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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[33609] viXra:2001.0501 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-22 23:20:47

Abhas Mitra and Eternally Collapsing Objects: A Review of 22 Years of Misconceptions

Authors: Chandra Prakash
Comments: 28 Pages.

We critically review here the concepts which gave rise to the Eternally Collapsing Object (ECO) paradigm over almost 22 years. First we look into “non occurrence of trapped surfaces” then we analyze Mr. Mitra’s claim regarding why R = 0 (inside black hole) should also be treated as another coordinate singularity! After that we review if indeed his another claim about “mass of Schwarzschild black hole being zero” is right or not. Do black holes really exist or they are just a fairy tale made by physicists to elude us into fiction? And are these so called “Black Holes”, actually black hole or indeed as Mitra likes to call them “Eternally Collapsing Object” or ECO.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[33608] viXra:2001.0500 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-23 00:31:17

Extending the Standard Model

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

Researchers of Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU) in collaboration with colleagues from the Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) and a number of German scientific organizations, calculated previously unexplored effects in atoms. [40] Do the anomalies observed in the LHCb experiment in the decay of B mesons hide hitherto unknown particles from outside the currently valid and well-tested Standard Model? [39] "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino-the antimatter partner of a neutrino-with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved funding and start of construction for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, which will begin operations in the early 2020s to hunt for hypothetical dark matter particles called weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. [32]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[33607] viXra:2001.0499 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-23 01:05:15

Einstein’s Pseudotensor a Meaningless Concoction of Mathematical Symbols

Authors: Stephen J. Crothers
Comments: 1 Page.

In an attempt to make his General Theory of Relativity comply with the usual conservation of energy and momentum for a closed system which a vast array of experiments has ascertained, Mr. A. Einstein constructed, ad hoc, his pseudotensor. That it is not a tensor is outside the very mathematical structure of his theory. Beyond that, it violates the rules of pure mathematics. It is therefore a meaningless concoction of mathematical symbols.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[33606] viXra:2001.0498 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-23 01:07:44

Photonic Bound State

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

Applying bound states in the continuum (BICs) in photonic integrated circuits enables low-loss light guidance and routing in low-refractive-index waveguides on high-refractive-index substrates. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality-a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[33605] viXra:2001.0497 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-23 01:49:09

Modules and Universal Constructions

Authors: Takahiro Kato
Comments: 393 Pages.

The concept of module subsumes that of category and provides a more general and abstract framework to explore the theory of structures, in particular that of universal properties. In this book, we present the basic theory of modules and redevelop the notion of universal constructions in category theory using the framework of modules.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[33604] viXra:2001.0496 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-23 02:09:38

Borexino Experiments on Geoneutrinos

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

Scientists involved in the Borexino collaboration have presented new results for the measurement of neutrinos originating from the interior of the Earth. [22] If it turns out that neutrinos and antineutrinos oscillate in a different way from one another, this may partially account for the present-day matter–antimatter imbalance. [21] Studying this really interesting particle that's all around us, and yet is so hard to measure, that could hold the key to understanding why we're here at all, is exciting—and I get to do this for a living," says Mauger. [20] In the Standard Model of particle physics, elementary particles acquire their masses by interacting with the Higgs field. This process is governed by a delicate mechanism: electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB). [19]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[33603] viXra:2001.0495 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-23 02:38:32

Molecular Nano-Patterning

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Body movement, from the muscles in your arms to the neurons transporting those signals to your brain, relies on a massive collection of proteins called molecular motors. [19] Now, a team of researchers led by Dongsheng Li, a materials scientist at PNNL, and collaborators at the University of Michigan and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, have unlocked the secret to one of the most useful nanostructures: the five-fold twin. [18] The researchers have generated femtosecond laser pulses, with tailor-made, temporally varying polarizations, which are themselves chiral. [17] The scientists identified a shortlist, a kind of "periodic table" of the most designable knot types, i.e. those knots that could easily self-assemble under appropriate physical and chemical conditions. [16] Scientists have now observed for the first time how diamonds grow from seed at an atomic level, and discovered just how big the seeds need to be to kick the crystal growing process into overdrive. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Physics of Biology

[33602] viXra:2001.0494 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-23 02:57:23

Climate Change Path

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Since 1880, the Earth's temperature has risen by 1.9 degrees Fahrenheit and is predicted to continue rising, according to the NASA Global Climate Change website. [35] "My first reaction when NASA reached out to me was to ask if I could visit the International Space Station (ISS) to examine the patient myself," said Stephan Moll, MD, UNC School of Medicine blood clot expert and long-time NASA enthusiast. [34] The data comprising this image were gathered by the Wide Field Camera 3 aboard the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. [33]
Category: Astrophysics

[33601] viXra:2001.0493 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-23 05:01:23

Understanding Gene Expression

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

A group of University of Chicago scientists has uncovered a previously unknown way that our genes are made into reality. [22] Histones are proteins that regulate the unwinding of DNA in the cell nucleus and the expression of genes based on chemical modifications or "marks" that are placed on their tails. [21] Now, in a new paper published in Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, Mayo researchers have determined how one DNA repair protein gets to the site of DNA damage. [20]
Category: Physics of Biology

[33600] viXra:2001.0492 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-23 05:59:39

Stars Die with Nuclear Transition

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 76 Pages.

Intermediate-mass stars expire via thermonuclear explosions, rather than gravitational collapse, according to experiments and calculations done by an international team of astrophysicists led by Oliver Kirsebom at Dalhousie University in Canada. [47] Collisions between neutron stars are fascinating cosmic events that lead to the formation of numerous chemical elements. [46] Physicists from ITMO University have developed a model of an optical tractor beam to capture particles based on new artificial materials. [45] Researchers from the Structured Light group from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, have found a way to use the full beam of a laser single cells in a human body, tiny particles in small volume chemistry, or working on future on-chip devices. [44] This research work by the UEx, which has been published in Scientific Reports, explored the electromagnetic properties of specific materials that can make certain objects invisible when they are introduced into its interior. [43] A research team from ITMO University and the Australian National University has discovered that different metasurfaces exhibit the same behavior provided a symmetry breaking is introduced to their unit cells "meta-atoms."[42] Electron microscopy has allowed scientists to see individual atoms, but even at that resolution not everything is clear. [41] A half-century ago, the theorist Walter Henneberger wondered if it were possible to use a laser field to free an electron from its atom without removing it from the nucleus. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37]
Category: Astrophysics

[33599] viXra:2001.0491 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-23 07:13:51

Ghostly Particles of Light and Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Exciton-polariton condensates can be tuned from more matter-like (excitonic) to more light-like (photonic), allowing for comparison with theories of equilibrium atomic (matter) condensate and of nonequilibrium quantum fluids of light. [30] Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory officially broke ground March 15 on a major new particle accelerator project that will power cutting-edge physics experiments for many decades to come. [29] The ATLAS collaboration has released its very first result utilising its entire Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Run 2 dataset, collected between 2015 and 2018. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[33598] viXra:2001.0490 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-23 07:55:41

Extracting Uranium and Metal Ions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Conventional processes, such as the popular PUREX process that extracts plutonium and uranium, rely heavily on solvents, extractants and extensive processing. [35] Scientists from Russia, China and the United States predicted and have now experimentally identified new uranium hydrides, predicting superconductivity for some of them. [34] Russian physicists from MIPT teamed up with foreign colleagues for a groundbreaking experimental study of a material that possesses both superconducting and ferromagnetic properties. [33] An international group of scientists, including a researcher from Skoltech, has completed an experimental and theoretical study into the properties displayed by strongly disordered superconductors at very low temperatures. [32] The researchers found that via quick-freeze technique, the metal changed into a superconducting state for over a week. [31] Scientists of the University of Twente and the University of Amsterdam now demonstrate a new property: the non-superconducting material bismuth shows lossless current conduction. [30] A team of international scientists including Maia G. Vergniory, Ikerbasque researcher at DIPC and UPV/EHU associate, has discovered a new class of materials, higher-order topological insulators. [29] A team of researchers from Japan, the U.S. and China, has identified a topological superconducting phase for possible use in an iron-based material in quantum computers. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[33597] viXra:2001.0489 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-23 08:13:43

Metasurfaces Shape Laser Beams

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 72 Pages.

A team of researchers in France and China has now augmented the VCSEL’s capabilities by integrating a nano-patterned beam-shaping structure into each laser during wafer-scale processing. [45] NASA counted down Saturday to the launch of its $1 billion ICESat-2 mission, using advanced lasers to uncover the true depth of the melting of Earth's ice sheets. [44] Printed electronics use standard printing techniques to manufacture electronic devices on different substrates like glass, plastic films, and paper. [43] A tiny laser comprising an array of nanoscale semiconductor cylinders (see image) has been made by an all-A*STAR team. [42]
Category: Quantum Physics

[33596] viXra:2001.0488 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-22 10:52:04

Diffractive Ferromagnetic Resonance

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

Researchers from Diamond Light Source's Magnetic Spectroscopy Group, the University of Oxford, and ShanghaiTech University have developed a novel diffractive ferromagnetic resonance (DFMR) technique for retrieving the dynamics of individual spin modes. [34] An international team of researchers from ITMO University, the Australian National University, and Korea University have experimentally trapped an electromagnetic wave in a gallium arsenide nanoresonator a few hundred nanometers in size for a record-breaking time. [33] An international research team has found a way to make light frequency conversion at the nanoscale 100 times more efficient. [32]
Category: Condensed Matter

[33595] viXra:2001.0487 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-22 10:54:42

Integration in Finite Terms

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 1 Page.

Elementary integral
Category: General Mathematics

[33594] viXra:2001.0486 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-22 11:41:30

Ultrasensitive PET Total-Body Imaging

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

The uEXPLORER is a 194-cm-long total-body PET/CT scanner developed by a research team at UC Davis and manufactured by United Imaging Healthcare of Shanghai. [36] Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology in Berlin have discovered that the body has a receptor, which doesn't recognize bacteria themselves, but spies out their communication. [35] The research team used a microfluidic device, known as the mother machine, to localize thousands of individual bacteria in microscopic channels. [34] A new way of detecting chemicals secreted by stem cells as they differentiate into bone cells could make it possible to electrically monitor the differentiation process in real time. [33]
Category: Physics of Biology

[33593] viXra:2001.0485 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-22 12:53:49

The Reality of Free Will

Authors: Claus Janew
Comments: 15 Pages. CC-BY 4.0 / Janew, Claus. 2020. Journal of Consciousness Exploration & Research 11, no. 1: 1-16.

The uniqueness of each viewpoint, each point of effect, can be "overcome" only by changing the viewpoint to other viewpoints and returning. Such an alternation, which can also appear as constant change, makes up the unity of the world. The wholeness of an alternation, however, is a consciousness structure because of the special relationship between the circumscribing periphery and the infinitesimal center. This process structure unites determinacy and indeterminacy at every point also totally. We are dealing, therefore, with forms of consciousness everywhere, with more or less freedom of choice and an increasingly unknown depth. We live in a world of choosing consciousness or better: awareness. In this respect, our environment expresses a deep truth about ourselves.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[33592] viXra:2001.0484 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-22 12:56:38

Ibm Q System One

Authors: Ayah Ramahi
Comments: 4 Pages.

The objective of this survey paper is to talk about the newly released quantum computer by IBM known as Q System One, to explain its use of quantum physics principles, restrictions on its design and implementation, and its packaging. Then it talks about a particular implementation of a quantum computer core and the needed cooling system for its operation. After that, it talks about the effects of creating a quantum computer on humanity and the world, its advantages on science and other fields, but also its disadvantages regarding the security of online information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[33591] viXra:2001.0483 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-22 13:07:32

On A Weaker Form Of Complete Irresoluteness

Authors: E. Ekici, Saeid Jafari
Comments: 7 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to present a new class of complete irresoluteness. The notion of completely $\delta$-semi-irresolute functions is introduced and studied.
Category: Topology

[33590] viXra:2001.0482 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-22 13:09:39

On D-Sets, DS-Sets and Decompositions of Continuous, a-Continuous and AB-Continuous Functions

Authors: E. Ekici, Saeid Jafari
Comments: 10 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to introduce the notions of D-sets, DS-sets, D-continuity and DS-continuity and to obtain decompositions of continuous functions, A-continuous functions and AB-continuous functions. Also, properties of the classes of D-sets and DS-sets are discussed.
Category: Topology

[33589] viXra:2001.0481 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-22 13:21:44

On DS*-Sets and Decompositions of Continuous Functions

Authors: E. Ekici, Saeid Jafari
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper, the notions of DS*-sets and DS*-continuous functions are introduced and their properties and their relationships with some other types of sets are investigated. Moreover, some new decompositions of continuous functions are obtained by using DS*-continuous functions, DS-continuous functions and D-continuous functions.
Category: Topology

[33588] viXra:2001.0480 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-22 13:26:53

On a Finer Topological Space Than $\tau_ \theta$ and Some Maps

Authors: E. Ekici, Saeid Jafari, R. M. Latif
Comments: 13 Pages.

In 1943, Fomin [7] introduced the notion of θ-continuity. In 1966, the notions of θ-open subsets, θ-closed subsets and θ-closure were introduced by Veliˇcko [18] for the purpose of studying the important class of H-closed spaces in terms of arbitrary filterbases. He also showed that the collection of θ-open sets in a topological space (X, τ ) forms a topology on X denoted by τ θ (see also [12]). Dickman and Porter [4], [5], Joseph [11] continued the work of Veliˇcko. Noiri and Jafari [15], Caldas et al. [1] and [2], Steiner [16] and Cao et al [3] have also obtained several new and interesting results related to these sets. In this paper, we will offer a finer topology on X than $\tau_\theta$ by utilizing the new notions of ωθ-open and ωθ-closed sets. We will also discuss some of the fundamental properties of such sets and some related maps.
Category: Topology

[33587] viXra:2001.0479 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-22 13:48:09

On Contra $\pigp$−continuous Functions

Authors: M. Caldas, Saeid Jafari, K.Viswanathan, S.Krishnaprakash
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce and investigate the notion of contra $\pigp$-continuous functions by utilizing Park’s $\pigp$− closed sets [18]. We obtain fundamental properties of contra $\pigp$-continuous functions and discuss the relationships between contra $\pigp$-continuity and other related functions.
Category: Topology

[33586] viXra:2001.0478 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-22 13:50:25

On Fuzzy Upper and Lower Contra-Continuous Multifunctions

Authors: M. Alimohammady, E. Ekici, Saeid Jafari, M. Roohi
Comments: 11 Pages.

This paper is devoted to the concepts of fuzzy upper and fuzzy lower contra-continuous multifunctions and also some characterizations of them are considered.
Category: Topology

[33585] viXra:2001.0477 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-22 13:53:01

Fuzzy Minimal Separation Axioms

Authors: M. Alimohammady, E. Ekici, Saeid Jafari, M. Roohi
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper, we deal with some separation axioms in the context of fuzzy minimal structures.
Category: Topology

[33584] viXra:2001.0476 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-22 14:59:18

On Various Ramanujan Equations (Mock Theta Functions and Taxicab Numbers) Linked to Some Sectors of String Theory Applied to the Black Hole Physics (Black Strings): Further New Possible Mathematical Connections Ix.

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 65 Pages.

In this research thesis, we have analyzed and deepened further Ramanujan expressions (mock theta functions and taxicab numbers) applied to some sectors of String Theory concerning the Black Hole Physics (black strings). We have therefore described other new possible mathematical connections.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[33583] viXra:2001.0475 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-22 16:20:25

Division by Zero

Authors: Leszek Mazurek
Comments: 49 Pages. Text in English

Since the beginning of time, the ban on dividing by zero has been a serious problem for all thinking people, who have found this restriction hard to accept. Moreover, intuitively it seems very artificial and unjustified. In this work, I have made the effort to analyze this problem very carefully, to try and finally understand where it comes from, why it is a problem, a limitation, and what should be done to solve it. By a very detailed analysis of multiplication and division, I have found out that these operations are the same. Combined with the selection operation they are transformations that perform the change of a pair of numbers into another pair of numbers. After the analysis, I’ve found out that a ratio of two numbers, that can represent such a transformation, is the most natural form of a number. I’m proposing a new understanding of fractions and explaining why 1/2 should not be equal to 2/4. I presented an explanation to the problem of why division by zero is not possible in real numbers’ domain and how easy it can be understood in the domain of rational numbers. The results that I have obtained not only solve this problem but also shed a whole new light on understanding the numbers and operations of numbers. My work fixes one of the foundations of mathematics, it is difficult to predict all consequences which this change can bring, to everything, what was created based on this wrong foundation.
Category: General Mathematics

[33582] viXra:2001.0474 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-22 16:37:20

The Prime Pairs Are Equidistributed Among the Coset Lattice Congruence Classes

Authors: T. Agama, M. Bortolamasim, A. Tapia
Comments: 15 Pages. submitted to Journal

In this paper we show that for some constant $c>0$ and for any $A>0$ there exist some $x(A)>0$ such that, If $q\leq (\log x)^{A}$ then we have \begin{align}\Psi_z(x;\mathcal{N}_q(a,b),q)&=\frac{\Theta (z)}{2\phi(q)}x+O\bigg(\frac{x}{e^{c\sqrt{\log x}}}\bigg)\nonumber \end{align}for $x\geq x(A)$ for some $\Theta(z)>0$. In particular for $q\leq (\log x)^{A}$ for any $A>0$\begin{align}\Psi_z(x;\mathcal{N}_q(a,b),q)\sim \frac{x\mathcal{D}(z)}{2\phi(q)}\nonumber \end{align}for some constant $\mathcal{D}(z)>0$ and where $\phi(q)=\# \{(a,b):(p_i,p_{i+z})\in \mathcal{N}_q(a,b)\}$.
Category: Number Theory

[33581] viXra:2001.0473 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-22 16:40:49

Balanced Matrices

Authors: Theophilus Agama, Gael Kibiti
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this paper we introduce a particular class of matrices. We study the concept of a matrix to be balanced. We study some properties of this concept in the context of matrix operations. We examine the behaviour of various matrix statistics in this setting. The crux will be to understanding the determinants and the eigen-values of balanced matrices. It turns out that there does exist a direct communication among the leading entry, the trace, determinants and, hence, the eigen-values of these matrices of order $2\times 2$. These matrices have an interesting property that enables us to predict their quadratic forms, even without knowing their entries but given their spectrum.
Category: Algebra

[33580] viXra:2001.0472 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-22 16:43:41

The Compression Method and Applications

Authors: Theophilus Agama
Comments: 13 Pages. submitted to Journal

In this paper we introduce and develop the method of compression of points in space. We introduce the notion of the mass, the rank, the entropy, the cover and the energy of compression. We leverage this method to prove some class of inequalities related to Diophantine equations. In particular, we show that for each $Ln-1$, there exist some $(x_1,x_2,\ldots,x_n)\in \mathbb{N}^n$ with $x_i\neq x_j$ for all $1\leq in-1$ there exist some $(x_1,x_2,\ldots,x_n)$ with $x_i\neq x_j$ for all $1\leq i<j\leq n$ and some $s\geq 2$ such that \begin{align}\sum \limits_{j=1}^{n}\frac{1}{x_j^s}\gg s\frac{n}{L^{s-1}}.\nonumber \end{align}
Category: Number Theory

[33579] viXra:2001.0471 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-22 02:53:57

On Various Ramanujan Equations (Mock Theta Functions and Taxicab Numbers) Linked to Some Sectors of Supersymmetric String Theory Applied to the Black Hole Physics: Further New Possible Mathematical Connections Viii.

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 92 Pages.

In this research thesis, we have analyzed and deepened further Ramanujan expressions (mock theta functions and taxicab numbers) applied to some sectors of Supersymmetric String Theory concerning the Black Hole Physics. We have therefore described other new possible mathematical connections.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[33578] viXra:2001.0470 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-22 03:45:29

Unificação de Sistemas de Forças (Modelo Ideal Para Unificação da Gravidade Com as Forças Nucleares)

Authors: Alberto Mananga Bifica
Comments: 8 Pages. Este Artigo Científico está Escrito em Português

Para que as duas forças na natureza sejam iguais, a F_e e F_g, é necessário que actuam um sistema que pode ser de duas ou mais partículas; para um sistema de duas partículas, é necessário que as duas partículas tenham propriedades eléctricas e massas para que haja interacção; neste caso, o sistema será de três partículas onde duas delas terão distinção entre propriedades eléctricas e massas e uma terceira partícula central com as duas propriedades. Todos corpos com massa M são compostos por várias entidade elementar como protão ou outras partículas. Essa massa M pode formar um único sistema que vai interagir com uma única partícula deste mesmo conjunto exercendo uma força gravitacional ou eléctrica, ou seja, um conjunto de partículas podem exercer forças entre si.
Category: Classical Physics

[33577] viXra:2001.0469 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-22 05:16:03

Materials Quantum Simulator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 74 Pages.

A new technique to study the properties of molecules and materials on a quantum simulator has been discovered. [44] Quantum simulation plays an irreplaceable role in diverse fields, beyond the scope of classical computers. [43] In a cooperative project, theorists from the the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics in Garching anf the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) have now developed a new toolbox for quantum simulators and published it in Science Advances. [42] An international team headed up by Alexander Holleitner and Jonathan Finley, physicists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), has succeeded in placing light sources in atomically thin material layers with an accuracy of just a few nanometers. [41] The physicists, Brian Skinner at MIT, Jonathan Ruhman at MIT and Bar-Ilan University, and Adam Nahum at Oxford University, have published their paper on the phase transition for entanglement in a recent issue of Physical Review X. [40] A team of physicists from the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences (ÖAW) introduces a novel technique to detect entanglement even in large-scale quantum systems with unprecedented efficiency. [39] Researchers at QuTech in Delft have succeeded in generating quantum entanglement between two quantum chips faster than the entanglement is lost. [38] A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35]
Category: Quantum Physics

[33576] viXra:2001.0468 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-22 05:21:33

Naturally Numbers Are Three Plus One Dimensional Final Version

Authors: Surajit Ghosh
Comments: 53 Pages.

Riemann hypothesis stands proved in three different ways.To prove Riemann hypothesis from the functional equation concept of Delta function is introduced similar to Gamma and Pi function. Other two proofs are derived using Eulers formula and elementary algebra. Analytically continuing gamma and zeta function to an extended domain, poles and zeros of zeta values are redefined. Hodge conjecture, BSD conjecture are also proved using zeta values. Other prime conjectures like Goldbach conjecture, Twin prime conjecture etc.. are also proved in the light of new understanding of primes. Numbers are proved to be multidimensional as worked out by Hamilton. Logarithm of negative and complex numbers are redefined using extended number system. Factorial of negative and complex numbers are redefined using values of Delta function.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[33575] viXra:2001.0467 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-22 06:42:48

Unificação da Cinemática Com a Relatividade Especial

Authors: Alberto Mananga Bifica
Comments: 3 Pages. Este Artigo Científico está Escrito em Português

Ao combinar a Cinemática e a Relatividade Especial obteve-se equações que mostram como o movimento dum corpo em influenciado pela luz, isto é, em função do tempo e distância percorrida. As equações mostram que quando distância ou tempo for igual a zero, a velocidade tende também a zero; se tiverem valores que tende para infinito a velocidade a velocidade também é zero. Sendo assim, se um corpo percorrer ou aumentar a sua proporção para uma distância ou tempo infinito este tem a v=0 isto quer dizer que as variáveis s e t não influenciam no processo de expansão dos corpos ao infinito.
Category: Classical Physics

[33574] viXra:2001.0466 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-22 06:43:30

Magnetic Fingerprints

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 77 Pages.

Recent studies have shown metallic objects have their own magnetic fingerprints based on size, shape and physical composition. [47] Researchers have found that certain ultra-thin magnetic materials can switch from insulator to conductor under high pressure, a phenomenon that could be used in the development of next-generation electronics and memory storage devices. [46] Transparent electronics are the future, according to researchers including José A. Flores-Livas and Miglė Graužinytė from the research group headed by Stefan Goedecker, Professor of Computational Physics at the University of Basel. [45]
Category: Condensed Matter

[33573] viXra:2001.0465 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-22 07:06:39

Transformative Green Accelerator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

Scientists from Cornell University and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) have successfully demonstrated the world's first capture and reuse of energy in a multi-turn particle accelerator, where electrons are accelerated and decelerated in multiple stages and transported at different energies through a single beamline. [33] The findings, which have been published in Science Advances, open up new ways to create and manipulate complex magnetic structures and use these structures for green IT applications. [32] Unique physical properties of these "magic knots" might help to satisfy demand for IT power and storage using a fraction of the energy. [31] A skyrmion is the magnetic version of a tornado which is obtained by replacing the air parcels that make up the tornado by magnetic spins, and by scaling the system down to the nanometre scale. [30] A new material created by Oregon State University researchers is a key step toward the next generation of supercomputers. [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures-coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule-occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28] In a new study, researchers have designed "invisible" magnetic sensors-sensors that are magnetically invisible so that they can still detect but do not distort the surrounding magnetic fields. [27] At Carnegie Mellon University, Materials Science and Engineering Professor Mike McHenry and his research group are developing metal amorphous nanocomposite materials (MANC), or magnetic materials whose nanocrystals have been grown out of an amorphous matrix to create a two phase magnetic material that exploits both the attractive magnetic inductions of the nanocrystals and the large electrical resistance of a metallic glass. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[33572] viXra:2001.0464 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-22 07:25:46

Metallic Nanotechnology

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Rapid progress in the field of metallic nanotechnology is sparking a science revolution that is likely to impact all areas of society, according to professor of physics Ventsislav Valev and his team at the University of Bath in the UK. [27] Now researchers in France reckon they have finally found convincing evidence for the transformation, having built new devices for pressurizing and observing tiny samples of hydrogen. [26] The phenomenon of metastability, in which a system is in a state that is stable but not the one of least energy, is widely observed in nature and technology. [25] Four decades after it was predicted, scientist create a skyrmion, and take one step towards efficient nuclear fusion. [24] While standard quantum hardware entangles particles in two states, the team has found a way to generate and entangle pairs of particles that each has 15 states. [23]
Category: Condensed Matter

[33571] viXra:2001.0463 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-22 07:33:42

A Proof of Sendov's Conjecture

Authors: Theophilus Agama
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this paper we give a proof of Sendov's conjecture. We start by establishing the uniformly diminishing state of the mass of an expansion.
Category: Algebra

[33570] viXra:2001.0462 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-22 07:38:39

Distribution of Boundary Points of Expansion and Application to the Lonely Runner Conjecture

Authors: Theophilus Agama
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper we study the distribution of boundary points of expansion. As an application, we say something about the lonely runner problem. We show that given $k$ runners $\mathcal{S}_i$ round a unit circular track with the condition that at some time $||\mathcal{S}_i-\mathcal{S}_{i+1}||=||\mathcal{S}_{i+1}-\mathcal{S}_{i+2}||$ for all $i=1,2\ldots,k-2$, then at that time we have \begin{align}||\mathcal{S}_{i+1}-\mathcal{S}_i||>\frac{\mathcal{D}(n)\pi}{k-1}\nonumber \end{align}for all $i=1,\ldots, k-1$ and where $\mathcal{D}(n)>0$ is a constant depending on the degree of a certain polynomial of degree $n$. In particular, we show that given at most eight $\mathcal{S}_i$~($i=1,2,\ldots, 8$) runners running round a unit circular track with distinct constant speed and the additional condition $||\mathcal{S}_i-\mathcal{S}_{i+1}||=||\mathcal{S}_{i+1}-\mathcal{S}_{i+2}||$ for all $1\leq i\leq 6$ at some time $s>1$, then at that time their mutual distance must satisfy the lower bound\begin{align}||\mathcal{S}_{i}-\mathcal{S}_{i+1}||>\frac{\pi}{7C\sqrt{3}}\nonumber \end{align}for some constant $C>0$ for all $1\leq i \leq 7$.
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[33569] viXra:2001.0461 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-22 07:42:42

Bacterial Cells in Photo-Emission

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

A team of Russian scientists working in cooperation with international colleagues used a new method combining visual microscopic observations and photoemission spectrum registration that can be used to create a map of the physical and chemical state of a cell surface. [16] Biochemists at the University of Illinois have isolated a protein supercomplex from a bacterial membrane that, like a battery, generates a voltage across the bacterial membrane. [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase-a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12] UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. [11] Dr Martin Sweatman from the University of Edinburgh's School of Engineering has discovered a simple physical principle that might explain how life started on Earth. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[33568] viXra:2001.0460 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-22 07:54:05

The Theta Splitting Function

Authors: Theophilus Agama
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper we study the Theta splitting function $\Theta(s+1)$, a function defined on the positive integers. We study the distribution of this function for sufficiently large values of the integers. As an application we show that \begin{align}\sum \limits_{m=0}^{s}\prod \limits_{\substack{0\leq j \leq m\\\sigma:[0,m]\rightarrow [0,m]\\\sigma(j)\neq \sigma(i)}}(s-\sigma(j))\sim s^s\sqrt{s}e^{-s}\sum \limits_{m=1}^{\infty}\frac{e^m}{m^{m+\frac{1}{2}}}.\nonumber \end{align} and that \begin{align}\sum \limits_{j=0}^{s-1}e^{-\gamma j}\prod \limits_{m=1}^{\infty}\bigg(1+\frac{s-j}{m}\bigg)e^{\frac{-(s-j)}{m}}\sim \frac{e^{-\gamma s}}{\sqrt{2\pi}}\sum \limits_{m=1}^{\infty}\frac{e^m}{m^{m+\frac{1}{2}}}.\nonumber \end{align}
Category: General Mathematics

[33567] viXra:2001.0459 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-22 07:54:36

Equações Finais do Campo Unificado (Gravidade e Electromagnetismo)

Authors: Alberto Mananga Bifica
Comments: 10 Pages. Este Artigo Científico está Escrito em Português

A força electromagnética torna-se igual a gravidade quando a velocidade das suas interacções é igual a c da luz, isto ocorre nos centro de massa onde há maior potência de energia, na expansão do Universo, e no processo contínuo de energia criar matéria e matéria se transformar em ondas electromagnéticas para interagir com o exterior. As equações mostraram que não foi uma força que deu origem ao bing-bang (F=0), mas sim por meio de energia (E=mc^2) com campos de acção gravitacional e electromagnética onde a massa tende para infinito com a velocidade de equilíbrio v=c; A equação v_e v_g=c^2 mostra evidencias de que onda de energia ou a luz, na verdade são as leis gravitacionais e electromagnéticas é uma só entidade, e também prova que átomos são apenas uma acção causado pelas possibilidades da dualidade onda-partícula que o seu conjunto é a luz.
Category: Classical Physics

[33566] viXra:2001.0458 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-22 08:34:54

Refutation of Division Operations in Lambek Calculus

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2020 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Disqus comments are ignored, so don't bother. See ersatz-systems.com

We evaluate three formulas for division operations of Lambek calculus which are not tautologous. In fact, Lambek calculus cannot supply truth tables for the division connectives. This refute the follow-on conjecture of infinitary action logic, with results forming a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[33565] viXra:2001.0457 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-22 09:11:48

Electromagnetic Wave from Charged Black Hole Merger

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

I hypothesize an electromagnetic emission in the fusion of two charged black holes
Category: Astrophysics

[33564] viXra:2001.0456 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-22 09:40:05

Electron Nematic Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Recently, physicists have observed that the two families of known high-temperature superconductors-copper-and iron-based compounds-both exhibit a unique phenomenon in which electronic degrees of freedom can break the overall crystal rotational symmetry and form what is known as the electronic nematic phase. [31] Now, Sadashige Matsuo of the RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science and colleagues have created a device called a Josephson junction, which can efficiently split these Cooper pairs as they travel from a superconductor into two one-dimensional normal conductors. [30] Using a clever technique that causes unruly crystals of iron selenide to snap into alignment, Rice University physicists have drawn a detailed map that reveals the "rules of the road" for electrons both in normal conditions and in the critical moments just before the material transforms into a superconductor. [29] Superconducting quantum microwave circuits can function as qubits, the building blocks of a future quantum computer. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[33563] viXra:2001.0455 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-22 09:57:28

Current Vortices in 2-D Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Laboratory have developed a new method to measure how photocurrents flow in a 2-D material-a result that could have implications for developing quantum sensors and next-generation electronics. [38] NIMS and Hokkaido University jointly discovered that proton transfer in electrochemical reactions is governed by the quantum tunneling effect (QTE) under the specific conditions. [37] Researchers at the University of Vienna study the relevance of quantum reference frames for the symmetries of the world. [36] Researchers in Singapore have built a refrigerator that's just three atoms big. This quantum fridge won't keep your drinks cold, but it's cool proof of physics operating at the smallest scales. [35] Researchers have created a new testing ground for quantum systems in which they can literally turn certain particle interactions on and off, potentially paving the way for advances in spintronics. [34] In 2017, University of Utah physicist Valy Vardeny called perovskite a "miracle material" for an emerging field of next-generation electronics, called spintronics, and he's standing by that assertion. [33] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology proposed new quasi-1-D materials for potential spintronic applications, an upcoming technology that exploits the spin of electrons. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[33562] viXra:2001.0454 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-22 10:21:07

Nanoresonators Trap Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

An international team of researchers from ITMO University, the Australian National University, and Korea University have experimentally trapped an electromagnetic wave in a gallium arsenide nanoresonator a few hundred nanometers in size for a record-breaking time. [33] An international research team has found a way to make light frequency conversion at the nanoscale 100 times more efficient. [32] The precision of measuring nanoscopic structures could be substantially improved, thanks to research involving the University of Warwick and QuantIC researchers at the University of Glasgow and Heriot Watt University into optical sensing. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30] Researchers have discovered three distinct variants of magnetic domain walls in the helimagnet iron germanium (FeGe). [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures-coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule-occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28] In a new study, researchers have designed "invisible" magnetic sensors-sensors that are magnetically invisible so that they can still detect but do not distort the surrounding magnetic fields. [27] At Carnegie Mellon University, Materials Science and Engineering Professor Mike McHenry and his research group are developing metal amorphous nanocomposite materials (MANC), or magnetic materials whose nanocrystals have been grown out of an amorphous matrix to create a two phase magnetic material that exploits both the attractive magnetic inductions of the nanocrystals and the large electrical resistance of a metallic glass. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[33561] viXra:2001.0453 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-21 09:46:33

The Metaphysics of Physics: the Concepts of Force, Charge, and Mass

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 9 Pages.

This paper complements earlier papers on the metaphysics of physics by offering some thoughts and reflections on the most fundamental physical concepts: the idea of force, energy and mass.
Category: Quantum Physics

[33560] viXra:2001.0452 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-21 10:18:58

Unificação Das Leis Electromagnética Com a Relatividade Especial

Authors: Alberto Mananga Bifica
Comments: 9 Pages. Este Artigo Científico está Escrito em Português

Ao combinar a Relatividade Especial com o Electromagnetismo, obteve-se equações que explicam com detalha as condições que permitem provar que a energia é o responsável pela actuação dessa interacção; nos centros de massas dos planetas, estrelas ou buracos negros, no processo contínuo de energia criar matéria e matéria se transformar em ondas electromagnéticas que participam no processo da expansão do Universo são locais onde a interacção electromagnética atinge a velocidade v=c. Nos pontos extremos em que o electromagnetismo alcança valores máximos, é onde acontece a unificação com a gravidade.
Category: Classical Physics

[33559] viXra:2001.0451 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-21 10:28:12

Sistema de Matriz (Método de Alberto Mananga Bifica)

Authors: Alberto Mananga Bifica
Comments: 3 Pages. Este Artigo Científico está Escrito em Português

A matriz é considerada como uma tabela que contem linhas (m) e colunas (n) dos números reais ou funções que serve para estudo de cálculos de área, equações e entre outros. O método proposto neste artigo é uma combinação do método de grammer e de Laplace válida para uma matriz de ordem três onde obtém-se somas de três matrizes de ordem dois.
Category: Algebra

[33558] viXra:2001.0450 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-21 11:03:29

Photon Frequency Doubler

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

A way of using light to convert a normal optical material into a frequency doubler has been developed by Mohammad Taghinejad and colleagues at the Georgia Institute of Technology. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality-a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[33557] viXra:2001.0449 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-21 11:27:05

Nickelate Superconductor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

The discovery last year of the first nickel oxide material that shows clear signs of superconductivity set off a race by scientists around the world to find out more. [31] Now, Sadashige Matsuo of the RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science and colleagues have created a device called a Josephson junction, which can efficiently split these Cooper pairs as they travel from a superconductor into two one-dimensional normal conductors. [30] Using a clever technique that causes unruly crystals of iron selenide to snap into alignment, Rice University physicists have drawn a detailed map that reveals the "rules of the road" for electrons both in normal conditions and in the critical moments just before the material transforms into a superconductor. [29] Superconducting quantum microwave circuits can function as qubits, the building blocks of a future quantum computer. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[33556] viXra:2001.0448 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-21 11:45:26

Distributed Sensing Quantum Network

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Inspired by these studies, researchers at the Technical University of Denmark and the University of Copenhagen have recently carried out an experiment investigating the advantages of using an entangled quantum network to sense an averaged phase shift among multiple distributed nodes. [33] In recent years, nanofabricated mechanical oscillators have emerged as a promising platform for quantum information applications. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[33555] viXra:2001.0447 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-21 12:39:11

Spins of Light Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

A laser system that generates spinning light particles could lead to the strong kind of computational power needed to solve complex biological problems. [34] Inspired by these studies, researchers at the Technical University of Denmark and the University of Copenhagen have recently carried out an experiment investigating the advantages of using an entangled quantum network to sense an averaged phase shift among multiple distributed nodes. [33] In recent years, nanofabricated mechanical oscillators have emerged as a promising platform for quantum information applications. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[33554] viXra:2001.0446 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-21 12:55:59

Detecting Light Particle Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

Drawing inspiration from this model, researchers at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory in California have recently devised a new strategy that could directly detect light particle dark matter that has long-ranged interactions with ordinary matter. [32] An international team of scientists that includes University of California, Riverside, physicist Hai-Bo Yu has imposed conditions on how dark matter may interact with ordinary matter-constraints that can help identify the elusive dark matter particle and detect it on Earth. [31] A Multiverse-where our Universe is only one of many-might not be as inhospitable to life as previously thought, according to new research. [30]
Category: Astrophysics

[33553] viXra:2001.0445 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-21 13:44:27

The Riemann Hypothesis is false

Authors: Viola Maria Grazia
Comments: 1 Page. Contact: mary.v95@live.it

In this paper I prove that the RH is false, that is there aren't zeros on the critical strip because I prove that the zeta function \zeta(s) converges for real part of s greater than zero.
Category: General Mathematics

[33552] viXra:2001.0444 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-21 14:13:06

My Research Basic Questions (I)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 16 Pages.

This paper tries to summarize the main ideas and questions in my previous papers - It's just a guide through my papers – and I add some data for references which can be used in planets data analysis
Category: Astrophysics

[33551] viXra:2001.0443 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-21 14:38:58

Experimental Set-up to Check the Decreasing of the Gravitational Mass in Metallic Discs Subjected to an Alternating Voltage of Extremely Low Frequency.

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 5 Pages.

A very simple experimental arrangement is proposed here in order to check the decreasing of the Gravitational Mass in Metallic Discs subjected to an alternating voltage of extremely low frequency (ELF).
Category: Condensed Matter

[33550] viXra:2001.0442 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-21 14:39:32

Executive Cyber Policy Directives in the Post 9/11 Era

Authors: Alee Corrales
Comments: 26 Pages.

Following the September 11th terror attacks in New York City and Washington, D.C., policymakers in the United States began placing a stronger emphasis on cybersecurity and terror prevention. Due to the rapidly changing nature of cybersecurity, it was difficult to quickly address all the cybersecurity threats looming over the United States. Early efforts to improve cybersecurity included the establishment of the Department of Homeland Security to organize cyber threat data across various agencies. Several pieces of data-sharing legislation were circulating through Congress at this time, as well. Soon after, the U.S.A. Patriot Act became law. President Obama prioritized cybersecurity during his administration, and President Trump is prioritizing the issue, as well. This research paper finds the aforementioned policies implemented after the 9/11 attacks to be successfully detecting online communication between terrorist actors and protecting the cybersecurity interests of the United States.
Category: Social Science

[33549] viXra:2001.0441 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-21 14:45:54

Reviewing the Reviewers: a Case Study of the Diocesan Review Board of the Catholic Diocese of Dallas

Authors: Alee Corrales
Comments: 15 Pages.

Compared to other Catholic Dioceses in metropolitan areas in the United States, the Catholic Diocese of Dallas is taking a less-transparent approach to child sexual abuse allegations made internally. The main objective of the Diocesan Review Board of the Diocese of Dallas is to make recommendations to the Bishop of Dallas regarding child sexual abuse allegations. Therefore, this research will seek to address the following: What is the structure and function of the Diocesan Review Board of the Diocese of Dallas, and how can the procedures of the Diocesan Review Board reviewing allegations of child sexual abuse be made more transparent? Due to the autonomy of each Diocesan Review Board, there is a need for this research in the academic community because it identifies policies and practices of the Diocesan Review Board in Dallas, which can then be utilized to establish a baseline between other Catholic Dioceses and, perhaps, even lead to an analysis of best practices and implementations of Diocesan Review Boards. With a contextual section explaining Canon Law and government statutes, a literature review of scholarly sources discussing diocesan review boards, and methodology of the proposed research, this thesis proposal makes evident there is a need to further investigate the Diocesan Review Board of the Diocese of Dallas.
Category: Social Science

[33548] viXra:2001.0440 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-21 15:46:53

Refutation of the Definition of a Neutrosophic Set Containing Another Such Set

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2020 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Disqus comments are ignored, so don't bother. See ersatz-systems.com

We evaluate the definition for a neutrosophic set containing another such set as not tautologous. This refutes neutrosophic decision making, and by extension neutrosophic logic, to form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: General Mathematics

[33547] viXra:2001.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-21 16:29:30

Planck’s Constant and the Elementary Charge

Authors: Steve P Smith
Comments: 3 Pages.

It appears that the current value for the Planck constant which took effect on the 20th May 2019 by the GCWM is erroneous resulting in seventeen errors. It is currently assumed that there exists a certain immutability of physical constants which may or may not be dimensionless quantities, for example ratios between quantities of like dimensions. Subsequent changes in physical constants cannot be considered meaningful if it results in a change of observational evidence.
Category: Classical Physics

[33546] viXra:2001.0438 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-21 16:38:08

Vague Direct Product in BCK- Algebra

Authors: Saeid Jafari, L. Mariapresenti, I. Arockiarani
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper, the notion of direct product of vague set in BCK- algebra is introduced and some related properties are investigated. Also we introduce some of the properties of direct product of finite vague ideal and vague subalgebras of BCK- algebras.
Category: Algebra

[33545] viXra:2001.0437 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-21 16:42:34

Operations on Neutrosophic Vague Graphs

Authors: N. Durga, S. Satham Hussain, Saeid Jafari, Said Broumi
Comments: 26 Pages.

In this manuscript, the operations on neutrosophic vague graphs are introduced. Moreover, Cartesian product, cross product, lexicographic product, strong product and composition of neutrosophic vague graph are investigated and the proposed concepts are illustrated with examples.
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[33544] viXra:2001.0436 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-21 16:45:41

Some Fundamental Properties of Preseparated Sets

Authors: M. Caldas, E. Ekici, Saeid Jafari
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper, we o®er the new notion of preseparatedness in topological spaces and we study some of its fundamental properties.
Category: Topology

[33543] viXra:2001.0435 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-21 17:45:49

Proof Fermat Last Theorem

Authors: Nikos Mantzakouras
Comments: 6 Pages.

As we'll see it is clear that the same method is used for the solution in the case n = 2k + 1 & n = 2k, that is, we use the same logic of the Pythagorean Triad. The proof is based on the Pythagorean triples, i.e. with n = 2 of the FERMAT equation and is the result of the absolute correspondence with the trigonometric equation of the rectangular triangle, proof that is correct and fully compatible.
Category: Number Theory

[33542] viXra:2001.0434 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 18:51:34

Philosophical and Computational Thoughts on Why We Love Music.

Authors: Tariq Khan
Comments: 2 Pages.

Examining the nature of music and a song with observers or listeners compared to concepts of intelligence and computation and quantum mechanical analogies to reality.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[33541] viXra:2001.0433 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 21:11:19

01 Super Quasars

Authors: Vladimir Pastushenko
Comments: 45 Pages. http://pva1.mya5.ru

The modern physical theory, with the modern facts of reality, cannot be created in Euclidean axiomatics. The physics of the future can and has to be created in new technology of theories. Namely, in axioms of dynamic space matter the which fixed, special case there is an Euclidean axiomatics of space time. Here, in axioms of dynamic space matter, the uniform theory of all mathematical and physical theories, with opportunities of researches of power levels of singularity of a set of Rji (n) of objects of singularity, in the quantum Olji system (m) of coordinates, dynamic space matter of all Universe is submitted.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[33540] viXra:2001.0432 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-21 00:16:36

Ehd and Electrostatic Propulsion Using Multiplexed Electrodes

Authors: T. Saiki
Comments: 5 Pages.

Electro hydro dynamic (EHD) and electrostatic propulsion devices has no moving parts and, in the air, operates on electrical energy. Theory on the improvement of capacitance by multiplexing the electrodes of the capacitor was reported. It has been experimentally shown that the multiplexing of the electrodes improves the accumulated charge. This can be applied to an EHD device, and experiments showed that multiplexing of the electrode edges could improve the propulsion.
Category: Classical Physics

[33539] viXra:2001.0431 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-21 01:45:01

Some Studies on Neutrosophic Decision Making

Authors: Shyamal Dalapati
Comments: 180 Pages.

Thesis Submitted for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Science) of Indian Institute of Engineering, Science and Technology, Shibpur by Shyamal Dalapati Department of Mathematics Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur P.O. Botanic Garden, Howrah - 711103, India July, 2018
Category: General Mathematics

[33538] viXra:2001.0430 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-21 04:17:14

Sweat Sensor Replace Blood Tests

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

"Considering that abnormal circulating nutrients and metabolites are related to a number of health conditions, the information collected from such wearable sensors will be invaluable for both research and medical treatment," Gao concludes. [37] A team of researchers from Massachusetts Institute of Technology has designed a new surgical tool that is maneuverable through some of the narrowest twisting networks of blood vessels to help treat stroke and aneurysm. [37] A new paper in Nature Photonics from researchers at CU Boulder details impressive improvements in the ability to control the propagation and interaction of light in complex media such as tissue-an area with many potential applications in the medical field. [36] The new microscopes, known as mesoSPIMs, can image the minute detail of brain tissue down to individual neurons, and can uncover the 3-D anatomy of entire small organs faster than ever before. [35] A team of researchers from Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology has found that they could use an optical tweezer array of laser-cooled molecules to observe ground state collisions between individual molecules. [34] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have replicated one of the most well-known electromagnetic effects in physics, the Hall Effect, using radio waves (photons) instead of electric current (electrons). [33] A team of researchers from Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology has found that they could use an optical tweezer array of laser-cooled molecules to observe ground state collisions between individual molecules. [32] "With optical tweezers, you can capture a single particle in its native state in solution and watch its structural evolution," said Linda Young, Argonne distinguished fellow. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29]
Category: Physics of Biology

[33537] viXra:2001.0429 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-21 04:35:01

Faster Breast Cancer Radiotherapy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Faster Breast Cancer Radiotherapy Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is non-inferior to conventional whole-breast irradiation in preventing breast tumour recurrence, according to long-term findings of a trial of over 2100 women. [24] The Pt nanoreactor was designed with a controlled core-shell structure and morphology for the visual detection of metabolic biomarkers and direct laser desorption/ionization MS fingerprinting of the native serum. [23] Nuclear technology companies Phoenix and SHINE Medical Technologies have achieved a new world record for a nuclear fusion reaction in a steady-state system, the strongest of its kind ever produced on Earth. [22]
Category: Physics of Biology

[33536] viXra:2001.0428 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-21 05:39:40

Protein Structure Fight Asthma

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Biophysicists from the MIPT Center for Molecular Mechanisms of Aging and Age-Related Diseases have teamed up with colleagues from Canada, the U.S., Japan, France, and Germany to shed light on the structure and functioning mechanism of the CysLT receptors, which regulate inflammatory responses associated with allergic disorders. [34] These will then produce the proteins themselves, without the cell functions being disturbed: cells, structures or their activities thus become visible under the microscope. [33] Measuring optical blood flow in the resting human brain to detect spontaneous activity has for the first time been demonstrated by Wright State University imaging researchers, holding out promise for a better way to study people with autism, Alzheimer's and depression. [32]
Category: Physics of Biology

[33535] viXra:2001.0427 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-21 06:55:07

Cloud-Moving System to Regulate Climate

Authors: Xue Gong, Weilin Xu
Comments: 6 Pages.

Here we introduce a design of a cost-effective cloud-moving system (CMS) in sky to tune the distribution of water resource in large scale and then regulate the climate on Earth. With it, the extreme weathers, such as drought and flood, could be relieved.
Category: Climate Research

[33534] viXra:2001.0426 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-21 06:54:24

Physics Explain Democratic Elections

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

It may seem surprising, but theories and formulas derived from physics turn out to be useful tools for understanding the ways democratic elections work, including how these systems break down and how they could be improved. [28] Electrons whizzing around each other and humans crammed together at a political rally don't seem to have much in common, but researchers at Cornell are connecting the dots. [27] Now a group of actual physicists from Australia and Switzerland have proposed a device which uses the quantum tunneling of magnetic flux around a capacitor, breaking time-reversal symmetry. [26] The arrow of time and the accelerated expansion are two fundamental empirical facts of the universe. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[33533] viXra:2001.0425 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-21 07:12:54

Physics Imperfections Make Perfect

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

Northwestern University researchers have added a new dimension to the importance of diversity. For the first time, physicists have experimentally demonstrated that certain systems with interacting entities can synchronize only if the entities within the system are different from one another. [29] It may seem surprising, but theories and formulas derived from physics turn out to be useful tools for understanding the ways democratic elections work, including how these systems break down and how they could be improved. [28] Electrons whizzing around each other and humans crammed together at a political rally don't seem to have much in common, but researchers at Cornell are connecting the dots. [27] Now a group of actual physicists from Australia and Switzerland have proposed a device which uses the quantum tunneling of magnetic flux around a capacitor, breaking time-reversal symmetry. [26] The arrow of time and the accelerated expansion are two fundamental empirical facts of the universe. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[33532] viXra:2001.0424 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-21 07:32:29

The Photoelectric X-Ray Experiment and Possible Proof of De-Broglie Bohm Theory

Authors: Ajinkya Naik
Comments: 13 Pages.

Photoelectric effect and the production of X-Rays in Cathode Ray Tube are two correlated phenomena. It is quite surprising to note that there has been no substantial attention given to this correlation. It is possible to bridge these two separate processes, enabling us to study the quantum interactions which occur naturally. A modified version of Photoelectric setup can be used, in which the ejected photoelectrons with high energies travel to the anode. A heavy metal viz. Tungsten is used as anode, which produces X-Rays due to photoelectronic collisions with anode. The photoelectrons are assumed to be non-relativistic and a relation is obtained between the De-Broglie Wavelength of the photoelectrons (λ_e) and the wavelength of X-Rays (λ_x) such that λ_x=Ψ〖λ_e〗^2. The connection of results with a possible proof of De-Broglie Bohm Hypothesis is then discussed in Final Discussion.
Category: Quantum Physics

[33531] viXra:2001.0423 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-21 08:13:16

A EQUAÇÃO Unificadora do Tudo

Authors: JosÊniod Dos Anjos
Comments: 1 Page. QUALQUER POSTULADO PÓSTUMO UTILIZANDO ESTA EQUAÇÃO, DEPENDE DE AUTORIZAÇÃO DO AUTOR.

O LAPSO DE LOUCURA DE UM GÊNIO, EXPOSTA EM UMA EQUAÇÃO. A SOLUÇÃO FINAL DE TODO MISTÉRIO DA FÍSICA E COSMOLOGIA.
Category: Astrophysics

[33530] viXra:2001.0422 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-21 08:44:23

On the Various Ramanujan Equations (Mock Theta Functions and Taxicab Numbers) Linked to Some Sectors of String Theory (Black Branes) and Black Hole Physics: Further New Possible Mathematical Connections Vii.

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 82 Pages.

In this research thesis, we have analyzed and deepened further Ramanujan expressions (mock theta functions and taxicab numbers) applied to some sectors of String Theory (black branes) and Black Hole Physics. We have therefore described other new possible mathematical connections.
Category: Number Theory

[33529] viXra:2001.0421 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 10:54:29

Ferroelectric Nanoelectronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

A UNSW study published today in Nature Communications presents an exciting step towards domain-wall nanoelectronics: a novel form of future electronics based on nano-scale conduction paths, and which could allow for extremely dense memory storage. [29] Two research groups from ETH Zurich have developed a method that can simulate nanoelectronics devices and their properties realistically, quickly and efficiently. [28] Dispersible electrodes based on gold-coated magnetic nanoparticles modified with DNA can detect microRNA in unprocessed blood samples at extremely low concentrations and over a broad range-a first for sensors of this kind. [27] Engineers at the University of California San Diego have developed neutrophil "nanosponges" that can safely absorb and neutralize a variety of proteins that play a role in the progression of rheumatoid arthritis. [26] An international team of researchers has determined the function of a new family of proteins associated with cancer and autism. [25] In 2016, when we inaugurated our new IBM Research lab in Johannesburg, we took on this challenge and are reporting our first promising results at Health Day at the KDD Data Science Conference in London this month. [24] The research group took advantage of a system at SLAC's Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) that combines machine learning-a form of artificial intelligence where computer algorithms glean knowledge from enormous amounts of data-with experiments that quickly make and screen hundreds of sample materials at a time. [23] Researchers at the UCLA Samueli School of Engineering have demonstrated that deep learning, a powerful form of artificial intelligence, can discern and enhance microscopic details in photos taken by smartphones. [22] Such are the big questions behind one of the new projects underway at the MIT-IBM Watson AI Laboratory, a collaboration for research on the frontiers of artificial intelligence. [21] The possibility of cognitive nuclear-spin processing came to Fisher in part through studies performed in the 1980s that reported a remarkable lithium isotope dependence on the behavior of mother rats. [20]
Category: Condensed Matter

[33528] viXra:2001.0420 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 11:33:21

Laser Diode UV Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

Nagoya University scientists, in cooperation with Asahi Kasei Corporation, have designed a laser diode that emits deep-ultraviolet light, and have published a paper in the journal Applied Physics Express. [44] A team of researchers is using ultrasonic nondestructive testing (NDT) that involves amplifying the signal from a photoacoustic laser source using laser-absorbing patch made from an array of nanoparticles from candle soot and polydimethylsiloxane. [43] An explosion is a complex event involving quickly changing temperatures, pressures and chemical concentrations. [42]
Category: Quantum Physics

[33527] viXra:2001.0419 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 11:42:21

Mathematical Demonstration of Riemann Hypothesis

Authors: Francisco Moga Moscoso, Marina Moga Lozano
Comments: 5 Pages. email for contact: mmoga@uma.es. Book and copyright: Desdedondetodocomienza

A possible demonstrations of the riemann hypothesis based on every infinite complex solution of zeta function of Riemann ζ(s) with it is conjugated root, can also be used to be the solution of a quadratic equation of real coefficients which admits it as zeros, using the root theorem of Viete.
Category: General Mathematics

[33526] viXra:2001.0418 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 11:54:29

Laser Based on Quantum Mechanics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

"The new theory opens the door to exploiting the rich phenomenology of these effects in the design of new types of ML lasers, which could lead to new functionalities and uses, especially in areas such as precision metrology or optical communications," Germán de Valcárcel explained. [44] A team of researchers is using ultrasonic nondestructive testing (NDT) that involves amplifying the signal from a photoacoustic laser source using laser-absorbing patch made from an array of nanoparticles from candle soot and polydimethylsiloxane. [43] An explosion is a complex event involving quickly changing temperatures, pressures and chemical concentrations. [42]
Category: Quantum Physics

[33525] viXra:2001.0417 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 12:32:50

The Horizon of Two Interacting Bodies

Authors: Lluís Bel
Comments: 4 Pages.

Two concomitant Whitehead's models are used to describe the gravitational interaction of two point-like particles. If the two masses are different, and they are at rest, Newton's laws are slightly modified and for some particular values of the two masses and the distance separating them the force is a repulsion. This suggests a nice interpretation of the so-called horizon of the single particle model as the surface where gravitation becomes a repulsive force.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[33524] viXra:2001.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 13:07:59

Camera Takes 1 Trillion Frames

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

A little over a year ago, Caltech's Lihong Wang developed the world's fastest camera, a device capable of taking 10 trillion pictures per second. It is so fast that it can even capture light traveling in slow motion. [45] "The new theory opens the door to exploiting the rich phenomenology of these effects in the design of new types of ML lasers, which could lead to new functionalities and uses, especially in areas such as precision metrology or optical communications," Germán de Valcárcel explained. [44] A team of researchers is using ultrasonic nondestructive testing (NDT) that involves amplifying the signal from a photoacoustic laser source using laser-absorbing patch made from an array of nanoparticles from candle soot and polydimethylsiloxane. [43] An explosion is a complex event involving quickly changing temperatures, pressures and chemical concentrations. [42] A team led by University of Utah physicists has discovered how to fix a major problem that occurs in lasers made from a new type of material called quantum dots. [41] A team of researchers from the University of Central Florida and Michigan Technological University has developed a laser system concept built on the principles of supersymmetry. [40] Laser physicists have succeeded in reducing the acquisition time for data required for reliable characterization of multidimensional electron motions by a factor of 1000. [39] Princeton researchers have demonstrated a new way of making controllable "quantum wires" in the presence of a magnetic field, according to a new study published in Nature. [38] Physicists at the Kastler Brossel Laboratory in Paris have reached a milestone in the combination of cold atoms and nanophotonics. [37] The universal laws governing the dynamics of interacting quantum particles are yet to be fully revealed to the scientific community. [36] Now NIST scientists have designed a vacuum gauge that is small enough to deploy in commonly used vacuum chambers. [35]
Category: Quantum Physics

[33523] viXra:2001.0415 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 13:15:57

Critical Review of IPCC Goals Due to Conflicts to CO2 Theory and Increasing UHI Albedo and Humidity Forcing Concerns

Authors: Alec Feinberg
Comments: 9 Pages. Key Words: Urban Heat Islands, Albedo Forcing, Humidity Forcing, Hydro-hotspots, Highly Evaporating Surfaces, Rainwater management,, Ocean Evaporation, City Evaporation Rates, CO2 theory

We provide a critical review of current IPCC 2020 CO2 goals which we show are very risky in light of increasing UHI albedo and humidity forcing that remains unaddressed by the IPCC over the years. Specifically we show that UHI albedo radiative forcing is in conflict with CO2 global warming theory. Since many of these issues have been described but still ignored by the IPCC goals, what we do is connect key issues to form a critical review of IPCC past and current direction explaining that their well intentioned goals are likely incomplete putting our population at future risk.
Category: Climate Research

[33522] viXra:2001.0414 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 13:28:14

Terahertz Laser Beam Record

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

Terahertz radiation is used for security checks at airports, for medical examinations and also for quality checks in industry. [45] "The new theory opens the door to exploiting the rich phenomenology of these effects in the design of new types of ML lasers, which could lead to new functionalities and uses, especially in areas such as precision metrology or optical communications," Germán de Valcárcel explained. [44] A team of researchers is using ultrasonic nondestructive testing (NDT) that involves amplifying the signal from a photoacoustic laser source using laser-absorbing patch made from an array of nanoparticles from candle soot and polydimethylsiloxane. [43]
Category: Quantum Physics

[33521] viXra:2001.0413 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 14:48:07

World-Universe Model - Alternative to Big Bang Model

Authors: Vladimir S. Netchitailo
Comments: 23 Pages.

This manuscript provides a comparison of the Hypersphere World-Universe Model (WUM) with the prevailing Big Bang Model (BBM) of the Standard Cosmology. The performed analysis of BBM shows that the Four Pillars of the Standard Cosmology are model-dependent and not strong enough to support the model. The angular momentum problem is one of the most critical problem in BBM. Standard Cosmology cannot explain how Galaxies and Extra Solar systems obtained their substantial orbital and rotational angular momenta, and why the orbital momentum of Jupiter is considerably larger than the rotational momentum of the Sun. WUM is the only cosmological model in existence that is consistent with the Law of Conservation of Angular Momentum. To be consistent with this Fundamental Law, WUM discusses in detail the Beginning of the World. The Model introduces Dark Epoch (spanning from the Beginning of the World for 0.4 billion years) when only Dark Matter Particles (DMPs) existed, and Luminous Epoch (ever since for 13.8 billion years). Big Bang discussed in Standard Cosmology is, in our view, transition from Dark Epoch to Luminous Epoch due to Rotational Fission of Overspinning Dark Matter (DM) Supercluster’s Cores. WUM envisions Matter carried from the Universe into the World from the fourth spatial dimension by DMPs. Ordinary Matter is a byproduct of DM annihilation. WUM solves a number of physical problems in contemporary Cosmology and Astrophysics through DMPs and their interactions: Angular Momentum problem in birth and subsequent evolution of Galaxies and Extrasolar systems – how do they obtain it; Fermi Bubbles – two large structures in gamma-rays and X-rays above and below Galactic center; Diversity of Gravitationally-Rounded Objects in Solar system; some problems in Solar and Geophysics [1]. WUM reveals Inter-Connectivity of Primary Cosmological Parameters and calculates their values, which are in good agreement with the latest results of their measurements.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[33520] viXra:2001.0412 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 16:40:58

On Certain Types of Notions Via Preopen Sets

Authors: Saeid Jafari
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper, we deal with the new class of pre-regular p-open sets in which the notion of preopen set is involved. We characterize these sets and study some of their fundamental properties. We also present two other notions called extremally $p$-discreteness and locally $p$-indiscreteness by utilizing the notions of preopen and preclosed sets by which we obtain some equivalence relations for pre-regular p-open sets. Moreover, we define the notion of regular $p$-open sets by utilizing the notion of pre-regular p-open sets. We investigate some of the main properties of these sets and study their relations to pre-regular $p$-open sets.
Category: Topology

[33519] viXra:2001.0411 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 16:59:18

Bioperations on $\alpha$-Separations Axioms in Topological Spaces

Authors: Alias B. Khalaf, Saeid Jafari, Hariwan Z. Ibrahim
Comments: 15 Pages.

In this paper, we consider the class of $\alpha_{[\gamma, \gamma']}generalized closed set in topological spaces and investigate some of their properties. We also present and study new separation axioms by using the notions of $\alpha$-open and $\alpha$-bioperations. Also, we analyze the relations with some well known separation axioms.
Category: Topology

[33518] viXra:2001.0410 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 17:03:09

G*bp-Continuous, Almost G*bp-Continuous and Weakly G*bp-Continuous Functions

Authors: Alias B. Khalaf, Suzan N. Dawod, Saeid Jafari
Comments: 19 Pages.

In this paper we introduce new types of functions called g*bp-continuous function, almost g*bp-continuous function, and weakly g*bp-continuous function in topological spaces and study some of their basic properties and relations among them.
Category: Topology

[33517] viXra:2001.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 17:06:58

A Note on Properties of Hypermetric Spaces

Authors: Mohsen Alimohammady, Saeid Jafari, Seithuti P. Moshokoa, Morteza Koozehgar Kalleji
Comments: 12 Pages.

The note studies further properties and results of analysis in the setting of hypermetric spaces. Among others, we present some results concerning the hyper uniform limit of a sequence of continuous functions, the hypermetric identication theorem and the metrization problem for hypermetric space.
Category: Topology

[33516] viXra:2001.0408 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 17:13:57

On Generalized Closed Sets and Generalized Pre-Closed Sets in Neutrosophic Topological Spaces

Authors: Wadei Al-Omeri, Saeid Jafari
Comments: 12 Pages.

In this paper, the concept of generalized neutrosophic pre-closed sets and generalized neutrosophic pre-open sets are introduced. We also study relations and various properties between the other existing neutrosophic open and closed sets. In addition, we discuss some applications of generalized neutrosophic pre-closed sets, namely neutrosophic pT_{1/2} space and neutrosophic gpT_{1/2} space. The concepts of generalized neutrosophic connected spaces, generalized neutrosophic compact spaces and generalized neutrosophic extremally disconnected spaces are established. Some interesting properties are investigated in addition to giving some examples.
Category: Topology

[33515] viXra:2001.0407 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 17:20:57

Bipolar Vague a-Ideals of Bci-Algebras

Authors: Cicily Flora, S., Arockiarani, I., Saeid Jafari
Comments: 7 Pages.

The notion of bipolar vague A-ideals of BCI-algebra is introduced and their properties are investigated. Characterizations of bipolar vague A-ideals are given. Relationship between bipolar vague ideal and the newly defined ideals are analyzed. Moreover, we studied some equivalent conditions for bipolar vague A-ideals. Finally, we prove a result in bipolar A-ideal using bipolar vague level cut.
Category: Algebra

[33514] viXra:2001.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 17:23:28

Soft Interval Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy Semi-Pre Generalized Closed Sets

Authors: A.Arokia Lancy, I. Arockiarani, Saeid Jafari
Comments: 9 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to introduce some generalized closed sets of general topology to soft interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy topology. In particular the soft interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy semi-pre generalized closed sets along with its characterization are discussed.
Category: Topology

[33513] viXra:2001.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 17:26:53

Intuitionistic Fuzzy Ideals on Approximation Systems

Authors: H. Jude Immaculate, Saeid Jafari, I.Arockiarani
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper, we initiate the concept of intuitionistic fuzzy ideals on rough sets. Using a new relation we discuss some of the algebraic nature of intuitionistic fuzzy ideals of a ring.
Category: Topology

[33512] viXra:2001.0404 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 18:17:28

On a Function Modeling $n$-Step Self Avoiding Walk

Authors: Theophilus Agama
Comments: 6 Pages.

We introduce and study the needle function. We prove that this function is a function modeling $n$-step self avoiding walk. We show that the total length of the $l$-step self-avoiding walk modeled by this function is of the order \begin{align}\ll \frac{n^{\frac{3}{2}}}{2}\bigg(\mathrm{\max}\{\mathrm{sup}(x_j)\}_{1\leq j\leq \frac{l}{2}}+\mathrm{max}\{\mathrm{sup}(a_j)\}_{1\leq j\leq \frac{l}{2}}\bigg).\nonumber \end{align}
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[33511] viXra:2001.0403 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-19 18:48:00

Planck Length and Third Amendment to the Rayleigh-Jeans Law

Authors: S. V. Miheev
Comments: 7 Pages.

It is shown that the minimum wavelength is approximately equal to the Planck length. To prove the exact equality, it is necessary to find an analytical solution of a certain integral = 1 /(8*Pi)^2 . The calculations are based: on a previously obtained dependence of the temperature of zero oscillations on the maximum and minimum wavelengths of standing oscillations in the cavity; on the previously calculated fraction of thermal fluctuations in the critical energy density (1/4); and on the law of Stefan – Boltzmann. It is assumed that thermal and zero-point vibrations are held in the cavity by their own gravitational field, and the wavelength of these oscillations is quantized. The critical frequency is determined above which corrections arise associated with the quantization of the wavelength of oscillations. The corrections are obtained: the Rayleigh – Jeans law, the formula for the distribution of the energy density of zero-point vibrations over frequencies, the Planck formula, and the Stefan – Boltzmann law. It is shown that corrections that reduce the energy density of zero-point vibrations by 120 orders of magnitude are almost impossible to detect in laboratory experiments with thermal radiation. I apologize for spreading false information that the minimum wavelength is significantly greater than the Planck length. My attempts to find a solution by adjusting the parameters led to errors.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[33510] viXra:2001.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-19 19:33:35

A Distributed Algorithm for Brute Force Password Cracking on n Processors

Authors: Roman Bahadursingh
Comments: 3 Pages.

A Password P, can be defined as a hash of x symbols .A brute force password cracking algorithm will go through every possible combination of symbols from 1 – x symbols. This form of password cracker takes O(n) time to solve, where n is the number of possible combinations, achieved by sn where s is the number of symbols available for a password. Having a password cracker with multiple processors, having the processors instead of all checking from symbol 0 to the last symbol, using a more decentralized approach can greatly improve the speed of this computation to O(n/2) for two processors, O(n/3) for three processors and O(n/np) as a generalized formula. This algorithm also allows for multiple processors of different clock speeds to also crack a password in more optimal time.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[33509] viXra:2001.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 00:47:55

The Hybrid Time Clock as a Function of Gravity

Authors: Stephen H. Jarvis
Comments: 15 Pages.

This paper follows on from the preceding papers [1-15] in detailing how time is a function of gravity using what is termed the “hybrid time clock”, in much the same way Einstein used the analogy of a clock in his special relativity theory [16]. The paper here doesn't dispute key known facts of special relativity regarding time and gravity, and of course mass, yet it does highlight new equations relevant to the general question theoretical physics is asking in regard to gravity, namely how it is related to QED (Quantum Electrodynamics). In this paper, “time” is considered to be “what a clock measures” for the lack of a better definition. The hybrid time clock is a concept developed from the hybrid time equation of the preceding papers [1-15], more specifically the most recent paper “Hybrid Time Theory: “Euler’s Formula” and the “Phi-Algorithm”” [15], and is implemented here in this paper as a function of gravity. In short, the concept of the hybrid time clock is that of using a construct of measuring time, the concept of time, using a “time-clock” as a standardized construct of measurement for time. Time could indeed be the most mysterious entity of all. It may not even exist. Yet the hybrid time clock is a way to measure the concept of time for the purpose of also understanding the concept of space and associated phenomena of energy and mass and light. This paper will take the concept of the hybrid time clock and associated equation from paper 15 ([15]: p11, eq8) and present its case as “the” integral function of G (gravity) directly associating it to EM (electromagnetism) as the phi-quantum wave-function as accounted for in the preliminary papers [1-15].
Category: Mathematical Physics

[33508] viXra:2001.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 01:56:39

On the Meaning of Relativity in Contemporary Physics

Authors: Daniele Sasso
Comments: 24 Pages.

The paper examines the evolution of the concept of relativity from origins, in the 17th century, to this day. Doubtless the concept of relativity has undergone a substantial change that misrepresents the concept that instead expresses in its essence the fact that laws and equations of physics do not depend on the inertial reference frame and on the inertial observer. The principle of relativity hence is valid only for inertial reference frames and observers who move with constant relative motion. For all inertial observers the same laws of physics and the same equations are valid, it doesn’t mean nevertheless for them also the same mathematical solutions are valid when these solutions depend on inertial velocity of a second reference frame with respect to the reference frame supposed at rest.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[33507] viXra:2001.0399 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 01:56:22

Neutron Spectroscopy Data Resolution

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

"As far as we know, this is the first published work showing an application of super resolution to neutrons. We're at the forefront of an exciting new trend that will help other neutron scattering facilities improve their own data resolution as well," said Lin. [14] Coupled with SNS, the world's most powerful pulsed accelerator-based neutron source, VENUS will be the only open research facility platform in the US to provide time-of-flight neutron imaging capabilities to users from academia and industry. [13] A spallation neutron source has been used by physicists in Japan to search for possible violations of the inverse square law of gravity. [12] Physicists have proposed a way to test quantum gravity that, in principle, could be performed by a laser-based, table-top experiment using currently available technology. [11] Now however, a new type of materials, the so-called Weyl semimetals, similar to 3-D graphene, allow us to put the symmetry destructing quantum anomaly to work in everyday phenomena, such as the creation of electric current. [10] Physicist Professor Chunnong Zhao and his recent PhD students Haixing Miao and Yiqiu Ma are members of an international team that has created a particularly exciting new design for gravitational wave detectors. [9] A proposal for a gravitational-wave detector made of two space-based atomic clocks has been unveiled by physicists in the US. [8] The gravitational waves were detected by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA. [7] A team of researchers with the University of Lisbon has created simulations that indicate that the gravitational waves detected by researchers with the LIGO project, and which are believed to have come about due to two black holes colliding, could just have easily come from another object such as a gravaster (objects which are believed to have their insides made of dark energy) or even a wormhole. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes the simulations they created, what was seen and what they are hoping to find in the future. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[33506] viXra:2001.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 03:50:24

On the Polarization of Gravitational Waves

Authors: Paul R. Gerber
Comments: 2 Pages.

It is argued that transversal waves in the geometry of space-time, as postulated by General Relativity, violate translation symmetry within phase planes of a planar wave. Consequently, it is proposed that a corresponding test of transversality is performed, which should have become possible with the increasing number of registered events of gravitational waves. This would provide a independent, new, and essential test of General Relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[33505] viXra:2001.0397 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 06:26:00

Operation Approach of $g\star$-Closed Sets in Ideal Topological Spaces

Authors: Saeid Jafari, A. Sevakumar, M. Parimala
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this article we introduce $(I; \gamma)$ -$g\star$-closed sets in topological spaces and also introduce $\gamma g\star$-$T_I$-spaces and investigate some of their properties.
Category: Topology

[33504] viXra:2001.0396 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 06:30:01

Regularity and Normality Via $\beta \theta$-Open Sets

Authors: M. Caldas, Saeid Jafari
Comments: 18 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to present and study a new type of regularity and normality called $\beta \theta$-regularity and $\beta \theta$-normality, repectively by using $\beta \theta$-open sets.
Category: Topology

[33503] viXra:2001.0395 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 06:34:28

On the Class of Semipre-$\theta$-Open Sets in Topological Spaces

Authors: M. Caldas, Saeid Jafari, T. Noiri
Comments: 17 Pages.

In this paper we consider the class of $\beta \theta$-open sets in topological spaces and investigate some of their properties. We also present and study some weak separation axioms by involving the notion of $\beta \theta$-open sets.
Category: Topology

[33502] viXra:2001.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 06:40:49

New Types of Continuous Functions Via $G \~$ \alpha$-Open Sets

Authors: Saeid Jafari, A. Selvakumar
Comments: 16 Pages.

In this paper , we will continue the study of related irresolute functions with $G \~$ \alpha$-open sets [6]. We introduce and study the notion of completely $G \~$ \alpha$-irresolute functions. Further, we discuss the notion of $G \~$ \alpha$-quotient functions and study some of their properties.
Category: Topology

[33501] viXra:2001.0393 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 06:45:34

$mi$-Open Sets and Quasi-$mi$-Open Sets in Terms of Minimal Ideal Topological Spaces

Authors: Saeid Jafari, M. Parimala
Comments: 14 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new type of open sets called mI-open sets and quasi-$mI$-open sets in minimal ideal topological spaces and investigate the relation between minimal structure space and minimal ideal structure spaces. Basic properties and characterizations related to these sets are given.
Category: Topology

[33500] viXra:2001.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 06:49:56

Some Properties of $g\~$$\alpha$-Closed Graphs

Authors: Saeid Jafari, A. Selvakumar
Comments: 15 Pages.

R.Devi et al. [4] introduced the concept of $g\~$$\alpha$-open sets. In this paper, we introduce and study some properties of functions with ultra $g\~$$\alpha$-closed graphs and strongly $g\~$$\alpha$-closed graphs by utilizing $g\~$$\alpha$-open sets and the eg-closure operator.
Category: Topology

[33499] viXra:2001.0391 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 06:53:57

Contra $g\~$$\alpha$-Continuous Functions

Authors: Saeid Jafari, A. Selvakumar
Comments: 20 Pages.

The concept of $g\~$$\alpha$-closed sets in a topological space are introduced by R. Devi et. al. [4]. In this paper, we introduce the notion of contra $g\~$$\alpha$-continuous functions utilizing $g\~$$\alpha$-open sets and study some of its applications.
Category: Topology

[33498] viXra:2001.0390 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 06:59:47

On New Type of Sets in Ideal Topological Spaces

Authors: A. Selvakumar, Saeid Jafari
Comments: 19 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce the notion of $I_{g~\alpha}$ -closed sets in ideal topological spaces and investigate some of their properties. Further, we introduce the concept of mildly $I_{g~\alpha}$- closed sets and $I_{g~\alpha}$-normal space.
Category: Topology

[33497] viXra:2001.0388 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 07:03:27

Nano $g\~$$\alpha$-Closed Sets in Nano Topological Spaces

Authors: A. Selvakumar, Saeid Jafari
Comments: 10 Pages.

The basic objective of this paper is to introduce and investigate the properties of Nano $g\~$$\alpha$-closed sets in Nano topological spaces.
Category: Topology

[33496] viXra:2001.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 07:07:38

Refutation of Riemann’s Definition of Integrals for a Cheating Runner

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2020 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Disqus comments are ignored, so don't bother. See ersatz-systems.com

We evaluate six equations which are not tautologous. This refutes the conjecture of Riemann’s definition of integrals for a cheating runner before the integral is invoked to form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[33495] viXra:2001.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 07:11:43

$g\~$$\alpha$-Closed Sets in Terms of Grills

Authors: A. Selvakumar, Saeid Jafari
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper, we define the $g\~$$\alpha$($\theta$)-convergence and $g\~$$\alpha$($\theta$)-adherence using the concept of grills and study some of their properties.
Category: Topology

[33494] viXra:2001.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 07:14:38

$g\~$$\alpha$-Closed Sets in Topological Spaces

Authors: R. Devi, A. Selvakumar, Saeid Jafari
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce the notion of $g\~$$\alpha$-closed sets in topological spaces and investigate some of their basic properties.
Category: Topology

[33493] viXra:2001.0384 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 07:15:17

Dark Energy Survey Results

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

The Dark Energy Survey (DES) program uses the patterns of cosmic structure as seen in the spatial distribution of hundreds of millions of galaxies to reveal the nature of "dark energy," the source of cosmic acceleration. [32] Key components for the sky-mapping Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), weighing about 12 tons, were hoisted atop the Mayall Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) near Tucson, Arizona, and bolted into place Wednesday, marking a major project milestone. [31]
Category: Astrophysics

[33492] viXra:2001.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 07:19:09

Weak Separation Axioms Via Pre-Regular $p$-Open Sets

Authors: M. Caldas, Saeid Jafari, T. Noiri, M. S. Sarsak
Comments: 19 Pages.

In this paper, we obtain new separation axioms by using the notion of $(\delta; p)$-open sets introduced by Jafari [3] via the notion of pre-regular $p$-open sets [2].
Category: Topology

[33491] viXra:2001.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 07:26:21

$**gα$ Closed and $**gα$ Open Sets in the Digital Plane

Authors: M. Vigneshwaran1, Saeid Jafari, S. E. Han
Comments: 19 Pages.

Digital topology was first studied in the late 1970’s by the computer analysis researcher Azriel Rosenfeld [15]. In this paper we derive some of the properties of **gα-open and **gα-closed sets in the digital plane. Moreover, we show that the Khalimsky line $(Z^{2}, K^{2})$ is not an αT_1/2*** space. Also we prove that the family of all **gα-open sets of $(Z^2, K^2)$, say $**GαO(Z^2, K^2)$, forms an alternative topology of Z2 and the topological space (Z2, $**G\alpha O(Z^2, K^2))$ is a T_1/2 space. Moreover, we derive the properties of *gα-closed and *gα-open sets in the digital plane via the singleton’s points
Category: Topology

[33490] viXra:2001.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 07:31:08

C# Application to Deal with Neutrosophic $g \alpha$-Closed Sets in Neutrosophic Topology

Authors: S. Saranya, M. Vigneshwaran, Saeid Jafari
Comments: 12 Pages.

In this paper, we have developed a C# application for finding the values of the complement, union, intersection and the inclusion of any two neutrosophic sets in the neutrosophic field by using .NET Framework, Microsoft Visual Studio and C# Programming Language. In addition to this, the system can find neutrosophic topology ($\tau$ ), neutrosophic $g \alpha$-closed sets and neutrosophic $g \alpha$-closed sets in each resultant screens. Also this computer based application produces the complement values of each neutrosophic closed sets.
Category: Topology

[33489] viXra:2001.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 07:54:37

Brain Transplant Telescopes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

It will enable Australian researchers to do more ambitious research despite the increasing radio-frequency interference from radio transmitters, make more discoveries, and perhaps understand some more of the mysteries of the universe. [32] Key components for the sky-mapping Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), weighing about 12 tons, were hoisted atop the Mayall Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) near Tucson, Arizona, and bolted into place Wednesday, marking a major project milestone. [31]
Category: Astrophysics

[33488] viXra:2001.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 08:13:59

LHCb Explores Lepton Universality

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

The LHCb collaboration has reported an intriguing new result in its quest to test a key principle of the Standard Model called lepton universality. [40] Do the anomalies observed in the LHCb experiment in the decay of B mesons hide hitherto unknown particles from outside the currently valid and well-tested Standard Model? [39] "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino-the antimatter partner of a neutrino-with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved funding and start of construction for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, which will begin operations in the early 2020s to hunt for hypothetical dark matter particles called weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. [32] Thanks to low-noise superconducting quantum amplifiers invented at the University of California, Berkeley, physicists are now embarking on the most sensitive search yet for axions, one of today's top candidates for dark matter. [31]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[33487] viXra:2001.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 08:25:01

Protein Mimics Antiaging Effects

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Scientists are just beginning to understand the cellular processes that lead to aging and slow healing in skin cells. [23] A new method allows researchers to systematically identify specialized proteins that unpack DNA inside the nucleus of a cell, making the usually dense DNA more accessible for gene expression and other functions. [22] Bacterial systems are some of the simplest and most effective platforms for the expression of recombinant proteins. [21]
Category: Physics of Biology

[33486] viXra:2001.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 08:26:37

On the Various Ramanujan Equations (Rogers-Ramanujan Continued Fractions) Linked to Some Sectors of String Theory and Particle Physics: Further New Possible Mathematical Connections Vi.

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 97 Pages.

In this research thesis, we have analyzed and deepened further Ramanujan expressions applied to some sectors of String Theory and Particle Physics. We have therefore described other new possible mathematical connections.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[33485] viXra:2001.0376 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 10:09:54

On a Certain Identity Involving the Gamma Function

Authors: Theophilus Agama
Comments: 8 Pages.

The goal of this paper is to prove the identity \begin{align}\sum \limits_{j=0}^{\lfloor s\rfloor}\frac{(-1)^j}{s^j}\eta_s(j)+\frac{1}{e^{s-1}s^s}\sum \limits_{j=0}^{\lfloor s\rfloor}(-1)^{j+1}\alpha_s(j)+\bigg(\frac{1-((-1)^{s-\lfloor s\rfloor +2})^{1/(s-\lfloor s\rfloor +2)}}{2}\bigg)\nonumber \\ \bigg(\sum \limits_{j=\lfloor s\rfloor +1}^{\infty}\frac{(-1)^j}{s^j}\eta_s(j)+\frac{1}{e^{s-1}s^s}\sum \limits_{j=\lfloor s\rfloor +1}^{\infty}(-1)^{j+1}\alpha_s(j)\bigg)=\frac{1}{\Gamma(s+1)},\nonumber \end{align}where \begin{align}\eta_s(j):=\bigg(e^{\gamma (s-j)}\prod \limits_{m=1}^{\infty}\bigg(1+\frac{s-j}{m}\bigg)\nonumber \\e^{-(s-j)/m}\bigg)\bigg(2+\log s-\frac{j}{s}+\sum \limits_{m=1}^{\infty}\frac{s}{m(s+m)}-\sum \limits_{m=1}^{\infty}\frac{s-j}{m(s-j+m)}\bigg), \nonumber \end{align}and \begin{align}\alpha_s(j):=\bigg(e^{\gamma (s-j)}\prod \limits_{m=1}^{\infty}\bigg(1+\frac{s-j}{m}\bigg)e^{-(s-j)/m}\bigg)\bigg(\sum \limits_{m=1}^{\infty}\frac{s}{m(s+m)}-\sum \limits_{m=1}^{\infty}\frac{s-j}{m(s-j+m)}\bigg),\nonumber \end{align}where $\Gamma(s+1)$ is the Gamma function defined by $\Gamma(s):=\int \limits_{0}^{\infty}e^{-t}t^{s-1}dt$ and $\gamma =\lim \limits_{n\longrightarrow \infty}\bigg(\sum \limits_{k=1}^{n}\frac{1}{k}-\log n\bigg)=0.577215664\cdots $ is the Euler-Mascheroni constant.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[33484] viXra:2001.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-19 11:11:06

A Useful Result About the Zeros of Riemann’s Hypothesis:

Authors: Louiz Akram
Comments: 6 Pages. This is a better corrected work from a previous work.

Motivated by many scientific articles attacking the use of Riemann’s hypothesis, I made a very useful work about it by proving that the zeros of zeta when the variable real part is smaller than 1/2 and thus of Riemann’s Hypothesis aren’t images of the divergent function series . In this proof, I didn't suppose that zeta is convergent, but I supposed that the zero is among the images of a given complex number, since zeta can only be a relation when it doesn't converge.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[33483] viXra:2001.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-19 12:35:05

Division by Zero Dzielenie Przez Zero

Authors: Leszek Mazurek
Comments: 49 Pages. Text in Polish, English version soon

Since the beginning of time, the ban on dividing by zero has been a serious problem for all thinking people, who have found this restriction hard to accept. Moreover, intuitively it seems very artificial and unjustified. In this work, I have made the effort to analyze this problem very carefully, to try and finally understand where it comes from, why it is a problem, a limitation, and what should be done to solve it. By a very detailed analysis of multiplication and division, I have found out that these operations are the same. Combined with the selection operation they are transformations that perform the change of a pair of numbers into another pair of numbers. After the analysis, I’ve found out that a ratio of two numbers, that can represent such a transformation, is the most natural form of a number. I’m proposing a new understanding of fractions and explaining why 1/2 should not be equal to 2/4. I presented an explanation to the problem of why division by zero is not possible in real numbers’ domain and how easy it can be understood in the domain of rational numbers. The results that I have obtained not only solve this problem but also shed a whole new light on understanding the numbers and operations of numbers. My work fixes one of the foundations of mathematics, it is difficult to predict all consequences which this change can bring, to everything, what was created based on this wrong foundation.
Category: General Mathematics

[33482] viXra:2001.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-19 17:17:51

Point-Free Topological Monoids and Hopf Algebras on Locales and Frames

Authors: C. Özel, P. Linker, M. Al Shumrani, Saeid Jafari
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this note, we are intended to offer some theoretical consideration concerning the introduction of point-free topological monoids on the locales and frames. Moreover, we define a quantum group on locales by utilizing the Drinfeld-Jimbo group.
Category: Topology

[33481] viXra:2001.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-19 17:41:34

Proof of Beal's Conjecture

Authors: Nikos Mantzakouras
Comments: 34 Pages.

The Beal conjecture is a number theory formulated in 1993 by the billionaire banker, Mr Andrew Beal. Mr Beal, very recently, declared a one-million-dollar award for the proof of this number theory. As at present, no proof of this conjecture has been generally found. In this article, we provided the proof for Beal conjecture in a crystal-clear systematic approach.Proof implies that we know the proof of Fermat's last theorem.
Category: Number Theory

[33480] viXra:2001.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-19 18:15:22

Possible Solution to Hidden Variable(s) in Context of String Theory and Logic

Authors: John Peel
Comments: 22 Pages. Hopefully interesting - proofs cuold follow

The assumption is that a length (angle etc) can vary and be constant simultaneously. This is extended to say that the infinite can be reduced to a constant - essentially a decision. This is in the context of the proposed existence of strings and their connection to curves.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[33479] viXra:2001.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-19 01:54:04

Proteins on a Neuron's Surface

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

Scientists have found a new way to home in on the proteins covering a particular cell's surface. The feat offers insight into how brain cells form intricate networks during development. [34] In a recent report, Mengke Yang and colleagues at the Brain Research Instrument Innovation Center, Institute of Neuroscience, Center for Systems Neuroscience and Optical System Advanced Manufacturing Technology in China, Germany and the U.K. developed a new technique named the multiarea two-photon real-time in vitro explorer (MATRIEX). [33] Measuring optical blood flow in the resting human brain to detect spontaneous activity has for the first time been demonstrated by Wright State University imaging researchers, holding out promise for a better way to study people with autism, Alzheimer's and depression. [32]
Category: Physics of Biology

[33478] viXra:2001.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-19 03:09:06

Protein Positioning Technique

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

A research team at Kobe University has developed a method of artificially controlling the anchorage position of target proteins in engineered baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). [35] Scientists have found a new way to home in on the proteins covering a particular cell's surface. The feat offers insight into how brain cells form intricate networks during development. [34] In a recent report, Mengke Yang and colleagues at the Brain Research Instrument Innovation Center, Institute of Neuroscience, Center for Systems Neuroscience and Optical System Advanced Manufacturing Technology in China, Germany and the U.K. developed a new technique named the multiarea two-photon real-time in vitro explorer (MATRIEX). [33]
Category: Physics of Biology

[33477] viXra:2001.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-19 03:43:08

Decoy Molecule Neutralizes Arenaviruses

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Dr. Hadas Cohen-Dvashi, a member of the Diskin lab, led the next stage of the research, in which she "surgically removed" the very tip of the rodent receptor to which the virus binds and engineered it onto part of an antibody. [36] A research team at Kobe University has developed a method of artificially controlling the anchorage position of target proteins in engineered baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). [35] Scientists have found a new way to home in on the proteins covering a particular cell's surface. The feat offers insight into how brain cells form intricate networks during development. [34]
Category: Physics of Biology

[33476] viXra:2001.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-19 04:16:27

Heat-Insulating and Heat-Conducting

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (MPI-P) in Mainz and the University of Bayreuth have now jointly developed and characterized a novel, extremely thin and transparent material that has different thermal conduction properties depending on the direction. [23] Heat pipes are devices to keep critical equipment from overheating. They transfer heat from one point to another through an evaporation-condensation process and are used in everything from cell phones and laptops to air conditioners and spacecraft. [22] Now, researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed an algorithm that can discover and optimize these materials in a matter of months, relying on solving quantum mechanical equations, without any experimental input. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon-the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy-in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[33475] viXra:2001.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-19 04:46:28

Machine Learning Ancient Past

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in China and two in the U.S. has developed a way to use machine learning to get a better look at the past. In their paper published in the journal Science, the group describes how they used machine learning to analyze records of the past. [28] Bioinformatics researchers at Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf (HHU) and the University of California at San Diego (UCSD) are using machine learning techniques to better understand enzyme kinetics and thus also complex metabolic processes. [27] DNA regions susceptible to breakage and loss are genetic hot spots for important evolutionary changes, according to a Stanford study. [26] For the English scientists involved, perhaps the most important fact is that their DNA read was about twice as long as the previous record, held by their Australian rivals. [25] Researchers from the University of Chicago have developed a high-throughput RNA sequencing strategy to study the activity of the gut microbiome. [24] Today a large international consortium of researchers published a complex but important study looking at how DNA works in animals. [23] Asymmetry plays a major role in biology at every scale: think of DNA spirals, the fact that the human heart is positioned on the left, our preference to use our left or right hand ... [22] Scientists reveal how a 'molecular machine' in bacterial cells prevents fatal DNA twisting, which could be crucial in the development of new antibiotic treatments. [21] In new research, Hao Yan of Arizona State University and his colleagues describe an innovative DNA HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/walker/" walker, capable of rapidly traversing a prepared track. [20] Just like any long polymer chain, DNA tends to form knots. Using technology that allows them to stretch DNA molecules and image the behavior of these knots, MIT researchers have discovered, for the first time, the factors that determine whether a knot moves along the strand or "jams" in place. [19]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[33474] viXra:2001.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-19 07:57:57

Correlation of the Residual Charge of an Electrolytic Capacitor with the Earth's Magnetic Field

Authors: Evgeny Arsyukhin
Comments: 3 Pages.

The effect of the diurnal variation of the residual charge of the electrolytic capacitor is revealed. The change in voltage between the capacitor plates correlates with high accuracy with the daily change in the strength of the Earth’s calm magnetic field. We were unable to find a description of such an effect in the literature. It can be interesting for school teachers to organize simple experiments at school.
Category: Geophysics

[33473] viXra:2001.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-19 08:01:43

Remarks on Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer Conjungture

Authors: Algirdas Antano Maknickas
Comments: 1 Page.

These short remarks show deriviation of Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjungture. As a consequence new one resulting constant free equality of Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjungture proposed
Category: Number Theory

[33472] viXra:2001.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-19 08:27:33

On the Ramanujan Mathematics Applied to Some Sectors of String Theory and Particle Physics: Further New Possible Mathematical Connections V.

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 94 Pages.

In this research thesis, we have analyzed and deepened further Ramanujan expressions applied to some sectors of String Theory and Particle Physics. We have therefore described new possible mathematical connections.
Category: Number Theory

[33471] viXra:2001.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-19 09:43:24

Baryon Asymmetry from the Minimal Fractal Manifold

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 4 Pages.

Baryon asymmetry represents the observed excess of matter over antimatter and is conjectured to follow from the Sakharov conditions for baryogenesis. Our brief note highlights a surprising connection between baryon asymmetry and the minimal fractality of spacetime near the Fermi scale. This connection is likely to emerge from the non-equilibrium regime of dimensional fluctuations in the early Universe.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[33470] viXra:2001.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 11:24:25

Unificação Das Leis Gravitacional Com a Relatividade Especial

Authors: Alberto Mananga Bifica
Comments: 10 Pages. Este Artigo Científico está Escrito em Português

A combinação das leis Gravitacional com a Relatividade Especial detalha as condições que permitem explicar que a energia é o responsável pela interacção gravitacional, juntamente com o espaço-tempo, matéria; a gravidade tem o seu valor máximo de velocidade v=c nos centros de massas dos planetas, estrelas, buracos negros e também no processo contínuo de energia criar matéria e matéria se transformar em ondas electromagnéticas que participam no processo da expansão do Universo. Nos pontos extremos em que a gravidade alcança v=c é onde acontece a unificação com o electromagnetismo.
Category: Classical Physics

[33469] viXra:2001.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 11:28:06

Campo Unificado (Gravidade e Electromagnetismo)

Authors: Alberto Mananga Bifica
Comments: 13 Pages. Este Artigo Científico está Escrito em Português

A combinação das leis da Relatividade Especial com a Cinemática e Dinâmica do movimento resultaram nas novas equações electromagnéticas e gravitacionais que detalham as condições que as torna em uma única força e também permitem calcular a massa, raio e carga eléctrica do Universo no seu estado actual, progressivo e regressivo. A força electromagnética torna-se igual a gravidade quando a velocidade das suas interacções é igual a da luz, isto é, nos centro de massa onde há maior potência de energia, na expansão do Universo, e no processo contínuo de energia criar matéria e matéria se transformar em ondas electromagnéticas para interagir com o exterior. As equações mostraram que não foi uma força que deu origem ao bing-bang (F=0), pôs por uma única partícula não poderia haver interacção; A origem do bing-beng ocorreu por meio da energia (E=mc^2) com campos de acção gravitacional e electromagnética onde a massa tende para infinito com a velocidade de equilíbrio v=c; e como também mostram que as ondas de energia nunca tiveram um começo sempre existiram num tempo infinito; As equações v_e v_g=c^2 e v_e v_p=c^2 respectivamente mostram evidências de que onda de energia ou a luz, na verdade são as leis gravitacionais e electromagnéticas é uma só entidade e também prova que átomos são apenas uma acção causado pelas possibilidades da dualidade onda-partícula.
Category: Classical Physics

[33468] viXra:2001.0356 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 11:38:07

Sistema Atómico e O Segredo da Luz (Energia Transportadora Das Ondas, Velocidade e Raio do Protão)

Authors: Alberto Mananga Bifica
Comments: 11 Pages. Este Artigo Científico está Escrito em Português

O átomo tem sido um dos grandes desafios da Física Moderna para tentar desvendar os seus mistérios que quanto mais conhecermos o mundo atómico mais incertezas encontram para seu entendimento. Este artigo mostra que o segredo do átomo está na sua ligação profunda e única com a luz que permite a sua existência e funcionamento nas suas possibilidades de se tornar numa partícula. A velocidade da luz é o produto proporcional das velocidades centrípetas do protão e electrão provando que se trata duma única entidade no Universo ou seja e equação 〖v_e v_p〗^ =c^2 prova que a luz é responsável pelo átomo permitindo assim a dualidade onda-partícula deste sistema. Por meio da dualidade onda-partícula encontrou-se uma equação que é a nova entidade de energia no Universo.
Category: Classical Physics

[33467] viXra:2001.0355 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 13:50:15

Atlantis in Auschwitz-Birkenau

Authors: Leon Elshout
Comments: 1 Page.

Auschwitz was surrounded by a sea of hostile nations. While the Jews were collectively kicked into the death realm of the sheol as Atlantis had sunken into the sea. Auschwitz was located in the Polish region of Galicia, a name that sounds like Galilee. The Lake of Galilee has got the same harp shape (Psalm 49:4) as Athanasius Kirchers Atlantis had. Adolf Hitler had the spirit of the false "nazi" prince King Atlas while king David will be the true "nashi" prince of the coming aion according to Ezekiel 37:25.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[33466] viXra:2001.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 14:49:16

Proving Physics by Making Science Formal (2020)

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 98 Pages.

Under the expectation that the laws of physics are revealed by the practice of science in nature, we conjectured that a mathematical formalization of such would carry over this expectation and would be able to produce, in a formal setting, the laws of physics as theorems of the practice. Here, we report a mathematical model formalizing the practice of science in nature. The model, which we name formal science, is constructed within the frameworks of algorithmic information theory and that of theoretic computer science. Formal science is a significant improvement over the informal practice of science as well as a 'clarification tool par excellence' for the foundation of physics and as such it can derive the corpus of physics as a theorem, hence giving it a purely mathematical origin. Formal science reveals that nature and the laws that govern it, far from being arbitrary, are mathematically extremely special; nature is emergent, quite minimally, as the 'substance' that formally verifies the experiments recursively enumerated from the domain of science by the observer. After we present the model, we then begin the long program to derive the corpus of physics using formal science as the sound, free of physical baggage, and observer-centric mathematical foundation of physics.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[33465] viXra:2001.0353 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 17:04:23

Different Types of Propulsion

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

A short list from memory that will be clarified and refined in the future that outlines different types of propulsion people use in the galaxy. The purpose of this paper is to take the edge off the ridicule factor still prevalent in today's society concerning extraterrestrial visitation and their interaction with the militaries and civilian populations of the world. The denial of their visitation and interaction of Earthlings by the scientific communities of the world can be ignored, their opinion is worthless. It is only the facts that matter, and the facts point to Earth being visited by people from other star systems. The facts also point to their craft being far more advanced than our own, and they utilize nuclear propulsion in a way we haven't figured out how to do yet.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[33464] viXra:2001.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 18:45:19

Strip Configuration of the Poincare' Sphere

Authors: Vincenzo Nardozza
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper we find and discuss the Strip Configuration of the Poincare' Sphere.
Category: Topology

[33463] viXra:2001.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 01:19:10

Biot-Savart Law and Stokes' Theorem

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 2 Pages. Note that the author does not read Disqus comments here, please respond by email. Including a list of publications is also a healthy gesture.

Biot-Savart law describes magnetic field due to the electric current in a conductive wire. For a long straight wire, the magnetic field is proportional to (I/r). The curl of magnetic field is proportional to (dI/dr). For a constant current, the curl of magnetic field is zero. Consequently, the surface integral of the curl of magnetic field is zero but the line integral of the magnetic field is not. Stokes' theorem can not be applied to the magnetic field vector generated by a constant electric current because the magnetic field is not a differentiable vector.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[33462] viXra:2001.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 01:32:22

Stellar Aberration Revisited

Authors: Cameron Wong
Comments: 6 Pages. Theoretically, stellar aberration can be calculated with absolute precision other than "approximately".

It appears that the reasoning in calculating stellar aberration proposed by James Bradley cannot satisfy a big group of people, particularly those people who believe only special relativity can present such calculation that is accurate to the point. This means that, in case relativity happens to be invalid, the argument on the calculation about stellar aberration has not yet truly settled in the science world these days. The problem is that relativity does show evidence that it must lead itself to conclude speed of light c=0 and thus refutes itself. So, history still leaves open the opportunity for us to approach the calculation from a new angle
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[33461] viXra:2001.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 03:34:14

Why Bodies Made of Matter Obey Mathematical Laws

Authors: Jose P Koshy
Comments: 3 Pages.

Why bodies obey mathematical laws is a longstanding question in physics. Here I put forth a very simple explanation. Matter is made up of fundamental units having finite non inter-convertible properties, and motion is one of that properties. The former implies that the integration of units into a system is adding up; adding up follows mathematical laws. The latter implies that the system remains changing due to motion; motion obeys mathematical laws, and so the changes in the system obey mathematical laws.
Category: Classical Physics

[33460] viXra:2001.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 04:12:43

Chemical Bond with Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

The team believe that one day in future electron microscopy may become a general method for studying chemical reactions, similar to spectroscopic methods widely used in chemistry labs. [36] By breaking with conventionality, University of Otago physicists have opened up new research and technology opportunities involving the basic building block of the world—atoms. [35] A novel technique that nudges single atoms to switch places within an atomically thin material could bring scientists another step closer to realizing theoretical physicist Richard Feynman's vision of building tiny machines from the atom up. [34]
Category: Quantum Physics

[33459] viXra:2001.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 04:44:46

Photo-Excited Mott Insulators

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

Assistant Professor Ohmura Shu and Professor Takahashi Akira of the Nagoya Institute of Technology and others have developed a charge model to describe photo-excited states of one-dimensional Mott insulators under the JST Strategic Basic Research Programs. [37] The team believe that one day in future electron microscopy may become a general method for studying chemical reactions, similar to spectroscopic methods widely used in chemistry labs. [36] By breaking with conventionality, University of Otago physicists have opened up new research and technology opportunities involving the basic building block of the world—atoms. [35]
Category: Quantum Physics

[33458] viXra:2001.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 05:15:33

Robotic Graspers Defy Gravity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Scientists have developed a suction unit that can be used on rough surfaces, no matter how textured, and that has applications in the development of climbing robots and robotic arms with grasping capabilities. [12] The relationship may even unlock the quantum nature of gravity. "It is among our best clues to understand gravity from a quantum perspective," said Witten. [11] Scientists at the University of British Columbia have proposed a radical new theory to explain the exponentially increasing size of the universe. [10]
Category: Condensed Matter

[33457] viXra:2001.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 06:07:32

Relativity and Absolute Laws

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 8 Pages.

This paper adds some thoughts on relativity theory and geometry to our one-cycle photon model. We basically highlight what exactly we should think of as being relative in this model (energy, wavelength, and the related force and field values), as opposed to what is absolute (the geometry of spacetime and the geometry of the photon).
Category: Quantum Physics

[33456] viXra:2001.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 06:55:58

Molecules Move Faster

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Now, writing in Physical Review Letters, Cristian Rodriguez-Tinoco and a team of Université libre de Bruxelles' (ULB) Faculty of Sciences lead by Simone Napolitano shows that large molecules actually move faster in the proximity of rougher surfaces at the nanometric scale. [37] The team believe that one day in future electron microscopy may become a general method for studying chemical reactions, similar to spectroscopic methods widely used in chemistry labs. [36] By breaking with conventionality, University of Otago physicists have opened up new research and technology opportunities involving the basic building block of the world—atoms. [35]
Category: Condensed Matter

[33455] viXra:2001.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 07:05:13

Solve Equations.(Τhe Generalized Theorem)

Authors: Nikos Mantzakouras
Comments: 22 Pages.

While all the approximate methods mentioned or others that exist, give some specific solutions of the generalized transcendental equations or even polynomial, cannot resolve them completely. "What we ask when we solve a generalized transcendental equation or polyonomial, is to find the total number of roots and not separate sets of roots in some random or specified this time. Mainly because this, too many categories transcendental equations have infinite number of solutionsin the complex whole " There are some particular equations or Logarithmic functions Trigonometric functions which solve particular problems in Physics, and mostly need the generalized solution. This is now the theory G.R.LE, to deal with the help of Super Simple geometric functions, or interlocking with very satisfactory answer to all this complex problem.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[33454] viXra:2001.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 07:26:36

Programmable Cells Nests

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

Using DNA, small silica particles, and carbon nanotubes, researchers of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) have developed novel programmable nanocomposites that can be tailored to various applications and programmed to degrade quickly and gently. [37] Scientists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have functionalized a simple rod-like building block with hydroxamic acids at both ends. [36] Tiny silica bottles filled with medicine and a special temperature-sensitive material could be used for drug delivery to kill malignant cells only in certain parts of the body, according to a study published recently by researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology. [35]
Category: Physics of Biology

[33453] viXra:2001.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 09:14:22

An Analysis of the State-Transition Function of a Self-Reproducing Structure in Cellular Automata Space

Authors: Perry W Swanborough
Comments: 11 Pages.

A cellular automata structure described by J Byl (1989) self-replicates under a corresponding state-transition function. Subsequent work has established that replication of this and related structures given by other researchers is homochiral. This work describes a detailed analysis of the state-transition function for replication of J Byl’s structure, so the work serves as an Appendix to accompany the preceding work viXra:1904.0225.
Category: Physics of Biology

[33452] viXra:2001.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 09:23:20

On Various Ramanujan Formulas Applied to Some Sectors of String Theory (Open Strings) and Particle Physics: Further New Possible Mathematical Connections Iv.

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 85 Pages.

In this research thesis, we have analyzed and deepened various Ramanujan expressions applied to some sectors of String Theory (open strings) and Particle Physics. We have therefore described further new possible mathematical connections.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[33451] viXra:2001.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 08:49:56

Piece by Piece - Electrochemical Synthesis of Individual Nanoparticles and their Performance in ORR Electrocatalysis

Authors: Mathies V. Evers, Miguel Bernal, Beatriz Roldan Cuenya, Kristina Tschulik
Comments: 9 Pages.

The impact of individual HAuCl4 nanoreactors is measured electrochemically, which provides operando insights and precise control over the modification of electrodes with functional nanoparticles of well-defined size. Uniformly sized micelles are loaded with a dissolved metal salt. These solution-phase precursor entities are then reduced electrochemically - one by one - to form nanoparticles (NPs). The charge transferred during the reduction of each micelle is measured individually and allows operando sizing of each of the formed nanoparticles. Thus, particles of known number and sizes can be deposited homogenously even on nonplanar electrodes. This is demonstrated for the decoration of cylindrical carbon fibre electrodes with 25 +/- 7 nm sized Au particles from HAuCl4-filled micelles. These Au NP-decorated electrodes show great catalyst performance for ORR (oxygen reduction reaction) already at low catalyst loadings. Hence, collisions of individual precursor-filled nanocontainers are presented as a new route to nanoparticle-modified electrodes with high catalyst utilization.
Category: Chemistry

[33450] viXra:2001.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 08:58:33

Ab Initio Cyclic Voltammetry on Cu(111), Cu(100) and Cu(110) in Acidic, Neutral and Alkaline Solutions

Authors: Alexander Bagger, Rosa M. Arán-Ais, Joakim Halldin Stenlid, Egon Campos dos Santos, Logi Arnarson, Kim Degn Jensen, María Escudero-Escribano, Beatriz Roldan Cuenya, Jan Rossmeisl
Comments: Pages.

Electrochemical reactions depend on the electrochemical interface; between the catalytic surfaces and the electrolytes. To control and advance electrochemical reactions there is a need to develop realistic simulation models of the electrochemical interface to understand the interface from an atomistic point-of-view. Here we present a method for obtaining thermodynamic realistic interface structures, a procedure to derive specific coverages and to obtain ab initio simulated cyclic voltammograms. As a case study, the method and procedure is applied in a matrix study of three Cu facets in three different electrolyte. The results are validated by a direct comparison with experimental cyclic voltammograms. The alkaline (NaOH) electrolyte CV are described by H* and OH*, while neutral (KHCO3) the CO3* species are present and in acidic (KCl) the Cl* species dominate. An almost one-to-one mapping is observed from simulation to experiments giving an atomistic understanding of the interface structure of the Cu facets. The strength of atomistic understanding the interface at electrolyte conditions will allow realistic investigations of electrochemical reactions in future studies.
Category: Chemistry

[33449] viXra:2001.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 09:47:29

Spin Currents for Advanced Electronic Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Graphene-based van der Waals heterostructures could be used to design ultra-compact and low-energy electronic devices and magnetic memory devices, according to a study led by ICREA Prof. Sergio O. Valenzuela, head of the ICN2 Physics and Engineering of Nanodevices Group. [15] A new method that precisely measures the mysterious behavior and magnetic properties of electrons flowing across the surface of quantum materials could open a path to next-generation electronics. [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[33448] viXra:2001.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 10:47:27

Scalability of Next-Generation Electronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Nebraska engineers Peter and Eli Sutter have shown that the elemental condiment can spice up a nanomaterial sandwich by putting a literal twist on the multi-layered classic. [16] Graphene-based van der Waals heterostructures could be used to design ultra-compact and low-energy electronic devices and magnetic memory devices, according to a study led by ICREA Prof. Sergio O. Valenzuela, head of the ICN2 Physics and Engineering of Nanodevices Group. [15] A new method that precisely measures the mysterious behavior and magnetic properties of electrons flowing across the surface of quantum materials could open a path to next-generation electronics. [14]
Category: Condensed Matter

[33447] viXra:2001.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 11:03:39

Nanostructure for Structurally Colored Surfaces

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Structural colors appear because the imprinted pattern on a surface changes the wavelengths of light. Chinese scientists have introduced an azopolymer that allows the imprinting of nanopatterns in a novel room-temperature lithographic process. [17] Nebraska engineers Peter and Eli Sutter have shown that the elemental condiment can spice up a nanomaterial sandwich by putting a literal twist on the multi-layered classic. [16] Graphene-based van der Waals heterostructures could be used to design ultra-compact and low-energy electronic devices and magnetic memory devices, according to a study led by ICREA Prof. Sergio O. Valenzuela, head of the ICN2 Physics and Engineering of Nanodevices Group. [15]
Category: Condensed Matter

[33446] viXra:2001.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 12:04:55

Force I. the One and Only Fundamental Interaction

Authors: Tamas Lajtner
Comments: 4 Pages.

The world's first thought power meter is present. Its first result is that thought force with no electric field is able to change the current and voltage in an electric circuit . This result has conclusions. The most important is the following one: there is only one fundamental interaction, because every known interaction can be explained by one ultimate fundamental interaction called Force I of All. (Pronunciation: “Force the First”.) Force I is the interaction between space and matter. Thought force is one existing form of Force I and though force measured is the first evidence that Force I exists.
Category: Quantum Physics

[33445] viXra:2001.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 14:55:57

Stability of Ice Lenses in Saline Soils

Authors: S. S. L. Peppin
Comments: 20 Pages.

A model of the growth of an ice lens in a saline porous medium is developed. At high lens growth rates the pore fluid becomes supercooled relative to its equilibrium Clapeyron temperature. Instability occurs when the supercooling increases with distance away from the ice lens. Solute diffusion in the pore fluid significantly enhances the instability. An expression for the segregation potential of the soil is obtained from the condition for marginal stability of the ice lens. The model is applied to a clayey silt and a glass powder medium, indicating parameter regimes where the ice lens stability is controlled by viscous flow or by solute diffusion. A mushy layer, composed of vertical ice veins and horizontal ice lenses, forms in the soil in response to the instability. A marginal equilibrium condition is used to estimate the segregated ice fraction in the mushy layer as a function of the freezing rate and salinity.
Category: Geophysics

[33444] viXra:2001.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 15:00:32

Does The Observation Process Effect On The Observed Particle Nature?

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 4 Pages.

Empirical Data An Electron Or Subatomic Particle Behaves As A Particle And Not A Wave When It's Observed! Why? Because The Human Mind Realization Process Depends On (And Uses) The Light Velocity (0.3mkm/Sec) How Does The Observer Effect On The Observed Particle Nature? By Light Beam Produced By The Observer Mind Realization Process. Paper Idea Summary This paper tells a clear claim – that – Because our minds realization process depends on and uses the light velocity (0.3mkm/sec) in the human thinking process that causes the light velocity to be a contributor factor of every thing around us – simply – We See The Universe Through The Light Velocity Effect On Our Vision- That easily explains the equation E=mc2 – why any Mass Energy is defined relative to the light velocity?! Because the light velocity is found in our minds- that explains Why light velocity is constant in all frames Now Because our minds uses the light velocity (0.3mkm/sec), that enable our minds to produce light beams by the thinking process – this produced light beam can effect on any particle nature as the sun rays effect on all particles – This is the idea shortly– let's ask……"Is this idea truth?" This paper tries to prove… Gerges Francis Tawdrous +201022532292
Category: Astrophysics

[33443] viXra:2001.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 22:15:42

A Theory for Gravitational Killing Cancer Cells, Lightning Mechanism and Anomalous Magnetism of Muon 2G

Authors: Reginald B. Little
Comments: 33 Pages.

The death of cancer cells under zero gravity or simulated zero gravity has an unknown cause. A prior theory of gravity by fractional, reversible fissing of matter and fusing of space to target is presented for explaining this mystery of gravitational killing of cancer cells. With this new theory a new math of divergent differentiations and divergent integrations are outlined to explain mysteries. By the mechanism given the variation in source gravity as computed by the new math can thereby explain effects on biology as the biology and chemistry have divergent differentiations and divergent integrations, which couple source of gravities and couple changing gravities to surrounding spaces and targets in surrounding spaces. Greater effects of gravities in nano-scales than molecular scales are reasoned as nano-sizes have mass effects and greater collectivity relative to molecular scales. The mechanism also postulates superluminosity of rare with slowing to luminous with denseness (space reversal) for explaining inertia, denseness and back and forth time reversal. The loss of inertia due to space reversal is reasoned! Mass to energy and vice versa dynamics are involved relativistically. By such new mechanics there are differences in denseness as the superlumes fiss to rare so surrounding rare can couple and the superluminous rare concentrates to slow so as to couple to dense. There are limits of such superluminosity as by the vast distances and the vast, composite, dense spaces of matter and the slowness (inertia). These new mechanics of composite matter/space manifest group dispersion (by new divergent calculus) as provided by hidden mechanics as by self-interacting self-deforming conformations to explain observable phase dispersed (older calculus). The observables are manifested by phase dispersions of matter and space as by new divergent calculus via constructive self interactions. The new math is contrasted with the Newtonian integrals and derivatives, which are more finite in actions and consequences whereas the divergent integrals and divergent differentiations are more infinities in actions and consequences. If dynamic infinity and count infinity, then the counting and mechanics can be as demonstrated here by many infinities or counter infinities.
Category: Physics of Biology

[33442] viXra:2001.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 02:54:09

Billions Quantum Entangled Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

In a new study, U.S. and Austrian physicists have observed quantum entanglement among "billions of billions" of flowing electrons in a quantum critical material. [36] Researchers at Technische Universität Darmstadt have recently demonstrated the defect-free assembly of versatile target patterns of up to 111 single-atom quantum systems. [35] Physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have teleported a computer circuit instruction known as a quantum logic operation between two separated ions (electrically charged atoms), showcasing how quantum computer programs could carry out tasks in future large-scale quantum networks. [34] Scientists have developed a topological photonic chip to process quantum information, promising a more robust option for scalable quantum computers. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[33441] viXra:2001.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 03:32:23

Measure Quantum Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Experimental physicists have combined several measurements of quantum materials into one in their ongoing quest to learn more about manipulating and controlling the behavior of them for possible applications. [30] These emerging magnetic properties suggest that the dots could, indeed, have potential in quantum computing as storage and processing devices. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins-just a hair above absolute zero-and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[33440] viXra:2001.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 03:43:51

Three Circle Chains Arising from Three Lines

Authors: Hiroshi Okumura
Comments: 7 Pages.

We generalize a problem in Wasan geometry involving a triangle and its incircle and get simple relationships between the three chains arising from three lines.
Category: Geometry

[33439] viXra:2001.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 04:01:55

Semiconductor Green Laser

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 69 Pages.

Scientists and Engineers have used surface-emitting semiconductor lasers in data communications, for sensing, in FaceID and within augmented reality glasses. [40] A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg/Germany presents evidence of the amplification of optical phonons in a solid by intense terahertz laser pulses. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38]
Category: Quantum Physics

[33438] viXra:2001.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 05:29:43

Nanoscalechip Detect Temperature

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Now, Joohyun Lee and Il Doh of the Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, in Daejeon, South Korea, have developed a tiny device that measures otherwise undetectable heat changes. [21] An international team of physicists, materials scientists, and mechanical engineers has confirmed the high thermal conductivity predicted in isotopically enriched cubic boron nitride, the researchers report in the advance electronic edition of the journal Science. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon-the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy-in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, twostroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[33437] viXra:2001.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 05:47:47

Colloidal Quantum Dot Photodetectors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

In their experiment, the researchers used a technique to electronically dope the quantum dots robustly and permanently. [30] These emerging magnetic properties suggest that the dots could, indeed, have potential in quantum computing as storage and processing devices. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins-just a hair above absolute zero-and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[33436] viXra:2001.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 07:24:21

On Various Ramanujan Formulas Applied to Some Sectors of String Theory and Particle Physics: Further New Possible Mathematical Connections III.

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 74 Pages.

In this research thesis, we have analyzed and deepened various Ramanujan expressions applied to some sectors of String Theory and Particle Physics. We have therefore described further new possible mathematical connections.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[33435] viXra:2001.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 07:32:26

Ontological Math-Physics Mirror Between Noether and Planck

Authors: Francis Maleval
Comments: 2 Pages.

A mirror built here, by virtue of an iterative process, a geometry from a conceptual object. This dynamic, served by the Noether’s theorem, generates the universal constants.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[33434] viXra:2001.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 08:02:31

Nano-Patterns Building Blocks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

Scientists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have functionalized a simple rod-like building block with hydroxamic acids at both ends. [36] Tiny silica bottles filled with medicine and a special temperature-sensitive material could be used for drug delivery to kill malignant cells only in certain parts of the body, according to a study published recently by researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology. [35] The lab of Cheryl Kerfeld at Michigan State University has created a synthetic nano-sized factory, based on natural ones found in bacteria. [34]
Category: Physics of Biology

[33433] viXra:2001.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 08:20:40

Quantum Detector Sensitivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

One of the open questions in quantum research is how heat and thermodynamics coexist with quantum physics. [39] But one lesser-known field is also starting to reap the benefits of the quantum realm-medicine. [38] A quantum squeezing and amplification technique has been used to measure the position of a trapped ion to subatomic precision. [37] A new theoretical model involves squeezing light to just the right amount to accurately transmit information using subatomic particles. [36] The standard approach to building a quantum computer with majoranas as building blocks is to convert them into qubits. However, a promising application of quantum computing-quantum chemistry-would require these qubits to be converted again into so-called fermions. [35] Scientists have shown how an optical chip can simulate the motion of atoms within molecules at the quantum level, which could lead to better ways of creating chemicals for use as pharmaceuticals. [34] Chinese scientists Xianmin Jin and his colleagues from Shanghai Jiao Tong University have successfully fabricated the largest-scaled quantum chip and demonstrated the first two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons in real spatial space, which may provide a powerful platform to boost analog quantum computing for quantum supremacy. [33] To address this technology gap, a team of engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed an innovative microchip, named BATLESS, that can continue to operate even when the battery runs out of energy. [32] Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[33432] viXra:2001.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 10:44:46

A EQUAÇÃO Das EQUAÇÕES. a Unificadora do Tudo. a SOLUÇÃO DE Absolutamente Tudo.

Authors: JosÊnio Dos Anjos
Comments: 1 Page. Pus a mão no caldeirão de Deus e ainda O espiei apertar o interruptor de luz

Um carro da Teoria Geral da Relatividade viaja a 100km/h para percorrer 100km. quando chega lá, verifica-se que ele percorreu 109km em 1h. Pergunta: de onde vem a energia extra para ter aumentado esse percurso? Problema pior, ele foi sem nenhum combustível no tanque. Solução. foi a caminho que está se esticando. o carro esta estacionário. se der partida, sua ultima gota de gasolina explode. E como o caminho se esticou em ambos os lados em velocidade constante de 100km/h, a impressão que temos é que ele viajou uns kms extras. Solucionado o mistério da Energia Escura e de tudo, absolutamente tudo. As outras questões estão em outro artigo. Qualquer teoria utilizando a equação aqui postulada, tem que ser expressamente autorizada pelo autor.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[33431] viXra:2001.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 10:59:06

Deep Learning Real-Time Imaging

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Researchers have harnessed the power of a type of artificial intelligence known as deep learning to create a new laser-based system that can image around corners in real time. [28] A team of scientists at Freie Universität Berlin has developed an Artificial Intelligence (AI) method that provides a fundamentally new solution of the "sampling problem" in statistical physics. [27] Deep learning, which uses multi-layered artificial neural networks, is a form of machine learning that has demonstrated significant advances in many fields, including natural language processing, image/video labeling and captioning. [26]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[33430] viXra:2001.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 11:26:31

Single Molecule Force Spectroscopy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

As researchers develop clever approaches to achieve that goal, this subject alone could be a theme of another exciting symposium." [41] A team at Osaka University has created single-molecule nanowires, complete with an insulation layer, up to 10 nanometers in length. [40] Using optical and electrical measurements, a two-dimensional anisotropic crystal of rhenium disulfide was found to show opposite piezoresistant effects along two principle axes, i.e. positive along one axis and negative along another. [39] A team of researchers from the University of Konstanz has demonstrated a new aqueous polymerization procedure for generating polymer nanoparticles with a single chain and uniform shape, which, by contrast to previous methods, involves high particle concentrations. [38] A team of researchers from China, the U.S. and Japan has developed a way to strengthen graphene-based membranes intended for use in desalination projects-by fortifying them with nanotubes. [37] The team arrived at their results by imaging gold nanoparticles, with diameters ranging from 2 to 5 nanometres, via aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope. [36] Nanoparticles of less than 100 nanometres in size are used to engineer new materials and nanotechnologies across a variety of sectors. [35] For years, researchers have been trying to find ways to grow an optimal nanowire, using crystals with perfectly aligned layers all along the wire. [34] Ferroelectric materials have a spontaneous dipole moment which can point up or down. [33] Researchers have successfully demonstrated that hypothetical particles that were proposed by Franz Preisach in 1935 actually exist. [32] Scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have demonstrated a surprisingly simple way of flipping a material from one state into another, and then back again, with single flashes of laser light. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[33429] viXra:2001.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 11:43:12

Crystals with Ultrahigh Piezoelectricity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

Now, an international team of researchers say that cycles of AC fields also make the internal crystal domains in some materials bigger and the crystal transparent. [33] The presence of helical modes allowed them to form a new quantum device from a topological crystalline insulator known as a helical nanorod with quantized longitudinal conductance. [32] Now, researchers at MIT along with colleagues in Boston, Singapore, and Taiwan have conducted a theoretical analysis to reveal several more previously unidentified topological properties of bismuth. [31] At the heart of his field of nonlinear optics are devices that change light from one color to another-a process important for many technologies within telecommunications, computing and laser-based equipment and science. [30] Researchers from Siberian Federal University and Kirensky Institute of Physics have proposed a new design for a multimode stripline resonator. [29] In addition to helping resolve many of the technical challenges of non-line-of-sight imaging, the technology, Velten notes, can be made to be both inexpensive and compact, meaning real-world applications are just a matter of time. [28] Researchers in the Department of Physics of ETH Zurich have measured how electrons in so-called transition metals get redistributed within a fraction of an optical oscillation cycle. [27] Insights from quantum physics have allowed engineers to incorporate components used in circuit boards, optical fibers, and control systems in new applications ranging from smartphones to advanced microprocessors. [26] In a paper published August 1, 2019 as an Editors' Suggestion in the journal Physical Review Letters, scientists at JQI and Michigan State University suggest that certain materials may experience a spontaneous twisting force if they are hotter than their surroundings. [25] The technology could allow for new capabilities in quantum computing, including modems that link together many quantum computers at different locations. [24]
Category: Condensed Matter

[33428] viXra:2001.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 12:35:06

Self-Organized Quantum Criticality

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Writing in Nature, researchers describe the first-time observation of 'self-organized criticality' in a controlled laboratory experiment. [32] A potential revolution in device engineering could be underway, thanks to the discovery of functional electronic interfaces in quantum materials that can self-assemble spontaneously. [31] Now, for the first time ever, researchers from Aalto University, Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF), Technical University of Braunschweig and Nagoya University have produced the superconductor-like quantum spin liquid predicted by Anderson. [30] Electrons in graphene-an atomically thin, flexible and incredibly strong substance that has captured the imagination of materials scientists and physicists alike-move at the speed of light, and behave like they have no mass. [29] In a series of exciting experiments, Cambridge researchers experienced weightlessness testing graphene's application in space. [28] Scientists from ITMO University have developed effective nanoscale light sources based on halide perovskite. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[33427] viXra:2001.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 12:35:50

The Liberator

Authors: Mesut KAVAK
Comments: 69 Pages.

Laws and Loves
Category: Social Science

Replacements of recent Submissions

[12759] viXra:2001.0453 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-23 08:05:26

The Metaphysics of Physics (II)

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 25 Pages.

This paper complements an earlier (Nov 2018) paper on the metaphysics of physics. The earlier paper focused on an alternative (realist) interpretation of quantum mechanics. While inspired by the previous one, this follow-up paper is a much simpler one: we just offer very basic thoughts on the most fundamental physical concepts, which are the idea of force, energy and mass. Based on the recent precision measurements of the (electric) charge radius of a proton, we also argue previous reflections on the zbw radius of a proton make more sense now. Needless to say, we also offer our usual reflections on the concept of fields and messenger particles. We think the first is very useful – even if fields are relative. In contrast, we argue that the latter (the idea of virtual photons, gluons or other messenger particles) is purely metaphysical. In other words, we continue to think the idea of messenger particles is a non-scientific successor to aether theories.
Category: Quantum Physics

[12758] viXra:2001.0453 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-22 03:27:59

The Metaphysics of Physics (II)

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 13 Pages.

This paper complements an earlier (Nov 2018) paper on the metaphysics of physics. The earlier paper focused on an alternative (realist) interpretation of quantum mechanics. While inspired by the previous one, this follow-up paper is a much simpler one: we just offer very basic thoughts on the most fundamental physical concepts, which are the idea of force, energy and mass. Needless to say, we also offer some reflections on the concept of fields and messenger particles. We think the first is very useful – even if fields are relative. In contrast, we argue that the latter (the idea of virtual photons, gluons or other messenger particles) is purely metaphysical. In other words, we should not use in physics, or in science in general.
Category: Quantum Physics

[12757] viXra:2001.0439 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-22 16:14:00

Planck’s Constant and the Elementary Charge

Authors: Steve Smith
Comments: 3 Pages.

It appears that the current value for the Planck constant which took effect on the 20th May 2019 by the GCWM is erroneous resulting in seventeen errors. It is currently assumed that there exists a certain immutability of physical constants which may or may not be dimensionless quantities, for example ratios between quantities of like dimensions. Subsequent changes in physical constants cannot be considered meaningful if it results in a change of observational evidence.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[12756] viXra:2001.0415 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-21 11:26:50

Critical Review of IPCC Goals Due to Conflicts with CO2 Theory and Increasing UHI Albedo and Humidity Forcing Concerns

Authors: Alec Feinberg
Comments: 9 Pages. Key Words: Urban Heat Islands, Albedo Forcing, Humidity Forcing, Hydro-hotspots, Highly Evaporating Surfaces, Rainwater management,, Ocean Evaporation, City Evaporation Rates, CO2 theory

We provide a critical review of current IPCC 2020 CO2 goals which we show are very risky in light of increasing UHI albedo and humidity forcing that remains unaddressed by the IPCC over the years. Specifically we show that UHI albedo radiative forcing is in conflict with CO2 global warming theory. Since many of these issues have been described but still ignored by the IPCC goals, what we do is connect key issues to form a critical review of IPCC past and current direction explaining that their well intentioned goals are likely incomplete putting our population at future risk.
Category: Climate Research

[12755] viXra:2001.0389 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-22 05:56:28

The Correct Formulas of the Experiment of Michelson-Morley

Authors: Louiz Akram
Comments: 4 Pages. explained better

When the light photons bounce off a moving mirror, they react with its atoms to be reflected, consequently, the photons change their velocity vector after each impact depending on the velocity vector of the mirror and thus of the atom. The Michelson-Morley experiment was the event that changed the modern science about "the light" by leading to Lorentz and Einstein's theories about time. I made the formulas of the Michelson-Morley experiment by considering the effects of the reflection on the light and The rate (percentage) of fringe shift calculated by the formulas which I demonstrated is perfectly null. As a result not all physics must be wrong ,but only a principle that Einstein and Lorentz stated by fixing the light speed for all observers, which makes us study light in a very difficult way. The formulas demonstrated in this work allow us to study the light as a normal wave and to understand easily all the other light effects without being obliged to use any relativity of the time.
Category: Classical Physics

[12754] viXra:2001.0387 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-20 13:04:21

Refutation of Riemann’s Definition of Integrals for a Cheating Runner

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2020 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Disqus comments are ignored. Reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate six equations which are not tautologous. This refutes the conjecture of Riemann’s definition of integrals for a cheating runner before the integral is invoked to form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[12753] viXra:2001.0363 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-21 08:29:43

Remarks on Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer Conjecture

Authors: Algirdas Antano Maknickas
Comments: 1 Page.

These short remarks show deriviation of Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjungture. As a consequence new one resulting constant free equality of Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjungture proposed
Category: Number Theory

[12752] viXra:2001.0363 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-19 12:09:04

Remarks on Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer Conjungture

Authors: Algirdas Antano Maknickas
Comments: 1 Page.

These short remarks show deriviation of Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjungture. As a consequence new one resulting constant free equality of Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjungture proposed
Category: Number Theory

[12751] viXra:2001.0361 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-20 08:29:13

Baryon Asymmetry from the Minimal Fractal Manifold

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 4 Pages.

Baryon asymmetry represents the observed excess of matter over antimatter and is conjectured to follow from the Sakharov conditions for baryogenesis. Our brief note highlights a surprising connection between baryon asymmetry and the minimal fractality of spacetime near the Fermi scale. This connection is likely to emerge from the non-equilibrium regime of dimensional fluctuations in the early Universe.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[12750] viXra:2001.0360 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-22 16:06:09

A Runner Cheating Thanks to Riemann:

Authors: Louiz Akram
Comments: 2 Pages. Corrected

Pure mathematics should be used very carefully when applying it to many fields that have special considerations and special axioms. I used a simple example of runners waiting for the start of a race. I concluded thanks to Riemann’s definition of integrals that a runner can cheat in order to win. The demonstration in this paper is very simple but the analogy of the proposed example with many fields can make the researcher be careful when using the definition of Riemann for the integrals.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[12749] viXra:2001.0345 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-20 06:38:25

Relativity, Light and Photons

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 17 Pages.

This paper adds some thoughts on relativity theory and geometry to our one-cycle photon model. We basically highlight what we should think of as being relative in this model (energy, wavelength, and the related force/field values), as opposed to what is absolute (the geometry of spacetime and the geometry of the photon). We also expand our photon model somewhat by introducing an electromagnetic vector combining electric and magnetic fields. Finally, we add a discussion on how we can think about photon-electron interactions and polarization.
Category: Quantum Physics

[12748] viXra:2001.0345 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-19 14:13:31

Relativity and Light

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: No. of pages excludes title page.

This paper adds some thoughts on relativity theory and geometry to our one-cycle photon model. We basically highlight what we should think of as being relative in this model (energy, wavelength, and the related force/field values), as opposed to what is absolute (the geometry of spacetime and the geometry of the photon).
Category: Quantum Physics