High Energy Particle Physics

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[1227] viXra:1807.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-19 12:59:18

Massive Sterile (Ghost) Neutrino Equation, MSN

Authors: Vito R. D'Angelo
Comments: 2 Pages.

It is postulated that the massive sterile (ghost) neutrino, symbol MSN, has a mass of 6.64743835x10^-33 kg. Utilizing the standard model equation of the electron rest mass divided by the inverse fine structure constant, within the 2014 NIST CODATA uncertainty limits.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1226] viXra:1807.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-15 11:46:15

„Neutrinos, Luxons, Preons, Quantons, Strangelets and Twistors Like a Dark Matter and Dark Energy, Feat. Mr. NEUTRINO“

Authors: Imrich Krištof
Comments: 26 Pages.

This article is focused on the most non–clarified situation of Particle Physics, like for example Neutrinos, Quantons, Preons, Luxons and subatomic and atomic scales microphenomenons Twistors and Strangelets. The main part of this article is dedicated to dark matter and energy and flashback significance of Mr. Neutrino, respectively the outstanding atomic scientist Bruno Pontecorvo and his contribution to High Energy Particle Physics and Nuclear Physics, by his discoveries in scientific field, so called NEUTRINO OSCILLATIONS and other quantum phenomenas. Although this article says about, for example – mixing angles θ [théta] of neutrinos, their “VIRTUAL TRANSMUTATION”, DIRAC AND MAJORANA NEUTRINOS. The most interesting part of the text is focused on infraparticles – goldstinos and preons–models of lepton, quarks and gauge bosons as composite objects. Not in the ending part of this text is described, also, so called – The Suzuki Model (Lagrangian Based Suzuki’s Ideas). Included is also new concept of wave particle duality – wavicle and quanticle (including wave + particle). The text involved the briefly biography of Mr. Neutrino respectively nuclear scientist Bruno Pontecorvo.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1225] viXra:1807.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-16 08:50:26

Neutron Spin Structure, Yang-Mills Theory, and the Mass Gap

Authors: Peter Cameron
Comments: 2 Pages. submitted to the 23rd International Spin Symposium in Ferrara, Italy (September 2018)

An analysis of proton structure and spin based upon an electromagnetic model of geometric wavefunction interactions was presented to Spin 2016. A key point of that analysis was the supposition that only observed components of the eight-component Pauli wavefunction (electric charge, magnetic flux quantum, and magnetic moment) comprise the stable proton wavefunction. The dark components (magnetic charge, electric flux quantum, electric moment) cannot couple to the photon due to topological symmetry breaking of pseudoscalar magnetic charge. Their impedance mismatch to the vacuum wavefunction and the resulting differential phase shift is the causal agent of decoherence, rendering wavefunctions containing dark components unstable. An unstable neutron wavefunction might then be extracted from the S-matrix by swapping one or more dark components for visible. Several possibilities exist. This Spin 2018 abstract submission proposes to explore those possibilities, in hope of extending the Spin 2016 analysis to the neutron geometric wavefunction, thereby improving understanding of the anomalous moment and illuminating the foundation of this Yang-Mills isospin pair.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1224] viXra:1807.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-13 13:08:35

Muon Magnetic Anomaly

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

National Laboratory and their collaborators have just released the most precise prediction of how subatomic particles called muons—heavy cousins of electrons— "wobble" off their path in a powerful magnetic field. [14] Muons are mysterious, and scientists are diving deep into the particle to get a handle on a property that might render it—and the universe—a little less mysterious. [13] For elementary particles, such as muons or neutrinos, the magnetic force applied to such charges is unique and immutable. However, unlike the electric charge, the magnetic force strength is not quantised. [12] Particle physics and decorative glassware are two disciplines that don't often meet. But given the striking results of a recent artist-scientist collaboration, perhaps that could change. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1223] viXra:1807.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-12 07:28:47

Ultrashort Electron Flashes on Nucleus

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1222] viXra:1807.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-11 08:14:20

Top Quarks Spin Together

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

By measuring the angles between the top and antitop decay particles, the ATLAS experiment at CERN has not only measured this degree of correlation, but found it to be higher than what is predicted by calculations based on the Standard Model. [10] Higgs boson decaying into bottom quarks. Now, scientists are tackling its relationship with the top quark. [9] Usha Mallik and her team used a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to help build a sub-detector at the Large Hadron Collider, the world's largest and most powerful particle accelerator, located in Switzerland. They're running experiments on the sub-detector to search for a pair of bottom quarks— subatomic yin-and-yang particles that should be produced about 60 percent of the time a Higgs boson decays. [8] A new way of measuring how the Higgs boson couples to other fundamental particles has been proposed by physicists in France, Israel and the US. Their technique would involve comparing the spectra of several different isotopes of the same atom to see how the Higgs force between the atom's electrons and its nucleus affects the atomic energy levels. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1221] viXra:1807.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-09 08:18:25

W and Z Bosons Emitted by Quarks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 78 Pages.

Two among the rarest processes probed so far at the Large Hadron Collider, the scattering between W and Z bosons emitted by quarks in proton-proton collisions, have been established by the ATLAS experiment at CERN. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino— the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1220] viXra:1807.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-09 10:08:44

Revolutionary Neutrino Detector

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 72 Pages.

A revolutionary new kind of neutrino detector, designed in part by scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory, sits at the heart of the MicroBooNE experiment at DOE's Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab). [40] Researchers in Germany have started collecting data with a 60 million euro ($71 million) machine designed to help determine the mass of the universe's lightest particle. [39] By analyzing data collected over eight years ago, scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory have made a potentially groundbreaking discovery. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino—the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved funding and start of construction for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, which will begin operations in the early 2020s to hunt for hypothetical dark matter particles called weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. [32]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1219] viXra:1807.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-09 10:57:35

On the Neutrino’s Model Based on Virtual Space-time and the New Neutrino Detecting Method

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 26 Pages. 5 figures. Include Chinese version

In this paper, I build a new neutrino model based on the hypothesis of existing of virtual space-time. I assume that a neutrino is a signal of special electromagnetic wave that across over the real and virtual space-time. I also analyze the interactions between neutrino and photon based on this new model. A new particles decay diagram was given for describing the interactions among neutrinos and parts of particles. I also assume a new neutrinos detecting method in this paper.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1218] viXra:1807.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-10 07:37:20

Higgs Boson Decaying to Bottom Quarks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

ATLAS experiment reported a preliminary result establishing the observation of the Higgs boson decaying into pairs of b quarks, furthermore at a rate consistent with the Standard Model prediction. [9] Usha Mallik and her team used a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to help build a sub-detector at the Large Hadron Collider, the world's largest and most powerful particle accelerator, located in Switzerland. They're running experiments on the sub-detector to search for a pair of bottom quarks— subatomic yin-and-yang particles that should be produced about 60 percent of the time a Higgs boson decays. [8] A new way of measuring how the Higgs boson couples to other fundamental particles has been proposed by physicists in France, Israel and the US. Their technique would involve comparing the spectra of several different isotopes of the same atom to see how the Higgs force between the atom's electrons and its nucleus affects the atomic energy levels. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1217] viXra:1807.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-10 08:06:45

Disconnectedness Experiments Negating the Validity of the Standard Model

Authors: Bowen Liu
Comments: 12 Pages.

In the history of physics it has no precedent the disconnectedness experiment that verifies physical object being outside of our geometry. The purpose of this paper is to provide crucial experiments to show that absolute connectedness assumption the Standard Model relied on is invalid, and to negate the validity of the Standard Model. The disconnectedness experiment negates the nonempty intersection between current geometry and micro-geometry in the depth direction and transitional region between them, and shows that micro-geometry disconnects to current geometry in the depth direction, micro-geometry is the other geometry outside current geometry, and the relationship between the two geometries can only be non-one-one mapping instead of evolution. The logical procedure of negating the validity of SM is as follows. (1) To give the definition of spatial disconnectedness in the depth direction and to determine the elements of the nonempty intersection. (2) To reduce every quantum experiment to reprocess disconnectedness experiment to prove that there is no non-empty intersection between the two geometries, i.e., they are not connected. (3) The spatial connectedness, among all geometrical concepts, is one of the most primitive topological concepts; once the spatial connectedness is invalid, all physical theories based on the connectedness are invalid, and the geometric foundation of SM is invalid. We complete the proof of the invalidity of the Standard Model. Our proof shows that all kinds of micro-forms (including Higgs particles) are secondary existing form of matter in current geometry, but not primitive form. The Standard Model, as a theory of extrinsic particles, is not the ultimate model of the universe physicists have coveted, but is idealist theory based on distorted idealization.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1216] viXra:1807.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-08 16:12:14

Cl(16) Physics: E8 Lagrangian and Fr3(O) String Theory

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 16 Pages.

Our Universe originated with Finkelstein Iteration of Real Clifford Algebras from the Void ( First Grothendieck Universe ) to Cl(16) ( Second Grothendieck Universe) whose BiVectors and two quarter-Spinors ( ++ and -- ) give E8 Physics and whose TriVectors give Fr3(O) String Theory leading to an Algebraic Quantum Field Theory ( AQFT ) that generalizes Hyperfinite II1 von Neumann factor Fock Space from 2-Periodic Complex Clifford Algebra to 8-Periodic Real Clifford Algebra to get the Third Grothendieck Universe.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1215] viXra:1807.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-09 06:06:18

Plasma Accelerator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 77 Pages.

Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino— the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1214] viXra:1807.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-07 09:01:58

Neutron-Rich Isotopes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

CERN's nuclear physics facility, ISOLDE, has minted a new coin in its impressive collection of isotopes. [27] In the case of several light nuclei, experimental confirmation of the individualism or family nature of nucleons will now be simpler, thanks to predictions presented by Polish physicists from Cracow and Kielce. [26] The identification of the magic number of six provides an avenue to investigate the origin of spin–orbit splittings in atomic nuclei. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1213] viXra:1807.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-08 04:57:25

Talk about the Higgs

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

It is six years ago that the discovery of the Higgs boson was announced, to great fanfare in the world's media, as a crowning success of CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC). [9] Usha Mallik and her team used a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to help build a sub-detector at the Large Hadron Collider, the world's largest and most powerful particle accelerator, located in Switzerland. They're running experiments on the sub-detector to search for a pair of bottom quarks— subatomic yin-and-yang particles that should be produced about 60 percent of the time a Higgs boson decays. [8] A new way of measuring how the Higgs boson couples to other fundamental particles has been proposed by physicists in France, Israel and the US. Their technique would involve comparing the spectra of several different isotopes of the same atom to see how the Higgs force between the atom's electrons and its nucleus affects the atomic energy levels. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1212] viXra:1807.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-05 18:39:28

Putrescine, Cadaverine, Spermine and Spermidine – Enhanced Precatalyst Preparation Stabilization and Initiation (EPPSI) Nano Molecules.

Authors: Alireza Heidari, Ricardo Gobato
Comments: 14 Pages. Parana J. Sci. Educ., v.4, n.5, (1-14), July 1, 2018. ISSN 2447-6153

In the current study, we study Putrescine, Cadaverine, Spermine and Spermidine–Enhanced Precatalyst Preparation Stabilization and Initiation (EPPSI) Nano molecules incorporation into the Nano Polymeric Matrix (NPM) by immersion of the Nano Polymeric Modified Electrode (NPME) as molecular enzymes and drug targets for human cancer cells, tissues and tumors treatment under synchrotron and synchrocyclotron radiations.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1211] viXra:1807.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-02 06:26:33

Matter and Antimatter Light Interaction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 69 Pages.

It is one of the greatest mysteries in the universe: Why is there so much more matter than antimatter? [39] From the data collected by the LHCb detector at the Large Hadron Collider, it appears that the particles known as charm mesons and their antimatter counterparts are not produced in perfectly equal proportions. [38] The OPERA experiment, located at the Gran Sasso Laboratory of the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), was designed to conclusively prove that muon-neutrinos can convert to tau-neutrinos, through a process called neutrino oscillation, whose discovery was awarded the 2015 Nobel Physics Prize. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino—the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved funding and start of construction for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, which will begin operations in the early 2020s to hunt for hypothetical dark matter particles called weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. [32] Thanks to low-noise superconducting quantum amplifiers invented at the University of California, Berkeley, physicists are now embarking on the most sensitive search yet for axions, one of today's top candidates for dark matter. [31]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1210] viXra:1806.0466 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-30 09:39:07

Great Unification Theory :A Solution

Authors: Jean Claude Dutailly
Comments: 94 Pages.

The paper presents a unified model representing the gravitational, electromagnetic, weak and strong fields, fermions and bosons, in the Geometry of General Relativity. It is based on a group belonging to the Clifford algebra Cl(C,4), acting on the algebra itself. It uses an original real structure on the Clifford algebra, accounting for the physical specificities of the geometry. An explicit expression of the group, its action and of the vector states and charges of the known fermions is given. Bosons are represented as discontinuities in the derivative of the potential of the force field. No additional dimension, physical object or exotic property are required. The model appears as the continuation and extension of the Spinor model of Mechanics which holds at any scale.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1209] viXra:1806.0458 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-29 08:39:31

The Standard Model Hadrons Quark Confinement and Photons

Authors: Claude Michael Cassano
Comments: 9 Pages.

An examination of fermion interactions, hadrons, hadron interactions, and hadron decay processes are analyzed via E/B field S_sub_R matrix architecture.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1208] viXra:1806.0455 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-29 09:45:59

Demonstrating the Necessary Existence of the Higgs Family of Bosons for Balanced Neutron to Proton, Electron and Neutrino Phase Transformation

Authors: Luke Kenneth Casson Leighton
Comments: 4 Pages.

Matching existing data (in this case what is known as "decay models") is a critical part of a new theory's viability. Up until this paper the Extended Rishon Model phase transforms (aka "decay models") for the neutron to proton, electron and neutrino have not properly matched. This paper therefore describes a breakthrough which sucessfully creates a sequence of phase transforms, that, in the process, require the existence of a family of Higgs Bosons (known in ERM terminology as ultra-proton and ultra-neutron). Importantly and paradoxically, energy (i.e. phases) are completely conserved during the creation (and destruction) of intermediary particles. Prior logical reasoning and deduction is thus invalidated.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1207] viXra:1806.0435 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-29 01:48:40

Big Bang and Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

At the Japanese Research Center for Particle Physics KEK, the new particle accelerator experiment Belle II started operation after eight years of construction. [30] Astrophysicists from the University of Surrey and the University of Edinburgh have created a new method to measure the amount of dark matter at the centre of tiny "dwarf" galaxies. [29] A research team of multiple institutes, including the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and University of Tokyo, released an unprecedentedly wide and sharp dark matter map based on the newly obtained imaging data by Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1206] viXra:1806.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-27 11:08:22

Nobelium with Laser Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

For the first time, this technique was now extended to precisely measure the optical excitation of atomic levels in the atomic shell of three isotopes of the heavy element nobelium, which contain 102 protons in their nuclei and do not occur naturally. [27] In the case of several light nuclei, experimental confirmation of the individualism or family nature of nucleons will now be simpler, thanks to predictions presented by Polish physicists from Cracow and Kielce. [26] The identification of the magic number of six provides an avenue to investigate the origin of spin–orbit splittings in atomic nuclei. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1205] viXra:1806.0415 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-27 11:51:55

Nonlinear Behavior of the Renormalization Group Flow and Standard Model Parameters

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 7 Pages.

Published in Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation, 12(7), 1146-1152
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1204] viXra:1806.0388 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-27 05:13:26

Cellular Automata and E8 Root Vector Physics

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 32 Pages.

This paper discusses the relationship between the 256 Elementary Cellular Automata and the 240 Root Vectors of E8 and the E8 Physics Lagrangian. For futher aspects of E8 Physics see these papers: viXra 1804.0121 (441 pages); viXra 1806.0361 (115 pages); and my web site at valdostamuseum.com/hamsmith/ and files thereon including valdostamuseum.com/hamsmith/E8ResultsOriginVSHORT.pdf (62 pages).
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1203] viXra:1806.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-25 10:56:15

What Mean Angle of 18 Degrees for Long Lived Elementary Particles?

Authors: Yuri Danoyan
Comments: 6 Pages. New point of view old idea

Enigmatic link revealed between the values of mass some elementary particles,function of tangent and angle of 18 degrees. Shown the relationship 18 degrees with Golden ratio. It is surprising that, along with the angle of 18 degrees, the ratio of the mass of the proton and electron were a multiple of 18.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1202] viXra:1806.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-26 05:32:25

Derivation of the Local Lorentz Gauge Transformation of a Dirac Spinor Field in Quantum Einstein-Cartan Theory

Authors: Rainer W. Kühne
Comments: 6 Pages.

I examine the groups which underly classical mechanics, non-relativistic quantum mechanics, special relativity, relativistic quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, quantum flavourdynamics, quantum chromodynamics, and general relativity. This examination includes the rotations SO(2) and SO(3), the Pauli algebra, the Lorentz transformations, the Dirac algebra, and the U(1), SU(2), and SU(3) gauge transformations. I argue that general relativity must be generalized to Einstein-Cartan theory, so that Dirac spinors can be described within the framework of gravitation theory.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1201] viXra:1806.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-24 12:43:34

E8 Physics: Results and Origins

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 115 Pages.

My view of the Origins of E8 Physics is that its basic structure of Real Clifford Algebras was known in Ancient Africa and reflected in the Giza Pyramids as of 36,000 years ago, and that is only very recently have understanding of Math and Experiment advanced far enough to rediscover the Algebraic Quantum Field Theory of E8 Physics. This is an outline of my view of the Results of E8 Physics calculations of Force Strenghts, Particle Masses, ... etc and my view of the Origins of its ideas. It is 115 pdf pages that are intended to be presented as a slide show. For details, see viXra 1804.0121.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1200] viXra:1806.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-22 06:40:33

Quark-Gluon Plasma Quantum Rotation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 71 Pages.

Quark-gluon plasma is formed as a result of high-energy collisions of heavy ions. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. [39] "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino— the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved funding and start of construction for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, which will begin operations in the early 2020s to hunt for hypothetical dark matter particles called weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. [32] Thanks to low-noise superconducting quantum amplifiers invented at the University of California, Berkeley, physicists are now embarking on the most sensitive search yet for axions, one of today's top candidates for dark matter. [31]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1199] viXra:1806.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-21 01:02:54

An Interesting Prediction Regarding Anti­-8be

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 1 Page.

a brief review of my prediction about anti-8Be
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1198] viXra:1806.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-21 03:36:43

Particle Nature of Light and It’s Interaction with Matter

Authors: Arjun Dahal
Comments: 8 Pages. ©2017-2018 Journal of St. Xavier's Physics Council

Following the Einstein’s 1905 paper on photoelectric effect, the concept of particle nature of light took birth in the physics community, which stated that light is composed of many small particles known as photons. When the light or any electromagnetic radiation with high frequency strikes on the metal surface, it emits photoelectrons from the metals. Similarly when X-rays are incident on elements with low atomic number, elastic interaction takes place resulting in change in the wavelength of scattered beam along with the change in direction. Further, when γ-rays interact with matter, then it gets disappeared and converts itself into electron-positron pair known as pair production. Through this article we have attempted to study the particle nature of light and how it interacts with matter under the certain conditions to form new physical phenomena, and their applications to determine the crystal structures, Gravitational Red shift, Information on Black Holes and for Medical purposes.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1197] viXra:1806.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-21 06:09:24

The Standard Model Architecture and Interactions

Authors: Claude Michael Cassano
Comments: 6 Pages.

Based on my 1984 linearization of the Klein-Gordon equations, potential functions generalizations of the electric and magnetic field strengths form a basis from which a compound model simply constructs the leptons; the simple differences between the quarks and leptons; how the quarks arose from the leptons; why there are these two types of fermions; and why there are precisely three generations for each of these types. The most elementary particle interactions classify the interactions between strong and weak, and further still between the W and Z type of weak interactions. Two simple conservation requirements give rise to all the fundamental particle interactions, and describe the structure of the weak intermediate envelopes. Further, a simple charge function determines the charge of every object. Further still, the only free assignable parameters for the entire model are four mass constants for each fermion generation. This is essentially a summary of my book: "A Mathematical Preon Foundation for the Standard Model"; but starting from the different standpoint of my Helmholtzian operator matrix product, rather than my constructive algebras (developed primarily in "Reality is a Mathematical Model" and "The Weighted Matrix Product").
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1196] viXra:1806.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-15 06:57:00

Detecting Clumps in Atomic Nuclei

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

In the case of several light nuclei, experimental confirmation of the individualism or family nature of nucleons will now be simpler, thanks to predictions presented by Polish physicists from Cracow and Kielce. [26] The identification of the magic number of six provides an avenue to investigate the origin of spin–orbit splittings in atomic nuclei. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1195] viXra:1806.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-16 06:38:56

Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 75 Pages.

The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment or DUNE is a U.S.-led international experiment that focuses on neutrinos, subatomic particles that may offer an answer to the lingering mystery of the universe's matter-antimatter imbalance. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino— the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1194] viXra:1806.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-16 12:35:21

Charge Stability Approach to Finite Quantum Field Theory: An Alternative to Renormalization

Authors: Clyde Dean Chlouber
Comments: 17 Pages.

This paper analyses charge stability and applies the resulting stability principle to resolve divergence issues in quantum field theory without renormalization. For quantum electrodynamics (QED), stability is enforced by requiring that the positive electromagnetic field energy be balanced by a negative interaction energy between the observed electron charge and a local vacuum potential. Then in addition to the observed core mechanical mass m, an electron system consists of two electromagnetic mass components of equal magnitude M but opposite sign; consequently, the net electromagnetic mass is zero. Two virtual, electromagnetically dressed mass levels m±M, constructed to form a complete set of mass levels and isolate the electron-vacuum interaction, provide essential S-matrix corrections for radiative processes involving infinite field actions. Total scattering amplitudes for radiative corrections are shown to be convergent in the limit M → ∞ and equal to renormalized amplitudes when Feynman diagrams for all mass levels are included. In each case, the infinity in the core mass amplitude is canceled by the average amplitude for electromagnetically dressed mass levels, which become separated in intermediate states and account for the stabilizing interaction energy between an electron and its surrounding polarized vacuum. In this manner, S-matrix corrections in QED are shown to be finite for any order diagram in perturbation theory, all the while maintaining the mass and charge at their physically observed values. Charge stability corrections, applied to one-loop diagrams of non-Abelian gauge theory, also yield finite results without renormalization. The results demonstrate that quantum field theory is scale invariant.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1193] viXra:1806.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-18 07:21:24

Deeper Into the Stuff of the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

University of Virginia physicists have recently played key roles in new particle physics discoveries. [22] A new result from the Q-weak experiment at the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility provides a precision test of the weak force, one of four fundamental forces in nature. [21] The most surprising result from beta decay is that nature is not ambidextrous, but is "left-handed." [20] This week, a group of scientists working on the MiniBooNE experiment at the Department of Energy's Fermilab reported a breakthrough: They were able to identify exactly-known-energy muon neutrinos hitting the atoms at the heart of their particle detector. [19] In a study published in Physical Review Letters, collaborators of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an experiment led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, have shown they can shield a sensitive, scalable 44-kilogram germanium detector array from background radioactivity. [18] The study has put the most stringent limits on the probability of a rare event—a neutrinoless double beta decay of tellurium-130 nuclei. This event can only occur if a neutrino can be its own antiparticle. [17] While these experiments seem miniature in comparison to others, they could reveal answers about neutrinos that have been hiding from physicists for decades. [16] In a paper published today in the European Physical Journal C, the ATLAS Collaboration reports the first high-precision measurement at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the mass of the W boson. [15] A team of researchers at the University of Michigan has conducted a thought experiment regarding the nature of a universe that could support life without the weak force. [14] The international T2K Collaboration announces a first indication that the dominance of matter over antimatter may originate from the fact that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently during those oscillations. [13]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1192] viXra:1806.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-13 06:14:48

Satanic Conspiracy at the RHIC

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 3 Pages.

a critical review of arXiv ref 1507.07158 and recommendations
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1191] viXra:1806.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-11 07:17:13

Find the Mass of Neutrino

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 68 Pages.

Researchers in Germany have started collecting data with a 60 million euro ($71 million) machine designed to help determine the mass of the universe's lightest particle. [39] By analyzing data collected over eight years ago, scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory have made a potentially groundbreaking discovery. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino— the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved funding and start of construction for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, which will begin operations in the early 2020s to hunt for hypothetical dark matter particles called weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. [32] Thanks to low-noise superconducting quantum amplifiers invented at the University of California, Berkeley, physicists are now embarking on the most sensitive search yet for axions, one of today's top candidates for dark matter. [31]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1190] viXra:1806.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-12 03:17:41

Revolutionary Accelerator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 73 Pages.

Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino— the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved funding and start of construction for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, which will begin operations in the early 2020s to hunt for hypothetical dark matter particles called weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. [32]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1189] viXra:1806.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-10 06:50:21

Hadronic Fission and Tetraquark Particles

Authors: Peiman Ghasemi
Comments: 3 Pages.

Hadronic fission and fusion equations
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1188] viXra:1806.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-08 09:21:35

Enhancing Particle Beam

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 69 Pages.

The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino— the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved funding and start of construction for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, which will begin operations in the early 2020s to hunt for hypothetical dark matter particles called weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. [32] Thanks to low-noise superconducting quantum amplifiers invented at the University of California, Berkeley, physicists are now embarking on the most sensitive search yet for axions, one of today's top candidates for dark matter. [31]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1187] viXra:1806.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-07 21:41:11

Piercing the Veil of Modern Physics. Part 3 & Superconductivity (in Chinese)

Authors: DING Jian, HU Xiuqin
Comments: 43 Pages. I firmly believe that a single spark can start great creative conflagrations.

This article (Superconductivity chapters) as the third part of the full text, at the level of electro-ultimate particles, is the result by virtue of superconductivity to further research: 1. The electro-ultimate particle renders as the negative charge of one unit, which is a unified body. It is made up of both the ultimate particle portion of possessing one unit positive charge and the negative charge portion that renders as two units. All the mass is concentrated in the ultimate particle portion, the mass of the charge portion is equal to zero but cannot exist on its own, so it can only belong to the category of the "electro-hole". The two are the most fundamental matter and antimatter. When they meet, the process of converting into the electro-ultimate particle is annihilation. 2. It can be inferred that the ultimate particles and "being emptiness" are the most fundamental existence in reality. An ultimate particle existing in this being emptiness, around it there will be accordingly to render as the characteristics of negative charge. This is the most fundamental charge layer, but also the root cause of spin. It also means that the number of all matter and antimatter in the universe must be equal. Furthermore, the interaction between the ultimate particle and charge portion follows Lenz's law. This is the root cause of inertia. And the change of the two that there is a logical order, so there is also sure to be a time lag. This is the root cause of wave. 3. Inside every one of high-density particles, the adjacent ultimate particles are already in contact with each other closely. According to the Meissner effect, all of the charges can only be attached to the surfaces of them to moving at high speed. This is the charge layer. And each high-density particle can only possess one charge layer. 4. A high-density particle is located in a certain position of the conductor structure and only responsible for transferring charges, which is the superconducting state at the microscopic level. This means that all of those particles, entities and even celestial bodies, as long as formed only by two kinds of nuclear forces (whose essence is electromagnetic force), they themselves should be superconductors at almost all temperatures. 5. The first kind of nuclear force exists in the interior of high-density particles. There are powerful repulsive forces between the ultimate particles which are already in contact with each other. At the same time, they are also subject to the electromagnetic binding force generated by the charge layer. These powerful repulsive forces, are precisely the root cause of electromagnetic radiation. And the spin dominated by the charge layer also becomes an intrinsic property of high-density particles themselves. The result is that with the charge layer as the boundary, its inside and outside acting forces have reached a dynamic balance. This is the root cause of de Broglie's matter wave. Its internal mechanism, like a very tight tug-of-war competition, the balance point between the two sides is always in a reciprocating swing state. 6. The second kind of nuclear force is less powerful than the former. As there are shared parts between the charge layers of adjacent high-density particles, the combined action of the electric field force and superconducting electromagnetic force can also confine a certain degree of internal binding energy. The fission or decay of an atomic nucleus is related to this. 7. Inside an atomic nucleus, the main component of the gluon is the charges. Its so-called bundling function is two kinds of nuclear forces. And the quark has only one charge layer, which is formed by the charges in the gluon. Therefore, the quark is a relatively large high-density particle, whose shape is like a pile of tree roots and there are different spins at different locations. As for neutrons or protons, they themselves are two forms of the existence of quarks. 8. The single charge layer is the lack of resistance to those high-density particles or entities with positron features, which come from both the inside and outside sides at the same time. This will provide the possibility for us to reasonably control and use the nuclear energy with the highest mass-energy ratio in the universe. 9. The so-called magnetic field lines, whose essence is the electro-ultimate particles or the stream of charged particles derived therefrom. And electromagnetic radiation should be the root cause of the growth of all things. The evolution of the universe is derived from such a microscopic physical phenomenon, and from the quantitative to qualitative change results. 10. In the interior of the Earth, a great deal of electromagnetic radiation is generated at every moment. This is the root cause of our global warming and earthquakes. In which there is shorter wavelength part, that is, the main body of energy is converted into geothermal heat. And only the far infrared light with relatively longer wavelength can pass through the Earth's crust and even radiate into the space. Therefore, it can be through satellite scanning to establish the dynamic far-infrared spectrum of Earth's crust that changes over time. In this way, both the geothermal resources can be rationally utilized and it is also beneficial to prevent the occurrence of earthquakes.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1186] viXra:1806.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-06 19:04:08

The Relation of Electric and Magnetic Field Laws to Matter Laws

Authors: Jeff Yee, Lori Gardi
Comments: 16 pages

The equations for calculating the energy and forces of matter are shown to be the equivalent of the equations for calculating electric and magnetic field energy and forces. The laws are equivalent when expressed mathematically for a single electron particle as it is the commonality between matter and the electric/magnetic fields.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1185] viXra:1806.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-06 02:17:46

Mono-Energetic Neutrinos

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino— the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved funding and start of construction for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, which will begin operations in the early 2020s to hunt for hypothetical dark matter particles called weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. [32] Thanks to low-noise superconducting quantum amplifiers invented at the University of California, Berkeley, physicists are now embarking on the most sensitive search yet for axions, one of today's top candidates for dark matter. [31] The Axion Dark Matter Experiment (ADMX) at the University of Washington in Seattle has finally reached the sensitivity needed to detect axions if they make up dark matter, physicists report today in Physical Review Letters. [30]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1184] viXra:1806.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-04 07:11:47

Antineutrino Oscillation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino— the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved funding and start of construction for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, which will begin operations in the early 2020s to hunt for hypothetical dark matter particles called weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. [32] Thanks to low-noise superconducting quantum amplifiers invented at the University of California, Berkeley, physicists are now embarking on the most sensitive search yet for axions, one of today's top candidates for dark matter. [31] The Axion Dark Matter Experiment (ADMX) at the University of Washington in Seattle has finally reached the sensitivity needed to detect axions if they make up dark matter, physicists report today in Physical Review Letters. [30] Now our new study – which hints that extremely light particles called neutrinos are likely to make up some of the dark matter – challenges our current understanding of its composition. [29]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1183] viXra:1806.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-04 09:10:35

Lepton Colliders

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

Lepton Colliders "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino— the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved funding and start of construction for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, which will begin operations in the early 2020s to hunt for hypothetical dark matter particles called weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. [32] Thanks to low-noise superconducting quantum amplifiers invented at the University of California, Berkeley, physicists are now embarking on the most sensitive search yet for axions, one of today's top candidates for dark matter. [31] The Axion Dark Matter Experiment (ADMX) at the University of Washington in Seattle has finally reached the sensitivity needed to detect axions if they make up dark matter, physicists report today in Physical Review Letters. [30]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1182] viXra:1806.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-04 09:53:44

Higgs Boson and Top Quark

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

Higgs boson decaying into bottom quarks. Now, scientists are tackling its relationship with the top quark. [9] Usha Mallik and her team used a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to help build a sub-detector at the Large Hadron Collider, the world's largest and most powerful particle accelerator, located in Switzerland. They're running experiments on the sub-detector to search for a pair of bottom quarks— subatomic yin-and-yang particles that should be produced about 60 percent of the time a Higgs boson decays. [8] A new way of measuring how the Higgs boson couples to other fundamental particles has been proposed by physicists in France, Israel and the US. Their technique would involve comparing the spectra of several different isotopes of the same atom to see how the Higgs force between the atom's electrons and its nucleus affects the atomic energy levels. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1181] viXra:1806.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-03 06:48:48

Cause Analysis of Magnetic Moment Anomaly of Electron Family Divergence Between Electromagnetic Force and Weak Nuclear Force

Authors: Zhengdong Huang
Comments: 40 Pages.

The paper aimed to analyze the decay mode of 253 kinds of electron particles and one kind of collision reaction in order to discover the objective existence of the decay state of the electron particles. Meanwhile, the paper also intended to research the cause of the magnetic moment anomaly of the electron to obtain the theoretical value of g, and this value was compared with the experimental value: the two values have 12 significant figures as the same, and the error is within 5.3E-13. Furthermore, the proposed method was compared with QED method for advantage and disadvantage analysis in the aspects of action type, theoretical accuracy of magnetic moment anomaly, particle state, basic reaction type, potential energy form, formula for magnetic moment anomaly of electron and seven major items of detail. The proposed method is superior in all above aspects and can effectively avoid the three problems exposed in QED method, namely: intrinsic property explanation by external factors, inconsistence between μ theoretical value and experimental value and point state difficulty, so the proposed method becomes the most reasonable theory for explaining the magnetic moment anomaly of electron.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1180] viXra:1806.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-02 11:09:18

Preceding: Atomic Internal Gravitational Waves and Shock Waves: Electromagnetic Charge Cannot Hold a Positron Near a Proton Both with Positive Charges, But the Gravitational Waves Make it Possible

Authors: Peiman Ghasemi
Comments: 3 Pages.

Mostly, the destructive force of internal (atomic) wave-particles that we call microscopic shock waves emitted by the nuclei at most, and lastly the external (galactic gravitonic, and photonic) wave-particles towards the nuclei, is affectionate to make them unstable. A higher rate of energy that would increase the internal energy of atoms and so increases the energy of these sub-atomic particles, and also what we call higher entropy (higher energy dispersal), both cause the powerful microscopic shock waves, coming from sub atomic wave-particles. Shock waves are not much strong for atomic objects, or celestial objects to get measured, meanwhile their destructive power potentially can destroy the nearby smaller and weakly confined objects.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1179] viXra:1805.0534 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-30 13:30:13

Key Property Drives Neutron Decay

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

Using some of the world's most powerful supercomputers, an international team including scientists from several U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories has released the highest-precision calculation of a fundamental property of protons and neutrons known as nucleon axial coupling. [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved funding and start of construction for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, which will begin operations in the early 2020s to hunt for hypothetical dark matter particles called weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. [32] Thanks to low-noise superconducting quantum amplifiers invented at the University of California, Berkeley, physicists are now embarking on the most sensitive search yet for axions, one of today's top candidates for dark matter. [31] The Axion Dark Matter Experiment (ADMX) at the University of Washington in Seattle has finally reached the sensitivity needed to detect axions if they make up dark matter, physicists report today in Physical Review Letters. [30]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1178] viXra:1805.0533 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-30 14:04:27

Piercing the Veil of Modern Physics. Part 3 & Superconductivity

Authors: DING Jian, HU Xiuqin
Comments: 57 Pages. I firmly believe that a single spark can start great creative conflagrations.

This article (Superconductivity chapters) as the third part of the full text, at the level of electro-ultimate particles, is the result by virtue of superconductivity to further research: 1. The electro-ultimate particle renders as the negative charge of one unit, which is a unified body. It is made up of both the ultimate particle portion of possessing one unit positive charge and the negative charge portion that renders as two units. All the mass is concentrated in the ultimate particle portion, the mass of the charge portion is equal to zero but cannot exist on its own, so it can only belong to the category of the "electro-hole". The two are the most fundamental matter and antimatter. When they meet, the process of converting into the electro-ultimate particle is annihilation. 2. It can be inferred that the ultimate particles and "being emptiness" are the most fundamental existence in reality. An ultimate particle existing in this being emptiness, around it there will be accordingly to render as the characteristics of negative charge. This is the most fundamental charge layer, but also the root cause of spin. It also means that the number of all matter and antimatter in the universe must be equal. Furthermore, the interaction between the ultimate particle and charge portion follows Lenz's law. This is the root cause of inertia. And the change of the two that there is a logical order, so there is also sure to be a time lag. This is the root cause of wave. 3. Inside every one of high-density particles, the adjacent ultimate particles are already in contact with each other closely. According to the Meissner effect, all of the charges can only be attached to the surfaces of them to moving at high speed. This is the charge layer. And each high-density particle can only possess one charge layer. 4. A high-density particle is located in a certain position of the conductor structure and only responsible for transferring charges, which is the superconducting state at the microscopic level. This means that all of those particles, entities and even celestial bodies, as long as formed only by two kinds of nuclear forces (whose essence is electromagnetic force), they themselves should be superconductors at almost all temperatures. 5. The first kind of nuclear force exists in the interior of high-density particles. There are powerful repulsive forces between the ultimate particles which are already in contact with each other. At the same time, they are also subject to the electromagnetic binding force generated by the charge layer. These powerful repulsive forces, are precisely the root cause of electromagnetic radiation. And the spin dominated by the charge layer also becomes an intrinsic property of high-density particles themselves. The result is that with the charge layer as the boundary, its inside and outside acting forces have reached a dynamic balance. This is the root cause of de Broglie's matter wave. Its internal mechanism, like a very tight tug-of-war competition, the balance point between the two sides is always in a reciprocating swing state. 6. The second kind of nuclear force is less powerful than the former. As there are shared parts between the charge layers of adjacent high-density particles, the combined action of the electric field force and superconducting electromagnetic force can also confine a certain degree of internal binding energy. The fission or decay of an atomic nucleus is related to this. 7. Inside an atomic nucleus, the main component of the gluon is the charges. Its so-called bundling function is two kinds of nuclear forces. And the quark has only one charge layer, which is formed by the charges in the gluon. Therefore, the quark is a relatively large high-density particle, whose shape is like a pile of tree roots and there are different spins at different locations. As for neutrons or protons, they themselves are two forms of the existence of quarks. 8. The single charge layer is the lack of resistance to those high-density particles or entities with positron features, which come from both the inside and outside sides at the same time. This will provide the possibility for us to reasonably control and use the nuclear energy with the highest mass-energy ratio in the universe. 9. The so-called magnetic field lines, whose essence is the electro-ultimate particles or the stream of charged particles derived therefrom. And electromagnetic radiation should be the root cause of the growth of all things. The evolution of the universe is derived from such a microscopic physical phenomenon, and from the quantitative to qualitative change results. 10. In the interior of the Earth, a great deal of electromagnetic radiation is generated at every moment. This is the root cause of our global warming and earthquakes. In which there is shorter wavelength part, that is, the main body of energy is converted into geothermal heat. And only the far infrared light with relatively longer wavelength can pass through the Earth's crust and even radiate into the space. Therefore, it can be through satellite scanning to establish the dynamic far-infrared spectrum of Earth's crust that changes over time. In this way, both the geothermal resources can be rationally utilized and it is also beneficial to prevent the occurrence of earthquakes.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1177] viXra:1805.0521 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-30 02:51:26

What’s Wrong with the Weak Interaction?

Authors: Paul R. Gerber
Comments: 3 pages

A group-theoretical argument is given which shows that the weak interaction does not violate parity symmetry. Two corresponding experiments are discussed. As a consequence, charge conjugation can not be considered an independent symmetry operation. Furthermore, the more general question is asked whether there is any fundamental need at all for a weak force.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1176] viXra:1805.0478 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-26 06:09:48

Skyrme Model, Wess-Zumino Anomaly, Quark Model, and Consistent Symmetry Breaking

Authors: Syed Afsar Abbas
Comments: 9 Pages.

The original Skyrme lagrangian needs to be supplemented with a Wess-Zumino anomaly term to ensure proper quantzation. This is our Skyrme-Wess-Zumino model here. In this model, we show that the study of the electric charges is a very discriminating property. It provides powerful statements as to how the two flavour group SU(2) may be embedded in the three flavour group SU(3). The subsequent symmetry breaking is found to be very different from the one necessary in the SU(3) quark model. The Skyrme-Wess-Zumino model leads to a unique and unambiguos symmetry breaking process. It is known that all Irreducible Representations given by triangle diagrams for SU(3) are 3, 6, 10, 15, 21 etc. dimensional states. The triplet, being the lowest dimensional one, plays the most crucial and basic role here. This leads to composite Sakaton as emerging to become the proper Irreducible Representation of the flavour group SU(3) in the Skyrme-Wess-Zumino model.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1175] viXra:1805.0463 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-25 06:12:55

Matter-Antimatter Asymmetry of Neutrinos

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

From the data collected by the LHCb detector at the Large Hadron Collider, it appears that the particles known as charm mesons and their antimatter counterparts are not produced in perfectly equal proportions. [38] The OPERA experiment, located at the Gran Sasso Laboratory of the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), was designed to conclusively prove that muon-neutrinos can convert to tau-neutrinos, through a process called neutrino oscillation, whose discovery was awarded the 2015 Nobel Physics Prize. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino—the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved funding and start of construction for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, which will begin operations in the early 2020s to hunt for hypothetical dark matter particles called weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. [32] Thanks to low-noise superconducting quantum amplifiers invented at the University of California, Berkeley, physicists are now embarking on the most sensitive search yet for axions, one of today's top candidates for dark matter. [31] The Axion Dark Matter Experiment (ADMX) at the University of Washington in Seattle has finally reached the sensitivity needed to detect axions if they make up dark matter, physicists report today in Physical Review Letters. [30]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1174] viXra:1805.0458 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-25 11:55:24

Doubly Charmed Particle

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

The announcement was made during the CHARM 2018 international workshop in Novosibirsk in Russia: a charming moment for this doubly charmed particle. [25] The group, in work published in Physical Review Letters, has now used powerful theoretical and computational tools to predict the existence of a "most strange" dibaryon, made up of two "Omega baryons" that contain three strange quarks each. [24] The nuclear physicists found that the proton's building blocks, the quarks, are subjected to a pressure of 100 decillion Pascal (10 35) near the center of a proton, which is about 10 times greater than the pressure in the heart of a neutron star. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1173] viXra:1805.0456 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-25 13:04:23

Crabbing of a Proton Beam

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

CERN has successfully tested "crab cavities" to rotate a beam of protons – a world first. [24] The nuclear physicists found that the proton's building blocks, the quarks, are subjected to a pressure of 100 decillion Pascal (10 35) near the center of a proton, which is about 10 times greater than the pressure in the heart of a neutron star. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1172] viXra:1805.0453 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-25 17:17:50

Duality-Symmetric Finance II

Authors: Soerivhe Iriene
Comments: 0.5 Pages.

Duality-symmetric Finance, as presented at VIXRAPEDIA.ORG, is a duality symmetric finance. This model has novel features.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1171] viXra:1805.0419 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-24 07:26:40

Exotic Di-Omega Particle

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

The group, in work published in Physical Review Letters, has now used powerful theoretical and computational tools to predict the existence of a "most strange" dibaryon, made up of two "Omega baryons" that contain three strange quarks each. [24] The nuclear physicists found that the proton's building blocks, the quarks, are subjected to a pressure of 100 decillion Pascal (10 35) near the center of a proton, which is about 10 times greater than the pressure in the heart of a neutron star. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1170] viXra:1805.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-21 07:40:28

Antineutrino's PROSPECT

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino— the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved funding and start of construction for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, which will begin operations in the early 2020s to hunt for hypothetical dark matter particles called weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. [32] Thanks to low-noise superconducting quantum amplifiers invented at the University of California, Berkeley, physicists are now embarking on the most sensitive search yet for axions, one of today's top candidates for dark matter. [31] The Axion Dark Matter Experiment (ADMX) at the University of Washington in Seattle has finally reached the sensitivity needed to detect axions if they make up dark matter, physicists report today in Physical Review Letters. [30] Now our new study – which hints that extremely light particles called neutrinos are likely to make up some of the dark matter – challenges our current understanding of its composition. [29] A new particle detector design proposed at the) could greatly broaden the search for dark matter—which makes up 85 percent of the total mass of the universe yet we don't know what it's made of—into an unexplored realm. [28]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1169] viXra:1805.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-22 11:42:00

OPERA Neutrino Oscillations

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

The OPERA experiment, located at the Gran Sasso Laboratory of the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), was designed to conclusively prove that muon-neutrinos can convert to tau-neutrinos, through a process called neutrino oscillation, whose discovery was awarded the 2015 Nobel Physics Prize. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino— the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved funding and start of construction for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, which will begin operations in the early 2020s to hunt for hypothetical dark matter particles called weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. [32] Thanks to low-noise superconducting quantum amplifiers invented at the University of California, Berkeley, physicists are now embarking on the most sensitive search yet for axions, one of today's top candidates for dark matter. [31] The Axion Dark Matter Experiment (ADMX) at the University of Washington in Seattle has finally reached the sensitivity needed to detect axions if they make up dark matter, physicists report today in Physical Review Letters. [30] Now our new study – which hints that extremely light particles called neutrinos are likely to make up some of the dark matter – challenges our current understanding of its composition. [29]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1168] viXra:1805.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-18 04:28:50

Measuring an Antineutrino's Energy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino—the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved funding and start of construction for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, which will begin operations in the early 2020s to hunt for hypothetical dark matter particles called weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. [32] Thanks to low-noise superconducting quantum amplifiers invented at the University of California, Berkeley, physicists are now embarking on the most sensitive search yet for axions, one of today's top candidates for dark matter. [31]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1167] viXra:1805.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-16 13:06:41

Pressure Inside Proton

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

The nuclear physicists found that the proton's building blocks, the quarks, are subjected to a pressure of 100 decillion Pascal (10 35) near the center of a proton, which is about 10 times greater than the pressure in the heart of a neutron star. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1166] viXra:1805.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-17 04:57:25

Neutrinoless Beta-Decay Puzzle

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved funding and start of construction for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, which will begin operations in the early 2020s to hunt for hypothetical dark matter particles called weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. [32] Thanks to low-noise superconducting quantum amplifiers invented at the University of California, Berkeley, physicists are now embarking on the most sensitive search yet for axions, one of today's top candidates for dark matter. [31] The Axion Dark Matter Experiment (ADMX) at the University of Washington in Seattle has finally reached the sensitivity needed to detect axions if they make up dark matter, physicists report today in Physical Review Letters. [30] Now our new study – which hints that extremely light particles called neutrinos are likely to make up some of the dark matter – challenges our current understanding of its composition. [29] A new particle detector design proposed at the) could greatly broaden the search for dark matter—which makes up 85 percent of the total mass of the universe yet we don't know what it's made of—into an unexplored realm. [28] University of Houston scientists are helping to develop a technology that could hold the key to unraveling one of the great mysteries of science: what constitutes dark matter? [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1165] viXra:1805.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-14 19:26:24

E8 Physics Straight Outta Africa

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 122 Pages.

E8 Physics of viXra 1804.0121 comes from Ancient Africa.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1164] viXra:1805.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-10 17:35:50

Purely Physical View of the Problem Restitutio ad Integrum

Authors: Mitin Victor Stepanovitch
Comments: 11 Pages. 1805.0206

Recovery to the whole from a purely physical point of view.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1163] viXra:1805.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-10 10:26:25

Purely Physical View of the Prolem Restitutio ad Integrum

Authors: Mitin Victor Stepanovitch
Comments: 11 Pages.

Recovery to the whole from a purely physical point of view.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1162] viXra:1805.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-10 11:24:07

Neutron Decay to Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved funding and start of construction for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, which will begin operations in the early 2020s to hunt for hypothetical dark matter particles called weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. [32] Thanks to low-noise superconducting quantum amplifiers invented at the University of California, Berkeley, physicists are now embarking on the most sensitive search yet for axions, one of today's top candidates for dark matter. [31] The Axion Dark Matter Experiment (ADMX) at the University of Washington in Seattle has finally reached the sensitivity needed to detect axions if they make up dark matter, physicists report today in Physical Review Letters. [30]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1161] viXra:1805.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-10 02:22:22

Proton's Weak Charge

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

A new result from the Q-weak experiment at the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility provides a precision test of the weak force, one of four fundamental forces in nature. [21] The most surprising result from beta decay is that nature is not ambidextrous, but is "left-handed." [20] This week, a group of scientists working on the MiniBooNE experiment at the Department of Energy's Fermilab reported a breakthrough: They were able to identify exactly-known-energy muon neutrinos hitting the atoms at the heart of their particle detector. [19] In a study published in Physical Review Letters, collaborators of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an experiment led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, have shown they can shield a sensitive, scalable 44-kilogram germanium detector array from background radioactivity. [18] The study has put the most stringent limits on the probability of a rare event—a neutrinoless double beta decay of tellurium-130 nuclei. This event can only occur if a neutrino can be its own antiparticle. [17] While these experiments seem miniature in comparison to others, they could reveal answers about neutrinos that have been hiding from physicists for decades. [16] In a paper published today in the European Physical Journal C, the ATLAS Collaboration reports the first high-precision measurement at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the mass of the W boson. [15] A team of researchers at the University of Michigan has conducted a thought experiment regarding the nature of a universe that could support life without the weak force. [14] The international T2K Collaboration announces a first indication that the dominance of matter over antimatter may originate from the fact that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently during those oscillations. [13] Neutrinos are a challenge to study because their interactions with matter are so rare. Particularly elusive has been what's known as coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, which occurs when a neutrino bumps off the nucleus of an atom. [12]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1160] viXra:1805.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-04 03:43:12

Topological Skyrme Model and the Nucleus

Authors: Syed Afsar Abbas
Comments: 16 Pages.

We study the two-flavour topological Skyrme model with lagrangian L = L2 + L4 , and point out that, in spite of all the successes attibuted to it, as to the electric charges, it predicts Q(proton) = 1/2 and Q(neutron) = − 1/2 . This is in direct conflict with the experimental values of proton and neutron charges. This should be considered a failure of the Skyrme model. The Wess-Zumino anomaly term however, comes to its rescue and provides additional contribution which lead to the the correct charges for baryons as per the standard Gell-Mann- Nishijima expression. But as per conventional understanding, that the Skyrme model gives a conserved atomic mass number A=Z+N, is not fulfilled in the above picture. We suggest a new consistent scenario wherein on quantization, a dual description beyond the above model arises, and which provides a framework which is fully compatible with nuclear physics. This picture finds justfication with respect to the surprising 1949 succcessful calculation by Steinberger for the decay π0 → γγ.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1159] viXra:1805.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-01 16:04:44

Barut´s Lepton Mass Formula, Its Correction, and the Deduction from it of a “proton Mass”.

Authors: Osvaldo F. Schilling
Comments: 5 Pages.

In a PRL published in 1979 A.O.Barut proposed a lepton mass formula of the form m(n)= 3/(2 )n4 Me , where Me is the electron mass,  is the fine-structure constant and n is an integer, with increasing leptons masses obtained from the values for m(n) added in sequence of n to Me . Such model assumes the leptons excess mass m(n) comes from kinetic-magnetic energies and arises from a coupling between the electron magnetic moment and the resulting magnetic field. The formula is good for the muon, with n=1. However, we show that the n-dependence in this formula should be n2 rather than n4( the proposed fourth power is incorrect !). Such correction makes Barut´s model formula consistent with the energies obtained for the physically analogous superconducting loop case, treated theoretically by Byers and Yang, which scales as n2. We apply the corrected formula and reobtain the mass for the tau-lepton, now corresponding to n=4 and not 2, and for n=3 a “proton” with m ≈ 945 Mev/c2 mass.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1158] viXra:1805.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-02 07:45:05

Left Handed Nature

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

The most surprising result from beta decay is that nature is not ambidextrous, but is "left-handed." [20] This week, a group of scientists working on the MiniBooNE experiment at the Department of Energy's Fermilab reported a breakthrough: They were able to identify exactly-known-energy muon neutrinos hitting the atoms at the heart of their particle detector. [19] In a study published in Physical Review Letters, collaborators of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an experiment led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, have shown they can shield a sensitive, scalable 44-kilogram germanium detector array from background radioactivity. [18] The study has put the most stringent limits on the probability of a rare event—a neutrinoless double beta decay of tellurium-130 nuclei. This event can only occur if a neutrino can be its own antiparticle. [17] While these experiments seem miniature in comparison to others, they could reveal answers about neutrinos that have been hiding from physicists for decades. [16] In a paper published today in the European Physical Journal C, the ATLAS Collaboration reports the first high-precision measurement at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the mass of the W boson. [15] A team of researchers at the University of Michigan has conducted a thought experiment regarding the nature of a universe that could support life without the weak force. [14] The international T2K Collaboration announces a first indication that the dominance of matter over antimatter may originate from the fact that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently during those oscillations. [13] Neutrinos are a challenge to study because their interactions with matter are so rare. Particularly elusive has been what's known as coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, which occurs when a neutrino bumps off the nucleus of an atom. [12] Lately, neutrinos – the tiny, nearly massless particles that many scientists study to better understand the fundamental workings of the universe – have been posing a problem for physicists. [11]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1157] viXra:1805.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-01 00:31:45

Quantum Machine Learning in High Energy Physics: the Future Prospects

Authors: Kapil K. Sharma
Comments: 06 Pages. Quantum machine learning, High Eenergy Physics, Quantum Information

This article reveals the future prospects of quantum machine learning in high energy physics (HEP). Particle identication, knowing their properties and characteristics is a challenging problem in experimental HEP. The key technique to solve these problems is pattern recognition, which is an important application of machine learning and unconditionally used for HEP problems. To execute pattern recognition task for track and vertex reconstruction, the particle physics community vastly use statistical machine learning methods. These methods vary from detector to detector geometry and magnetic led used in the experiment. Here in the present introductory article, we deliver the future possibilities for the lucid application of quantum machine learning in HEP, rather than focusing on deep mathematical structures of techniques arise in this domain.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1156] viXra:1804.0478 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-30 07:42:01

Supersymmetric Preons and the Standard Model

Authors: Risto Raitio
Comments: 10 Pages. Title changed. Accepted to Nuclear Physics B.

The experimental fact that standard model superpartners have not been observed compels one to consider an alternative implementation for supersymmetry. The basic supermultiplet proposed here consists of a photon and a charged spin 1/2 preon field, and their superpartners. These fields are shown to yield the standard model fermions, Higgs fields and gauge symmetries. Supersymmetry is defined for unbound preons only. Quantum group SLq(2) representations are introduced to classify topologically scalars, preons, quarks and leptons.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1155] viXra:1804.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-19 17:53:50

The Relation of Particle Sequence to Atomic Sequence

Authors: Jeff Yee, Yingbo Zhu, Goufu Zhou
Comments: 11 pages

In this paper, we take the first steps of simplifying particles into a linear function that organizes particles based on their particle number, similar to how atoms are arranged by atomic number. This repeats the method that was used to organize atomic elements and create the Periodic Table of Elements in the 1800s. The solution to linearize particles into a predictable function is not as simple as atomic elements, but it does exist. We will introduce an equation that fits known particles into a linear function and enables the prediction of future particles based on missing energy levels. It also predicts an exact mass of the neutrino. To accomplish this, particles are first organized by particle numbers, similar to atomic numbers in the Periodic Table of Elements and then charted against their known Particle Data Group energy levels. The results show similarities between particles and atomic elements – in both total numbers in formation and also in numbers where both are known to be more stable.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1154] viXra:1804.0261 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-20 09:34:32

Muon Spin Tales

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Scientists at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories are collaborating to test a magnetic property of the muon. Their experiment could point to the existence of physics beyond our current understanding, including undiscovered particles. [14] Muons are mysterious, and scientists are diving deep into the particle to get a handle on a property that might render it—and the universe—a little less mysterious. [13] For elementary particles, such as muons or neutrinos, the magnetic force applied to such charges is unique and immutable. However, unlike the electric charge, the magnetic force strength is not quantised. [12] Particle physics and decorative glassware are two disciplines that don't often meet. But given the striking results of a recent artist-scientist collaboration, perhaps that could change. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1153] viXra:1804.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-16 16:39:04

Vixrapedia.org

Authors: Valdhaorna Istri
Comments: 1 Page.

Announcing a new encyclopedia that does not censor knowledge.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1152] viXra:1804.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-09 12:55:36

Unprecedented Neutrino Measurement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

This week, a group of scientists working on the MiniBooNE experiment at the Department of Energy's Fermilab reported a breakthrough: They were able to identify exactly-known-energy muon neutrinos hitting the atoms at the heart of their particle detector. [19] In a study published in Physical Review Letters, collaborators of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an experiment led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, have shown they can shield a sensitive, scalable 44-kilogram germanium detector array from background radioactivity. [18] The study has put the most stringent limits on the probability of a rare event—a neutrinoless double beta decay of tellurium-130 nuclei. This event can only occur if a neutrino can be its own antiparticle. [17] While these experiments seem miniature in comparison to others, they could reveal answers about neutrinos that have been hiding from physicists for decades. [16] In a paper published today in the European Physical Journal C, the ATLAS Collaboration reports the first high-precision measurement at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the mass of the W boson. [15] A team of researchers at the University of Michigan has conducted a thought experiment regarding the nature of a universe that could support life without the weak force. [14] The international T2K Collaboration announces a first indication that the dominance of matter over antimatter may originate from the fact that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently during those oscillations. [13] Neutrinos are a challenge to study because their interactions with matter are so rare. Particularly elusive has been what's known as coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, which occurs when a neutrino bumps off the nucleus of an atom. [12] Lately, neutrinos – the tiny, nearly massless particles that many scientists study to better understand the fundamental workings of the universe – have been posing a problem for physicists. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1151] viXra:1804.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-08 15:37:22

E8 Physics

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 434 Pages.

This paper describes a research program based on the 240 E8 Root Vectors encoding the basic structure of a Unified Theory of Fundamental Physics by forming a local classical Lagrangian for the Standard Model plus Gravity and Dark Energy. The Root Vectors know where they belong in the Lagrangian because of their place in the geometric structure of E8 and its related symmetric spaces such as: E8 / D8 = 128-dim (OxO)P2; E8 / E7 x SU(2) = 112-dim set of (QxO)P2 in (OxO)P2; D8 / D4 x D4 = 64-dim Gr(8,16). Embedding E8 local classical Lagrangian into Cl(0,16) Clifford Algebra and taking the completion of the union of all tensor products of all the Cl(0,16)s produces a generalization of hyperfinite II1 von Neumann factor fermionic Fock space forming a global AQFT describing spacetime, the Standard Model, and Gravity with Dark Energy. The structure is related to unconventional 26D String Theory by Cl(0,16) -> Cl(0,16)xCl(0,8) = Cl(0,24) -> M(2,Cl(0,24)) = Cl(1,25). Completion of Union of All Tensor Products of Cl(1,25) = 2x2 matrices of Cl(0,24) is the String Theory formulation of the hyperfinite AQFT. The Cl(1,25) of 26D String Theory contains Cl(0,16) which contains E8 whose root vectors describe a Lagrangian for the Standard Model and Gravity + Dark Energy. The paper describes physical interpretations of the 240 Root Vectors and how they are used in calculating force strengths, particle masses, Kobayashi-Maskawa parameters, Dark Energy : Dark Matter : Ordinary Matter ratios, etc. that can be compared with Experimental Observations which are given up to and including the 2016 run of the LHC in the Higgs -> ZZ -> 4l channel which is relevant to the E8 Physics prediction of 3 Mass States of the Higgs and Truth Quark:
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1150] viXra:1804.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-04 10:52:25

Particle Accelerator for Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

DESY scientists have created a miniature particle accelerator for electrons that can perform four different functions at the push of a button. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1149] viXra:1803.0732 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-30 22:01:50

E8 Physics: Cayley-Dickson and Clifford Algebras - - Braids - Cellular Automata

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 9 Pages.

This paper consists of comments about relationships among the E8-Cl(16 Physics model of viXra 1602.0319 and Cayley-Dickson Algebras, Real Clifford Algebras, Braids,and Cellular Automata.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1148] viXra:1803.0670 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-26 12:49:05

Underground Neutrino Discovery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

In a study published in Physical Review Letters, collaborators of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an experiment led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, have shown they can shield a sensitive, scalable 44-kilogram germanium detector array from background radioactivity. [18] The study has put the most stringent limits on the probability of a rare event—a neutrinoless double beta decay of tellurium-130 nuclei. This event can only occur if a neutrino can be its own antiparticle. [17] While these experiments seem miniature in comparison to others, they could reveal answers about neutrinos that have been hiding from physicists for decades. [16] In a paper published today in the European Physical Journal C, the ATLAS Collaboration reports the first high-precision measurement at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the mass of the W boson. [15] A team of researchers at the University of Michigan has conducted a thought experiment regarding the nature of a universe that could support life without the weak force. [14] The international T2K Collaboration announces a first indication that the dominance of matter over antimatter may originate from the fact that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently during those oscillations. [13] Neutrinos are a challenge to study because their interactions with matter are so rare. Particularly elusive has been what's known as coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, which occurs when a neutrino bumps off the nucleus of an atom. [12] Lately, neutrinos – the tiny, nearly massless particles that many scientists study to better understand the fundamental workings of the universe – have been posing a problem for physicists. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1147] viXra:1803.0641 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-24 18:30:00

The Relation of Relativistic Energy to Particle Wavelength

Authors: Jeff Yee
Comments: 21 pages

In this paper, particle motion is considered in the Energy Wave Theory equations. The addition of particle velocity into the equations derives and explains the nature of relativity as a Doppler effect of a particle’s mean wavelength change. The addition of a change in wave amplitude relates particle spin to magnetism and gravity. These new additions to the equations are first described, and then proven to derive the existing Energy Wave Equations and calculations for particles at rest. Then, they are shown to derive and prove relativistic energy.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1146] viXra:1803.0640 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-24 18:55:04

Representing E8 Root Vectors for E8-Cl(16) Physics

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 9 Pages.

In my E8-Cl(16) Physics model (viXra 1602.0319 and related papers) I have been as of March 2018 using a particuar 2D picture of the 240 E8 Root Vectors to explain my physical interpretation of each E8 Root Vector, but in discussion at Tellus Museum, Cartersville, Georgia on 11-24 March 2018 with Marcelo Amaral, Marni Sheppeard, and Ray Aschheim I have found that a 2D picture of the 240 E8 Root Vectors by Ray Aschheimvseems to me to be more fundamental, so I am now changing to Ray’s picture which I describe in this paper.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1145] viXra:1803.0638 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-25 06:17:16

The Nonlinear Theory of Elementary Particles

Authors: Kyriakos A.G.
Comments: 285 Pages.

The author proposes a special nonlinear quantum field theory. In a linear approximation, this theory can be presented in the form of the Standard Model (SM) theory. The richer physical structure of this nonlinear theory makes it possible to exceed the limits of SM and remove its known incompleteness. We show that nonlinearity of the field is critical for the appearance of charges and masses of elementary particles, for confinement of quarks, and many other effects, whose description within the framework of SM causes difficulties. In this case, the mechanism of generation of masses is mathematically similar to Higgs's mechanism, but it is considerably simpler. The proposed theory does not examine the theory of gravity, but give the base to build Lorentz-invariant gravitation theory. The book is intended for undergraduate and graduate students studying the theory of elementary particles, as well as for specialists working in this field.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1144] viXra:1803.0449 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 09:50:01

The Mass of Lepton Tau

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Here, using the atom-like structure of baryons described in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we calculated the mass of lepton tau (1776.947 MeV and 1776.944 MeV) in two different elegant ways.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1143] viXra:1803.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-20 13:36:11

The Experiments Of The Bottle And The Beam For The Lifetime Of The Neutron: A Theoretical Approximation Derived From The Casimir Effect

Authors: Angel Garcés Doz
Comments: 9 Pages.

The last neutron life-time experiments using the bottle method rule out possible experimental errors and possible sources of interference; mainly the interaction of the neutrons with the material of the walls of the bottle. Therefore, the discrepancy between the lifetimes of the neutron by experiments of the beam and the bottle require a theoretical explanation.The main and crucial difference between the beam and bottle experiments is the different topology of the experiments. While in the beam experiment the neutrons are not confined; in the experiment of the bottle a confinement takes place. In our theoretical approach we postulate the existence of a type of Casimir effect that due to the different geometry-topology of the experiments; it produces an induction-polarization of the vacuum by the confinement and the existence of the trapped neutrons; in such a way that there is an increase in the density of the quarks u, d, gluons and the virtual W and Z bosons. This density increase, mainly, of the neutral Z bosons; would be responsible for the increased probability of the decay of a neutron in a proton; and therefore of the shortening of the decay time of the neutron in the experiment of the bottle; of 877.7 seconds.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1142] viXra:1803.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-17 07:44:22

The Simplest and Accurate Theory of Proton and Neutron Based on Only Six Parameters that are Experimental Values

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 13 Pages.

Here, we present the simplest version of the atom-like structure of baryons. We use six parameters only that are experimental values. They are the three fundamental physical constants, the mass of electron and the two masses of pions. There do not appear free parameters. We calculated masses of nucleons and their magnetic moments. Obtained results are in very good consistency with experimental data. For example, calculated magnetic moment of proton is +2.7928471 (the experimental value is +2.792847351(9) [2]) so the 7 first significant digits are the same. The same is for the mass of proton - we obtained 938.272065 MeV (the experimental result is 938.272081(6) MeV [2]). Here we apply the experimental central values for five from the six parameters because accuracy of the experimental mass of neutral pion is very low. To obtain the perfect results, we use the theoretical mass of neutral pion (134.97678 MeV) which overlaps with the interval defined by experiments: 134.9770(5) MeV [2]. Due to future more precise data for mass of neutral pion, we will able to verify presented here theory of nucleons. Emphasize that our results are much, much better than values obtained within the Standard Model despite the fact that our model contains at least 5 times less parameters.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1141] viXra:1803.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-17 11:26:59

Weak Turbulence Makes Chirping

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Such chirping signals a loss of heat that can slow fusion reactions, a loss that has long puzzled scientists. [15] Physicists from the Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, researchers from Chalmers University of Technology and computer scientists from Lobachevsky University have developed a new software tool called PICADOR for numerical modeling of laser plasmas on modern supercomputers. [14]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1140] viXra:1803.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-16 14:28:12

Are the “quarks” and the “electron” Elementary Particles?

Authors: Vaggelis Talios
Comments: 9 Pages.

The value of the charge of the “quark down” that is 1/3 of the value of the charge of the electron, limits the smallest charge subdivision has hitherto been identified. This means that all the particles with multiple charges, thus “quark up” and “electron”, are divisible particles. In this paper will identify the subdivisions of the quarks and the electron and will study how these particles are created from these subdivisions. In Fig. 2 of this work are given the structures of quarks up and down and of the electron. Extending for a bit the subject of the work, suggests in Figure 3, a new structure of the atom where the various stages of the creation of the sub-atomic particles are noted too.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1139] viXra:1803.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-16 16:13:04

Energy Wave Equations: Correction Factors

Authors: Jeff Yee
Comments: 10 pages

The equations in Energy Wave Theory accurately model particle energy, photon energy, forces, atomic orbitals and derive 19 fundamental physical constants from only five wave constants. Yet three correction factors are apparent in the equations, even though all three can be derived from the wave constants. In this paper, a potential reason for these factors is discussed and the potential of consolidating the three factors into one, based on the velocity of the Earth, which was neglected in the original construction of the Energy Wave equations.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1138] viXra:1803.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-16 09:01:45

Spin Arrangement Observation by Neutron

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

For the first time in the world, NIMS, JAEA and J-PARC jointly succeeded in observing electron spin arrangements in sample materials by applying a neutron beam to a sample and quantifying the neutrons transmitted through it. [31] Now, for the first time ever, researchers from Aalto University, Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF), Technical University of Braunschweig and Nagoya University have produced the superconductor-like quantum spin liquid predicted by Anderson. [30] Electrons in graphene—an atomically thin, flexible and incredibly strong substance that has captured the imagination of materials scientists and physicists alike—move at the speed of light, and behave like they have no mass. [29] In a series of exciting experiments, Cambridge researchers experienced weightlessness testing graphene's application in space. [28] Scientists from ITMO University have developed effective nanoscale light sources based on halide perovskite. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1137] viXra:1803.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-16 10:25:59

Ultra-Dense Electron-Positron Plasmas

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Physicists from the Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, researchers from Chalmers University of Technology and computer scientists from Lobachevsky University have developed a new software tool called PICADOR for numerical modeling of laser plasmas on modern supercomputers. [14] The interaction of high-power laser light sources with matter has given rise to numerous applications including; fast ion acceleration; intense X-ray, gamma-ray, positron and neutron generation; and fast-ignition-based laser fusion. [13] Conventional electron accelerators have become an indispensable tool in modern research. [12] An outstanding conundrum on what happens to the laser energy after beams are fired into plasma has been solved in newly-published research at the University of Strathclyde. [11] Researchers at Lund University and Louisiana State University have developed a tool that makes it possible to control extreme UV light - light with much shorter wavelengths than visible light. [10]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1136] viXra:1803.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-15 03:46:25

Revival of the Sakaton

Authors: Syed Afsar Abbas
Comments: 10 Pages.

Sakaton, S=p,n,Λ with integral charges, 1,0,0, respectively, and treated as forming the fundamental representation of SU(3) group, was successful in explaining the octet mesons but failed to describe the structure of baryons. This was replaced by fractionally charged quarks. Q=u,d,s providing the fundamental representation of the SU(3) group. This has been a thumping success. Thus a decent burial was given to the concept of the Sakaton. However, there is another model, the Topological Skyrme model, which has been providing a parallel and successful description of the same hadrons. Nevertheless, sometimes this other model gives tantalizing hints of new structures in hadrons. In this paper we prove that this topological Skyrme model, leads to a clear revival of the above concept of Sakaton, as a real and a genuine physical entity. This provides a new perspective to the hypernuclei. ’t Hooft anomaly matching gives an unambiguous support to this revival of the Sakaton.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1135] viXra:1803.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-11 20:29:57

Influence of Laser Spot Scanning Speed on Micro Polishing Using uv Nano-Second Pulse Laser

Authors: Jang Pong-Ryol, Kim Chun-Gun, Han Guang-Pok, Pea Uyong-Guk
Comments: 10 Pages.

During laser micro polishing of the metallic surface, it is very important to choose the optimal laser energy density and laser spot scanning speed. In this paper, during micro-polishing on the metallic surface by using UV nanosecond pulse laser, the influence of laser spot scanning speed on the polishing effect was investigated in terms of the relationship with the laser energy density. The experimental and analytical considerations were shown that there is the optimal scanning speed of laser spot for the best laser polishing effect when the laser energy density on the workpiece surface was rated, and the influence of the overlap ratio of the scanning lines was also considered. In addition, the optimal process parameters for the laser micro polishing of Ti and Ni metallic surfaces were obtained and the laser micro polishing experiments on theose metallic surfaces were conducted. For Ti and Ni metallic surfaces, the surface roughness improvements of up to 51.6% and 52 % were respectively obtained.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1134] viXra:1803.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-03 07:03:15

A Strong Force Potential Formula and the Classification of the Strong Interaction

Authors: Zhengdong Huang
Comments: 29 Pages.

The most difficult problem in the research on strong interaction is to solve the mechanical expression of strong nuclear force, thus failing to comprehensively describe the state in and between hadrons. In this paper, reasonable strong force potential hypothesis is proposed through analysis, and strong interaction is classified into 5 types according to different stress particles; then, different internal symmetrical structures are correspondingly obtained, and Dirac equation is adopted to describe the intrinsic states of 13 particles of 5 types; finally, the theoretical value and the experimental value of the mass ratio of the same-charged particles and the neutral particles are compared to prove the complete set of research method and verify the correctness of the strong force potential formula supposed thereby.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1133] viXra:1803.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-01 07:51:17

CUORE Constrains Neutrino Properties

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

The study has put the most stringent limits on the probability of a rare event—a neutrinoless double beta decay of tellurium-130 nuclei. This event can only occur if a neutrino can be its own antiparticle. [17] While these experiments seem miniature in comparison to others, they could reveal answers about neutrinos that have been hiding from physicists for decades. [16] In a paper published today in the European Physical Journal C, the ATLAS Collaboration reports the first high-precision measurement at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the mass of the W boson. [15] A team of researchers at the University of Michigan has conducted a thought experiment regarding the nature of a universe that could support life without the weak force. [14] The international T2K Collaboration announces a first indication that the dominance of matter over antimatter may originate from the fact that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently during those oscillations. [13] Neutrinos are a challenge to study because their interactions with matter are so rare. Particularly elusive has been what's known as coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, which occurs when a neutrino bumps off the nucleus of an atom. [12] Lately, neutrinos – the tiny, nearly massless particles that many scientists study to better understand the fundamental workings of the universe – have been posing a problem for physicists. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1132] viXra:1803.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-01 10:50:16

Hadronisation in Proton-Proton Collisions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been “squeezed” to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by “twisted light” can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1131] viXra:1802.0437 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-28 15:35:56

Neutron Beta Decay and Proton Spin Crisis

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

Here, using the atom-like structure of baryons described in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we showed the origin of the A and V variant of the neutron beta decay and the origin of the strong correlation between the spin of proton and the momentum of the electron-antineutrino. The neutron beta decay described within SST solves also the proton spin crisis and leads to the decay of muon consistent with experimental data.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1130] viXra:1802.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-25 15:02:28

Lifetimes of the Muon, Hyperons and Tau Lepton

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

Here,applying the atom-like structure of baryons described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we calculated lifetimes of the muon, hyperons and tau lepton. SST gives opportunity to show the origin of the time distances between the lifetimes of the hyperons. Theoretical results are very close to experimental ones.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1129] viXra:1802.0376 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-25 23:52:15

Lost in Math ? Try Thinking Like a Physicist

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 4 Pages.

If you think that today’s dominant Physics Theory - Superstrings - is All Math and No Connection to Experimental Results (LHC etc) and if that has you feeling Lost in Math then I suggest you go back to Physics 101 and methodically Think Physics: (Note - There is Math in this outline and some of it is Advanced but here Physics Intuition tells you what to do and the Math is just there to carry out the Physics Ideas. Also For Details about this Construction, see viXra 1602.0319 )
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1128] viXra:1802.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-22 11:47:04

Neutrino Interact with Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

While these experiments seem miniature in comparison to others, they could reveal answers about neutrinos that have been hiding from physicists for decades. [16] In a paper published today in the European Physical Journal C, the ATLAS Collaboration reports the first high-precision measurement at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the mass of the W boson. [15] A team of researchers at the University of Michigan has conducted a thought experiment regarding the nature of a universe that could support life without the weak force. [14] The international T2K Collaboration announces a first indication that the dominance of matter over antimatter may originate from the fact that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently during those oscillations. [13] Neutrinos are a challenge to study because their interactions with matter are so rare. Particularly elusive has been what's known as coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, which occurs when a neutrino bumps off the nucleus of an atom. [12] Lately, neutrinos – the tiny, nearly massless particles that many scientists study to better understand the fundamental workings of the universe – have been posing a problem for physicists. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn’t be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we’re starting to understand why. [7]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1127] viXra:1802.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-20 09:06:23

Laser Plasma Density Limit

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

The interaction of high-power laser light sources with matter has given rise to numerous applications including; fast ion acceleration; intense X-ray, gamma-ray, positron and neutron generation; and fast-ignition-based laser fusion. [13] Conventional electron accelerators have become an indispensable tool in modern research. [12] An outstanding conundrum on what happens to the laser energy after beams are fired into plasma has been solved in newly-published research at the University of Strathclyde. [11] Researchers at Lund University and Louisiana State University have developed a tool that makes it possible to control extreme UV light - light with much shorter wavelengths than visible light. [10] Tiny micro- and nanoscale structures within a material's surface are invisible to the naked eye, but play a big role in determining a material's physical, chemical, and biomedical properties. [9] A team of researchers led by Leo Kouwenhoven at TU Delft has demonstrated an on-chip microwave laser based on a fundamental property of superconductivity, the ac Josephson effect. They embedded a small section of an interrupted superconductor, a Josephson junction, in a carefully engineered on-chip cavity. Such a device opens the door to many applications in which microwave radiation with minimal dissipation is key, for example in controlling qubits in a scalable quantum computer. [8] Optical scientists from the Warsaw Laser Centre of the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Faculty of Physics of the University of Warsaw have generated ultrashort laser pulses in an optical fiber with a method previously considered to be physically impossible. [7] Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light in Erlangen have discovered a new mechanism for guiding light in photonic crystal fiber (PCF). [6] Scientists behind a theory that the speed of light is variable - and not constant as Einstein suggested - have made a prediction that could be tested. [5] Physicists’ greatest hope for 2015, then, is that one of these experiments will show where Einstein got off track, so someone else can jump in and get closer to his long-sought “theory of everything.” This article is part of our annual "Year In Ideas" package, which looks forward to the most important science stories we can expect in the coming year. It was originally published in the January 2015 issue of Popular Science. [4]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1126] viXra:1802.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-19 07:08:03

Platonic Solids and Elementary Particles

Authors: Lev I. Verkhovsky
Comments: 8 Pages. This is a translation into English of the abridged version of an article published in the Russian popular science journal `Chemistry and Life` (2006, No 6)

The groups of symmetry of regular polyhedra are considered. It is shown that a total number and types of gauge bosons in the Grand Unified Theory with the group SU(5) can be deduced from the structure of the cube rotation group. Possible connections of fundamental fermions with the icosahedral symmetry are discussed.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1125] viXra:1802.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-17 19:52:27

S_theory (Electromagnetic Model of Universe)

Authors: Viktor Chibisov, Ivan Chibisov
Comments: 393 Pages.

S_theory belongs to the class of preon models of the structure of elementary particles from first-particles (the first brick). The basic idea of S_theory lies in the model for the formation of irst-particles of matter (simples) by stretching the electric vortices of virtual photons with a powerful magnetic field (PMF) of a bursting singularity into electromagnetic vortex-helixes. After the "shutdown" of the PMF, the vortex-spirals are shortened to resonance lengths (5 pcs.) and the longer ones (2 pcs.) fold into toroidal vortex-bagels, such as Zeldovich's anapoles. From Zel'dovich's anapoles, they are distinguished by the presence of an azimuthal electric vortex, which gives them a magnetic moment and an electric charge. From the formed spectrum of 2 standard sizes of simples-bagels and 3 standard sizes of simples-spirales S_models of formation of basic elementary particles, relic neutron, nucleosynthesis of isotope clouds, main nuclear reactions, neutron stars, black holes, particles of Dark matter are offered, and also to give an explanation reasons for the dispersal of galaxies (dark energy) and the dilemma of the imbalance of matter and antimatter in our Universe. The proposed S-models of these objects and the processes of their formation made it possible to establish the deterministic regularities of these processes, covering the era of the formation and evolution of the universe after the Big Bang. The proposed S-models of objects and the processes of their formation and transformation have an exclusively electromagnetic character, based on the interaction of electric and magnetic vortices. It was found that the theory of the interaction of electric and magnetic vortices (TEMV) is currently not fully developed, we had to postulate a number of TEMV provisions. In this paper, schemes for experimental verification of this postulates and consequences stemming from S-theory, such as the difference of masses of protons, neutrons and alpha particles in different isotopes, and the need to correct the reference masses of individual isotopes (in particular tritium) are proposed. An analysis of the appearance of virtual photons and the singularity at the time of the Big Bang led us to the assumption of a two-component space structure consisting of corpuscles containing related components K1 and K2, genealogically related to electric and magnetic vortices. The models of formation of virtual photons and the first singularity are given.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1124] viXra:1802.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-17 10:35:06

Why Renormalize if You Don’t Have To?

Authors: Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse
Comments: 1 Page.

While the notion that it is better to avoid renormalization if one possibly can is an easy sell, the possibility that a naturally finite, confined, and gauge invariant quantum model has come over the horizon turns out to be a surprisingly hard sell.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1123] viXra:1802.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-15 06:33:28

Unification of Gravitation and Electrostatics

Authors: Misheck Kirimi
Comments: 13 Pages.

Unification of Newton’s law of universal gravitation and Coulomb’s law of electrostatics is explored. The similarities and the differences in these laws have remained unexplained since 1784 when Coulomb published the latter law. It is noted here that no past research has paid attention to the fact that ‘gravitational mass’ (M1M2) and ‘electric charge’ (Q1Q2) are the only physical parameters that Newton’s and Coulomb’s laws do not share. The observation reduces ‘unification of gravity and electricity’ to ‘unification of mass and electric charge’. Despite the simplicity of this observation, physics literature is silent about the relation of mass to electric charge. Little effort has been devoted to this subject because the meaning of charge is ambiguous – charge has never been explained in terms of known physical parameters. An intelligible explanation of charge is suggested here. Based on the explanation, it is demonstrated that mass and charge are different aspects of the electron. Consequently, it is shown that gravitation and electrostatics are different facets of a common phenomenon. It is concluded that positron and negatron are the ultimate elementary units of matter, i.e. matter is nothing but equal positive and negative grains of electricity. The results solve a major problem in physics, namely the unification of gravitation and electrostatics, and also provide a theoretical foundation for attempts to manipulate gravity.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1122] viXra:1802.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-15 10:16:23

Lifetime of the Neutron

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that in the bottle experiments, measured mean lifetime of the neutron should be 879.9 s whereas the beam experiments should lead to 888.4 s. The difference is due to the fact that in a bottle, neutrons move in a disorderly way, while in a beam they move in an orderly manner. The ordered motions in the beam force creation of two virtual quadrupoles per decaying neutron (the total spin and charge of quadrupole is equal to zero) instead one quadrupole per neutron in the bottle. Obtained here results are consistent with experimental data.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1121] viXra:1802.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-12 10:40:02

Mass of the W Boson

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

In a paper published today in the European Physical Journal C, the ATLAS Collaboration reports the first high-precision measurement at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the mass of the W boson. [15] A team of researchers at the University of Michigan has conducted a thought experiment regarding the nature of a universe that could support life without the weak force. [14] The international T2K Collaboration announces a first indication that the dominance of matter over antimatter may originate from the fact that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently during those oscillations. [13] Neutrinos are a challenge to study because their interactions with matter are so rare. Particularly elusive has been what's known as coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, which occurs when a neutrino bumps off the nucleus of an atom. [12] Lately, neutrinos – the tiny, nearly massless particles that many scientists study to better understand the fundamental workings of the universe – have been posing a problem for physicists. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn’t be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we’re starting to understand why. [7]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1120] viXra:1802.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-11 13:38:42

Phase Transitions in Nucleon-Nucleon Collisions

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

Here, applying the classical/statistical/non-perturbative Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we calculated the threshold (centre-of-mass) energies and corresponding to them values of the rho parameter. The qualitative description is very detailed and in the quantitative description there are incorporated the coupling constants calculated within SST.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1119] viXra:1802.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-10 08:28:00

Cross Section and Rho Parameter Versus the Centre-of-Mass Energy for Proton-Proton Collisions

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 7 Pages.

Due to the properties of the superluminal quantum entanglement, theory of proton is classical and statistical. Quantum Physics is a result of neglecting the superluminal entanglement which is a classical phenomenon. Here, within the classical/statistical/non-perturbative Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we calculated and showed the origin of the inelastic and elastic cross-section and the rho parameter versus the centre-of-mass energy for the proton-proton collisions. Obtained results are consistent with experimental data.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1118] viXra:1802.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-10 09:17:00

The Project of the Quantum Relativity

Authors: Peter Leifer
Comments: 16 Pages.

The intrinsic unification of the quantum theory and relativity has been discussed here in the light of the last developments. Such development is possible only on the way of the serious deviation from traditional assumptions about a priori spacetime structure and the Yang-Mills generalization of the well known $U(1)$ Abelian gauge symmetry of the classical electrodynamics. In fact, more general gauge theory should be constructed. Formally we deal with the quantum version of the gauge theory of the deformable bodies - the gauge theory of the deformable quantum state. More physically this means that the distance between quantum states is strictly defined value whereas the distance between bodies (particle) is an approximate value, at best. Thereby, all well known solid frames and clocks even with corrections of special relativity should be replaced by the flexible and anholonomic quantum setup. Then Yang-Mills arguments about the spacetime coordinate dependence of the gauge unitary rotations should be reversed on the dependence of the spacetime structure on the gauge transformations of the flexible quantum setup. One needs to build ``inverse representation" of the unitary transformations by the intrinsic dynamical spacetime transformations. In order to achieve such generalization one needs the general footing for gauge fields and for ``matter fields". Only fundamental pure quantum degrees of freedom like spin, charge, hyper-charges, etc., obey this requirement. One may assume that they correspond some fundamental quantum motions in the manifold of the unlocated quantum states (UQS's). Then ``elementary particles" will be represented as a dynamical process keeping non-linear coherent superposition of these fundamental quantum motions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1117] viXra:1802.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-09 09:50:37

Lattice QCD for Nuclear Science

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Nuclear physicists are using the nation's most powerful supercomputer, Titan, at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility to study particle interactions important to energy production in the sun and stars and to propel the search for new physics discoveries. [12] A team of scientists from the Theory Division of Professor Ignacio Cirac at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics has now for a couple of years collaborated with theorists from the field of particle physics, in order to find a new and simplified formulation of lattice gauge theories. [11] Now, powerful supercomputer simulations of colliding atomic nuclei, conducted by an international team of researchers including a Berkeley Lab physicist, provide new insights about the twisting, whirlpool-like structure of this soup and what's at work inside of it, and also lights a path to how experiments could confirm these characteristics. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1116] viXra:1802.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-07 17:01:07

The Unified Theory of Physics

Authors: Ding-Yu Chung
Comments: 17 Pages. Published in International Journal of Natural Science and Reviews, 2018; 2:6.

The unified theory of physics is based on both symmetry physics and contrast physics to unify all physical laws and phenomena, all four fundamental forces, and all elementary particles. Conventional symmetry physics preserves the physical features of a system under transformation by a symmetry operator. In unconventional contrast physics, yin and yang constitute a binary yinyang system of contrary physical properties by yin and yang operators. The three fundamental symmetry operators transform the three fundamental yinyang systems (inclusiveness-exclusiveness, rest-movement, and composite-individual) into the unified theory of physics. In the inclusiveness-exclusiveness system, a particle is transformed into boson with inclusive occupation of position by the integer spin operator, while a particle is transformed into fermion with exclusive occupation of position by the ½ spin operator. The fundamental symmetry operator is supersymmetry to result in M-theory and cosmology. In the rest-movement system, a moving massless particle (kinetic energy) is transformed into a resting massive particle (rest mass) by the attachment space (denoted as 1) operator to explain the Higgs field, while a resting massive particle is transformed into a moving massless particle by the detachment space (denoted as 0) operator to explain the reverse Higgs field. The fundamental symmetry operator is the symmetrical combination of attachment space and detachment space to bring about the three space structures: binary partition space, (1)n(0)n, for wave-particle duality, binary miscible space, (1+0)n, for relativity, and binary lattice space, (1 0)n, for virtual particles in quantum field theory. In the composite-individual system, particles are transformed into fractional charge quark composite by the fractional electric charge operator, while particles are transformed into integral charge particle individuals by the integral electric charge operator. The fundamental symmetry operator is the symmetrical combination of quarks, leptons, and bosons to constitute the periodic table of elementary particles which calculates accurately the particle masses of all elementary particles.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1115] viXra:1802.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-05 10:28:42

Universe Without the Weak Force

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

A team of researchers at the University of Michigan has conducted a thought experiment regarding the nature of a universe that could support life without the weak force. [14] The international T2K Collaboration announces a first indication that the dominance of matter over antimatter may originate from the fact that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently during those oscillations. [13] Neutrinos are a challenge to study because their interactions with matter are so rare. Particularly elusive has been what's known as coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, which occurs when a neutrino bumps off the nucleus of an atom. [12] Lately, neutrinos – the tiny, nearly massless particles that many scientists study to better understand the fundamental workings of the universe – have been posing a problem for physicists. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn’t be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we’re starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand highenergy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5] PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and righthanded particles. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1114] viXra:1802.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-02 20:54:46

Cl(16) Bulk and E8 Boundary Physics

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 10 Pages.

Physical Spacetime is the Shilov Boundary of a Complex Domain Bulk Space. Bulk Domain is made up of Cells carrying 65,536 Cl(16) Quantum Information Elements. Physical Spacetime contains an Indra’s Net of Schwinger Source Particles which form Atoms which in turn form Tubulin Dimers and Microtubules carrying 65,000 Quantum Information Elements. The Spacetime Microtubules and Bulk Domain Cells have Resonant Connection by Bohm Quantum Potential, thus connecting Consciousness of Human Body with Universal Spiritual Consciousness. The Complex Domain Buik and Shilov Boundary are also related by Poisson and Bergman Kernels. Bergman Kernel for a Bounded Region of Spacetime is the Green’s Function for that Region as a Schwinger Source carrying Charge of Symmetry of its Spacetime Region. Schwinger Sources act as Jewels of a Universal Indra’s Net with Quantum Blockchain Structure. For each Schwinger Source to carry Information of Indra’s Net it must have Fractal Structure. Geometry of Schwinger Sources their Green’s Functions allows calculation of Force Strengths and Particle Masses. For details see viXra 1701.0496 , 1701.0495 , 1602.0319 , 1711.0476 , 1801.0086
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1113] viXra:1802.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-01 13:20:41

Laser Beam Billiard

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12] The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1112] viXra:1802.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-01 08:14:50

High-Momentum Top Quarks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Studies of high-momentum top-quark pairs are challenging, as it is a channel with significant background. The new ATLAS measurement uses a pioneering method taking advantage of a relativistic effect known as a Lorentz boost. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1111] viXra:1801.0431 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-31 08:23:51

Machine Learning the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

And now, physicists at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12] The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1110] viXra:1801.0396 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-30 02:48:08

Muon Magnetic Map

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Muons are mysterious, and scientists are diving deep into the particle to get a handle on a property that might render it—and the universe—a little less mysterious. [13] For elementary particles, such as muons or neutrinos, the magnetic force applied to such charges is unique and immutable. However, unlike the electric charge, the magnetic force strength is not quantised. [12] Particle physics and decorative glassware are two disciplines that don't often meet. But given the striking results of a recent artist-scientist collaboration, perhaps that could change. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1109] viXra:1801.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-29 08:48:47

The Standard Model is not Correct and Large Hadron Collider is not Too Needed

Authors: Pavel Sladkov
Comments: 4 Pages.

The fundamental flaws of the Standard Model are considered.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1108] viXra:1801.0391 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-29 09:33:30

A Photon Theory of Light

Authors: Florent Gheeraert
Comments: 47 Pages.

A theory that describes the photons of light as electrical dipoles.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1107] viXra:1801.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-27 13:29:23

Spacetime: 4+4 = 8 and 6+4 = 10

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 1 Page.

This paper is a brief summary of some useful facts about Spacetime for E8 Physics.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[863] viXra:1807.0281 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-17 12:28:28

„Neutrinos, Luxons, Preons, Quantons, Strangelets and Twistors Like a Dark Matter and Dark Energy, Feat. Mr. NEUTRINO“

Authors: Imrich Krištof
Comments: 26 Pages.

This article is focused on the most non–clarified situation of Particle Physics, like for example Neutrinos, Quantons, Preons, Luxons and subatomic and atomic scales microphenomenons Twistors and Strangelets. The main part of this article is dedicated to dark matter and energy and flashback significance of Mr. Neutrino, respectively the outstanding atomic scientist Bruno Pontecorvo and his contribution to High Energy Particle Physics and Nuclear Physics, by his discoveries in scientific field, so called NEUTRINO OSCILLATIONS and other quantum phenomenas. Although this article says about, for example – mixing angles θ [théta] of neutrinos, their “VIRTUAL TRANSMUTATION”, DIRAC AND MAJORANA NEUTRINOS. The most interesting part of the text is focused on infraparticles – goldstinos and preons–models of lepton, quarks and gauge bosons as composite objects. Not in the ending part of this text is described, also, so called – The Suzuki Model (Lagrangian Based Suzuki’s Ideas). Included is also new concept of wave particle duality – wavicle and quanticle (including wave + particle). The text involved the briefly biography of Mr. Neutrino respectively nuclear scientist Bruno Pontecorvo.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[862] viXra:1806.0388 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-09 22:35:37

Cellular Automata, E8 Root Vectors, Fr3(O) String Theory, and Cl(1,25) Algebraic Quantum Field Theory

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 71 Pages.

This paper discusses the relationship between the 256 Elementary Cellular Automata and the 240 Root Vectors of E8 and the E8 Physics Lagrangian, and their relationship to the Fr3(O) String Theory of Cl(16) Physics World-Lines = Strings and the AQFT resulting from the Completion of the Union of all tensor products of Cl(1,25). For futher aspects of E8 and Cl(16) Physics see these papers: viXra 1804.0121 (441 pages); viXra 1806.0361 (115 pages); and my web site at valdostamuseum.com/hamsmith/ and files thereon including valdostamuseum.com/hamsmith/E8ResultsOriginVSHORT.pdf (62 pages). Version 3 (v3) corrects some material about 16x16 matrix representation of Cl(8).
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[861] viXra:1806.0388 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-03 04:27:42

Cellular Automata, E8 Root Vectors, Fr3(O) String Theory, and Cl(1,25) Algebraic Quantum Field Theory

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 71 Pages.

This paper discusses the relationship between the 256 Elementary Cellular Automata and the 240 Root Vectors of E8 and the E8 Physics Lagrangian, and their relationship to the Fr3(O) String Theory of Cl(16) Physics World-Lines = Strings and the AQFT resulting from the Completion of the Union of all tensor products of Cl(1,25). For futher aspects of E8 and Cl(16) Physics see these papers: viXra 1804.0121 (441 pages); viXra 1806.0361 (115 pages); and my web site at valdostamuseum.com/hamsmith/ and files thereon including valdostamuseum.com/hamsmith/E8ResultsOriginVSHORT.pdf (62 pages).
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[860] viXra:1806.0255 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-21 21:29:55

Charge Stability Approach to Finite Quantum Field Theory: An Alternative to Renormalization

Authors: Clyde Dean Chlouber
Comments: 17 Pages.

This paper analyses charge stability and applies the resulting stability principle to resolve divergence issues in quantum field theory without renormalization. For quantum electrodynamics (QED), stability is enforced by requiring that the positive electromagnetic field energy be balanced by a negative interaction energy between the observed electron charge and a local vacuum potential. Then in addition to the observed core mechanical mass m, an electron system consists of two electromagnetic mass components of equal magnitude M but opposite sign; consequently, the net electromagnetic mass is zero. Two virtual, electromagnetically dressed mass levels m±M, constructed to form a complete set of mass levels and isolate the electron-vacuum interaction, provide essential S-matrix corrections for radiative processes involving infinite field actions. Total scattering amplitudes for radiative corrections are shown to be convergent in the limit M → ∞ and equal to renormalized amplitudes when Feynman diagrams for all mass levels are included. In each case, the infinity in the core mass amplitude is canceled by the average amplitude for electromagnetically dressed mass levels, which become separated in intermediate states and account for the stabilizing interaction energy between an electron and its surrounding polarized vacuum. In this manner, S-matrix corrections in QED are shown to be finite for any order diagram in perturbation theory, all the while maintaining the mass and charge at their physically observed values. Charge stability corrections, applied to one-loop diagrams of non-Abelian gauge theory, also yield finite results without renormalization. The results demonstrate that quantum field theory is scale invariant.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[859] viXra:1806.0019 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-06 05:08:44

Preceding: Atomic Internal Gravitational Waves and Shock Waves: Electromagnetic Charge Cannot Hold a Positron Near a Proton Both with Positive Charges, But the Gravitational Waves Make it Possible

Authors: Peiman Ghasemi
Comments: 3 Pages.

Mostly, the destructive force of internal (atomic) wave-particles that we call microscopic shock waves emitted by the nuclei at most, and lastly the external (galactic gravitonic, and photonic) wave-particles towards the nuclei, is affectionate to make them unstable. A higher rate of energy that would increase the internal energy of atoms and so increases the energy of these sub-atomic particles, and also what we call higher entropy (higher energy dispersal), both cause the powerful microscopic shock waves, coming from sub atomic wave-particles. Shock waves are not much strong for atomic objects, or celestial objects to get measured, meanwhile their destructive power potentially can destroy the nearby smaller and weakly confined objects.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[858] viXra:1805.0297 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-16 20:50:32

E8 Physics Straight Outta Africa

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 123 Pages.

E8 Physics of viXra 1804.0121 comes from Ancient Africa. Version 2 (v2) corrects particle identification of E8 Root Vectors in a diagram.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[857] viXra:1805.0221 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-20 10:06:58

Purely Physical View of the Problem Restitutio ad Integrum

Authors: Victor Stepanovitch Mitin
Comments: 11 Pages.

Recovery to the whole from a purely physical point of view.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[856] viXra:1805.0041 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-19 22:16:41

Barut´s Lepton Mass Formula, Its Correction, and the Deduction of the Proton Mass.

Authors: Osvaldo F. Schilling
Comments: 6 Pages. More references are added.

In a PRL published in 1979 A.O.Barut proposed a lepton mass formula of the form m(n)= 3/(2 alpha)n^4 Me , where Me is the electron mass, alpha is the fine-structure constant and n is an integer, with increasing leptons masses obtained from the values for m(n) added in sequence of n to Me . Such model assumes the leptons excess mass m(n) comes from kinetic-magnetic energies and arises from a coupling between the electron magnetic moment and the resulting magnetic field. The formula is good for the muon, with n=1. However, we show that the n-dependence in this formula should be n^2 rather than n^4( the proposed fourth power is incorrect !). Such correction makes Barut´s model formula consistent with the energies obtained for the physically analogous superconducting loop case, treated theoretically by Byers and Yang, which scales as n^2. We apply the corrected formula and reobtain the mass for the tau-lepton, now corresponding to n=4 and not 2, and for n=3 a “proton” with m ≈ 945 Mev/c^2 mass.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[855] viXra:1805.0041 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-02 17:49:21

Barut´s Lepton Mass Formula, Its Correction, and the Deduction of the Proton Mass.

Authors: Osvaldo F. Schilling
Comments: 5 Pages.

In a PRL published in 1979 A.O.Barut proposed a lepton mass formula of the form m(n)= 3/(2 alpha)n^4 Me, where Me is the electron mass, alpha is the fine-structure constant and n is an integer, with increasing leptons masses obtained from the values for m(n) added in sequence of n to Me. Such model assumes the leptons excess mass m(n) comes from kinetic-magnetic energies and arises from a coupling between the electron magnetic moment and the resulting magnetic field. The formula is good for the muon, with n=1. However, we show that the n-dependence in this formula should be n^2 rather than n^4( the originally proposed fourth power is incorrect !). Such correction makes Barut´s model formula consistent with the energies obtained for the physically analogous superconducting loop case, treated theoretically by Byers and Yang, which scales as n^2. We apply the corrected formula and reobtain the mass for the tau-lepton, now corresponding to n=4 and not 2, and for n=3 a “proton” with m ≈ 945 Mev/c2 mass.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[854] viXra:1804.0164 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-03 10:21:50

The Conditions, Influences, and Effects Relating to the Concept of a Universal Particle

Authors: John Raymond
Comments: 8 Pages.

Abstract At its deepest level, informational reality is indivisible. The structure of indivisible reality can only be identified and described by means of predictive algebra. However, divisible informational processes are different measurements to the divisible whole. I refer to these different measurements as being units of the whole. I debate that in the pre-space continuum of irreducible reality, reducible informational processes may appear as the same processes. Furthermore, these two processes are inseparable. I suggest that this inseparability is an effect that is informationally representative of the imaginary matrix of reality. It is my opinion that it is impossible to measure the units of reaction between the energy type forces of holistic reality but it is possible to measure the influences and effects of the reaction of these forces. This demonstrates the entangled nature of indivisible and divisible forces in the matrix of reality. I have described two new particles. One I have entitled a Universal particle and the other one a Minus particle. I have demonstrated how the properties and effects of the Universal particle may have informationally emerged through its relationship with the Minus particle. By so doing, I demonstrate how the Universal particle can traverse all universes and dimensions. This also means that it can be seen as the reality particle. conceptscience@bigpond.com
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[853] viXra:1804.0121 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-07 02:44:20

E8 Physics

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 441 Pages.

This paper describes a research program based on the 240 E8 Root Vectors encoding the basic structure of a Unified Theory of Fundamental Physics by forming a local classical Lagrangian for the Standard Model plus Gravity and Dark Energy. The Root Vectors know where they belong in the Lagrangian because of their place in the geometric structure of E8 and its related symmetric spaces such as: E8 / D8 = 128-dim (OxO)P2; E8 / E7 x SU(2) = 112-dim set of (QxO)P2 in (OxO)P2; D8 / D4 x D4 = 64-dim Gr(8,16). Embedding E8 local classical Lagrangian into Cl(0,16) Clifford Algebra and taking the completion of the union of all tensor products of all the Cl(0,16)s produces a generalization of hyperfinite II1 von Neumann factor fermionic Fock space forming a global AQFT describing spacetime, the Standard Model, and Gravity with Dark Energy. The structure is related to unconventional 26D String Theory by Cl(0,16) -> Cl(0,16)xCl(0,8) = Cl(0,24) -> M(2,Cl(0,24)) = Cl(1,25). Completion of Union of All Tensor Products of Cl(1,25) = 2x2 matrices of Cl(0,24) is the String Theory formulation of the hyperfinite AQFT. The Cl(1,25) of 26D String Theory contains Cl(0,16) which contains E8 whose root vectors describe a Lagrangian for the Standard Model and Gravity + Dark Energy. The paper describes physical interpretations of the 240 Root Vectors and how they are used in calculating force strengths, particle masses, Kobayashi-Maskawa parameters, Dark Energy : Dark Matter : Ordinary Matter ratios, etc. that can be compared with Experimental Observations which are given up to and including the 2016 run of the LHC in the Higgs -> ZZ -> 4l channel which is relevant to the E8 Physics prediction of 3 Mass States of the Higgs and Truth Quark. Version 3 (v3) corrects particle identification of E8 Root Vectors in a diagram. Version 4 (v4) adds material about LHCP Bologna 2018.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[852] viXra:1804.0121 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-16 20:59:46

E8 Physics

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 434 Pages.

This paper describes a research program based on the 240 E8 Root Vectors encoding the basic structure of a Unified Theory of Fundamental Physics by forming a local classical Lagrangian for the Standard Model plus Gravity and Dark Energy. The Root Vectors know where they belong in the Lagrangian because of their place in the geometric structure of E8 and its related symmetric spaces such as: E8 / D8 = 128-dim (OxO)P2; E8 / E7 x SU(2) = 112-dim set of (QxO)P2 in (OxO)P2; D8 / D4 x D4 = 64-dim Gr(8,16). Embedding E8 local classical Lagrangian into Cl(0,16) Clifford Algebra and taking the completion of the union of all tensor products of all the Cl(0,16)s produces a generalization of hyperfinite II1 von Neumann factor fermionic Fock space forming a global AQFT describing spacetime, the Standard Model, and Gravity with Dark Energy. The structure is related to unconventional 26D String Theory by Cl(0,16) -> Cl(0,16)xCl(0,8) = Cl(0,24) -> M(2,Cl(0,24)) = Cl(1,25). Completion of Union of All Tensor Products of Cl(1,25) = 2x2 matrices of Cl(0,24) is the String Theory formulation of the hyperfinite AQFT. The Cl(1,25) of 26D String Theory contains Cl(0,16) which contains E8 whose root vectors describe a Lagrangian for the Standard Model and Gravity + Dark Energy. The paper describes physical interpretations of the 240 Root Vectors and how they are used in calculating force strengths, particle masses, Kobayashi-Maskawa parameters, Dark Energy : Dark Matter : Ordinary Matter ratios, etc. that can be compared with Experimental Observations which are given up to and including the 2016 run of the LHC in the Higgs -> ZZ -> 4l channel which is relevant to the E8 Physics prediction of 3 Mass States of the Higgs and Truth Quark. Version 3 (v3) corrects particle identification of E8 Root Vectors in a diagram.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[851] viXra:1804.0121 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-16 06:34:38

E8 Physics

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 434 Pages.

This paper describes a research program based on the 240 E8 Root Vectors encoding the basic structure of a Unified Theory of Fundamental Physics by forming a local classical Lagrangian for the Standard Model plus Gravity and Dark Energy. The Root Vectors know where they belong in the Lagrangian because of their place in the geometric structure of E8 and its related symmetric spaces such as: E8 / D8 = 128-dim (OxO)P2; E8 / E7 x SU(2) = 112-dim set of (QxO)P2 in (OxO)P2; D8 / D4 x D4 = 64-dim Gr(8,16). Embedding E8 local classical Lagrangian into Cl(0,16) Clifford Algebra and taking the completion of the union of all tensor products of all the Cl(0,16)s produces a generalization of hyperfinite II1 von Neumann factor fermionic Fock space forming a global AQFT describing spacetime, the Standard Model, and Gravity with Dark Energy. The structure is related to unconventional 26D String Theory by Cl(0,16) -> Cl(0,16)xCl(0,8) = Cl(0,24) -> M(2,Cl(0,24)) = Cl(1,25). Completion of Union of All Tensor Products of Cl(1,25) = 2x2 matrices of Cl(0,24) is the String Theory formulation of the hyperfinite AQFT. The Cl(1,25) of 26D String Theory contains Cl(0,16) which contains E8 whose root vectors describe a Lagrangian for the Standard Model and Gravity + Dark Energy. The paper describes physical interpretations of the 240 Root Vectors and how they are used in calculating force strengths, particle masses, Kobayashi-Maskawa parameters, Dark Energy : Dark Matter : Ordinary Matter ratios, etc. that can be compared with Experimental Observations which are given up to and including the 2016 run of the LHC in the Higgs -> ZZ -> 4l channel which is relevant to the E8 Physics prediction of 3 Mass States of the Higgs and Truth Quark.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[850] viXra:1803.0732 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-07 02:34:35

E8 Physics: Cayley-Dickson and Clifford Algebras - - Braids - Cellular Automata

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 10 Pages.

This paper consists of comments about relationships among the E8-Cl(16 Physics model of viXra 1602.0319 and Cayley-Dickson Algebras, Real Clifford Algebras, Braids,and Cellular Automata. Version 2 (v2) adds material about n = 4 and Conformal Gravity.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[849] viXra:1803.0640 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-16 21:17:15

Representing E8 Root Vectors for E8-Cl(16) Physics

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 9 Pages.

In my E8-Cl(16) Physics model (viXra 1602.0319 and related papers) I have been as of March 2018 using a particuar 2D picture of the 240 E8 Root Vectors to explain my physical interpretation of each E8 Root Vector, but in discussion at Tellus Museum, Cartersville, Georgia on 11-24 March 2018 with Marcelo Amaral, Marni Sheppeard, and Ray Aschheim I have found that a 2D picture of the 240 E8 Root Vectors by Ray Aschheimvseems to me to be more fundamental, so I am now changing to Ray’s picture which I describe in this paper. Version 2 (v2) corrects particle identification of E8 Root Vectors in a diagram.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[848] viXra:1803.0303 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-21 07:10:36

The Experiments Of The Bottle And The Beam For The Lifetime Of The Neutron: A Theoretical Approximation Derived From The Casimir Effect

Authors: Angel Garcés Doz
Comments: 9 Pages. Corrected Feynman diagram writing error

The last neutron life-time experiments using the bottle method rule out possible experimental errors and possible sources of interference; mainly the interaction of the neutrons with the material of the walls of the bottle. Therefore, the discrepancy between the lifetimes of the neutron by experiments of the beam and the bottle require a theoretical explanation.The main and crucial difference between the beam and bottle experiments is the different topology of the experiments. While in the beam experiment the neutrons are not confined; in the experiment of the bottle a confinement takes place. In our theoretical approach we postulate the existence of a type of Casimir effect that due to the different geometry-topology of the experiments; it produces an induction-polarization of the vacuum by the confinement and the existence of the trapped neutrons; in such a way that there is an increase in the density of the quarks u, d, gluons and the virtual W and Z bosons. This density increase, mainly, of the neutral Z bosons; would be responsible for the increased probability of the decay of a neutron in a proton; and therefore of the shortening of the decay time of the neutron in the experiment of the bottle; of 877.7 seconds.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[847] viXra:1803.0250 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-24 09:43:00

The Simplest and Accurate Theory of Proton and Neutron Based on Only Six Parameters that are Experimental Values

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 14 Pages.

Here, we present the simplest version of the atom-like structure of baryons. We use six parameters only that are experimental values. They are the three fundamental physical constants, the mass of electron and the two masses of pions. There do not appear free parameters. We calculated masses of nucleons and their magnetic moments. Obtained results are in very good consistency with experimental data. For example, calculated magnetic moment of proton is +2.7928471 (the experimental value is +2.792847351(9) [2]) so the 7 first significant digits are the same. The same is for the mass of proton - we obtained 938.272065 MeV (the experimental result is 938.272081(6) MeV [2]). Here we apply the experimental central values for five from the six parameters because accuracy of the experimental mass of neutral pion is very low. To obtain the perfect results, we use the theoretical mass of neutral pion (134.97678 MeV) which overlaps with the interval defined by experiments: 134.9770(5) MeV [2]. Due to future more precise data for mass of neutral pion, we will able to verify presented here theory of nucleons. Emphasize that our results are much, much better than values obtained within the Standard Model despite the fact that our model contains at least 5 times less parameters.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[846] viXra:1802.0378 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-26 15:52:26

Lifetimes of the Muon, Hyperons and Tau Lepton

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

Here, using the atom-like structure of baryons described in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we calculated the lifetimes of the muon, hyperons and tau lepton. SST gives the opportunity to show the origin of the time distances between the lifetimes of the hyperons. Theoretical results are very close to experimental ones.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[845] viXra:1802.0376 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-10 17:13:33

Lost in Math ? Try Thinking Like a Physicist

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 4 Pages.

If you think that today’s dominant Physics Theory - Superstrings - is All Math and No Connection to Experimental Results (LHC etc) and if that has you feeling Lost in Math then I suggest you go back to Physics 101 and methodically Think Physics: (Note - There is Math in this outline and some of it is Advanced but here Physics Intuition tells you what to do and the Math is just there to carry out the Physics Ideas. Also For Details about this Construction, see viXra 1602.0319 ) Version 2 (v2) modifies CMS 2016 Higgs -> ZZ* -> 4l histogram by merging some adjacent 5 GeV bins into 10 GeV bins.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[844] viXra:1802.0246 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-27 06:06:55

Platonic Solids and Elementary Particles

Authors: Lev I. Verkhovsky
Comments: 8 Pages. This is a translation into English of the abridged version of an article published in the Russian popular science journal `Chemistry and Life` (2006, No 6)

The groups of symmetry of regular polyhedra are considered. It is shown that a total number and types of gauge bosons in the Grand Unified Theory with the group SU(5) can be deduced from the structure of the cube rotation group. Possible connections of fundamental fermions with the icosahedral symmetry are discussed.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[843] viXra:1802.0178 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-24 07:51:43

Lifetime of the Neutron

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that in the bottle experiments, measured mean lifetime of the neutron should be 879.9 s whereas the beam experiments should lead to 888.4 s. The difference is due to the fact that in a bottle, neutrons move in a disorderly way, while in a beam they move in an orderly manner. The ordered motions in the beam force creation of two virtual quadrupoles per decaying neutron (the total spin and charge of quadrupole is equal to zero) instead one quadrupole per neutron in the bottle. Obtained here results are consistent with experimental data.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics