparing the spectra of several different isotopes of the same atom to see how the Higgs force between the atom's electrons and its nucleus affects the atomic energy levels. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1179] viXra:1806.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-03 06:48:48

Cause Analysis of Magnetic Moment Anomaly of Electron Family Divergence Between Electromagnetic Force and Weak Nuclear Force

Authors: Zhengdong Huang
Comments: 40 Pages.

The paper aimed to analyze the decay mode of 253 kinds of electron particles and one kind of collision reaction in order to discover the objective existence of the decay state of the electron particles. Meanwhile, the paper also intended to research the cause of the magnetic moment anomaly of the electron to obtain the theoretical value of g, and this value was compared with the experimental value: the two values have 12 significant figures as the same, and the error is within 5.3E-13. Furthermore, the proposed method was compared with QED method for advantage and disadvantage analysis in the aspects of action type, theoretical accuracy of magnetic moment anomaly, particle state, basic reaction type, potential energy form, formula for magnetic moment anomaly of electron and seven major items of detail. The proposed method is superior in all above aspects and can effectively avoid the three problems exposed in QED method, namely: intrinsic property explanation by external factors, inconsistence between μ theoretical value and experimental value and point state difficulty, so the proposed method becomes the most reasonable theory for explaining the magnetic moment anomaly of electron.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1178] viXra:1806.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-02 11:09:18

Preceding: Atomic Internal Gravitational Waves and Shock Waves: Electromagnetic Charge Cannot Hold a Positron Near a Proton Both with Positive Charges, But the Gravitational Waves Make it Possible

Authors: Peiman Ghasemi
Comments: 3 Pages.

Mostly, the destructive force of internal (atomic) wave-particles that we call microscopic shock waves emitted by the nuclei at most, and lastly the external (galactic gravitonic, and photonic) wave-particles towards the nuclei, is affectionate to make them unstable. A higher rate of energy that would increase the internal energy of atoms and so increases the energy of these sub-atomic particles, and also what we call higher entropy (higher energy dispersal), both cause the powerful microscopic shock waves, coming from sub atomic wave-particles. Shock waves are not much strong for atomic objects, or celestial objects to get measured, meanwhile their destructive power potentially can destroy the nearby smaller and weakly confined objects.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1177] viXra:1805.0534 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-30 13:30:13

Key Property Drives Neutron Decay

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

Using some of the world's most powerful supercomputers, an international team including scientists from several U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories has released the highest-precision calculation of a fundamental property of protons and neutrons known as nucleon axial coupling. [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved funding and start of construction for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, which will begin operations in the early 2020s to hunt for hypothetical dark matter particles called weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. [32] Thanks to low-noise superconducting quantum amplifiers invented at the University of California, Berkeley, physicists are now embarking on the most sensitive search yet for axions, one of today's top candidates for dark matter. [31] The Axion Dark Matter Experiment (ADMX) at the University of Washington in Seattle has finally reached the sensitivity needed to detect axions if they make up dark matter, physicists report today in Physical Review Letters. [30]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1176] viXra:1805.0533 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-30 14:04:27

Piercing the Veil of Modern Physics. Part 3 & Superconductivity

Authors: DING Jian, HU Xiuqin
Comments: 57 Pages. I firmly believe that a single spark can start great creative conflagrations.

This article (Superconductivity chapters) as the third part of the full text, at the level of electro-ultimate particles, is the result by virtue of superconductivity to further research: 1. The electro-ultimate particle renders as the negative charge of one unit, which is a unified body. It is made up of both the ultimate particle portion of possessing one unit positive charge and the negative charge portion that renders as two units. All the mass is concentrated in the ultimate particle portion, the mass of the charge portion is equal to zero but cannot exist on its own, so it can only belong to the category of the "electro-hole". The two are the most fundamental matter and antimatter. When they meet, the process of converting into the electro-ultimate particle is annihilation. 2. It can be inferred that the ultimate particles and "being emptiness" are the most fundamental existence in reality. An ultimate particle existing in this being emptiness, around it there will be accordingly to render as the characteristics of negative charge. This is the most fundamental charge layer, but also the root cause of spin. It also means that the number of all matter and antimatter in the universe must be equal. Furthermore, the interaction between the ultimate particle and charge portion follows Lenz's law. This is the root cause of inertia. And the change of the two that there is a logical order, so there is also sure to be a time lag. This is the root cause of wave. 3. Inside every one of high-density particles, the adjacent ultimate particles are already in contact with each other closely. According to the Meissner effect, all of the charges can only be attached to the surfaces of them to moving at high speed. This is the charge layer. And each high-density particle can only possess one charge layer. 4. A high-density particle is located in a certain position of the conductor structure and only responsible for transferring charges, which is the superconducting state at the microscopic level. This means that all of those particles, entities and even celestial bodies, as long as formed only by two kinds of nuclear forces (whose essence is electromagnetic force), they themselves should be superconductors at almost all temperatures. 5. The first kind of nuclear force exists in the interior of high-density particles. There are powerful repulsive forces between the ultimate particles which are already in contact with each other. At the same time, they are also subject to the electromagnetic binding force generated by the charge layer. These powerful repulsive forces, are precisely the root cause of electromagnetic radiation. And the spin dominated by the charge layer also becomes an intrinsic property of high-density particles themselves. The result is that with the charge layer as the boundary, its inside and outside acting forces have reached a dynamic balance. This is the root cause of de Broglie's matter wave. Its internal mechanism, like a very tight tug-of-war competition, the balance point between the two sides is always in a reciprocating swing state. 6. The second kind of nuclear force is less powerful than the former. As there are shared parts between the charge layers of adjacent high-density particles, the combined action of the electric field force and superconducting electromagnetic force can also confine a certain degree of internal binding energy. The fission or decay of an atomic nucleus is related to this. 7. Inside an atomic nucleus, the main component of the gluon is the charges. Its so-called bundling function is two kinds of nuclear forces. And the quark has only one charge layer, which is formed by the charges in the gluon. Therefore, the quark is a relatively large high-density particle, whose shape is like a pile of tree roots and there are different spins at different locations. As for neutrons or protons, they themselves are two forms of the existence of quarks. 8. The single charge layer is the lack of resistance to those high-density particles or entities with positron features, which come from both the inside and outside sides at the same time. This will provide the possibility for us to reasonably control and use the nuclear energy with the highest mass-energy ratio in the universe. 9. The so-called magnetic field lines, whose essence is the electro-ultimate particles or the stream of charged particles derived therefrom. And electromagnetic radiation should be the root cause of the growth of all things. The evolution of the universe is derived from such a microscopic physical phenomenon, and from the quantitative to qualitative change results. 10. In the interior of the Earth, a great deal of electromagnetic radiation is generated at every moment. This is the root cause of our global warming and earthquakes. In which there is shorter wavelength part, that is, the main body of energy is converted into geothermal heat. And only the far infrared light with relatively longer wavelength can pass through the Earth's crust and even radiate into the space. Therefore, it can be through satellite scanning to establish the dynamic far-infrared spectrum of Earth's crust that changes over time. In this way, both the geothermal resources can be rationally utilized and it is also beneficial to prevent the occurrence of earthquakes.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1175] viXra:1805.0521 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-30 02:51:26

What’s Wrong with the Weak Interaction?

Authors: Paul R. Gerber
Comments: 3 pages

A group-theoretical argument is given which shows that the weak interaction does not violate parity symmetry. Two corresponding experiments are discussed. As a consequence, charge conjugation can not be considered an independent symmetry operation. Furthermore, the more general question is asked whether there is any fundamental need at all for a weak force.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1174] viXra:1805.0478 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-26 06:09:48

Skyrme Model, Wess-Zumino Anomaly, Quark Model, and Consistent Symmetry Breaking

Authors: Syed Afsar Abbas
Comments: 9 Pages.

The original Skyrme lagrangian needs to be supplemented with a Wess-Zumino anomaly term to ensure proper quantzation. This is our Skyrme-Wess-Zumino model here. In this model, we show that the study of the electric charges is a very discriminating property. It provides powerful statements as to how the two flavour group SU(2) may be embedded in the three flavour group SU(3). The subsequent symmetry breaking is found to be very different from the one necessary in the SU(3) quark model. The Skyrme-Wess-Zumino model leads to a unique and unambiguos symmetry breaking process. It is known that all Irreducible Representations given by triangle diagrams for SU(3) are 3, 6, 10, 15, 21 etc. dimensional states. The triplet, being the lowest dimensional one, plays the most crucial and basic role here. This leads to composite Sakaton as emerging to become the proper Irreducible Representation of the flavour group SU(3) in the Skyrme-Wess-Zumino model.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1173] viXra:1805.0463 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-25 06:12:55

Matter-Antimatter Asymmetry of Neutrinos

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

From the data collected by the LHCb detector at the Large Hadron Collider, it appears that the particles known as charm mesons and their antimatter counterparts are not produced in perfectly equal proportions. [38] The OPERA experiment, located at the Gran Sasso Laboratory of the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), was designed to conclusively prove that muon-neutrinos can convert to tau-neutrinos, through a process called neutrino oscillation, whose discovery was awarded the 2015 Nobel Physics Prize. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino—the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved funding and start of construction for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, which will begin operations in the early 2020s to hunt for hypothetical dark matter particles called weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. [32] Thanks to low-noise superconducting quantum amplifiers invented at the University of California, Berkeley, physicists are now embarking on the most sensitive search yet for axions, one of today's top candidates for dark matter. [31] The Axion Dark Matter Experiment (ADMX) at the University of Washington in Seattle has finally reached the sensitivity needed to detect axions if they make up dark matter, physicists report today in Physical Review Letters. [30]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1172] viXra:1805.0458 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-25 11:55:24

Doubly Charmed Particle

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

The announcement was made during the CHARM 2018 international workshop in Novosibirsk in Russia: a charming moment for this doubly charmed particle. [25] The group, in work published in Physical Review Letters, has now used powerful theoretical and computational tools to predict the existence of a "most strange" dibaryon, made up of two "Omega baryons" that contain three strange quarks each. [24] The nuclear physicists found that the proton's building blocks, the quarks, are subjected to a pressure of 100 decillion Pascal (10 35) near the center of a proton, which is about 10 times greater than the pressure in the heart of a neutron star. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1171] viXra:1805.0456 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-25 13:04:23

Crabbing of a Proton Beam

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

CERN has successfully tested "crab cavities" to rotate a beam of protons – a world first. [24] The nuclear physicists found that the proton's building blocks, the quarks, are subjected to a pressure of 100 decillion Pascal (10 35) near the center of a proton, which is about 10 times greater than the pressure in the heart of a neutron star. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1170] viXra:1805.0453 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-25 17:17:50

Duality-Symmetric Finance II

Authors: Soerivhe Iriene
Comments: 0.5 Pages.

Duality-symmetric Finance, as presented at VIXRAPEDIA.ORG, is a duality symmetric finance. This model has novel features.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1169] viXra:1805.0419 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-24 07:26:40

Exotic Di-Omega Particle

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

The group, in work published in Physical Review Letters, has now used powerful theoretical and computational tools to predict the existence of a "most strange" dibaryon, made up of two "Omega baryons" that contain three strange quarks each. [24] The nuclear physicists found that the proton's building blocks, the quarks, are subjected to a pressure of 100 decillion Pascal (10 35) near the center of a proton, which is about 10 times greater than the pressure in the heart of a neutron star. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[885] viXra:1809.0551 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-20 13:19:20

Differentiation Under the Loop Integral: a New Method of Renormalization in Quantum Field Theory

Authors: Brian Slovick
Comments: 5 Pages.

In the conventional approach of renormalization, divergent loop integrals are regulated and combined with counterterms to satisfy a set of renormalization conditions. While successful, the process of regularization is tedious and must be applied judiciously to obtain gauge-invariant results. In this Letter, I show that by recasting the renormalization conditions as the initial conditions of momentum-space differential equations for the loop amplitudes, the need for regularization disappears because the process of differentiating under the loop integrals renders them finite. I apply this approach to successfully renormalize scalar $\phi^4$ theory and QED to one-loop order without requiring regularization or counterterms. Beyond considerable technical simplifications, the ability to perform renormalization without introducing a regulator or counterterms can lead to a more fundamental description of quantum field theory free of ultraviolet divergences.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[884] viXra:1809.0528 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-13 10:19:16

Conformal Symmetry Breaking in Einstein-Cartan Gravity Coupled to the Electroweak Theory

Authors: J. Lee Montag
Comments: 7 Pages.

We develop an alternative to the Higgs mechanism for spontaneously breaking the local SU(2)xU(1) gauge invariance of the Electroweak Theory by coupling to Einstein-Cartan gravity in curved spacetime. The theory exhibits a local scale invariance in the unbroken phase, while the gravitational sector does not propagate according to the conventional quantum field theory definition. We define a unitary gauge for the local SU(2) invariance which results in a complex Higgs scalar field. This approach fixes the local SU(2) gauge without directly breaking the local U(1). We show how the electroweak symmetry can be spontaneously broken by choosing a reference mass scale to fix the local scale invariance. The mass terms for the quantum fields are then generated without adding any additional symmetry breaking terms to the theory. We point out subtle differences of the quantum field interactions in the broken phase.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[883] viXra:1809.0160 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-23 11:22:06

Overview of Cl(16) Physics with Pd-D Fusion

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 41 Pages.

This is a pdf file of 40 slides about the Basic Ideas of Cl(16) Physics with Pd-D Fusion. It is only an Overview of Basic Ideas. Details are in vixra 1807.0166v2.pdf and vixra 1603.0098v2.pdf and my viXra pages and my web sites including valdostamuseum.com/hamsmith/ The Slideshow in mov format is on the web at valdostamuseum.com/hamsmith/Cl16PdD.mov The mov slides have no audio narration because I think that audio would distract from video presentation of the slides. Version 2 (v2) has more material about Gray-Nambu-Goto-Bohm-Sutherland-Sarfatti Quantum Theory.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[882] viXra:1808.0648 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-24 09:24:50

Bifurcations and the Dynamic Content of Particle Physics

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 20 Pages. Near completion.

We have recently conjectured that the flow from the ultraviolet (UV) to the infrared (IR) sector of any multivariable field theory approaches chaotic dynamics in a universal way. A key assumption of this conjecture is that the flow evolves in far-from-equilibrium conditions and it implies that the end-point attractor of effective field theories replicates the geometry of multifractal sets. Our conclusions are further reinforced here in the framework of nonlinear dynamical systems and bifurcation theory. In particular, it is found that steady-state perturbations near the IR attractor induce formation of Dark Matter structures while oscillatory perturbations lead to the field content of the Standard Model. Key words: Bifurcations, Dynamical Systems, Strange Attractors, Center Manifold Theory, Normal Forms, Standard Model, Cantor Dust.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[881] viXra:1808.0648 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-14 10:13:44

Bifurcations and the Dynamic Content of Particle Physics

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 19 Pages. Under construction.

We have recently conjectured that the flow from the ultraviolet (UV) to the infrared (IR) sector of any multivariable field theory approaches chaotic dynamics in a universal way. A key assumption of this conjecture is that the flow evolves in far-from-equilibrium conditions and it implies that the end-point attractor of effective field theories replicates the geometry of multifractal sets. Our conclusions are further reinforced here in the framework of nonlinear dynamical systems and bifurcation theory. In particular, it is found that steady-state perturbations near the IR attractor induce formation of Dark Matter structures while oscillatory perturbations lead to the field content of the Standard Model. Key words: Bifurcations, Dynamical Systems, Strange Attractors, Center Manifold Theory, Normal Forms, Standard Model, Cantor Dust.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[880] viXra:1808.0648 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-30 08:15:31

Bifurcations and the Dynamic Content of Particle Physics

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 17 Pages. Under construction.

We have recently conjectured that the flow from the ultraviolet (UV) to the infrared (IR) sector of any multivariable field theory approaches chaotic dynamics in a universal way. A key assumption of this conjecture is that the flow evolves in far-from-equilibrium conditions and it implies that the end-point attractor of effective field theories replicates the geometry of multifractal sets. Our conclusions are further reinforced here in the framework of nonlinear dynamical systems and bifurcation theory. In particular, it is found that steady-state perturbations near the IR attractor induce formation of Dark Matter structures while oscillatory perturbations lead to the field content of the Standard Model. Key words: Bifurcations, Dynamical Systems, Strange Attractors, Center Manifold Theory, Normal Forms, Standard Model, Cantor Dust.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[879] viXra:1808.0648 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-24 17:14:39

Bifurcations and the Dynamic Content of Particle Physics

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 16 Pages. Under construction.

We have recently conjectured that the flow from the ultraviolet (UV) to the infrared (IR) sector of any multivariable field theory approaches chaotic dynamics in a universal way. A key assumption of this conjecture is that the flow evolves in far-from-equilibrium conditions and it implies that the end-point attractor of effective field theories replicates the geometry of multifractal sets. Our conclusions are further reinforced here in the framework of nonlinear dynamical systems and bifurcation theory. In particular, it is found that steady-state perturbations near the IR attractor induce formation of Dark Matter structures while oscillatory perturbations lead to the field content of the Standard Model.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[878] viXra:1808.0648 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-23 17:21:44

Bifurcations and the Dynamic Content of Particle Physics

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 15 Pages. Work in progress, fourth draft.

We have recently conjectured that the flow from the ultraviolet (UV) to the infrared (IR) sector of any multivariable field theory approaches chaotic dynamics in a universal way. A key assumption of this conjecture is that the flow evolves in far-from-equilibrium conditions and it implies that the end-point attractor of effective field theories replicates the geometry of multifractal sets. Our conclusions are further reinforced here in the framework of nonlinear dynamical systems and bifurcation theory. In particular, it is found that steady-state perturbations near the IR attractor induce formation of Dark Matter structures while oscillatory perturbations lead to the field content of the Standard Model.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[877] viXra:1808.0648 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-07 14:43:02

Bifurcations and the Dynamic Content of Particle Physics

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 13 Pages. Work in progress, third draft.

We have recently conjectured that the flow from the ultraviolet (UV) to the infrared (IR) sector of any multivariable field theory approaches chaotic dynamics in a universal way. A key assumption of this conjecture is that the flow evolves in far-from-equilibrium conditions and it implies that the end-point attractor of effective field theories replicates the geometry of multifractal sets. Our conclusions are further reinforced here in the framework of nonlinear dynamical systems and bifurcation theory. In particular, it is found that steady-state perturbations near the IR attractor induce formation of Dark Matter structures while oscillatory perturbations lead to the field content of the Standard Model.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[876] viXra:1807.0423 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-02 01:06:24

Estimation of Redshift Effect of Neutrino Photon Interaction and Discussion on the New Neutrino Detection Device

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 13 Pages. 2 figures; Include Chinese version

This paper assumes that the red shift of the galaxies' spectrum is due to the interaction of photons with neutrinos in the universe space. Using the available data, a rough estimate of the amount of redshift that this effect can produce is obtained, yielding an order of magnitude for the neutrino photon interaction to produce a redshift effect. On this basis, this paper designs two devices that can be used to detect the number of neutrinos through this effect.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[875] viXra:1807.0372 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-27 04:27:19

Schwinger Sources: Visualization and Explanation

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 43 Pages.

In E8-Cl(16) Physics, elementary particles are not point particles in or with smooth manifold structures but are finite Schwinger Source regions with size scale from Planck 10^(-33) cm to Source Region Boundaries at scale 10^(-24) cm. At scales larger than 10^(-24) cm spacetime and other relevant structures can be usefully and accurately considered to be smooth manifolds, thus permitting use of Armand Wyler’s methods of calculating force strengths, particle masses, etc. At Schwinger Source scales Planck 10^(-33) cm to scale 10^(-24) cm the internal structure of Schwinger Sources is QuasiCrystal Lattice derived from E8 Lattices, permitting Indra’s Net BlockChain Physics of Schwinger Source Indra Jewels.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[874] viXra:1807.0343 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-30 20:17:00

Massive Sterile (Ghost) Neutrino Equation, MSN

Authors: Vito R. D'Angelo
Comments: 2 Pages.

It is postulated that the massive sterile (ghost) neutrino, symbol MSN, has a mass of 6.64743835x10^-33 kg. Utilizing the standard model equation of the electron rest mass divided by the inverse fine structure constant, within the 2014 NIST CODATA uncertainty limits.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[873] viXra:1807.0281 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-17 12:28:28

„Neutrinos, Luxons, Preons, Quantons, Strangelets and Twistors Like a Dark Matter and Dark Energy, Feat. Mr. NEUTRINO“

Authors: Imrich Krištof
Comments: 26 Pages.

This article is focused on the most non–clarified situation of Particle Physics, like for example Neutrinos, Quantons, Preons, Luxons and subatomic and atomic scales microphenomenons Twistors and Strangelets. The main part of this article is dedicated to dark matter and energy and flashback significance of Mr. Neutrino, respectively the outstanding atomic scientist Bruno Pontecorvo and his contribution to High Energy Particle Physics and Nuclear Physics, by his discoveries in scientific field, so called NEUTRINO OSCILLATIONS and other quantum phenomenas. Although this article says about, for example – mixing angles θ [théta] of neutrinos, their “VIRTUAL TRANSMUTATION”, DIRAC AND MAJORANA NEUTRINOS. The most interesting part of the text is focused on infraparticles – goldstinos and preons–models of lepton, quarks and gauge bosons as composite objects. Not in the ending part of this text is described, also, so called – The Suzuki Model (Lagrangian Based Suzuki’s Ideas). Included is also new concept of wave particle duality – wavicle and quanticle (including wave + particle). The text involved the briefly biography of Mr. Neutrino respectively nuclear scientist Bruno Pontecorvo.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[872] viXra:1807.0166 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-24 14:41:40

Cl(16) Physics: E8 Lagrangian, Fr3(o) String Theory, and Cl(1,25) Aqft

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 154 Pages.

Our Universe originated with Finkelstein Iteration of Real Clifford Algebras from the Void ( First Grothendieck Universe ) to Cl(16) ( Second Grothendieck Universe) whose BiVectors and two quarter-Spinors ( ++ and -- ) give E8 Physics and whose TriVectors give Fr3(O) String Theory leading to a Cl(1,25) Algebraic Quantum Field Theory ( AQFT ) that generalizes Hyperfinite II1 von Neumann factor Fock Space from 2-Periodic Complex Clifford Algebra to 8-Periodic Real Clifford Algebra to get the Third Grothendieck Universe. Version 2 (v2) has more material about Gray-Nambu-Goto-Bohm-Sutherland-Sarfatti Quantum Theory.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[871] viXra:1807.0166 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-12 22:38:12

Cl(16) Physics: E8 Lagrangian, Fr3(o) String Theory, and Cl(1,25) Aqft

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 154 Pages.

Our Universe originated with Finkelstein Iteration of Real Clifford Algebras from the Void ( First Grothendieck Universe ) to Cl(16) ( Second Grothendieck Universe) whose BiVectors and two quarter-Spinors ( ++ and -- ) give E8 Physics and whose TriVectors give Fr3(O) String Theory leading to a Cl(1,25) Algebraic Quantum Field Theory ( AQFT ) that generalizes Hyperfinite II1 von Neumann factor Fock Space from 2-Periodic Complex Clifford Algebra to 8-Periodic Real Clifford Algebra to get the Third Grothendieck Universe.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[870] viXra:1806.0388 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-06 23:26:34

Cl(16): Bivector+half-Spinor E8 and Trivector Fr3(o) E8 Gives 8D and 4D Kaluza-Klein Lagrangian Fr3(o) Gives Cl(1,25) Aqft

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 205 Pages.

Our Universe orginated and evolves according to David Finkelstein’s process of Iteration of Real Clifford Algebras. Cl(16) contains E8 (as BiVectors + half-Spinors)and 10 copies of Fr3(O) (as TriVectors). The remaining 65,536 - 248 - 560 = 64,728 elements carry Information in Penrose-Hameroff Microtubule Quantum Consciousness. Fr3(O) gives 26D World-Line=String Cl(1,25) and AQFT based on E8 Lagrangian with Schwinger Sources whose Internal QuasiCrystal Structure encodes Symmetric Space - Complex Bounded Domain - Shilov Boundary data for calculation of Force Strengths, Particle Masses, etc, and whose External Indra Net BlockChain Structure describes the Unity of Our Universe as a Quantum Consciousness in the Bulk of the Complex Bounded Domain that mirrors our individual Quantum Consciousnesses in the Shilov Boundary that is our Physical Spacetime.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[869] viXra:1806.0388 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-09 22:35:37

Cellular Automata, E8 Root Vectors, Fr3(O) String Theory, and Cl(1,25) Algebraic Quantum Field Theory

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 71 Pages.

This paper discusses the relationship between the 256 Elementary Cellular Automata and the 240 Root Vectors of E8 and the E8 Physics Lagrangian, and their relationship to the Fr3(O) String Theory of Cl(16) Physics World-Lines = Strings and the AQFT resulting from the Completion of the Union of all tensor products of Cl(1,25). For futher aspects of E8 and Cl(16) Physics see these papers: viXra 1804.0121 (441 pages); viXra 1806.0361 (115 pages); and my web site at valdostamuseum.com/hamsmith/ and files thereon including valdostamuseum.com/hamsmith/E8ResultsOriginVSHORT.pdf (62 pages). Version 3 (v3) corrects some material about 16x16 matrix representation of Cl(8).
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[868] viXra:1806.0388 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-03 04:27:42

Cellular Automata, E8 Root Vectors, Fr3(O) String Theory, and Cl(1,25) Algebraic Quantum Field Theory

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 71 Pages.

This paper discusses the relationship between the 256 Elementary Cellular Automata and the 240 Root Vectors of E8 and the E8 Physics Lagrangian, and their relationship to the Fr3(O) String Theory of Cl(16) Physics World-Lines = Strings and the AQFT resulting from the Completion of the Union of all tensor products of Cl(1,25). For futher aspects of E8 and Cl(16) Physics see these papers: viXra 1804.0121 (441 pages); viXra 1806.0361 (115 pages); and my web site at valdostamuseum.com/hamsmith/ and files thereon including valdostamuseum.com/hamsmith/E8ResultsOriginVSHORT.pdf (62 pages).
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[867] viXra:1806.0255 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-21 21:29:55

Charge Stability Approach to Finite Quantum Field Theory: An Alternative to Renormalization

Authors: Clyde Dean Chlouber
Comments: 17 Pages.

This paper analyses charge stability and applies the resulting stability principle to resolve divergence issues in quantum field theory without renormalization. For quantum electrodynamics (QED), stability is enforced by requiring that the positive electromagnetic field energy be balanced by a negative interaction energy between the observed electron charge and a local vacuum potential. Then in addition to the observed core mechanical mass m, an electron system consists of two electromagnetic mass components of equal magnitude M but opposite sign; consequently, the net electromagnetic mass is zero. Two virtual, electromagnetically dressed mass levels m±M, constructed to form a complete set of mass levels and isolate the electron-vacuum interaction, provide essential S-matrix corrections for radiative processes involving infinite field actions. Total scattering amplitudes for radiative corrections are shown to be convergent in the limit M → ∞ and equal to renormalized amplitudes when Feynman diagrams for all mass levels are included. In each case, the infinity in the core mass amplitude is canceled by the average amplitude for electromagnetically dressed mass levels, which become separated in intermediate states and account for the stabilizing interaction energy between an electron and its surrounding polarized vacuum. In this manner, S-matrix corrections in QED are shown to be finite for any order diagram in perturbation theory, all the while maintaining the mass and charge at their physically observed values. Charge stability corrections, applied to one-loop diagrams of non-Abelian gauge theory, also yield finite results without renormalization. The results demonstrate that quantum field theory is scale invariant.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[866] viXra:1806.0019 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-06 05:08:44

Preceding: Atomic Internal Gravitational Waves and Shock Waves: Electromagnetic Charge Cannot Hold a Positron Near a Proton Both with Positive Charges, But the Gravitational Waves Make it Possible

Authors: Peiman Ghasemi
Comments: 3 Pages.

Mostly, the destructive force of internal (atomic) wave-particles that we call microscopic shock waves emitted by the nuclei at most, and lastly the external (galactic gravitonic, and photonic) wave-particles towards the nuclei, is affectionate to make them unstable. A higher rate of energy that would increase the internal energy of atoms and so increases the energy of these sub-atomic particles, and also what we call higher entropy (higher energy dispersal), both cause the powerful microscopic shock waves, coming from sub atomic wave-particles. Shock waves are not much strong for atomic objects, or celestial objects to get measured, meanwhile their destructive power potentially can destroy the nearby smaller and weakly confined objects.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics