Astrophysics

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[2030] viXra:1904.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-17 12:23:48

Stoe Explains ``planet 9''

Authors: John Hodge
Comments: 2 Pages.

Planet 9 is a hypothetical mass in the Kuiper Belt that causes the trans--Neptunian bodies to have unexplained orbits. The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) suggests the rotation curve anomalies of spiral galaxies, the Pioneer Anomaly, and the hypothetical Planet 9 phenomena are linked by a common cause, another application of the STOE Universal Equation.
Category: Astrophysics

[2029] viXra:1904.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-16 13:33:08

Inelastic Boosted Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

A team of researchers in the Republic of Korea, the U.S., Brazil, Indonesia and the U.K. have recently carried out a direct search for inelastic boosted dark matter (IBDM) using a terrestrial detector. [33]
Category: Astrophysics

[2028] viXra:1904.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-15 07:43:28

Supercooled Water Search Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

After watching YouTube videos of people supercooling water in a bottle and then triggering it to freeze by banging it, something about this concept solidified for Matthew M. Szydagis, an assistant professor of physics at the University at Albany, State University at New York, especially when he saw it again during the Disney movie "Frozen." [32] Researchers from the National University of science and technology MISIS (NUST MISIS, Moscow, Russia) and the National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN, Naples, Italy) have developed a simple and cost-effective technology that allows increasing the speed of automated microscopes (AM) by 10 to 100 times. [31]
Category: Astrophysics

[2027] viXra:1904.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-15 08:51:57

Gravitational Waves with Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Researchers hoping to better interpret data from the detection of gravitational waves generated by the collision of binary black holes are turning to the public for help. [26] Astronomers on Wednesday unveiled the first photo of a black hole, one of the star-devouring monsters scattered throughout the Universe and obscured by impenetrable shields of gravity. [25] Paul McNamara, an astrophysicist at the European Space Agency and project scientist for the LISA mission that will track massive black hole mergers from space, helped AFP put what he called an "outstanding technical achievement" into context. [24]
Category: Astrophysics

[2026] viXra:1904.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-15 11:07:43

Slow Travel Through Wormholes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

A Harvard physicist has shown that wormholes can exist: tunnels in curved space-time, connecting two distant places, through which travel is possible. [22] A RUDN employee and Brazilian colleagues have called into question the concept of using stable wormholes as portals to different points of space-time. [21] CfA astronomer David James was a member of a large international team systematically searching for new gravitationally lensed quasars. [20] For the first time astronomers have detected gravitational waves from a merged, hyper-massive neutron star. [19] A group of scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) at the University of Copenhagen will soon start developing a new line of technical equipment in order to dramatically improve gravitational wave detectors. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[2025] viXra:1904.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-12 15:31:54

There's A Light Beam Travels With 1.16 mkm per sec (My Claim)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 11 Pages.

The Main Claim There's A Light Beam Travels With 1.16 mkm/ sec – In The Solar Group- But We Can't Observe It. This paper provides and discusses many clear arguments which prove this fact. Also The paper explains why we can't observe or realize this higher velocity (1.16mkm/sec) which supports the Special Theory of Relativity Basic Hypothesis that the highest velocity (in our universe) is 0.3mkm/second.
Category: Astrophysics

[2024] viXra:1904.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-11 07:57:23

Microscope Search for Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Researchers from the National University of science and technology MISIS (NUST MISIS, Moscow, Russia) and the National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN, Naples, Italy) have developed a simple and cost-effective technology that allows increasing the speed of automated microscopes (AM) by 10 to 100 times. [31] Europe's physics lab CERN on Tuesday said it was planning a new experiment to look for particles associated with dark matter which is believed to make up some 27 percent of the universe. [30] In a recent study, the CMS collaboration describes how it has sifted through data from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to try and spot dark quarks. [29] Physicists in Italy are about to start up a new experiment designed to hunt for hypothetical particles such as the "dark photon" and carriers of a possible fifth force of nature. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24]
Category: Astrophysics

[2023] viXra:1904.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-10 10:33:32

Saturn Effect On The Solar Group Geometry

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 10 Pages.

Saturn Effect On The Solar Group Geometry Saturn shows Clearly The Solar Group Geometrical Structure. The Basic Hypothesis: The Solar Group Is One Trajectory Of Energy And Each Planet Is A Point On This Same Trajectory… i.e. The Solar Planets (matter is energy because E=mc2) and their orbital distances (Space is Energy – hypothesis)both are created from the same energy which makes The solar group as one body and each planet is a member of this same body. Or The solar group can be similar to one machine each planet is a gear in this same machine… so the solar group is created depending on the cooperation and integration between the solar planets. Saturn Effect Saturn tells how the solar group is created based on the previous vision i.e. Saturn tells us which planet is created first and which second and what geometrical rule control this creation process. Shortly The solar group is one family, all planets are relatives to each other – but Saturn tells us who's brother to whom and who's uncle, who's parent and who's nephew Saturn Data tells this fact clearly as the sun …Saturn Is The Solar Group Secret
Category: Astrophysics

[2022] viXra:1904.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-10 11:12:16

First Photo of a Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Astronomers on Wednesday unveiled the first photo of a black hole, one of the star-devouring monsters scattered throughout the Universe and obscured by impenetrable shields of gravity. [25] Paul McNamara, an astrophysicist at the European Space Agency and project scientist for the LISA mission that will track massive black hole mergers from space, helped AFP put what he called an "outstanding technical achievement" into context. [24] We're about to see the first close-up of a black hole. [23] In short, the concept of a black hole gravity machine presents humanity with a plausible path to becoming an interstellar species. In the meantime, the study of the concept will provide SETI researchers with another possible technosignature to look for. [22] Physicists have used a seven-qubit quantum computer to simulate the scrambling of information inside a black hole, heralding a future in which entangled quantum bits might be used to probe the mysterious interiors of these bizarre objects. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[2021] viXra:1904.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-09 06:50:09

Picturing a Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Paul McNamara, an astrophysicist at the European Space Agency and project scientist for the LISA mission that will track massive black hole mergers from space, helped AFP put what he called an "outstanding technical achievement" into context. [24] We're about to see the first close-up of a black hole. [23] In short, the concept of a black hole gravity machine presents humanity with a plausible path to becoming an interstellar species. In the meantime, the study of the concept will provide SETI researchers with another possible technosignature to look for. [22] Physicists have used a seven-qubit quantum computer to simulate the scrambling of information inside a black hole, heralding a future in which entangled quantum bits might be used to probe the mysterious interiors of these bizarre objects. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[2020] viXra:1904.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-09 17:19:04

Stellar Metamorphosis: An Alternative to the Giant-Impact Hypothesis for Moon Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 4 Pages.

An ad hoc proposition was made by scientists to form the Moon. In it, they state that the Earth was hit by an incredibly massive object, which then the moon formed out of as a giant blob of shrapnel. They hypothesized that in order to create the Moon, another object called Theia was needed which is of course an object that has never been observed, as well as a process that has never been observed. Alternatively, if stellar metamorphosis is used, the Moon can be explained as well as Venus's lack of one, in accordance to the observations found in the age of exoplanets.
Category: Astrophysics

[2019] viXra:1904.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-08 08:26:32

Как можно рассчитать ускоренное расширение Вселенной?

Authors: Елкин Игорь Владимирович
Comments: 2 Pages. -

Пространство квантуется. Хаббловское расширение делает все эти кванты-области не инерциальными. Это приводит к разным предельным скоростям в этих областях. Из-за этого возникает некая дополнительная сила.
Category: Astrophysics

[2018] viXra:1904.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-08 17:18:49

Stellar Metamorphosis: Some Thoughts on White Dwarf Stars

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

I agree with Daniel Archer that pinching and magnetic constriction of interstellar material are what birth stars from the interstellar medium. This being said, gravitation, at first, has little effect during the very beginnings of a star's birthing process as gas in outer space would expand, not contract with gravity alone forming a star. Some ideas and reasoning is included in this paper about the nature of white dwarfs.
Category: Astrophysics

[2017] viXra:1904.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-07 09:03:13

Unexpected Rain on Sun

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Computer simulations predicted the coronal rain could be found there. Observations of the solar wind, the gas escaping from the Sun and out into space, hinted that the rain might be happening. [20] The sun's magnetic field is ten times stronger than previously believed, new research from Queen's University Belfast and Aberystwyth University has revealed. [19] University of Southern Denmark researchers have conducted simulations of dark matter particles hitting the Earth. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[2016] viXra:1904.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-06 11:52:36

Stellar Metamorphosis: Where are the Stars Earth Orbited in the Past?

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Earth did not always orbit the Sun, because the Sun is at least 100 times younger than the Earth. So the question arises, where are all the stars Earth used to orbit if the Sun was not always in the picture? The reader will realize in this paper the Sun is a foster host, as were many others. As well, we are dealing with a solar system that has a deep, deep history, and a certain strangeness that is now addressed with clarity.
Category: Astrophysics

[2015] viXra:1904.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-06 20:31:07

Time And Distance Equivalence (Proves)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 9 Pages.

Time And Distance Equivalence (Proves) Time And Distance Values Can Be Equivalent In Higher Velocity i.e. Time & Distance Values Equivalence Is Occurred As A Relativistic Effect. Briefly …. When a particle moves with high velocity (near to light velocity), So this particle may suffer from the following effects: 1-Mass Increasing 2-Length Contraction 3-Time Dilation 4-Time & Distance Values Equivalence Point No. 4 is my conclusion I have reach through The Solar Planets Data Analysis - This paper tries to prove this fact that (Time and Distance Values can be equivalent – In Higher Velocity)
Category: Astrophysics

[2014] viXra:1904.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-05 17:52:35

Why Saturn Orbital Distance = Saturn Uranus Distance?

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 7 Pages.

Best regards When I have discovered that.. Saturn Orbital Distance = Saturn Uranus Distance I have asked Why? But the usual answer was …… It's Pure coincidence….! Later I have discovered more equalities….As the following: 1.Saturn Orbital Distance = Mars Orbital Circumference = Pluto Eccentricity distance = Saturn Uranus Distance = 1433.5 million km 2.Mercury Saturn Distance = Neptune Pluto Distance = 1375 million km 3.Saturn Pluto Distance = Mercury Neptune Distance = 4436.5 million km Then I have asked again… why These Distances Are Equal? Is there a geometrical reason behind?…but the usual answer always be …. " Pure Coincidences" The question wasn't so simple and the answer was mentioned…. I ask clearly… are the solar planets members in the same body? or parts in the same building?- shortly are the solar group as the human hand and the fingers are similar to the planets? means the planets are created and moving depending on each other because all of them consist one machine –one body –one building – one geometrical structure – means the planets aren't separated from each other– but connected with each other. (that means the space between the planets is a method to connect each planet with others and not to separate each planet from the others)…. This is my question aim! And the current theory understood that clearly… And told also a clear answer … that Any solar planet is separated from the others - each planet is found and move independently.. So the two visions are clear before our eyes ……And the fighting is clear also…. The Solar Group Classical Vision: tells us that… the planet is created independently and move by gravity with the sun without effect of the other solar planets…. My Suggested Vision Is: The Solar Group is one body – one machine – one building – one geometrical structure – No Planet can be found or move independently from the other planets …. Even the sun herself can't be found without the solar planets… we deal here with one machine – one geometrical structure- so if this geometrical structure has many elements we should be wise enough to see that these elements are members in the same geometrical structure and this structure is found by the cooperation and integration of his members….. We should fight to prove that we are correct and the current theory is mistaken… Please read the argument…
Category: Astrophysics

[2013] viXra:1904.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-03 16:40:32

Calling Into Question of Einstein's Second Postulate

Authors: Fabien Sabinet
Comments: 3 Pages.

Based on the anomalous acceleration acting on Pioneer 10 with a magnitude of 8.7 × 10-10 m/s² directed towards the Sun, we can demonstrate that the anomaly is due to the use of a wrong Doppler shift formula used by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Indeed the formula used by JPL based on the Einstein's second postulate, generate an error. I demonstrate here that if we use the classic Galilean velocity addition formula, there is no more any anomalous acceleration acting on Pioneer 10.
Category: Astrophysics

[2012] viXra:1904.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-03 21:18:51

How the Solar Group is Created? (Discussion No. 1)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 15 Pages.

This Paper provides our first try to answer the question… How The Solar Group Is Created? Here we'll try to prove The Following Arguments: 1-The Solar Group is One Geometrical Structure or one building and each planet is a part of this same geometrical structure (building)- i.e. Each planet data is created to be suitable for the required task of this planet in the whole building and No solar planet can be found or move independently a.Also the solar group can be similar to one body, and each planet is a member in this same body. All solar planets and their orbital distances are created by the same energy (by the same blood all body members are created) b.OR, The solar group be similar to one machine each planet is a gear in this same machine… so the machine job depends on the gears different tasks.. and that means the cooperation and integration between the solar planets data is the main base on which the solar group is created and move. c.Also, The solar group can be similar to a great river has many canals and these canals created soils on their banks. The river, canals and their soils all of them are created from the same water (the same energy) The previous claim and conclusion is discussed in this paper strongly and the paper provides curial proves to show this fact as clear as the sun herself. 2-Saturn is The Most Important Planet in the solar group and he connects the group together where without Saturn the solar group can't be found or move. 3-Mars current existence and motion depends on Earth Moon Orbit.
Category: Astrophysics

[2011] viXra:1904.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-02 09:11:22

Stellar Metamorphosis: What are White Dwarf Stars?

Authors: Daniel Archer
Comments: 5 Pages. made possible by DARE (Daniel Archer Research Enterprise)

This is en exploratory paper about White Dwarf stars, are we sure we know what they are? The standard astronomy explanation is questioned and replaced with the position of White Dwarf stars in Stellar Metamorphosis. A main characteristic of these stars is changed.
Category: Astrophysics

[2010] viXra:1904.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-01 10:27:25

No Random Process Causes The Solar Group Creation (No Big Bang)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 11 Pages.

Abstract The Main Conclusion The solar group can't be created by any random process. i.e. The Big Bang Concept is Unreal The previous conclusion is produced easily and clearly through the solar planets data analysis.. That means… The Big Bang Theory contradicts strongly and clearly with the solar planets data analysis and their geometrical meanings which supports the claim that, the big bang concept is Unreal one. This paper tries to show and prove this contradiction and to show that the solar planets data analysis is the best way to understand the solar group origin and motion which necessitates to review many other theories concern the solar group origin an motion.
Category: Astrophysics

[2009] viXra:1904.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-01 20:41:11

Does Mars Fit his Position Is The Solar Group? Why Not?!

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 11 Pages.

Mars Data Doesn't Fit his Position In The Solar Group Because Mars had immigrated from his original point with distance 84 million km from the sun and dwell in his new point with distance 227.9 million km from the sun (My Conclusion) So Mars Data was fit to his original position (with distance 84 mkm) But Mars Data doesn't fit his new position (with distance 227.9 mkm) This paper analyzes Mars Data to prove this Fact.
Category: Astrophysics

[2008] viXra:1903.0574 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-31 06:35:49

Break Axion as Dark Matter Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Leslie Rosenberg, a physicist with the University of Washington has published a paper in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, describing the current state of research that involves investigating the possibility that axions are what make up dark matter. [27] Physicists from MIT and elsewhere have performed the first run of a new experiment to detect axions-hypothetical particles that are predicted to be among the lightest particles in the universe. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[2007] viXra:1903.0571 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-31 08:12:24

Closeup Image of a Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

We're about to see the first close-up of a black hole. [23] In short, the concept of a black hole gravity machine presents humanity with a plausible path to becoming an interstellar species. In the meantime, the study of the concept will provide SETI researchers with another possible technosignature to look for. [22] Physicists have used a seven-qubit quantum computer to simulate the scrambling of information inside a black hole, heralding a future in which entangled quantum bits might be used to probe the mysterious interiors of these bizarre objects. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[2006] viXra:1903.0569 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-31 10:16:53

The Sun Gravity Concept is Unreal (Proves)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 16 Pages.

The Hypothesis "There's No Gravity Found By The Sun" This paper provides 5 proves for this hypothesis which are: 1-Planet Orbital Distance disproves The Sun Gravity Concept 2-The Sun Gravity Value disproves The Sun Gravity Concept 3-The Planet Velocity disproves The Sun Gravity Concept 4-The moon orbit analysis proves the solar group current description is incorrect. 5-The Solar Group is One Machine consists of all solar planets.
Category: Astrophysics

[2005] viXra:1903.0565 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-31 17:01:15

There Are Relativistic Effects In The Solar Group

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 24 Pages.

The Main Hypothesis "There Are Relativistic Effects In The Solar Group" We can't observe the higher velocity which produces these relativistic effects but we can observe the relativistic effects which are produced by it. As proves for the relativistic effects, I may refer to the following: 1.The Earth Moon Motion … 2.Mercury Day Period… The previous 2 phenomena should be discussed in this paper with many other as proves for the relativistic effects are found in the solar group geometry. This Papers provides 2 Points 1st Point : The Relativistic Effects Proves 2nd Point : The Relativistic effects Geometrical Meaning and Description.
Category: Astrophysics

[2004] viXra:1903.0564 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-31 17:07:13

Lowering Abundances During Stellar Metamorphosis: Three Types of Elemental and Isotopic Decay

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 hand written note

There are three types elemental and isotopic decay during planet formation (stellar evolution). The first is isotopic abundances lowering, the second is light element loss, and finally the loss of radioactive isotopes, due to radioactive decay. Wording of these types of decay processes will change as the theory is developed, and explanation is provided with a handwritten note.
Category: Astrophysics

[2003] viXra:1903.0563 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-31 19:38:45

Eddington’s Mass-Luminosity Relationship: A Violation of the Laws of Thermodynamics

Authors: Stephen J. Crothers, Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 13 Pages.

This is a copy of the slides for a talk presented at the Spring Meeting of the Ohio Section of the American Physical Society in Wooster, Ohio on March 30, 2019: http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/OSS19/Session/F02.5
Category: Astrophysics

[2002] viXra:1903.0556 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-30 07:51:37

Sun's Magnetic Field Ten Times Stronger

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

The sun's magnetic field is ten times stronger than previously believed, new research from Queen's University Belfast and Aberystwyth University has revealed. [19] University of Southern Denmark researchers have conducted simulations of dark matter particles hitting the Earth. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[2001] viXra:1903.0539 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-29 07:59:29

Neutrino is a Neutral Electron

Authors: Antonio PUCCINI
Comments: 10 Pages.

As known the brilliant idea of a new particle came to Pauli (fully shared by Fermi) to compensate the energy-mass gap that emerged from the disintegration of the neutron, or negative  decay (d): N P + e. The basic requirements originally requested by Pauli and Fermi for the new particle, or 3rd particle (called neutrino), are essentially three: it is electrically neutral and it must have the same mass and spin of an electron. Therefore, if the mass of the neutrino () corresponded to that assumed by Pauli and Fermi, the mass gap problem of the βd would be brilliantly solved. However, the current upper limits of the mass of the  are <2eV. Here we show that a clear incongruity comes out: the mass attributed to the  will never be able to solve the energy gap problem of the βd ; it takes  250˙000  to compensate the energy-mass gap. Unless we consider, instead of , another particle, probably still unknown, as the 3rd particle of βd. To find a solution, we hypothesized the existence of an electron with no electric charge: a neutral electron (e°).
Category: Astrophysics

[2000] viXra:1903.0538 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-29 08:14:22

Superconducting Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Superconducting nanowires could be used as both targets and sensors for the direct detection of dark matter, physicists in Israel and the US have shown. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19] Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium-the vast, largely empty space between galaxies-to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far-and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1999] viXra:1903.0530 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-29 13:27:58

Fast Radio Bursts from Terraformation

Authors: Almog Yalinewich, Mubdi Rahman, Alysa Obertas, Patrick C. Breysse
Comments: 5 Pages.

Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are, as the name implies, short and intense pulses of radiation at wavelengths of roughly one metre. FRBs have extremely high brightness temperatures, which points to a coherent source of radiation. The energy of a single burst ranges from $10^{36}$ to $10^{39}$ erg. At the high end of the energy range, FRBs have enough energy to unbind an earth-sized planet, and even at the low end, there is enough energy to vaporise and unbind the atmosphere and the oceans. We therefore propose that FRBs are signatures of an artificial terraformer, capable of eradicating life on another planet, or even destroy the planet entirely. The necessary energy can be harvested from Wolf-Rayet stars with a Dyson sphere ($\sim 10^{38}$ erg s$^{-1}$) , and the radiation can be readily produced by astrophysical masers. We refer to this mechanism as Volatile Amplification of a Destructive Emission of Radiation (VADER). We use the observational information to constrain the properties of the apparatus. We speculate that the non-repeating FRBs are low-energy pulses used to exterminate life on a single planet, but leaving it otherwise intact, and that the stronger repeating FRB is part of an effort to destroy multiple objects in the same solar system, perhaps as a preventative measure against panspermia. In this picture, the persistent synchrotron source associated with the first repeating FRB arises from the energy harvesting process. Finally we propose that Oumuamua might have resulted from a destruction of a planet in this manner.
Category: Astrophysics

[1998] viXra:1903.0517 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-28 10:20:42

Dark Matter Constrain

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Researchers from Russia, Finland, and the U.S. have put a constraint on the theoretical model of dark matter particles by analyzing data from astronomical observations of active galactic nuclei. [20] Just how quickly is the dark matter near Earth zipping around? The speed of dark matter has far-reaching consequences for modern astrophysical research, but this fundamental property has eluded researchers for years. [19] A NASA rocket experiment could use the Doppler effect to look for signs of dark matter in mysterious X-ray emissions from space. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium-the vast, largely empty space between galaxies-to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far-and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1997] viXra:1903.0515 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-28 10:39:58

Galaxies Defy Dark Matter Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

After drawing both praise and skepticism, the team of astronomers who discovered NGC 1052-DF2-the very first known galaxy to contain little to no dark matter-are back with stronger evidence about its bizarre nature. [21] Researchers from Russia, Finland, and the U.S. have put a constraint on the theoretical model of dark matter particles by analyzing data from astronomical observations of active galactic nuclei. [20] Just how quickly is the dark matter near Earth zipping around? The speed of dark matter has far-reaching consequences for modern astrophysical research, but this fundamental property has eluded researchers for years. [19] A NASA rocket experiment could use the Doppler effect to look for signs of dark matter in mysterious X-ray emissions from space. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium-the vast, largely empty space between galaxies-to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far-and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1996] viXra:1903.0508 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-29 04:00:10

No Evidence of Axions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Physicists from MIT and elsewhere have performed the first run of a new experiment to detect axions-hypothetical particles that are predicted to be among the lightest particles in the universe. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19] Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18]
Category: Astrophysics

[1995] viXra:1903.0498 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-27 08:50:23

Black Hole in Radio Galaxy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Italian astronomers have conducted an X-ray analysis of the accreting supermassive black hole in the broad line radio galaxy PKS 2251+11 as part of a study aimed at investigating the galaxy's nuclear environment. [24] All massive galaxies are believed to host supermassive black holes (SMBH) at their centers that grow by accreting mass from their environment. [23]
Category: Astrophysics

[1994] viXra:1903.0489 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-27 20:28:27

Does Earth Velocity Causes The Eclipse Phenomena? (T.S. Eclipse III)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 7 Pages.

We continue our discussion about the total solar eclipse…. Why We See the Sun Disc = the Moon Disc? (T.S. Eclipse II) Total Solar Eclipse Analysis (Part I) In this paper we ask does Earth velocity effects on total solar eclipse? We deal here with the velocity and not the motion That means The question can be as following: If Earth moves by different velocity, can that effect on the eclipse phenomena? Let's think …. Why the total solar eclipse is occurred? Because the moon moves between the sun and Earth…! It's NOT Enough…. Venus moves between the sun and Earth but doesn't cause any solar eclipse…. The point here that we see the sun disc = the moon disc…. That's why when the moon moves between the sun and Earth that creates solar eclipse…. Why we see the moon disc = the sun disc? We have discussed that in (part II) Here we deal with new question… If Earth velocity changes, does it effect on the solar eclipse? Let's think The total solar eclipse is a process done by 3 players (Earth, moon and the sun). to put the three planets on the same straight line we need some configuration between the 3 planets motions to produce the angle 180 degrees between the 3 players… So Earth velocity is a player which faces the 2 other players… any velocity change may effect on the eclipse geometrical structure but to perform the eclipse event the three players have to cooperate with each other… The Concept (Cooperation And Integration) This concept is what I try frequently to explain and prove. Without the cooperation and integration between the planets the solar group can't be found or even can't be created…! The cooperation is the source of life But what's this cooperation? While we understood the unit 1 meter by some meaning, and we understood the unit 1 second by another meaning…so our advanced description (in our mind) prevent us completely to think that 1 second may be very near to 1 meter… these 2 values are not similar or equal by any way..! the time is time and distance is a distance… we keep by heart! But What's The Time? No definition What's the distance? How can I create a distance? From what the distance is created? All such questions have no answers…! That's what I'm trying here to do…let's summarize my idea in following: 1st.The solar group is one machine, each planet is a gear in this same machine and no one planet can move or even can be found alone because each planet is a part in one body or one machine. 2nd.The cooperation between these planets is the source of their lives- that means the solar planets cooperation is started in their data! What does that mean? oThe planet data is created to be cooperative with other planets data and that means we can't see any truth when we study just one planet because this planet is just a part of a whole system – only in the whole system we can see the effect of this data clearly – Eclipse Phenomena is an example. oThe planets data have their definitions, and this is our main difficulty because the imaginary description in our minds which doesn't depend on any planet data prevents us to understand any truth we may reach from the solar planets data analysis- for example – I claim there's a real relationship between Earth and Pluto (Pluto Data Shows a Relationship with Earth) oNo one will accept this claim (Earth Pluto Relationship), of course because the huge distance between both where gravity prevents such relationship to be found… that's my point of fighting…. The imaginary description is the gravity and the distance effect on gravity…! Where the planet data tells clearly there's a relationship, please open your eyes to see it, But we believe the gravity which is trustee more than any eyes…. So we have another argument to fight for …let's write it down here How The Planet Orbital Distance Is Defined? By gravity…the gravitation equation defines the planet orbital distance… ! Let's examine this answer 1st critic / Mercury – Venus – Earth ….. these 3 planets order lead us to conclude that, there's some relationship between the planet diameter and his orbital distance With a clear rule "Greater Diameter needs Greater Orbital Distance" The current theory tells us this is pure coincidences! But There's a similar order (but reversed). Let's see that Jupiter – Saturn – Uranus – Neptune – Pluto The previous order tells us a reversed rule "Greater Diameter needs Shorter Orbital Distance" Something is occurred with Mars which caused the rule to be reversed after Mars! The current theory still consider this second order also as "pure Coincidences" But URANUS DIAMETER IS GREATER THAN NEPTUNE DIAMETER, where NEPTUNE MASS IS GREATER THAN URANUS… That tells us the solar planets order is done Depending On The Diameter And Not On The Mass! disproving the gravity concept …! 2nd Critic/ If the planet moves by gravity, and defines his orbital distance by the gravitation equation, which depends on the masses, why Jupiter isn't in place of Mercury? Why the greatest Mass has no shortest orbital distance? According to the gravitation equation (m/r2)? The told answer is because of the initial points!! And why we accept the gravitation equation based on that if there's no any proof for it?! For myself I try to understand and don't believe deeply the current theory So the conclusions are clear before my eyes 1-There's A Relationship Between The Planet Diameter And His Orbital Distance 2-Mars causes Disturbance For This Relationship It's hard fighting – but for what? What we should do to understand better the solar group geometry? We should see the contradictions between the planet data and the current theory, then we should create an alternative theory (much better theory) to explain the solar planets motions and origin In this paper while we discuss the eclipse phenomena as cover – in fact the fighting is around the Motion and Velocity Definitions
Category: Astrophysics

[1993] viXra:1903.0475 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-26 11:58:07

Before the Big Bang

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

A team of scientists has proposed a powerful new test for inflation, the theory that the universe dramatically expanded in size in a fleeting fraction of a second right after the A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24]
Category: Astrophysics

[1992] viXra:1903.0443 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-26 06:49:02

Listening to the Quantum Vacuum

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Since the historic finding of gravitational waves from two black holes colliding over a billion light years away was made in 2015, physicists are advancing knowledge about the limits on the precision of the measurements that will help improve the next generation of tools and technology used by gravitational wave scientists. [31] Physicists in the United States, Austria and Brazil have shown that shaking ultracold Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) can cause them to either divide into uniform segments or shatter into unpredictable splinters, depending on the frequency of the shaking. [30] In terms of physics, the interiors of neutron stars, cold atomic gasses and nuclear systems all have one thing in common: they are gaseous systems made up of highly interactive, superfluid fermions. [29] Engineers at MIT and Penn State University have found that under the right conditions, ordinary clear water droplets on a transparent surface can produce brilliant colors, without the addition of inks or dyes. [28]
Category: Astrophysics

[1991] viXra:1903.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-22 16:34:36

The Iron/Nickel Cores of Ancient Stars as Leftover Catalyst

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

It is explained that the iron/nickel cores of ancient stars are composed of unconsumed catalyst used in the chemical reactions required to form many chemical compounds found on rocky highly evolved stars. As well, it explains why only specific elements are found with the iron/nickel composites, it is because they are also function as catalysts, such as platinum, copper and gallium, which can be unconsumed in the process.
Category: Astrophysics

[1990] viXra:1903.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-21 17:23:43

In Ferent Quantum Gravity there Are 3 Universes: the Dark Matter Universe, the Matter Universe and the Spiritual Universe

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 326 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

In Ferent Quantum Gravity there are 3 Universes: the Dark Matter universe, the Matter universe and the Spiritual universe. “Because there are 3 walls, there are 3 Universes: the Dark Matter universe, the Matter universe and the Spiritual universe.” Adrian Ferent “In our Universe at Ferent wall emerged the Dark Matter universe, at Planck wall emerged the Matter universe and at Spiritual wall emerged the Spiritual universe.” Adrian Ferent “I discovered that: a < h < s” Adrian Ferent “In our Universe at Ferent wall emerged the Dark Matter universe, at Planck wall inside the Dark Matter universe emerged the Matter universe and at Spiritual wall inside the Matter universe emerged the Spiritual universe.” Adrian Ferent “The Dark Matter universe is much bigger than the Matter universe and the Matter universe is much bigger than the Spiritual universe.” Adrian Ferent “We live in 3 universes: the Dark Matter universe, the Matter universe and the Spiritual universe” Adrian Ferent Multiverse represents multiple domains in the universe with different properties. Here multiverse means multiple universes, means multiple contiguous domains within a larger universe, each with different properties such as different values of the physical parameters and different structures. Our universe is an island where the parameters, the space have enough complexity, to lead to a fascinating world, with forms of life. Our universe is the Planck universe. Ferent Quantum Gravity theory explains what happened at Ferent wall and after the expansion of the Universe attains the Ferent wall. There are 3 walls: the Ferent wall, the Planck wall and the Spiritual wall. “There are 3 walls in our Universe: the Ferent wall with the constant ‘a’, the Planck wall with the constant ‘h’ and the Spiritual wall with the constant ‘s’.” Adrian Ferent The most general form of the time-dependent Ferent equation of the Universe. “Ferent equation of the material and spiritual Universe:” Adrian Ferent “I discovered that: a < h < s” Adrian Ferent “In our Universe at Ferent wall emerged Dark Matter, at Planck wall emerged Matter and at Spiritual wall emerged Spiritual Matter.” Adrian Ferent “Because there are 3 walls, there are 3 Universes: the Dark Matter universe, the Matter universe and the Spiritual universe.” Adrian Ferent “In our Universe at Ferent wall emerged the Dark Matter universe, at Planck wall emerged the Matter universe and at Spiritual wall emerged the Spiritual universe.” Adrian Ferent The Universe as a quantum system! The time-dependent Ferent equation of the Universe, which gives a description of the Universe as quantum system, made of Matter, N elementary particles, Dark Matter, M elementary particles, and Spiritual Matter, L elementary particles, evolving in time. “Ferent equation of the material and spiritual Universe:” Adrian Ferent This means: “In our Universe at Ferent wall emerged the Dark Matter universe, at Planck wall inside the Dark Matter universe emerged the Matter universe and at Spiritual wall inside the Matter universe emerged the Spiritual universe.” Adrian Ferent “The Dark Matter universe is much bigger than the Matter universe and the Matter universe is much bigger than the Spiritual universe.” Adrian Ferent Proof of Ferent Quantum Gravity: Ferent Quantum Gravity is right because in our galaxy there is 5 times more Dark Matter than Matter. This means the Dark Matter universe is much bigger than the Matter universe. “We live in 3 universes: the Dark Matter universe, the Matter universe and the Spiritual universe” Adrian Ferent 192. I am the first who discovered that because there are 3 walls, there are 3 Universes: the Dark Matter universe, the Matter universe and the Spiritual universe 193. I am the first who discovered that in our Universe at Ferent wall emerged the Dark Matter universe, at Planck wall emerged the Matter universe and at Spiritual wall emerged the Spiritual universe 194. I am the first who discovered that: a < h < s 195. I am the first who discovered that in our Universe at Ferent wall emerged the Dark Matter universe, at Planck wall inside the Dark Matter universe emerged the Matter universe and at Spiritual wall inside the Matter universe emerged the Spiritual universe 196. I am the first who discovered that the Dark Matter universe is much bigger than the Matter universe and the Matter universe is much bigger than the Spiritual universe 197. I am the first who discovered that we live in 3 universes: the Dark Matter universe, the Matter universe and the Spiritual universe
Category: Astrophysics

[1989] viXra:1903.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-20 12:22:11

A Mechanism of Accelerating and Jerking Expansion of Universe

Authors: Hui Peng
Comments: 20 Pages. thanks very much for consideration of my paper

In 2016, scientists report that the acceleration of the expansion of the universe could be accelerating, denote as jerk universe. We notice that the acceleration of the expanding universe is attributed to linear-effect of gravity, and believe that the jerk is linear-effect as well. We face two tasks: (1) A single dynamic mechanism is required to explain both acceleration and jerk; (2) higher order derivative theories of gravity is needed to govern jerk. We propose a theory-independent dynamic mechanism and extend Newton’s and linearized Einstein’s theory to contain high order differential evolution equations for time-varying source, gravitational field, and movement. We show that the mechanism, (1) predicts repulsive gravitational force, explain the accelerating expansion without fine-tuning problem, and provide an explanation of the jerk; (2) provides a candidate for driving inflation; (3) suggests a new understanding of the nature of dark energy, and postulates gravitational-charge/dark energy duality. Generalized linearized Einstein’s theory predicts that the accelerated receding objects in the universe emit gravitational wave.
Category: Astrophysics

[1988] viXra:1903.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-19 09:48:23

Dark Energy Particle is the Photon

Authors: Antonio PUCCINI
Comments: 39 Pages.

The Dark Energy (DE) is a mysterious, un-eliminable energy distributed, as a fluid, evenly throughout the whole Universe. The nature of the Dark Energy Particles (DEP) is unknown. DE appears to be associated with vacuum in space. Just the omnipresent quantum vacuum energy is the key element to help us understand the characteristics, profile and properties of DEP, for us represented ultimately by photons (Ps) but, likely, not Ps of the optical band. Probably DE is the sum of the common photonic energy of a lot of Ps, often inexorably amassed and thickened by the Gravity Interaction, until the radiation cannot be further compressed. These concepts are elegantly confirmed by the equation: PV 4/3 = C . Consequently, from each individual P triggers an energetic repulsive action, which, summing up (by the Overlap Principle), acts in unison as a counter-pressure. To trigger this counter-pressure, is the mass-energy density of a very compact wall of Ps, no further compressible. DE is ubiquitously widespread both within intergalactic and intra-atomic space, between the nucleus and the orbiting electrons: the latter is a space notoriously swarming of Ps. In our opinion, DEP are conveyed by Ps, also of different energies, engaged in various tasks and operating contexts, sometimes peculiar and/or unusual, whose common denominator is represented by the impossibility of being compressed beyond a determined limit. In short, DE is represented by a Photonics Counter-Pressure, or negative pressure, that is expansive, repulsive, anti-gravitational, exerted by Ps no further compressible. As well-known in fact, Ps are not ethereal and dimensionless particles. Ps are the Planck grains, equals to: 6.6261027[ergs] 10n [c/s], where n indicates the number of oscillations per second of a single P.
Category: Astrophysics

[1987] viXra:1903.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-19 22:40:43

Positive Energy of Gravitational Field

Authors: Hu iPeng
Comments: 22 Pages. thanks for publish my article

The issues, such as the negative energy density of the gravito-static field and the lack of an energy-momentum tensor in General Relativity (GR), have a long history. To provide possible resolutions for these issues, based on the U (1) gauge theory of gravity, the gravito-static and gravito-magnetic field lines are introduced for the positive/negative gravitational charge and current, respectively. It is shown that the direction of gravitational force acting on a negative gravitational charge is opposite to that of the gravitational field. Then we show that positive energy is stored in the gravitational field and that the exchanged energy between the gravitational field and gravitational charges/currents is always positive. The energy-momentum tensor,T_g^μν,of the vector gravitational field is introduced and has the following physical properties: (1) symmetric, T_g^μν= T_g^νμ; (2) positive energy density, T_g^00>0; (3) zero trace, T_gμ^μ=0; (4) conserved, (∂T_gν^μ)/(∂x_μ )=0; (5) localizable.
Category: Astrophysics

[1986] viXra:1903.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-19 22:46:50

Negative Gravitational Charge and Theories of Gravity

Authors: Hui Peng
Comments: 30 Pages. thanks very much for consideration of my paper

The purpose of this article is to identify laws that would describe gravitation if negative gravitational mass/gravitational charge (g-charge) exists. WEP is generalized to establish correlations between mass and positive/negative g-charge (Q_(g+)/Q_(g-)), although Q_(g-) on Earth would fall upward. Newton’s theory and Einstein’s theory are generalized to describe behaviors of objects carrying Q_(g-). A significant conclusion is that, as long as Q_(g-) is introduced, all of Newton’s theory, Gravitodynamics and Einstein’s theory explain the accelerated expansion of Universe equally well without needs of “negative pressure” and “cosmological constant” that has fine-tuning issue. This implies that this mechanism of the cosmological phenomenon is universal and theory independent, which strongly supports the existence of negative g-charges. Moreover the acceleration is increasing with time. Gravitodynamics and generalized Einstein’s theory predict: (1) gravitational wave (GW_-) emitted by Q_(g-); (2) GW_- cannot be distinguished from GW_+ emitted by Q_(g+).
Category: Astrophysics

[1985] viXra:1903.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-20 03:49:19

The Effects of Astronomical Bodies on Imouto’s Local Solutions to Rankine–Hugoniot Equations.

Authors: P. Gomez, P. Gomez, Tiddles the cat, P. Erdős, P. Gomez
Comments: 8 pages; published in Modern Aviation and Sexology Daily

We herein present a proof of the existence and smoothness of the Navier-Stokes equations via a new method of manipulating Calabi-Yau manifolds, which in turn leads us to a disproof by contradiction of the Collatz conjecture; four separate, independent proofs of the Jacobian conjecture; a complete decipherment of Linear A; a method of determining whether or not a book is worth reading based on its cover alone; and an entire new field of mathematics which we hereby name ”Weird Calculus”. We completely and utterly fail to present any convincing arguments, but at least there’s some nice text art. We make no attempt to clarify anything in the field. Astute readers may notice the complete lack of content and coherence in this paper.
Category: Astrophysics

[1984] viXra:1903.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-18 07:04:44

X-ray Bright Galactic Nuclei

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

All massive galaxies are believed to host supermassive black holes (SMBH) at their centers that grow by accreting mass from their environment. [23] In short, the concept of a black hole gravity machine presents humanity with a plausible path to becoming an interstellar species. In the meantime, the study of the concept will provide SETI researchers with another possible technosignature to look for. [22] Physicists have used a seven-qubit quantum computer to simulate the scrambling of information inside a black hole, heralding a future in which entangled quantum bits might be used to probe the mysterious interiors of these bizarre objects. [21]
Category: Astrophysics

[1983] viXra:1903.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-17 10:27:04

Why We See the Sun Disc = the Moon Disc? (T.S. Eclipse II)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 12 Pages.

This paper discusses Mercury Data to prove 3 conclusions which are: 1-The solar group is one machine, each planet is a gear in this same machine. (i.e. each solar planet depends on other solar planets in his Origin And Motion). 2-Mercury Data shows a relationship with Jupiter can't be explained by gravity concept or any current theory. (i.e. The Solar Group Current Theory Is Insufficient) 3-Special Theory of Relativity provides empirical results only and need a theoretical extension to be a complete theory. (Specifically, the theory needs to explain why the lorentz length contraction phenomenon is done and what geometrical effect it practices) The paper also suggest the following idea "The Time existence depends on relativistic effects" i.e. "Time Definition" is a process extends beyond the human daily experiences This paper completes the previous discussion Total Solar Eclipse Analysis (Part I)
Category: Astrophysics

[1982] viXra:1903.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-17 13:42:06

A New Dimension In The Area Of Event Horizon

Authors: Kanishk Chitransh
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper, calculations and arguments are reported which gives us a basis of a new dimension in the area of event horizon of black hole astrophysics.We know that two black holes in different regions of space-time can never be similar in terms of their mass, temperature (event horizon) and entropy. This paper further extends the idea and states that two black holes in different regions of space-time can never be similar in terms of their area of event horizon too.
Category: Astrophysics

[1981] viXra:1903.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-16 05:33:20

Black Holes Conquer Space

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

In short, the concept of a black hole gravity machine presents humanity with a plausible path to becoming an interstellar species. In the meantime, the study of the concept will provide SETI researchers with another possible technosignature to look for. [22] Physicists have used a seven-qubit quantum computer to simulate the scrambling of information inside a black hole, heralding a future in which entangled quantum bits might be used to probe the mysterious interiors of these bizarre objects. [21]
Category: Astrophysics

[1980] viXra:1903.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-14 07:18:29

Specifications for Elementary Particles, Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and Unifying Physics Theories

Authors: Thomas J. Buckholtz
Comments: 27 Pages.

We suggest united models and specific predictions regarding elementary particles, dark matter, aspects of galaxy evolution, dark energy, and aspects of the cosmology timeline. Results include specific predictions for new elementary particles and specific descriptions of dark matter and dark energy. Some of our modeling matches known elementary particles and extrapolates to predict other elementary particles, including bases for dark matter. Some modeling explains observed ratios of effects of dark matter to effects of ordinary matter. Some models suggest aspects of galaxy formation and evolution. Some modeling correlates with eras of increases or decreases in the observed rate of expansion of the universe. Our modeling framework features mathematics for isotropic quantum harmonic oscillators and provides a framework for creating and unifying physics theories. Aspects of our approach emphasize existence of elementary particles and de-emphasize motion. Some of our models complement traditional quantum field theory and, for example, traditional calculations of anomalous magnetic dipole moments.
Category: Astrophysics

[1979] viXra:1903.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-11 12:12:24

Space Radiation Detector Masterpieces

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Technology originally developed for CERN's Large Hadron Collider and then flown in space by ESA is now being used to analyse historic artworks, helping to detect forgeries. [25] Entangled photons generated by a spaceborne quantum source could enable hack-proof key exchange for ultra high security applications. [24] These qubits are based on silicon carbide in which molybdenum impurities create color centers. [23] Scientists at Radboud University discovered a new mechanism for magnetic storage of information in the smallest unit of matter: a single atom. [22] One of these are single-atom magnets: storage devices consisting of individual atoms stuck ("adsorbed") on a surface, each atom able to store a single bit of data that can be written and read using quantum mechanics. [21] Physicists have experimentally demonstrated 18-qubit entanglement, which is the largest entangled state achieved so far with individual control of each qubit. [20] University of Adelaide-led research has moved the world one step closer to reliable, high-performance quantum computing. [19] A team of researchers with members from IBM Research-Zurich and RWTH Aachen University has announced the development of a new PCM (phase change memory) design that offers miniaturized memory cell volume down to three nanometers. [18] Monatomic glassy antimony might be used as a new type of single-element phase change memory. [17] Physicists have designed a 3-D quantum memory that addresses the tradeoff between achieving long storage times and fast readout times, while at the same time maintaining a compact form. [16] Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15]
Category: Astrophysics

[1978] viXra:1903.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-11 18:02:25

Sunqm-3s4: Using {N,n} QM Structure and Multiplier N’ to Analyze Saturn’s (And Other Planets’) Ring Structure

Authors: Yi Cao
Comments: 19 Pages.

All Saturn rings do follow p{N,n} QM structure. By using planet’s Earth-sized core as pCore{0,1} and r1, Saturn’s inner core, outer core, surface, B-ring, and moons of Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, and Rhea, are almost perfectly at pCore{0,n=1..9//3} orbits or sizes. Also Uranus’ major ring (ε ring), and its minor moons Portia, Puck, and its major moons Miranna, Arial, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon, are at orbit of pCore{0,n//2} with n ≈ 3, 3, 4, 5, 6,7, 9, and 10 approximately. All major rings of gas/ice planet are at Δn = +1 out of planet’s surface (if using their Earth-sized core as r1). For Neptune and Uranus, both of their surfaces are at pCore{0,2//2} size, and their major rings are at pCore{0,3//2} orbit. For Saturn and Jupiter, both of their surfaces are at around pCore{0,3//3} size, and their major rings are at pCore{0,4//3} orbit. By comparing between similar massed planets, the pCore{N,n} QM structure analysis suggests that Uranus’ ring is younger than that of Neptune’s, and Saturn’s ring is younger than that of Jupiter’s. Saturn’s major ring (B-ring, base frequency n=4)’s inner edge can be described by a multiplier n’ = 4*3^6 - 167 = 2749, its outer edge can be described by n’ = 4*3^6 +225 = 3141, and its thickness can be described by n’ =4*3^25 = 3.39E+12. Saturn’s A, B, C, D rings may follow the radial probability density distribution curve. We can use p{N,n} QM and r^2 *|R(n,l)|^2 *|Y(l,m)|^2 to build Saturn major ring’s true 3D structure probability function as shown in equation-4.
Category: Astrophysics

[1977] viXra:1903.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-10 09:05:16

Two Colliding Galaxies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

Located in the constellation of Hercules, about 230 million light-years away, NGC 6052 is a pair of colliding galaxies. [38] Matter is composed of chemical elements mainly created in stars via nuclear reactions and complex nuclear reaction networks. [37] These particles are produced by stellar flares or by shock waves driven by magnetic events in the stellar corona. [36] Researchers have investigated wave-particle interactions between energetic electrons and chorus waves evolving in the space surrounding the Earth using the scientific satellite Arase and, simultaneously, transient auroral flashes by the ground-based global observation network. [35] The universe consists of a massive imbalance between matter and antimatter. [34] Our universe could be the mirror image of an antimatter universe extending backwards in time before the Big Bang. [33] "As you celebrate New Year's Day, cast an eye upward and think for a moment about the amazing things our country and our species can do when we set our minds to it," Stern wrote in the New York Times on Monday. [32] Our senses are stuck in the past. There's a flash of lightning, and then seconds pass until we hear the rumble of distant thunder. We hear the past. [31] ESA's technical centre in the Netherlands has begun running a pulsar-based clock. The "PulChron' system measures the passing of time using millisecond-frequency radio pulses from multiple fast-spinning neutron stars. [30] VR is an almost perfect avenue for this approach, since it has been surging in popularity as both entertainment and an educational tool. [29] Using MAGIC telescopes and NASA's Fermi spacecraft, an international team of astronomers has discovered a new source of very high energy gamma-ray emission around the supernova remnant (SNR) G24.7+0.6. [28]
Category: Astrophysics

[1976] viXra:1903.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-09 06:06:50

Nuclear Reactions in Stars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

Matter is composed of chemical elements mainly created in stars via nuclear reactions and complex nuclear reaction networks. [37] These particles are produced by stellar flares or by shock waves driven by magnetic events in the stellar corona. [36] Researchers have investigated wave-particle interactions between energetic electrons and chorus waves evolving in the space surrounding the Earth using the scientific satellite Arase and, simultaneously, transient auroral flashes by the ground-based global observation network. [35] The universe consists of a massive imbalance between matter and antimatter. [34] Our universe could be the mirror image of an antimatter universe extending backwards in time before the Big Bang. [33] "As you celebrate New Year's Day, cast an eye upward and think for a moment about the amazing things our country and our species can do when we set our minds to it," Stern wrote in the New York Times on Monday. [32] Our senses are stuck in the past. There's a flash of lightning, and then seconds pass until we hear the rumble of distant thunder. We hear the past. [31] ESA's technical centre in the Netherlands has begun running a pulsar-based clock. The "PulChron' system measures the passing of time using millisecond-frequency radio pulses from multiple fast-spinning neutron stars. [30] VR is an almost perfect avenue for this approach, since it has been surging in popularity as both entertainment and an educational tool. [29] Using MAGIC telescopes and NASA's Fermi spacecraft, an international team of astronomers has discovered a new source of very high energy gamma-ray emission around the supernova remnant (SNR) G24.7+0.6. [28] In 1973, Russian physicist A.B. Migdal predicted the phenomenon of pion condensation above a critical, extremely high-several times higher than that for normal matter-nuclear density. [27]
Category: Astrophysics

[1975] viXra:1903.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-09 12:35:33

Counter-deception in Astronomy: Unmasking the Second Greatest Astronomical Deception

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper I will try my best to explain how nature has deceived millions of scientists and researchers, as well as how those very same scientists and researchers spread the deception. The deception is as follows, it is believed that a "star" is something mutually exclusive of "planet". It is the second greatest astronomical deception because the greatest was the belief that Earth was the center of the Solar System. Unmasking the Second Greatest astronomical deception needed more data, but now requires the humility to acknowledge the deception. Now that the data has already been obtained and the discovery made, we can review how the deception took place. There is a lot more to this than what I will write about here, this is just to serve as a back drop for future reference and research into what went wrong. It is suggested for the reader to study counter-deception and intelligence gathering processes in the political and military sphere as well as the scientific, as they are all very, very similar.
Category: Astrophysics

[1974] viXra:1903.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-07 07:31:53

Entangled Qubits Probe Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Physicists have used a seven-qubit quantum computer to simulate the scrambling of information inside a black hole, heralding a future in which entangled quantum bits might be used to probe the mysterious interiors of these bizarre objects. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[1973] viXra:1903.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-07 20:14:15

Polar "Hot Spots" Are Caused by Birkeland Currents

Authors: Anonymous
Comments: 1 Page.

The now accepted theory of sun-Earth Birkeland currents, what astro-physicists call "magnetic ropes" or "flux ropes", provides a mechanism to explain polar "hot spots" on planets throughout the solar system.
Category: Astrophysics

[1972] viXra:1903.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-06 07:19:17

Galaxies, Photon Mass on Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

With this in mind, the physicists Dmitri Ryutov, Dmitry Budker and Victor Flambaum have suggested that the rotational dynamics of galaxies might be explained by other factors. They hypothesize that the mass of photons, which are particles of light, might be responsible. [31] Europe's physics lab CERN on Tuesday said it was planning a new experiment to look for particles associated with dark matter which is believed to make up some 27 percent of the universe. [30]
Category: Astrophysics

[1971] viXra:1903.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-06 11:21:17

An Analysis of the Rotation Curves of Disk Galaxies Using the Sparc Catalogue

Authors: Jo Ke
Comments: 20 Pages.

The SPARC catalogue of disk galaxies contains data on both the rotation curves and the baryonic matter distributions. This data set enables an analysis to be carried out to see whether a simple weighting function applied to the matter distributions can explain the rotation curves, without the need for any dark matter. It turns out that the radial distance raised to a small negative power is such a weighting function and it is sufficient to explain the observed rotation curves. This observational result leads to a new expression for the rotation curve with only one adjustable parameter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1970] viXra:1903.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-05 07:52:07

Total Solar Eclipse Analysis (Part I)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 12 Pages.

Why the total solar eclipse is occurred? Why We See The Sun Disc = The Moon Disc? We know this answer…. because (Earth orbital distance/ Earth moon distance) = (sun diameter/ Moon diameter) Now The question is…"Is there a geometrical reason behind the previous equation?" The current theory tells us No ….It's just pure coincidence….! But easily we can guess that, there's some geometrical reason behind and the current theory is incorrect Let's see this same equation in more clear light (Sun diameter / Earth moon distance) = (Earth Diameter / Moon diameter) (Equ. No. II) Equation No. II This equation has specific significance Let's analyze The Left Part in following: 1-The Sun Diameter = Jupiter Circumference x π(error 1.5%) 2-Earth Moon Distance 378675 km (Solar Eclipse Radius) =Saturn Circumference We know that, 3-(2 Saturn Circumference) = (2 Jupiter Circumference – Jupiter Diameter) 4-Solar Planets Diameters Total = 2 Jupiter diameters + 1 Saturn diameter we'll try to explain this data in this paper
Category: Astrophysics

[1969] viXra:1903.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-04 08:43:29

Quantum Effects in Superfluid Fermions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

In terms of physics, the interiors of neutron stars, cold atomic gasses and nuclear systems all have one thing in common: they are gaseous systems made up of highly interactive, superfluid fermions. [29] Engineers at MIT and Penn State University have found that under the right conditions, ordinary clear water droplets on a transparent surface can produce brilliant colors, without the addition of inks or dyes. [28]
Category: Astrophysics

[1968] viXra:1903.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-03 06:16:28

Test for LISA Technology

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

For the first time, it has been possible to test laser measurement technology for LISA in laboratories almost under mission conditions. [20] RUDN mathematicians analyzed the properties of gravitational waves in a generalized affine-metrical space (an algebraic construction operating on the notions of a vector and a point) similarly to the properties of electromagnetic waves in Minkowski space-time. [19]
Category: Astrophysics

[1967] viXra:1903.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-02 07:10:05

What's The Solar Planet Nature?

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 10 Pages.

What's The Solar Planet Nature? The Planet existence proves 3 claims at least 1-The planet existence is a proof that, There's a relationship between other planets based which the new planet is created. 2-The space is Energy with different densities 3-The Matter is created from Space by energy accumulation process (Shortly, The Planet Is A Relationship Between Other Planets) I.e. The first Matter in universe is created from Space Energy, and any other matter is created by this same way …., but… The Second Matter Is Created In Geometrical Relationship With The First One…
Category: Astrophysics

[1966] viXra:1903.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-02 20:00:27

Integrated Balloon Expansion Established

Authors: Savior F. Eason
Comments: 10 Pages.

Discusses a heavily mathematically-supported edit to both inflation and balloon theories of expansion, and in addition describing observational and experimental proof of this edit. A report from SIAII labs.
Category: Astrophysics

[1965] viXra:1903.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-02 04:39:43

Hiding Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

These results provide a new method to search for other hidden black holes and help us understand the growth and evolution of black holes. [34] Physically, a black hole is defined by the presence of a singularity, i.e., a region of space, bounded by an 'event horizon', within which the mass/energy density becomes infinite, and the normally well-behaved laws of physics no longer apply. [33]
Category: Astrophysics

[1964] viXra:1902.0505 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-28 07:54:08

Dark Matter in Small Galaxies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

Dark matter particles may scatter against each other only when they hit the right energy, say researchers in Japan, Germany, and Austria in a new study. [33] A team led by the Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe constructed a map of dark matter throughout the history of the universe by analysing images of more than ten million galaxies. [32] Key components for the sky-mapping Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), weighing about 12 tons, were hoisted atop the Mayall Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) near Tucson, Arizona, and bolted into place Wednesday, marking a major project milestone. [31]
Category: Astrophysics

[1963] viXra:1902.0501 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-28 09:02:20

Planet Orbital Eccentricity Disproves the Solar Group Current Description

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 15 Pages.

The basic challenge in the solar group study is the current description which contradicts with the solar planets data …. Simply the solar group current description is unreal…! The planet doesn’t move by gravity, and no big bang is found in the universe origin..! Solar Planet motion can't be independent from other planets motions, on the contrary the planets motions work as gears motions, each planet causes the other planet to move! In fact it's hard to examine this situation… the solar group current description is created based on the direct observation, regardless any planet data… which creates approximately a pure imaginary description… This imaginary description is created also because of the basic definitions absence…(No definitions for …. distance, time, Energy, Force, Matter, Gravity, Light Nature, Field etc..). to see much we need to examine the eclipse phenomena Example For Explanation – Total Solar Eclipse Why the total solar eclipse is occurred? i.e. Why we see the sun disc= the moon disc? The answer is known.. because (Sun Diameter / Moon Diameter) = (Earth Orbital Distance / Earth Moon Distance) Why? …..Why the diameters rate = the distances rate? Is there a relationship between the planet diameter and his orbital distance? Or Planet orbital distance is defined by gravity …?! Let's try to answer 1st Critic / Mercury – Venus – Earth ….. these 3 planets order lead us to conclude that, there's some relationship between the planet diameter and his orbital distance With a clear rule "Greater Diameter needs Greater Orbital Distance" And/ There's a similar order (but reversed). Let's see it Jupiter – Saturn – Uranus – Neptune – Pluto The previous order tells us a reversed rule "Greater Diameter needs Shorter Orbital Distance" Something is occurred with Mars which caused the rule to be reversed after Mars! But/ Uranus Diameter is Greater Than Neptune Diameter, Where Neptune Mass is Greater Than Uranus… that tells us the solar planets order is done depending on the diameter and not on the mass! disproving the gravity concept! 2nd Critic/ If the planet moves by gravity, and defines his orbital distance by the gravitation equation, which depends on the masses, Why Jupiter Isn't In Place Of Mercury? According to the gravitation equation (m/r2)? The told answer is because of the initial points!! And why we accept the gravitation equation based on that if there's no any proof for it?! 3rd Critic/ More data may help to see much better - 1092x Mercury Diameter 4879 km= 57.9 mkm Mercury Orbital Distance -1092 x Earth Diameter 12756 km= 149.6 mkm (Earth Orbital distance) -1092 x Saturn diameter 120536 km= 1433.5 mkm (Saturn Orbital Distance) -1092 x Mars diameter 6792 = 80.5 mkm (Earth – Mars distance) (2.8%) Not all planets follow directly this same equation (D= R *1092, Where D= planet orbital distance R = Planet diameter) So it can't be considered a proof for the claim But I found the previous 3 critics are strong indications lead to the conclusions Conclusions/ 1-There's A Relationship Between The Planet Diameter And his Orbital Distance 2-Mars causes Disturbance For This Relationship The previous conclusions offer a new vision with different description… how the planet diameter can have a relationship with the orbital distance?! here we face the difficult question what's the space? I answer "the Space is Energy" and we know that the matter is energy (E=mc2)… so that may help to find a relationship between the diameter and orbital distance… Then the next question will be "what event has occurred for Mars?" but the next question will be more complex… if some event occurred with Mars in the history how can we know that? My solar group alternative description is: 1.The solar group is one trajectory of Energy, each planet is a point on this same Trajectory. 2.The same Energy is seen in space and matter forms This description we should discuss deeply in this paper … So this paper offer 2 main points 1st Part -This paper uses the planet eccentricity data to show that the planet motion and orbital distance can't be found by any gravity force…. the concept was imaginary… 2nd Part -I provide an alternative description for the solar group
Category: Astrophysics

[1962] viXra:1902.0461 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-26 11:18:38

Neutrinos in Clustering of Galaxies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

This new measurement constitutes an interesting confirmation of the standard cosmological model which links the production of neutrinos one second after the Big Bang to the clustering of galaxies billions of years later. [36] The history of the universe is predicated on the idea that, compared to today, the universe was hotter and more symmetric in its early phase. [35] The universe consists of a massive imbalance between matter and antimatter. [34]
Category: Astrophysics

[1961] viXra:1902.0440 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-25 07:54:00

X-ray Communicate in Space

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

This is where the concept of X-ray communications (XCOM) come into play, which offer even more in the way of advantages than lasers. For one, X-rays have much shorter wavelengths than both radio waves and lasers and can broadcast in tighter beams. [36] In a new study published Aug. 17 in Nature Communications, Nemsak, Fadley, Schneider and colleagues demonstrate the use of new techniques in X-ray spectroscopy to illuminate the internal structure of manganese-doped gallium arsenide. [35]
Category: Astrophysics

[1960] viXra:1902.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-25 08:07:46

X-ray Observations of Galactic Center

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Monitored in the radio since its discovery and more recently in the infrared and the X-ray, Sgr A* appears to be accreting material at a very low rate, only a few hundredths of an Earth-mass per year. [37] This is where the concept of X-ray communications (XCOM) come into play, which offer even more in the way of advantages than lasers. For one, X-rays have much shorter wavelengths than both radio waves and lasers and can broadcast in tighter beams. [36] In a new study published Aug. 17 in Nature Communications, Nemsak, Fadley, Schneider and colleagues demonstrate the use of new techniques in X-ray spectroscopy to illuminate the internal structure of manganese-doped gallium arsenide. [35]
Category: Astrophysics

[1959] viXra:1902.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-24 14:15:15

Technische Anwendungen Zur Umwandlung Der Rotationsenergie Der Erde in Elektrische Energie in Theorie Und Praxis Teil 13

Authors: Robert Stach
Comments: 12 Pages.

Aufgezeigt werden Möglichkeiten zur Umwandlung der Rotationsenergie der Erde in elektrische Energie. Die technischen Anlagen nutzen das Prinzip der Präzession. Unter Beibehaltung der Masse weichen dabei die Kreisel der Gravitationskraft aus. Während dieser Bewegung erhalten die Kreisel einen deutlichen Zuwachs an potenzieller Energie, ohne das dafür der Betrag der Gravitationskraft aufgebracht werden muss. Entsprechend dem Drehimpulserhaltungssatzes verkleinert sich dabei die Winkelgeschwindigkeit der Erdrotation und damit auch die Rotationsenergie der Erde. Die Rotationsenergie der Erde verringert sich somit durch eine technisch bedingte Wechselwirkung mit ihrem Erdschwerefeld. Begonnen wird mit den Anlagen der Ringheiligtümer, welche mit wahrscheinlich sehr großen und sehr langsam rotierenden Kreisel ausgestattet waren.
Category: Astrophysics

[1958] viXra:1902.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-23 04:36:07

Gravitational Wave Event

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

An international research team including astronomers from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has combined radio telescopes from five continents to prove the existence of a narrow stream of material, a so-called jet, emerging from the only gravitational wave event involving two neutron stars ever observed. [20] The improvement will see the twin observatories — located near Hanford, Washington and Livingston, Louisiana in the US – double their sensitivity to gravitational waves. [19]
Category: Astrophysics

[1957] viXra:1902.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-19 05:25:18

Comment on “Flat Rotation Curve Without Dark Matter: the Generalized Newton’s Law of Gravitation”

Authors: Mohamed E. Hassani
Comments: 4 Pages; 3 References.

In a relatively recent article by Arbab I. Arbab (Astrophys. Space Sci. 355, 343, 2015), the author claimed that the problem of flat rotation curve could be solved in the context of the so-called‘generalized Newton's law of gravitation’ without resorting to the dark matter. However, the present comment proves more conclusively that the proposed formulae and the calculations are physico-mathematically wrong. Consequently, the author's claim is mathematically and physically highly questionable.
Category: Astrophysics

[1956] viXra:1902.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-18 23:40:05

A Demonstration of the Titius–Bode Law and the Number of Saturn’s Rings by Newtonian Methods Using the Kerr-Newman Solution of the General Relativity Theory

Authors: Fumitaka Inuyama
Comments: 10 Pages.

The beautiful Titius–Bode law (ξ=0.4+0.3×2^n ) discovered 250 years ago, is considered to be a mathematical coincidence rather than an "exact" law, because it has not yet been proved physically. However, considering the disturbance reparation and stability of the asteroid belt orbit, there must be some underlying logical necessity. Planetary orbits are often computed by Newtonian mechanics calculating the kinetic energy and the universal gravitation energy. But applying the principle of energy-minimum to the Newtonian mechanics leads that the stable orbital radius is only one value, and this result disagrees perfectly with actual phenomena. The cause of this difference must be an extraction shortage of elements which rule over the planetary orbits. Other elements are the electric charge energy and the rotation energy which are guided by the Kerr-Newman solution discovered in 1965 of the general relativity theory. That is, I applied the principle of energy-minimum and Newtonian methods to the complicated energy equation which adopts mass, electric charge and rotation elements of the central core star as the Sun. Herewith, the Titius–Bode law is demonstrated mathematically and the number of Saturn’s rings, maximum 31 is calculated.
Category: Astrophysics

[1955] viXra:1902.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-19 00:08:35

A New Light Estimation of Dark Matter, Dark Energy and Ternary Space-Times, Based on the Special Theory of Relativity 

Authors: Fumitaka Inuyama
Comments: 9 Pages.

Published studies in the literature have stated that the mass of dark matter and the mass of dark energy are approximately five times and 14 times greater in mass, respectively, than ordinary substances such as atoms. However, the detection and thus proof of the existence of dark matter and dark energy have not been successfully realized to date. I believe that there are some fundamental problems that must be addressed and that universal space-time itself has its own hidden characteristics. In this work, I have estimated universal space-time based on the special theory of relativity i.e. the combined velocity and the increasing mass. Based on this estimate, it can be concluded that “ternary space-times” exist in the universe and that each of these space-times has its own specific light velocity.
Category: Astrophysics

[1954] viXra:1902.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-19 04:58:09

Particles Bombard Exoplanets

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

These particles are produced by stellar flares or by shock waves driven by magnetic events in the stellar corona. [36] Researchers have investigated wave-particle interactions between energetic electrons and chorus waves evolving in the space surrounding the Earth using the scientific satellite Arase and, simultaneously, transient auroral flashes by the ground-based global observation network. [35]
Category: Astrophysics

[1953] viXra:1902.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-17 12:15:55

Low Hanging Fruit: Flat Earth vs. Stellar Metamorphosis vs. Establishment Dogma's Forming Mars in Zero Time

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 4 Pages.

A few ideas are brought to light showing how different flat Earth theory is compared to stellar metamorphosis. The author then extends the difference and explains that flat Earth theory is similar to the nebular hypothesis, and both are juxtaposed to stellar metamorphosis. The purpose of this paper is not to make fun of or ridicule flat Earth believers, it is simply to show how different it is from stellar metamorphosis. What will be found is that the same mental persistence in believing Earth to be flat by flat Earthers is present in establishment dogma's belief that stars and planets are mutually exclusive constructs, and is based off a perceptual issue of time. It is important to note that both establishment dogma and flat Earthers ignore evidence that contradicts their worldview due to problems of spatial awareness tied with ego and time comprehension tied with ego. In essence the people who believe stars to be mutually exclusive of planets are the new "Flat Earthers", but for a different vector of spatial reasoning, the one involving the comprehension and understanding of deep time.
Category: Astrophysics

[1952] viXra:1902.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-16 06:41:57

Gravitational Wave Daily Detection

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

The improvement will see the twin observatories — located near Hanford, Washington and Livingston, Louisiana in the US – double their sensitivity to gravitational waves. [19] A group of scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) at the University of Copenhagen will soon start developing a new line of technical equipment in order to dramatically improve gravitational wave detectors. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17]
Category: Astrophysics

[1951] viXra:1902.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-16 09:34:13

Why The Solar Planet Motion Trajectory is An Ellipse?(revised)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 13 Pages.

Why The Solar Planet Motion Trajectory is An Ellipse?(revised) The paper provides a heavy claim…let's summarize its idea as clear as possible: -The ellipse trajectory of Planet motion is produced by interaction of 2 forms of motions trajectory square and circular..! i.e. -Ellipse Trajectory = Square trajectory + Circular trajectory What does that mean? -The planet motion real trajectory is a square! -This square we should see as circular because of Earth motion! -The interaction between these 2 forms produces the ellipse (Kepler 1st Law is correct) But -If the direct observation shows the trajectory as an ellipse!, based on what I claim about the square form?! To see clearly as possible we have to answer 3 questions: 1-Why the planet motion trajectory is A Square? 2-Why we see the square trajectory as Circular One? 3-Why these 2 forms get interaction? Why the final trajectory isn't square or circular? Let's start with question No.2 Why we see the square trajectory as Circular One? The answer is so simple, we may remember the rock which Einstein have left to drop from the train… where Einstein saw the rock motion trajectory as straight line but the people on platform saw the rock motion trajectory as a curved trajectory… So Why the square is seen as circular? Because of Earth Motion Is this a sufficient answer? Of course Not! Why? Because of Earth motion velocity! What's Earth velocity? To see clearly as possible we need to discuss our old question…. How the matter is created? The classical vision tells the matter is found regardless any other factor! Is it true..? I have another vision to define the matter existence…. Let's summarize it: 1-The human mind contains electromagnetic waves (travel by c velocity) 2-I suppose The Realization Process in human mind depends on c velocity 3-Special Theory of Relativity tells us, if 2 observers travel with the same velocity (Even if both travel by light velocity, No difference in velocity is found), for that each of both will see the other as matter (particle) - but if there's a difference in velocity between 2 observers = light velocity, so each of them will see the other as light beam (wave) 4-In Young Experiment (Double Slit Experiment), the light coherence produces bright fringes and dark fringes 5-I claim that, the solar group is created by a coherence of 2 light beams 6-We see The Bright Fringes as Matters (because our mind realization process works by the light velocity by which bright fringes travel) (That's why we have body… our bodies are made of bright fringes but we see them as matters) 7-We see the dark fringes as distances or space (that's why the space is Energy)…………etc
Category: Astrophysics

[1950] viXra:1902.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-14 07:38:50

Merging Neutron Stars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

The opportunity to measure the gravitational waves of two merging neutron stars could offer answers to some of the fundamental questions about the structure of matter. [42] Experiments in astrophysics and nuclear and particle physics are crucial to analyse how the universe works. [41] A team of researchers at the University of Chicago has developed a circuit platform for the exploration of quantum matter made of strongly interacting microwave photons. [40]
Category: Astrophysics

[1949] viXra:1902.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-14 08:24:29

What is a Black Hole?

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

Physically, a black hole is defined by the presence of a singularity, i.e., a region of space, bounded by an 'event horizon', within which the mass/energy density becomes infinite, and the normally well-behaved laws of physics no longer apply. [33] While current gravitational wave observations aren't yet sensitive enough to observe the effect, this will certainly become an important target of future experiments. [32] One of the most cataclysmic events to occur in the cosmos involves the collision of two black holes. [31]
Category: Astrophysics

[1948] viXra:1902.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-14 16:59:49

Why The Solar Planet Motion Trajectory is An Ellipse?

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 12 Pages.

Why The Solar Planet Motion Trajectory is An Ellipse? 1-Solar planet motion real trajectory is a square 2-This square trajectory is seen by us as circular trajectory 3-The 2 forms of trajectories (square and circular) get interaction together and produce the ellipse as the planet motion final trajectory. 4-The square and circular trajectories interaction is done by Uranus and Neptune effects… 5-Saturn is the main player in the solar group geometry 6-Planet Eccentricity supports this claim
Category: Astrophysics

[1947] viXra:1902.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-13 07:40:30

Mapping Historical Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

A team led by the Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe constructed a map of dark matter throughout the history of the universe by analysing images of more than ten million galaxies. [32] Key components for the sky-mapping Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), weighing about 12 tons, were hoisted atop the Mayall Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) near Tucson, Arizona, and bolted into place Wednesday, marking a major project milestone. [31]
Category: Astrophysics

[1946] viXra:1902.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-13 08:54:51

Solar Planet Data Geometrical Concepts Disproves the Current Theory

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 14 Pages.

I claim that, the Solar group current theory and description are incorrect completely And contradict directly with the solar planet data geometrical meanings… let's discuss one example only for explanation… Example No.1 How the planet orbital distance is defined? How does the planet move? By gravity… The gravitation equation defines the planet orbital distance… ! Let's examine this answer 1st critic / Mercury – Venus – Earth ….. these 3 planets order lead us to conclude that, there's some relationship between the planet diameter and his orbital distance With a clear rule "Greater Diameter needs Greater Orbital Distance" The current theory tells us this is pure coincidences! But There's similar order (but reversed). Let's see that Jupiter – Saturn – Uranus – Neptune – Pluto The previous order tells us a reversed rule "Greater Diameter needs Shorter Orbital Distance" Something is occurred with Mars which caused the rule to be reversed after Mars! The current theory still consider this second order also as "pure Coincidences" But Uranus Diameter is greater than Neptune Diameter, where Neptune Mass is greater than Uranus… that tells us the solar planets order is done depending on the diameter and not on the mass! disproving the gravity concept …! This critic also is "pure coincidences", the current theory still insists … 2nd Critic/ If the planet moves by gravity, and defines his orbital distance by the gravitation equation, which depends on the masses, why Jupiter isn't in place of Mercury? Why the greatest Mass has no shortest orbital distance? According to the gravitation equation (m/r2)? The told answer is because of the initial points!! And why we accept the gravitation equation based on that if there's no any proof for it?! For myself I try to understand and don't believe deeply the current theory So the conclusions are clear before my eyes 1-There's A Relationship Between The Planet Diameter And His Orbital Distance 2-Mars causes Disturbance For This Relationship In this paper I provide many similar points which disprove clearly the current theory and push us to find more sufficient theory to explain the solar group origin and motion.
Category: Astrophysics

[1945] viXra:1902.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-11 09:35:34

Development of the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

The history of the universe is predicated on the idea that, compared to today, the universe was hotter and more symmetric in its early phase. [35] The universe consists of a massive imbalance between matter and antimatter. [34] Our universe could be the mirror image of an antimatter universe extending backwards in time before the Big Bang. [33]
Category: Astrophysics

[1944] viXra:1902.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-10 14:23:48

Some Pieces to the Great Red Spot on Jupiter Puzzle

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 5 Pages.

This is a proposed reason there are red storms on Jupiter, with a few other ideas. The nitrogen and oxygen available in Jupiter's atmosphere, inside of ammonium hydrosulfide [(NH4)HS] and water (H2O) interact with UVB and UVC light. The high energy photons from UV light could break them down into their elemental forms, which can then recombine with each other forming dinitrogen tetroxide N2O4 a colorless gas, and a host of other compounds and molecules. For this paper though, I will focus on the Giant Red Spot maintaining equilibrium by converting N2O4 to NO2 and back to N2O4 again. This also provides a reason why hydrogen is lost in huge amounts, as more electronegative elements nitrogen and oxygen, begin dominating and forming more complex compounds.
Category: Astrophysics

[1943] viXra:1902.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-07 10:36:10

New Particles using Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

While current gravitational wave observations aren't yet sensitive enough to observe the effect, this will certainly become an important target of future experiments. [32] One of the most cataclysmic events to occur in the cosmos involves the collision of two black holes. [31] Black holes are known for their voracious appetites, binging on matter with such ferocity that not even light can escape once it's swallowed up. [30] During the formation of a black hole, a bright burst of very energetic light in the form of gamma rays is produced, these events are called gamma ray bursts. [29]
Category: Astrophysics

[1942] viXra:1902.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-06 06:53:06

Wave-Plasma Surrounding the Earth

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

Researchers have investigated wave-particle interactions between energetic electrons and chorus waves evolving in the space surrounding the Earth using the scientific satellite Arase and, simultaneously, transient auroral flashes by the ground-based global observation network. [35] The universe consists of a massive imbalance between matter and antimatter. [34] Our universe could be the mirror image of an antimatter universe extending backwards in time before the Big Bang. [33] "As you celebrate New Year's Day, cast an eye upward and think for a moment about the amazing things our country and our species can do when we set our minds to it," Stern wrote in the New York Times on Monday. [32]
Category: Astrophysics

[1941] viXra:1902.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-06 07:16:51

Formation Mechanism of Stars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

A novel experiment at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) has demonstrated the validity of a widespread theory known as "magnetorotational instability," or MRI, that seeks to explain the formation of heavenly bodies. [36] Researchers have investigated wave-particle interactions between energetic electrons and chorus waves evolving in the space surrounding the Earth using the scientific satellite Arase and, simultaneously, transient auroral flashes by the ground-based global observation network. [35]
Category: Astrophysics

[1940] viXra:1902.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-05 18:06:36

The Relativistic Effects Reason

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 3 Pages.

This paper discusses one conclusion only which is: All Matters and Materials around us are light beams we see as matters and materials because of the human mind realization process.
Category: Astrophysics

[1939] viXra:1902.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-04 23:23:55

Gravity

Authors: Sergey Bilyk
Comments: 95 Pages.

This article considers mechanics of gravity based on the Theory of Everything.
Category: Astrophysics

[1938] viXra:1902.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-04 08:16:20

Universe Composed of Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

The universe consists of a massive imbalance between matter and antimatter. [34] Our universe could be the mirror image of an antimatter universe extending backwards in time before the Big Bang. [33] "As you celebrate New Year's Day, cast an eye upward and think for a moment about the amazing things our country and our species can do when we set our minds to it," Stern wrote in the New York Times on Monday. [32] Our senses are stuck in the past. There's a flash of lightning, and then seconds pass until we hear the rumble of distant thunder. We hear the past. [31]
Category: Astrophysics

[1937] viXra:1902.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-03 16:06:07

Star System Polymetamorphism

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 7 Pages. added some stuff on molecular dynamics, and TESS Sector 7 observations

All star systems are polymetamorphic/polymetamorphous. This means they contain stars in various stages to their own metamorphosis. Stars of all kinds orbit each other. Since they are all in different stages to their own metamorphosis, they are poly (many) meta (after) morphous/morphic (having a specified shape or form). A short list of differences between stars in our system and others is provided. As well, a short example concerning planet formation coupled with the field of molecular dynamics is provided. It is clear, planet formation (stellar evolution) is the most complex process in the universe, and stellar metamorphosis is the theory we will use to explain it, because it is the only theory that combines all the sciences together into one.
Category: Astrophysics

[1936] viXra:1902.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-03 07:13:36

Astrons Within 20ly_printable Version

Authors: Daniel Archer
Comments: 2 Pages. addendum to main paper: Stellar Metamorphosis: Classification of astrons within 20 light years

Classification of astrons within 20 light years
Category: Astrophysics

[1935] viXra:1902.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-03 07:16:02

Stellar Metamorphosis: Classification of Astrons Within 20 Light Years

Authors: Daniel Archer
Comments: 5 Pages. there is an addendum: astrons within 20ly_printable version

The observed stars and planets (astrons) within 20 light years of our solar system are classified according to Stellar Metamorphosis. After the table some notes are provided on certain classifications and explanations on why certain choices were made.
Category: Astrophysics

[1934] viXra:1902.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-03 10:26:05

Gerges Francis Tawdrous (Curriculum Vitae)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 11 Pages.

The Curriculum Vitae of Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Category: Astrophysics

[1933] viXra:1902.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-02 11:30:49

Dark Matter is not ‘invisible’, is not ‘transparent’ Matter

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 297 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

“Dark Matter is not ‘invisible’, is not ‘transparent’ Matter.” Adrian Ferent “Light will not cross Dark Matter because the Gravitons from Dark Matter will transform light in Dark Matter.” Adrian Ferent “Light will not cross Dark Matter because Dark Matter density is higher than Planck density.” Adrian Ferent You learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists…that Dark Matter is ‘invisible’, is ‘transparent’ Matter. “What you learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists… about Dark Matter is wrong” Adrian Ferent You learned that Dark Matter is some form of material that does not emits, reflects, absorbs light. This means the light goes trough Dark Matter because light does not interact with Dark Matter. The wrong picture where Matter only accounts for 4.9 percent of our universe; another 26.8 percent is constituted of Dark Matter and 68.3 percent is constituted of Dark Energy. The scientists thought because there is 5 times more Dark Matter than Matter, because they did not detect Dark Matter which does not interact with light, the scientists have come to the conclusion that Dark Matter is ‘invisible’, is ‘transparent’ Matter. When you look at the sky and you do not see Dark Matter, this means it is ‘invisible’, is ‘transparent’! Here are 2 examples, Lisa Randall professor from Harvard university and Dan Bauer physicist from Fermilab, of what the professors, the scientists think about Dark Matter: they think that Dark Matter is ‘invisible’, is ‘transparent’ Matter! Lisa Randall professor from Harvard university, on New Ideas About Dark Matter: Dan Bauer physicist from Fermilab, on what is Dark Matter: Visible light is usually defined as having the wavelength around 5 × 10^(-7) m. I calculated the mass of Dark Matter, a sphere with the diameter of 2 wavelengths: The sphere volume: V= 4πr^3 / 3 V= 5.2 × 10^(-19) m^3 In Ferent Quantum Gravity, FQG, Dark Matter with this volume has a density higher than Planck density! The density of Dark Matter is higher than Planck density = 5.2 × 10^96 kg/m^3 I consider the Dark Matter density for this volume 5.2 × 10^99 kg/m^3, much smaller than Ferent density. The Dark Matter mass: M = 27 × 10^80 kg This is a huge mass, because Dark Matter has another structure, based on Ferent length much smaller than Planck length. Light will not cross Dark Matter with the volume V and the mass M. Light will not cross Dark Matter with the volume V because the Gravitons from Dark Matter will transform light in Dark Matter. “Light will not cross Dark Matter because the Gravitons from Dark Matter will transform light in Dark Matter.” Adrian Ferent “Light will not cross Dark Matter because Dark Matter density is higher than Planck density.” Adrian Ferent This means: “Dark Matter is not ‘invisible’, is not ‘transparent’ Matter.” Adrian Ferent “Your professors, the researchers, the greatest scientists…did not understand Gravitation and Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Ferent equation of the Universe, made of Matter and Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent 170. I am the first who calculated Dark Matter mass with the volume V 171. I am the first who discovered that Dark Matter is not ‘invisible’, is not ‘transparent’ Matter 172. I am the first who discovered that light will not cross Dark Matter because the Gravitons from Dark Matter will transform light in Dark Matter 173. I am the first who discovered that light will not cross Dark Matter because Dark Matter density is higher than Planck density
Category: Astrophysics

[1932] viXra:1902.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-02 13:34:59

The Locations of K2-33 and K2-33b on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram, and V 391 Pegasi b: The "Red Giant" Survivor

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 5 Pages. a few illustrations included

Dogma has K2-33 and K2-33b the same age, ~9.3 million years old. It is clear they are vastly different ages, as the host is a voluminous red dwarf and its companion a many hundred million year old grey dwarf. Both are placed on the WT diagram to show the public and the scientific community at large that the dogma is off by two magnitudes concerning the age of K2-33b, the grey dwarf in question and off by over one magnitude with K2-33. As well, V 391 Pegasi b is shown to exist with or without a red giant needing to exist in any state.
Category: Astrophysics

[1931] viXra:1901.0422 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-28 09:27:55

Life Is Found On Earth Only (Claim)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 9 Pages.

Life Is Found On Earth Only (Claim) -The Solar Planet Orbital Period is found based on geometrical reason. -The Sun circles Earth during 365.25 days giving one Face always to the Earth which is The Life Reason On Earth -the Life chance on Earth is found by a mentioned process based on the solar group geometrical structure and not found by any random process….
Category: Astrophysics

[1930] viXra:1901.0417 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-27 14:17:40

Stellar Metamorphosis: The Location of Subdwarf B and O Stars on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 diagram

Subdwarf B and O stars are placed on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram. They are intermediate white dwarfs which are expanding/contracting at regular rates giving the impression that they are pulsing, all the way until they fully expand into O star stages. From then, they will begin cooling and contracting slowly, losing mass and energy becoming the much more highly evolved brown dwarfs, and then to the objects called "planet".
Category: Astrophysics

[1929] viXra:1901.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-25 14:35:20

Is the 2737 Phenomenon a Real One?

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 43 Pages.

Is the 2737 Phenomenon a real one? 1-The Cycle 2737 years is a real one 2-The Cycle 2737 years refers to the sun inner main changes 3-The Sun energy depends on the solar planets motions energies accumulation (and doesn't depend on any nuclear interactions occurring inside the sun) i.e. the solar planets motions mechanical waves (Energy) are transferred into light waves (Energy= sun rays) 4-Solar planet motion energy is accumulated daily and technically by lorentz length contraction effect, where solar planet motion is a relativistic one. 5-Solar planet motion energy is concentrated inside the space regularly and technically by lorentz length contraction phenomenon, where the space stores Energy with different densities. 6-Solar Planets Motions Energies Total Produces The Sun Rays 7-The moon daily motion shows the lorentz contraction effects in the solar group, i.e. the Lorentz contraction effects are found daily and that means the planet usual daily motion causes lorentz effects which causes the Space stored energy to be concentrated..
Category: Astrophysics

[1928] viXra:1901.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-26 03:22:36

Hawking Radiation in Laboratory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Researchers at Weizmann Institute of Science and Cinvestav recently carried out a study testing the theory of Hawking radiation on laboratory analogues of black holes. [32] One of the most cataclysmic events to occur in the cosmos involves the collision of two black holes. [31] Black holes are known for their voracious appetites, binging on matter with such ferocity that not even light can escape once it's swallowed up. [30] During the formation of a black hole, a bright burst of very energetic light in the form of gamma rays is produced, these events are called gamma ray bursts. [29] A new Tel Aviv University-led study published today in Nature Astronomy finds that some supermassive black holes are triggered to grow, suddenly devouring a large amount of gas in their surroundings. [28]
Category: Astrophysics

[1927] viXra:1901.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-25 05:03:36

Supercomputers and AI of Black Hole Mergers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

One of the most cataclysmic events to occur in the cosmos involves the collision of two black holes. [31] Black holes are known for their voracious appetites, binging on matter with such ferocity that not even light can escape once it's swallowed up. [30] During the formation of a black hole, a bright burst of very energetic light in the form of gamma rays is produced, these events are called gamma ray bursts. [29] A new Tel Aviv University-led study published today in Nature Astronomy finds that some supermassive black holes are triggered to grow, suddenly devouring a large amount of gas in their surroundings. [28] Needless to say, we do not have the capability of performing real experiments in or near black holes yet, so scientists resort to theory and simulations to develop an understanding, by making predictions and new discoveries. [27]
Category: Astrophysics

[1926] viXra:1901.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-25 03:42:33

Insight into Universe's Origins

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 83 Pages.

Using simulations and calculations, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) nuclear scientists for the first time have accurately predicted the properties of polarized thermonuclear fusion. [45] Quark-gluon plasma (QGP) is the name for this mysterious substance so called because it was made up of quarks—the fundamental particles—and gluons, which physicist Rosi J. Reed describes as "what quarks use to talk to each other." [44] Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, and their colleagues from the international ALICE collaboration recently collided xenon nuclei, in order to gain new insights into the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (the QGP) – the matter that the universe consisted of up to a microsecond after the Big Bang. [43]
Category: Astrophysics

[1925] viXra:1901.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-25 04:12:35

Escape a Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Black holes are known for their voracious appetites, binging on matter with such ferocity that not even light can escape once it's swallowed up. [30] During the formation of a black hole, a bright burst of very energetic light in the form of gamma rays is produced, these events are called gamma ray bursts. [29] A new Tel Aviv University-led study published today in Nature Astronomy finds that some supermassive black holes are triggered to grow, suddenly devouring a large amount of gas in their surroundings. [28] Needless to say, we do not have the capability of performing real experiments in or near black holes yet, so scientists resort to theory and simulations to develop an understanding, by making predictions and new discoveries. [27]
Category: Astrophysics

[1924] viXra:1901.0355 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-24 07:29:08

Would-be Evidence of Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Almost 20 years ago, the DAMA/LIBRA experiment at Italy's Gran Sasso National Laboratory—LNGS began publishing data showing that it had detected a signal modulation produced by an interaction with the Milky Way's dark matter halo. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25]
Category: Astrophysics

[1923] viXra:1901.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-22 09:35:50

Stellar Metamorphosis: Comment on Thousands Of Stars Turning Into Crystals

Authors: Daniel Archer
Comments: 5 Pages.

I make some comments on a recent news article about white dwarfs turning into crystals and what it may mean in Stellar Metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[1922] viXra:1901.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-21 00:07:36

Dark Matter Mass of Milky Way Galaxy is Less Than Planet Neptune Mass

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 292 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

“In Ferent Quantum Gravity theory Dark Matter mass of Milky Way galaxy is less than planet Neptune mass.” Adrian Ferent “Because Dark Matter mass of Milky Way galaxy is less than planet Neptune mass, Dark Matter was not detected” Adrian Ferent “Your professors, the researchers, the greatest scientists…did not understand Gravitation and Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “In Ferent Quantum Gravity theory the gravitational field created by Dark Matter collapsed the gas and dust within a region and the Sun was formed.” Adrian Ferent “What you learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists… about how Stars and Planets were formed is wrong” Adrian Ferent “I am the first who calculated Dark Matter mass of Milky Way galaxy” Adrian Ferent “Dark Matter with the mass of planet Neptune, has a stronger Gravitational field than the Milky Way galaxy” Adrian Ferent “I discovered the Dark Photons much Faster Than Light (FTL)” Adrian Ferent “What you learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists… about Dark Matter is wrong” Adrian Ferent “Dark Matter in Milky Way galaxy has very small mass, less than the mass of planet Neptune, not five times the Milky Way galaxy mass, how you learned from your professors.” Adrian Ferent Where is Dark Matter? “Black Holes are Ferent Matter” Adrian Ferent “Dark Matter is in the core of stars and planets” Adrian Ferent “The elementary particles contain Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Because the elementary particles contain Dark Matter with the mass much smaller than particles mass, Dark Matter is not detected at CERN” Adrian Ferent “Ferent equation for elementary particle, made of 2 particles, a Matter particle and a Dark Matter particle, is the Unification between Matter and Dark Matter!” Adrian Ferent You learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists…that formation of the Sun was triggered by shockwaves from one or more nearby supernovae, or by waves of energy traveling through space pressed clouds of such particles closer together! “In Ferent Quantum Gravity theory the gravitational field created by Dark Matter collapsed the gas and dust within a region and the Sun was formed.” Adrian Ferent “What you learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists… about how the Stars and Planets were formed is wrong” Adrian Ferent How much Dark Matter do stars and planets contain? “Stars and planets contain Dark Matter in proportion to their mass” Adrian Ferent “I am the first who calculated the mass and the energy of a Black Hole” Adrian Ferent “Everything what you learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists…about Dark Matter and Black Holes is wrong” Adrian Ferent “Ferent Quantum Gravity theory explains that Supermassive Black Holes have very small mass, because the Gravitons inside the Supermassive Black Holes have high energy” Adrian Ferent Where md is the Dark Matter mass and vp is the Dark Photons speed. “The speed of Dark Photons is vp = 1.001762 × 10^17 m/s” Adrian Ferent Ferent Quantum Gravity theory explains: “The Gravitons and the Dark Photons are faster than light” Adrian Ferent “Black Holes are Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent The mass of supermassive Black Hole from the center of our galaxy is 7.3 × 10^19 kg, much smaller than the Moon mass. “I am the first who calculated the mass and the energy of a Black Hole” Adrian Ferent “Physics is much more complicated than you learned, with Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent This is another proof that Ferent Quantum Gravity theory is right and Einstein Gravitation theory, String theory, LQG… are wrong theories. Ferent Quantum Gravity theory explains why we were not able to detect Dark Matter in the Milky Way galaxy, in our own Solar system. “In Ferent Quantum Gravity theory Dark Matter mass of Milky Way galaxy is less than planet Neptune mass.” Adrian Ferent “What you learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists… about Dark Matter is wrong” Adrian Ferent What is Dark Energy in Ferent Quantum Gravity theory? “Dark Energy is Gravitational Waves” Adrian Ferent “Dark Energy is Gravitons” Adrian Ferent Only in USA student debt reached 1.52 trillion dollars. The students pay a lot of money to universities, to learn from professors wrong theories like Einstein’s wrong gravitation theory, wrong theories about Dark Matter, Dark Energy, Black Holes, Elementary particles, wrong theories about Evolution, Mind, Consciousness… 163. I am the first who discovered that Dark Matter mass of Milky Way galaxy is less than planet Neptune mass 164. I am the first who discovered that because Dark Matter mass of Milky Way galaxy is less than planet Neptune mass, Dark Matter was not detected 165. I am the first who calculated Dark Matter mass of Milky Way galaxy 166. I am the first who discovered that the Dark Matter with the mass of planet Neptune, has a stronger Gravitational field than the Milky Way galaxy 167. I am the first who discovered how the Sun was formed: In Ferent Quantum Gravity theory the gravitational field created by Dark Matter collapsed the gas and dust within a region and the Sun was formed 168. I am the first who discovered the Dark Photons much Faster Than Light (FTL) 169. I am the first who discovered that what you learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists… about how the Stars and Planets were formed is wrong
Category: Astrophysics

[1921] viXra:1901.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-19 14:53:31

The MOND Limit of the Inverse Square Law

Authors: Kurt L. Becker
Comments: 8 Pages. This paper attempts to give a theoretical foundation for the MOND equations.

Abstract This paper attempts to give a theoretical foundation for the Modified Newtonian Dynamics equations developed by M. Milgrom Ref.1. It will show that there is a cross sectional limit, below which 1/r2 asymptotically changes to 1/r. When the cross section of a distant star falls below the cross section of a particle transmitting the gravitational force, such as a graviton, as viewed from a baryon, such as a proton, then the inverse square law is no longer valid. Gravitational attraction then depends on the distance travelled by the particle and will result in the force of gravity varying as 1/r. It is only the relative geometries which limit the inverse square law. The sizes of the suns and particles involved will only result in different limits and will not change the basic outcome of 1/r.
Category: Astrophysics

[1920] viXra:1901.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-20 11:35:10

Waves in Saturn's Rings

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 72 Pages.

Saturn's distinctive rings were observed in unprecedented detail by NASA's Cassini spacecraft, and scientists have now used those observations to probe the interior of the giant planet and obtain the first precise determination of its rotation rate. [40] Down a hallway in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), scientists study the workings of a machine in a room stuffed with wires and metal components. [39] Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are among the most dramatic and interesting phenomena in extragalactic astronomy. [38]
Category: Astrophysics

[1919] viXra:1901.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-19 07:56:10

Optical Analogue of a Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Stephen Hawking liked to claim that, if his most famous prediction had been verified experimentally, he would have won a Nobel prize. [23] With the newfound ability to recreate these structures in the lab, earth-based scientists finally have a way to study some of the possible scenarios that might have taken place in the early universe more closely. [22] "We studied two systems: a Bose-Einstein condensate with 100,000 atoms confined in a cavity and an optomechanical cavity that confines light between two mirrors," Gabriel Teixeira Landi, a professor at the University of São Paulo's Physics Institute (IF-USP), told. [21] Search engine entropy is thus important not only for the efficiency of search engines and those using them to find relevant information as well as to the success of the companies and other bodies running such systems, but also to those who run websites hoping to be found and visited following a search. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[1918] viXra:1901.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-18 10:43:00

Extrapolation to a New Solar System Model

Authors: Ivovanderrijt
Comments: 1 Page.

Learning people to extrapolate ideas in astro.
Category: Astrophysics

[1917] viXra:1901.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-17 23:03:59

Cosmological Redshift

Authors: Akovantsev Peter Ivanovich
Comments: 4 Pages.

The article describes the relationship of the cosmological redshift with the temperature of radiation distribution medium. The Fraunhofer absorption lines of a certain frequency are superimposed on the continuous spectrum of distant galaxy visible radiation by a hydrogen-distribution medium. These lines are shifted to the long-wave side, which indicates the change of hydrogen properties as a propagation medium, and not the properties of radiation itself (wavelength change), and these changes are associated primarily with temperature. And this, in its turn, suggests that the Universe is heated during its evolutionary development.
Category: Astrophysics

[1916] viXra:1901.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-18 03:10:27

Космологическое красное смещение. Объяснение.

Authors: Акованцев Пётр Иванович
Comments: 5 Pages.

В статье изложена связь космологического красного смещения с температурой среды распространения излучения. На сплошной спектр видимого излучения далёких галактик накладываются фраунгоферовы линии поглощения определённой частоты водородом-средой распространения. Эти линии смещаются в длинноволновую сторону, что говорит об изменении свойств водорода, как среды распространения, а не свойств самого излучения (изменении длины волны) и связаны эти изменения, прежде всего с температурой. А это, в свою очередь говорит о том, что Вселенная в своём эволюционном развитии нагревается.
Category: Astrophysics

[1915] viXra:1901.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-17 07:52:42

Disproof of the Accretion Model

Authors: Ivovanderrijt
Comments: 1 Page.

Small paper on a very old redundant model.
Category: Astrophysics

[1914] viXra:1901.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-16 16:19:45

Nuclear Decay Rate Oscillations and a Gravity-Quantum Connection

Authors: Robert T. Longo
Comments: 19 Pages.

This paper construct a model to evaluate the hypothesis that the in- compatibility between General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics is due to the different space-time geometries upon which each respective theory was built. The model is then applied to an unexplained phenomena observed in the decay rate of unstable nuclei, whose decay rate has superimposed on them oscillations that match the yearly cycle of the Earth’s orbit. The gravity-quantum connection model will show that gravitation is likely the ”unknown field” responsible for the nu- clear decay oscillations.
Category: Astrophysics

[1913] viXra:1901.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-16 08:19:44

Quantum Structures in Early Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

With the newfound ability to recreate these structures in the lab, earth-based scientists finally have a way to study some of the possible scenarios that might have taken place in the early universe more closely. [22] "We studied two systems: a Bose-Einstein condensate with 100,000 atoms confined in a cavity and an optomechanical cavity that confines light between two mirrors," Gabriel Teixeira Landi, a professor at the University of São Paulo's Physics Institute (IF-USP), told. [21] Search engine entropy is thus important not only for the efficiency of search engines and those using them to find relevant information as well as to the success of the companies and other bodies running such systems, but also to those who run websites hoping to be found and visited following a search. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[1912] viXra:1901.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-15 00:56:18

Supermassive Black Holes are Fed

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

A new Tel Aviv University-led study published today in Nature Astronomy finds that some supermassive black holes are triggered to grow, suddenly devouring a large amount of gas in their surroundings. [28] Needless to say, we do not have the capability of performing real experiments in or near black holes yet, so scientists resort to theory and simulations to develop an understanding, by making predictions and new discoveries. [27] Our first glimpses into the physics that exist near the center of a black hole are being made possible using "loop quantum gravity"—a theory that uses quantum mechanics to extend gravitational physics beyond Einstein's theory of general relativity. [26]
Category: Astrophysics

[1911] viXra:1901.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-15 01:44:30

Chaos of Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

During the formation of a black hole, a bright burst of very energetic light in the form of gamma rays is produced, these events are called gamma ray bursts. [29] A new Tel Aviv University-led study published today in Nature Astronomy finds that some supermassive black holes are triggered to grow, suddenly devouring a large amount of gas in their surroundings. [28] Needless to say, we do not have the capability of performing real experiments in or near black holes yet, so scientists resort to theory and simulations to develop an understanding, by making predictions and new discoveries. [27]
Category: Astrophysics

[1910] viXra:1901.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-14 07:12:50

Formation of Planets and Stars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 70 Pages.

Down a hallway in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), scientists study the workings of a machine in a room stuffed with wires and metal components. [39] Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are among the most dramatic and interesting phenomena in extragalactic astronomy. [38] A new study conducted by a team of astronomers from Poland and South Africa provides more insights into the nature of Hen 3-160, a symbiotic binary system in the southern Milky Way. [37]
Category: Astrophysics

[1909] viXra:1901.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-14 08:44:42

Mysterious Liquid Became All Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 82 Pages.

Quark-gluon plasma (QGP) is the name for this mysterious substance so called because it was made up of quarks—the fundamental particles—and gluons, which physicist Rosi J. Reed describes as "what quarks use to talk to each other." [44] Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, and their colleagues from the international ALICE collaboration recently collided xenon nuclei, in order to gain new insights into the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (the QGP) – the matter that the universe consisted of up to a microsecond after the Big Bang. [43]
Category: Astrophysics

[1908] viXra:1901.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-14 04:02:20

Deviation of a Ray of Light in a Gravitational Field.

Authors: Kirov
Comments: 7 Pages.

Fixed Zoldner calculation for deflection of a ray of light in a gravitational field. The result corresponds to the observed. Given a short method of calculation.
Category: Astrophysics

[1907] viXra:1901.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-11 16:38:57

Technische Anwendungen Zur Umwandlung Der Rotationsenergie Der Erde in Elektrische Energie in Theorie Und Praxis Teil 11

Authors: Robert Stach
Comments: 22 Pages.

Aufgezeigt werden Möglichkeiten zur Umwandlung der Rotationsenergie der Erde in elektrische Energie. Neben einem geschichtlichen Exkurs erfolgt die detaillierte Beschreibung der Anlagen. Es erfolgen Berechnungen zur Winkelgeschwindigkeit und Leistung der Präzessionsbewegung sowohl für Kreisel mit fortlaufend horizontal kippender Achse, als auch für Kreisel mit einer fortlaufend horizontalen Achsverschiebung. Erklärt wird auch die resultierende Bewegungsänderung eines Kreisels bei nur einem wirkenden Impuls.
Category: Astrophysics

[1906] viXra:1901.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-11 17:06:30

Vacuum Energy Theory

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 37 Pages.

Vacuum Energy Theory Basics: -Vacuum stores Energy (Space is Energy) -Vacuum stores Energy with different capacities (Space has different densities of Energy). -Vacuum with higher storing Capacity (Space with higher density of Energy) goes to upper location vertically relating to other Space Layers (as shown in the figure). -The solar group has 9 Space layers (Mercury Level is the highest Layer vertically) -Each Space Layer has different density of Energy (different Capacity) -Each Space layer stores Energy….from this Energy the planet matter is created and the layer rest Energy is used as potential energy which will transferred into Kinetic Energy to be used for this planet motion. -The relativistic effects (specifically Lorentz length contraction) leads to increase the Vacuum storing capacity of Energy (i.e. increase the Space density of Energy) -The Previous description explains why the solar group motions trajectory is in a pyramid form. -The solar group original Energy is provided by the Earth
Category: Astrophysics

[1905] viXra:1901.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-09 09:26:11

Black Holes for Hyperspace Travel

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Needless to say, we do not have the capability of performing real experiments in or near black holes yet, so scientists resort to theory and simulations to develop an understanding, by making predictions and new discoveries. [27] Our first glimpses into the physics that exist near the center of a black hole are being made possible using "loop quantum gravity"—a theory that uses quantum mechanics to extend gravitational physics beyond Einstein's theory of general relativity. [26] In the shadowy regions of black holes two fundamental theories describing our world collide. Can these problems be resolved and do black holes really exist? First, we may have to see one and scientists are trying to do just this. [25] The authors suggest that this virtual reality simulation could be useful for studying black holes. [24] Every galaxy is thought to harbor a supermassive black hole in the center, or nucleus, of the galaxy, and in active galaxies this black hole is fed by infalling matter. [23] A new study by researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder finds that violent crashes may be more effective at activating black holes than more peaceful mergers. [22]
Category: Astrophysics

[1904] viXra:1901.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-08 15:27:00

Space Has Different Densities of Energy

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 4 Pages.

Abstract Hypothesis: Space is Energy and has different densities of Energy i.e. Not all spaces have the same energy density The Main Idea …. Let's summarize the main idea in following: 1-The space is Energy 2-The Space has different densities of Energy 3-The space of higher energy goes to upper level where the lower Energy Space is found in lower level 4-As we see in air or water… the higher temperature air goes to up but the lower temperature air goes down.. this process uses the medium (air or water) to transfer the energy but without medium the space itself behaves by this same mechanism where the space is Energy has different densities and tries to reach the balance point of his different energy levels. 5-Also we know that, the higher places have potential energy higher than the lower places which supports the same meaning that the space different densities of energy can be distinguished by different levels of space.. 6-Now let's suppose that, the planet uses the space potential energy by transferring it into kinetic energy for this planet motion… 7-So the planet is born from his space energy (his orbital distance energy) and moves by transferring this space potential energy into kinetic energy (and this explains the relationship which we have found between the planet diameter and orbital distance) 8-Based on that, Mercury is found on the most higher point (level) than any other planet and he's directly under the sun, and because of his very high position, his space potential energy is very high one where Mercury uses this high potential energy by transferring it into kinetic Energy by which Mercury moves (Mercury velocity is the highest one) 9-That means, each solar planet is found on different level relating to the other planets and based on his motion velocity. 10-i.e. Each solar planet occupies one step in stairs contains of 9 steps…. That means the solar group is in stair form and the sun is on Apex 11-Based on that, the solar planets motions trajectory must be in a pyramid form. 12-The previous idea makes the solar group motions is near to atom's particles motions which can lead to unify the physics theories.
Category: Astrophysics

[1903] viXra:1901.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-07 07:46:16

Circumnuclear Torus Chandra

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 68 Pages.

Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are among the most dramatic and interesting phenomena in extragalactic astronomy. [38] A new study conducted by a team of astronomers from Poland and South Africa provides more insights into the nature of Hen 3-160, a symbiotic binary system in the southern Milky Way. [37] There are more than 3,900 confirmed planets beyond our solar system. Most of them have been detected because of their "transits"—instances when a planet crosses its star, momentarily blocking its light. [36] Rice University physicists have created the world's first laser-cooled neutral plasma, completing a 20-year quest that sets the stage for simulators that re-create exotic states of matter found inside Jupiter and white dwarf stars. [35] An international group of astronomers has detected an intense and extremely luminous gamma-ray flare from one of high-redshift blazars known as DA 193. [34] Our universe could be the mirror image of an antimatter universe extending backwards in time before the Big Bang. [33] "As you celebrate New Year's Day, cast an eye upward and think for a moment about the amazing things our country and our species can do when we set our minds to it," Stern wrote in the New York Times on Monday. [32]
Category: Astrophysics

[1902] viXra:1901.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-06 06:50:26

Symbiotic Binary Variable Star

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

A new study conducted by a team of astronomers from Poland and South Africa provides more insights into the nature of Hen 3-160, a symbiotic binary system in the southern Milky Way. [37] There are more than 3,900 confirmed planets beyond our solar system. Most of them have been detected because of their "transits"—instances when a planet crosses its star, momentarily blocking its light. [36] Rice University physicists have created the world's first laser-cooled neutral plasma, completing a 20-year quest that sets the stage for simulators that re-create exotic states of matter found inside Jupiter and white dwarf stars. [35] An international group of astronomers has detected an intense and extremely luminous gamma-ray flare from one of high-redshift blazars known as DA 193. [34] Our universe could be the mirror image of an antimatter universe extending backwards in time before the Big Bang. [33]
Category: Astrophysics

[1901] viXra:1901.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-06 12:35:38

The Moon Orbit Triangle

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 3 Pages.

The solar planets matters (diameters) are created based on geometrical rules The moon orbit triangle proves this fact.
Category: Astrophysics

[1900] viXra:1901.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-05 07:31:50

Holographic Acoustic Tweezers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

A holographic acoustic tweezers (HAT) system has been used to suspend up to 25 objects in mid-air simultaneously. [36] Holography is a powerful tool that can reconstruct wavefronts of light and combine the fundamental wave properties of amplitude, phase, polarization, wave vector and frequency. [35] Physicist Artem Rudenko from Kansas State University and his colleagues pondered how to improve the images of viruses and microparticles that scientists get from X-rays. [34] A team of materials scientists from Penn State, Cornell and Argonne National Laboratory have, for the first time, visualized the 3-D atomic and electron density structure of the most complex perovskite crystal structure system decoded to date. [33] Hydrogen-powered electronics, travel, and more may be a step closer thanks to the work of a collaborative team of scientists in Japan. [32]
Category: Astrophysics

[1899] viXra:1901.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-05 09:42:02

Guide Stars for Telescopes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

There are more than 3,900 confirmed planets beyond our solar system. Most of them have been detected because of their "transits"-instances when a planet crosses its star, momentarily blocking its light. [36] Rice University physicists have created the world's first laser-cooled neutral plasma, completing a 20-year quest that sets the stage for simulators that recreate exotic states of matter found inside Jupiter and white dwarf stars. [35] An international group of astronomers has detected an intense and extremely luminous gamma-ray flare from one of high-redshift blazars known as DA 193. [34] Our universe could be the mirror image of an antimatter universe extending backwards in time before the Big Bang. [33] "As you celebrate New Year's Day, cast an eye upward and think for a moment about the amazing things our country and our species can do when we set our minds to it," Stern wrote in the New York Times on Monday. [32] Our senses are stuck in the past. There's a flash of lightning, and then seconds pass until we hear the rumble of distant thunder. We hear the past. [31] ESA's technical centre in the Netherlands has begun running a pulsar-based clock. The "PulChron' system measures the passing of time using millisecond-frequency radio pulses from multiple fast-spinning neutron stars. [30] VR is an almost perfect avenue for this approach, since it has been surging in popularity as both entertainment and an educational tool. [29] Using MAGIC telescopes and NASA's Fermi spacecraft, an international team of astronomers has discovered a new source of very high energy gamma-ray emission around the supernova remnant (SNR) G24.7+0.6. [28] In 1973, Russian physicist A.B. Migdal predicted the phenomenon of pion condensation above a critical, extremely high-several times higher than that for normal matter-nuclear density. [27] Our first glimpses into the physics that exist near the center of a black hole are being made possible using "loop quantum gravity"-a theory that uses quantum mechanics to extend gravitational physics beyond Einstein's theory of general relativity. [26]
Category: Astrophysics

[1898] viXra:1901.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-05 11:48:40

How Two Lobed Asteroids and Comets are Formed: An Alternative to Dogma Concerning Ultima Thule

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 hand drawn illustration

A drawing was made to show how two lobed asteroids and comets are formed. What happens is that two pre-existing objects slam into each other, making a large crown of debris that is liquefied. This liquefied debris then cools too fast to be completely rounded by gravitation. It is similar to a water droplet splash crown. Any accretion theory needs gravitational bodies strong enough to hold onto the material after any collision, and since asteroids and comets are mostly solitary, it means they were impact remains between objects that did not have strong enough gravitational fields to hold onto the debris. It also means that asteroid guts from the same collision are scattered throughout the galaxy. Ultima Thule is probably extrasolar in nature, and has nothing to do with the formation of a planet/star, it has to do with the destruction of its remains.
Category: Astrophysics

[1897] viXra:1901.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-04 07:11:35

Luminous Gamma-Ray Detected

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

An international group of astronomers has detected an intense and extremely luminous gamma-ray flare from one of high-redshift blazars known as DA 193. [34] Our universe could be the mirror image of an antimatter universe extending backwards in time before the Big Bang. [33] "As you celebrate New Year's Day, cast an eye upward and think for a moment about the amazing things our country and our species can do when we set our minds to it," Stern wrote in the New York Times on Monday. [32] Our senses are stuck in the past. There's a flash of lightning, and then seconds pass until we hear the rumble of distant thunder. We hear the past. [31]
Category: Astrophysics

[1896] viXra:1901.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-04 10:47:45

Simulators of Super-Dense Stars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

Rice University physicists have created the world's first laser-cooled neutral plasma, completing a 20-year quest that sets the stage for simulators that recreate exotic states of matter found inside Jupiter and white dwarf stars. [35] An international group of astronomers has detected an intense and extremely luminous gamma-ray flare from one of high-redshift blazars known as DA 193. [34] Our universe could be the mirror image of an antimatter universe extending backwards in time before the Big Bang. [33] "As you celebrate New Year's Day, cast an eye upward and think for a moment about the amazing things our country and our species can do when we set our minds to it," Stern wrote in the New York Times on Monday. [32] Our senses are stuck in the past. There's a flash of lightning, and then seconds pass until we hear the rumble of distant thunder. We hear the past. [31] ESA's technical centre in the Netherlands has begun running a pulsar-based clock. The "PulChron' system measures the passing of time using millisecond-frequency radio pulses from multiple fast-spinning neutron stars. [30] VR is an almost perfect avenue for this approach, since it has been surging in popularity as both entertainment and an educational tool. [29] Using MAGIC telescopes and NASA's Fermi spacecraft, an international team of astronomers has discovered a new source of very high energy gamma-ray emission around the supernova remnant (SNR) G24.7+0.6. [28] In 1973, Russian physicist A.B. Migdal predicted the phenomenon of pion condensation above a critical, extremely high-several times higher than that for normal matter-nuclear density. [27] Our first glimpses into the physics that exist near the center of a black hole are being made possible using "loop quantum gravity"-a theory that uses quantum mechanics to extend gravitational physics beyond Einstein's theory of general relativity. [26] In the shadowy regions of black holes two fundamental theories describing our world collide. Can these problems be resolved and do black holes really exist? First, we may have to see one and scientists are trying to do just this. [25]
Category: Astrophysics

[1895] viXra:1901.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-03 08:54:23

Antimatter Universe Partner

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

Our universe could be the mirror image of an antimatter universe extending backwards in time before the Big Bang. [33] "As you celebrate New Year's Day, cast an eye upward and think for a moment about the amazing things our country and our species can do when we set our minds to it," Stern wrote in the New York Times on Monday. [32] Our senses are stuck in the past. There's a flash of lightning, and then seconds pass until we hear the rumble of distant thunder. We hear the past. [31] ESA's technical centre in the Netherlands has begun running a pulsar-based clock. The "PulChron' system measures the passing of time using millisecond-frequency radio pulses from multiple fast-spinning neutron stars. [30] VR is an almost perfect avenue for this approach, since it has been surging in popularity as both entertainment and an educational tool. [29] Using MAGIC telescopes and NASA's Fermi spacecraft, an international team of astronomers has discovered a new source of very high energy gamma-ray emission around the supernova remnant (SNR) G24.7+0.6. [28] In 1973, Russian physicist A.B. Migdal predicted the phenomenon of pion condensation above a critical, extremely high-several times higher than that for normal matter-nuclear density. [27] Our first glimpses into the physics that exist near the center of a black hole are being made possible using "loop quantum gravity"-a theory that uses quantum mechanics to extend gravitational physics beyond Einstein's theory of general relativity. [26] In the shadowy regions of black holes two fundamental theories describing our world collide. Can these problems be resolved and do black holes really exist? First, we may have to see one and scientists are trying to do just this. [25] The authors suggest that this virtual reality simulation could be useful for studying HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/black+holes/" black holes. [24] Every galaxy is thought to harbor a supermassive black hole in the center, or nucleus, of the galaxy, and in active galaxies this black hole is fed by infalling matter. [23]
Category: Astrophysics

[1894] viXra:1901.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-03 09:08:10

Big Bang Without Bang

Authors: Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis
Comments: 3 pages

The Big Bang conception of main stream physics states that at the initial point there was an enormously high temperature. This does not explain the very low temperature of CMB radiation and existence of primordial pure hydrogen stars which cannot be generated at high temperatures. The article discloses a new statement that initially there was absolute zero of Kelvin degrees. The matter was in Bose-Einstein condensate state and slowly warmed up.
Category: Astrophysics

[1893] viXra:1901.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-03 09:36:51

Dark Matter Heating

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Scientists have found evidence that dark matter can be heated up and moved around, as a result of star formation in galaxies. [22] Today, an international group of researchers, including Carnegie Mellon University's Rachel Mandelbaum, released the deepest wide field map of the three-dimensional distribution of matter in the universe ever made and increased the precision of constraints for dark energy with the Hyper Suprime-Cam survey (HSC). [21] Scientists are hoping to understand one of the most enduring mysteries in cosmology by simulating its effect on the clustering of galaxies. [20] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved nearly $1 million in funding for the research team, which has been tasked with leveraging large-scale computer simulations and developing new statistical methods to help us better understand these fundamental forces. [19] According to a new study, they could also potentially detect dark matter, if dark matter is composed of a particular kind of particle called a "dark photon." [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1892] viXra:1901.0012 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-03 01:50:00

An ab Initio Definition of Life Pertaining to Astrobiology

Authors: Ian von Hegner
Comments: 12 Pages.

Many definitions of life have been put forward in the course of time, but none however has apparently emerged that entirely has been able to encapsulate life. Putting forward an adequate definition is not a simple matter to do, this despite many seems to believe they have an intuitive understanding of what it’s meant when they state something is life. Yet it is important to do so, because we ourselves, individually and collectively, are life, entailing an importance in itself. Furthermore, humankind’s capability to look for life on other planets is steadily becoming a real possibility. But in order to realize that search a definition of life is required. Progress has been made though. Life is a complex, but natural phenomena that emerged and has been maintained under the dual demands of thermodynamics and evolution. Thus, any definition of life must include thermodynamics specifically and evolution generally. A definition of life can be obtained through the application of first principles from physics, chemistry and biology. It must encapsulate the minimal properties shared between all life, and demonstrate that the interconnected aspects of life are unique for precisely life, that it collectively does things other phenomena do not, and describe what life is. Thus, the following ab initio definition can be put forward: LifeTerrra is a genome-containing, self-sustaining chemical dissipative system that maintains its localized level of organization at the expense of producing environmental entropy; that has developed its numerous characteristics through pluripotential Darwinian evolution.
Category: Astrophysics

[1891] viXra:1901.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-01 10:40:40

Historic Flyby of Faraway World

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

"As you celebrate New Year's Day, cast an eye upward and think for a moment about the amazing things our country and our species can do when we set our minds to it," Stern wrote in the New York Times on Monday. [32] Our senses are stuck in the past. There's a flash of lightning, and then seconds pass until we hear the rumble of distant thunder. We hear the past. [31] ESA's technical centre in the Netherlands has begun running a pulsar-based clock. The "PulChron' system measures the passing of time using millisecond-frequency radio pulses from multiple fast-spinning neutron stars. [30] VR is an almost perfect avenue for this approach, since it has been surging in popularity as both entertainment and an educational tool. [29] Using MAGIC telescopes and NASA's Fermi spacecraft, an international team of astronomers has discovered a new source of very high energy gamma-ray emission around the supernova remnant (SNR) G24.7+0.6. [28] In 1973, Russian physicist A.B. Migdal predicted the phenomenon of pion condensation above a critical, extremely high-several times higher than that for normal matter-nuclear density. [27] Our first glimpses into the physics that exist near the center of a black hole are being made possible using "loop quantum gravity"-a theory that uses quantum mechanics to extend gravitational physics beyond Einstein's theory of general relativity. [26] In the shadowy regions of black holes two fundamental theories describing our world collide. Can these problems be resolved and do black holes really exist? First, we may have to see one and scientists are trying to do just this. [25] The authors suggest that this virtual reality simulation could be useful for studying HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/black+holes/" black holes. [24] Every galaxy is thought to harbor a supermassive black hole in the center, or nucleus, of the galaxy, and in active galaxies this black hole is fed by infalling matter. [23] A new study by researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder finds that violent crashes may be more effective at activating black holes than more peaceful mergers. [22]
Category: Astrophysics

[1890] viXra:1901.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-01 01:55:48

Quantum Boom Theory

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: 16 Pages.

Neutrinos dominate the universe. They floated around in literally empty void nichts space for trillions & trillions of years - even an eternity.
Then when they decided to start popping - the universe started.
Boooom! Let there be Light (tension and vibrations).

● The Microcosmic Boom: Everything actually was schmooshed into something the size of a proton. But, it is NOT just one "singularity" the size of a proton - it is the uncountable number of neutrinos.
The fabric of space is created from expansion of neutrinos.
The neutrino "decay" (expansion) is just a simple shape change. Think popcorn popping.

● Expansion: A neutrino is a balled-up unit of space - like a quantum ball of spaghetti.
Whenever a neutrino decays (loses cohesion, loses shape), it "expands" - meaning it changes shape from a balled-up proton size to full length threads commandeering about the size of an atom.

● No Center: Correct. The universe is actually infinity, so, there is no center.
The neutrinos must be "expanding" at an high enough rate where there is a noticeable effect in the universe.
It is hard to believe but they actually would be "expanding" space and nothing would be moving.
More and more "space" is actually being magically created but, it is from the expansion (decay) of neutrinos.
Neutrinos "decay" into the fabric of space (it is only a shape change).
Category: Astrophysics

[1889] viXra:1812.0476 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-30 05:48:29

See Far Back in Time

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Our senses are stuck in the past. There's a flash of lightning, and then seconds pass until we hear the rumble of distant thunder. We hear the past. [31] ESA's technical centre in the Netherlands has begun running a pulsar-based clock. The "PulChron' system measures the passing of time using millisecond-frequency radio pulses from multiple fast-spinning neutron stars. [30] VR is an almost perfect avenue for this approach, since it has been surging in popularity as both entertainment and an educational tool. [29] Using MAGIC telescopes and NASA's Fermi spacecraft, an international team of astronomers has discovered a new source of very high energy gamma-ray emission around the supernova remnant (SNR) G24.7+0.6. [28] In 1973, Russian physicist A.B. Migdal predicted the phenomenon of pion condensation above a critical, extremely high-several times higher than that for normal matter-nuclear density. [27] Our first glimpses into the physics that exist near the center of a black hole are being made possible using "loop quantum gravity"-a theory that uses quantum mechanics to extend gravitational physics beyond Einstein's theory of general relativity. [26] In the shadowy regions of black holes two fundamental theories describing our world collide. Can these problems be resolved and do black holes really exist? First, we may have to see one and scientists are trying to do just this. [25] The authors suggest that this virtual reality simulation could be useful for studying HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/black+holes/" black holes. [24] Every galaxy is thought to harbor a supermassive black hole in the center, or nucleus, of the galaxy, and in active galaxies this black hole is fed by infalling matter. [23] A new study by researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder finds that violent crashes may be more effective at activating black holes than more peaceful mergers. [22] For the first time, a team of astronomers has observed several pairs of galaxies in the final stages of merging together into single, larger galaxies. [21]
Category: Astrophysics

[1888] viXra:1812.0473 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-29 19:03:17

Theory of Matter Creation (Lorentz Length Contraction Reason) (II)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 42 Pages.

The Matter Creation: 1-The Energy is found before any Matter Birth 2-The Energy is in motion (always) 3-The Energy motion creates relativistic effects (because the Energy has different velocities in her motion) 4-Lorentz Length Contraction effect causes to concentrate the Energy (Hypothesis) 5-The matter is created from the Energy based on the quantum standardization 6-The Space is Energy but has different Energy density… 7-There's a higher velocity in the solar group causes relativistic effects 8-We can't observe this higher velocity but we can observe the relativistic effects on the distances and periods values in the solar group… 9-These relativistic effects effect on Earth moon orbit, causes length contraction effect which enable the moon orbit to store the solar group main energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[1887] viXra:1812.0469 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-30 04:42:53

Distant Spinning Stars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

ESA's technical centre in the Netherlands has begun running a pulsar-based clock. The "PulChron' system measures the passing of time using millisecond-frequency radio pulses from multiple fast-spinning neutron stars. [30] VR is an almost perfect avenue for this approach, since it has been surging in popularity as both entertainment and an educational tool. [29] Using MAGIC telescopes and NASA's Fermi spacecraft, an international team of astronomers has discovered a new source of very high energy gamma-ray emission around the supernova remnant (SNR) G24.7+0.6. [28] In 1973, Russian physicist A.B. Migdal predicted the phenomenon of pion condensation above a critical, extremely high—several times higher than that for normal matter— nuclear density. [27]
Category: Astrophysics

[1886] viXra:1812.0460 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-28 15:45:41

Most Mass-Dependent Isotope Fractionation is Due to Stellar Evolution (Planet Formation)

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 4 Pages.

Isotope fractionation means the separation of specific isotopes of a specific element. Say, O-17 is heavier than O-16 so it will sink easier into a star because it is heavier. This is mass dependent isotope fractionation. Most isotope fractionation taught by mainstream only include mass independent fractionation, meaning they are searching for separation of isotopes without mass being a factor. In this paper it is explained firstly that lighter isotopes can escape the star, leaving heavier ones to sink. This leads to the idea that the large percentage of a galactic bodies' isotope fractionation is due to its evolutionary history, and is directly based on mass dependent fractionation. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[1885] viXra:1812.0459 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-28 18:18:38

Theory of Matter Creation (Lorentz Length Contraction Reason) (part I)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 9 Pages.

The Matter Creation Steps: 1-The Energy is found before any Matter Birth 2-The Energy is found in motion (always) 3-The Energy motion creates relativistic effects (because the Energy has different velocities in her motion) 4-Lorentz Length Contraction effect causes to concentrate the Energy (Hypothesis) 5-The matter is created from the Energy based on the quantum standardization 6-The Space is Energy but has different Energy density…
Category: Astrophysics

[1884] viXra:1812.0449 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-29 05:11:00

Virtual Reality Experience

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

VR is an almost perfect avenue for this approach, since it has been surging in popularity as both entertainment and an educational tool. [29] Using MAGIC telescopes and NASA's Fermi spacecraft, an international team of astronomers has discovered a new source of very high energy gamma-ray emission around the supernova remnant (SNR) G24.7+0.6. [28] In 1973, Russian physicist A.B. Migdal predicted the phenomenon of pion condensation above a critical, extremely high—several times higher than that for normal matter— nuclear density. [27] Our first glimpses into the physics that exist near the center of a black hole are being made possible using "loop quantum gravity"—a theory that uses quantum mechanics to extend gravitational physics beyond Einstein's theory of general relativity. [26] In the shadowy regions of black holes two fundamental theories describing our world collide. Can these problems be resolved and do black holes really exist? First, we may have to see one and scientists are trying to do just this. [25]
Category: Astrophysics

[1883] viXra:1812.0448 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-29 05:30:01

Brief History of Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Late in 2018, the gravitational wave observatory, LIGO, announced that they had detected the most distant and massive source of ripples of spacetime ever monitored: waves triggered by pairs of black holes colliding in deep space. [21] Answering the question "How did galaxies form and evolve during the 13.8-billion-year history of the universe?" has been one top issue in modern astronomy. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there’s a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17]
Category: Astrophysics

[1882] viXra:1812.0446 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-27 08:25:34

High Energy Gamma-Ray Emission

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Using MAGIC telescopes and NASA's Fermi spacecraft, an international team of astronomers has discovered a new source of very high energy gamma-ray emission around the supernova remnant (SNR) G24.7+0.6. [28] In 1973, Russian physicist A.B. Migdal predicted the phenomenon of pion condensation above a critical, extremely high—several times higher than that for normal matter— nuclear density. [27]
Category: Astrophysics

[1881] viXra:1812.0434 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-26 11:12:03

Earth Circumference

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 6 Pages.

Why Earth Circumference =40080 km? Let's summarize the story in following: -Earth daily motion is Energy (2.58 million km), Earth does it daily -On the first day, Earth sent her daily motion energy (2.58mkm) toward the moon orbit on the horizontal axis … -There are relativistic effects in the space between Earth the moon caused by v1=0.99c which caused a rate = 7.1 -Earth daily energy(2.58 mkm) faced these relativistic effects, and Earth daily energy is contracted by the rate 7.1 which produces the equation 2.58 mkm =7.1 x 0.363 mkm (perigee radius =0.363 mkm) where the Energy stopped here! -So Perigee radius is created firstly from Earth daily energy, but Earth energy is stopped at perigee point (r=0.363 mkm) and can't move further That's Why…. -On the second day, Earth sent her daily motion (2.58 mkm) toward the sun on the vertical axis…. to avoid the contraction effect -Earth daily Energy (2.58 mkm) reaches to the sun, where the sun absorbs this energy and reflects it towed Pluto….so the Energy 2.58 mkm is sent from the sun to Pluto -In the way Earth Daily Energy (2.58mkm) received a great effect from Uranus and sent it again toward Pluto -Earth Daily Energy (2.58 mkm) reaches to Pluto who will send this same energy toward the moon orbit (Energy transportation process depends on r=0.406 mkm) -Earth Energy (2.58mkm) is sent from Pluto to Apogee circumference =2.58 mkm which makes apogee radius = 406000km -Earth Energy which consist the moon apogee circumference wants to move deeper toward the Earth body, but this energy again faces the relativistic effects from the other side so the contraction is done by the rate 1.0725 -Earth Energy tried 2 times to move deeper toward the Earth body starting from apogee orbit…. oIn first time the apogee circumference 2.58 mkm (r=0406mkm) is contracted to produce the moon orbit average circumference 2.41 mkm (r=0.384mkm) and the energy is stopped here again… oIn the second time the Energy at apogee radius r= 0.406 mkm faces the relativistic effects and produce the total solar eclipse radius r= 0.378 mkm and stopped here…. But -The moon orbit energy had to reach to Earth body to complete the process because the moon orbit is created from Earth daily motion energy, so the distance between apogee (r=0.406 mkm) and perigee (r=0.363 mkm) (which is an Energy), this distance (0.406 mkm – 0.363 mkm = 43000km) is contracted by the rate 1.0725 mkm and reach to the Earth through Perigee point which is the only point connected with the Earth body directly -43000 km = 1.0725 x 40080 km (Earth Circumference =40080 km) -Earth rotates around her axis daily producing this distance =40080 km = Earth Circumference …. That means Earth Circumference is created by this process and the previous story was related to Earth motion Energy before the matter birth. -That means the energy from higher points (apogee, average and total solar eclipse radiuses) will be sent to Perigee point because it is the only point is connected to the Earth directly… -Who will carry the Energy from higher to lower points?….. The Moon…. -Now we can see why the three points are distinguish from perigee point because they receive their energy by 2 different trajectories of Energy…. This story proves we have discussed in my previous paper " The Solar Day Production"
Category: Astrophysics

[1880] viXra:1812.0426 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-25 13:30:53

The Solar Day Production

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 18 Pages.

The solar planets different motions are working as gears motions have different rates of time, they use Light Motion Energy for 1 second period and produce this same Energy in 1 Day Period of a Planet Motion… And by this process the solar planets transform the period of 1 second into 1 day period which produces the solar day… The solar Day production is the solar planets different motions main job.
Category: Astrophysics

[1879] viXra:1812.0396 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-22 07:39:52

Pion Condensation of Neutron Stars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

In 1973, Russian physicist A.B. Migdal predicted the phenomenon of pion condensation above a critical, extremely high—several times higher than that for normal matter— nuclear density. [27] Our first glimpses into the physics that exist near the center of a black hole are being made possible using "loop quantum gravity"—a theory that uses quantum mechanics to extend gravitational physics beyond Einstein's theory of general relativity. [26]
Category: Astrophysics

[1878] viXra:1812.0393 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-22 16:35:00

Iron/Nickel Ratio Stability in Young Stars to Stellar Guts (Meteorites)

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 pages of handwritten notes

The ratio of iron/nickel in young stars predicts the ratio of their remains for their most evolved state, and into stages where they have completely disintegrated into small asteroids. For example, the Sun which has iron/nickel abundance ratio of 92% to 8% will remain the same as it evolves. This means when the Sun has evolved to its most evolved state, the iron/nickel meteorites it will produce will have a similar ratio of iron to nickel. Other elements are not considered, but will be in the future to make this hypothesis more exacting. This is only to serve as a starting point for drawing conclusions concerning the origins of meteorites and why they all have different ratios. They are stellar guts from different long destroyed stars, per the Krypton Hypothesis. Two pages of hand written notes follow.
Category: Astrophysics

[1877] viXra:1812.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-20 10:42:43

Quantum Sensor for Satellite Gravimetry

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

NASA and the Sunnyvale, California-based AOSense, Inc., have successfully built and demonstrated a prototype quantum sensor capable of obtaining highly sensitive and accurate gravity measurements-a stepping stone toward next-generation geodesy, hydrology, and climate-monitoring missions in space. [21] Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, ETH Zurich, and Argonne National Laboratory, U.S, have described an extended quantum Maxwell's demon, a device locally violating the second law of thermodynamics in a system located one to five meters away from the demon. [20] "We've experimentally confirmed the connection between information in the classical case and the quantum case," Murch said, "and we're seeing this new effect of information loss." [19] It's well-known that when a quantum system is continuously measured, it freezes, i.e., it stops changing, which is due to a phenomenon called the quantum Zeno effect. [18] Physicists have extended one of the most prominent fluctuation theorems of classical stochastic thermodynamics, the Jarzynski equality, to quantum field theory. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating-something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13]
Category: Astrophysics

[1876] viXra:1812.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-21 02:58:46

Black Hole Singularity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Our first glimpses into the physics that exist near the center of a black hole are being made possible using "loop quantum gravity"—a theory that uses quantum mechanics to extend gravitational physics beyond Einstein's theory of general relativity. [26] In the shadowy regions of black holes two fundamental theories describing our world collide. Can these problems be resolved and do black holes really exist? First, we may have to see one and scientists are trying to do just this. [25]
Category: Astrophysics

[1875] viXra:1812.0353 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-19 06:10:38

Black Holes Mass Density and Definition of the Maximum Energy of Stability for a Particle

Authors: Peiman Ghasemi
Comments: 4 Pages.

Black holes mass density equations and definition of the maximum energy of stability for a particle
Category: Astrophysics

[1874] viXra:1812.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-19 17:38:24

Electromagnetic Causes Photon Deflection Experiment Report

Authors: Weixiong Huang
Comments: 3 Pages.

Einstein believes that gravity causes photon deflection. This created the black hole theory. Huang Weixiong's theory of magneton believes that electromagnetic causes photon deflection. This experiment proves that electromagnetic causes photon deflection. This experiment proves that electromagnetic causes photons to rotate.
Category: Astrophysics

[1873] viXra:1812.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-19 17:41:09

Fermi Bubble Negation Black Hole Theory

Authors: Weixiong Huang
Comments: 3 Pages.

Einstein believes that gravity causes photon deflection. This created the black hole theory. Fermi bubbles prove that the reason for photon deflection is not gravity, but magnetic force. Thus negating the black hole theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[1872] viXra:1812.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-20 02:21:56

Astrophysical Phenomena

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper substantiates the true origins of our universe and black holes beyond the Standard Model and opens new frontiers to NextGen astrophysical research and observations
Category: Astrophysics

[1871] viXra:1812.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-18 14:42:59

Sunqm-3s9: Using {N,n} QM to Explain the Sunspot Drift, the Continental Drift, and Sun’s and Earth’s Magnetic Dynamo

Authors: Yi Cao
Comments: 20 Pages.

In this paper, a Ylm cycle model with two phases has been proposed. In phase-1 of Ylm cycle, nLL effect induces a |nLL> mode mass peaking and upwelling below the surface of an {N,n}o orbit shell, and generates a equatorial fast flow stream at the surface. As phase-1 progress, the equatorial fast flow stream gets narrower and shallower, and eventually diminished. In phase-2 of Ylm cycle, |n,L,m=0..L-1> modes cause mass peaking and upwelling below the surface of the same {N,n}o orbit shell but at high latitude region, and generates an effective equatorial slow flow stream at the surface. This (equivalent) slow flow stream also gets narrower and shallower, and eventually diminished. This single model has been used to explain the sunspot drift on Sun’s surface, the continental drift on Earth surface, and both Sun’s and Earth’s magnetic dynamo. The alternation between two phases of Ylm cycle not only alternates the orientation of Sun’s (or Earth’s) magnetic field, but also supports the supercontinent cycle model. Under this model, the apparent random drift of post-Pangaea continents can be nicely depicted as an expected hydrodynamic result of a broken dam through a mouth located near the south end of South America continent. In papers of SunQM-3s6, SunQM-3s7, and SunQM-3s8, I used radial wave function R(nl) to predict the mass density r-distribution for all planets and Sun, plus the QM structure evolution for rocky planets and Sun. In papers of SunQM-3s3 and SunQM-3s9, I used spherical wave function Y(lm) to explain planets’ and Sun’s atmosphere movement, surface (or mantle) movement, and internal mass movement. Therefore, results from all these papers reveal that for all planets and stars, not only they were formed and evolved under planet’s (or star’s) QM, but the current movement of their internal mass is also determined by the planet’s (or star’s) QM.
Category: Astrophysics

[1870] viXra:1812.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-17 07:45:06

Next-Generation GPS Satellites

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

After months of delays, the U.S. Air Force is about to launch the first of a new generation of GPS satellites, designed to be more accurate, secure and versatile. [22] A RUDN employee and Brazilian colleagues have called into question the concept of using stable wormholes as portals to different points of space-time. [21] CfA astronomer David James was a member of a large international team systematically searching for new gravitationally lensed quasars. [20] For the first time astronomers have detected gravitational waves from a merged, hyper-massive neutron star. [19] A group of scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) at the University of Copenhagen will soon start developing a new line of technical equipment in order to dramatically improve gravitational wave detectors. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1869] viXra:1812.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-17 11:52:08

Event Horizons and the Ideal Gas Law

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 4 Pages.

instead of temporal elasticity, we examine time near an event horizon using the ideal gas law to frame the problem, some paradoxes are revealed when we consider antimatter
Category: Astrophysics

[1868] viXra:1812.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-17 13:57:38

Sunqm-3s7: Predict Mass Density R-Distribution for Gas/ice Planets Based on {N,n} QM Probability Distribution

Authors: Yi Cao
Comments: 11 Pages.

Using the same method developed in paper SunQM-3s6, the (close to the true) mass density r-distribution for gas/ice planets has been estimated based on {N,n} QM probability distribution. Based on this calculation (as well as on other scientists’ calculation), the center core mass density for Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and the undiscovered {3,2} planet (if it does formed) are estimated to be: ~ 26000 kg/m^3, ~ 23000 kg/m^3, ~ 16500 kg/m^3, ~ 17000 kg/m^3, and ~ 16000 kg/m^3 respectively. The results from this paper (as well as from papers of SunQM-3s6 and SunQM-3s8) strongly suggest that all planets and stars were formed and evolved under planet's (or star's) QM.
Category: Astrophysics

[1867] viXra:1812.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-16 11:49:22

Hubble's Ultraviolet Vision

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Hubble's ultraviolet vision opens up a new window on the evolving universe, tracking the birth of stars over the last 11 billion years up to the busiest star-forming period in the cosmos, which happened about three billion years after the big bang. [22] A RUDN employee and Brazilian colleagues have called into question the concept of using stable wormholes as portals to different points of space-time. [21] CfA astronomer David James was a member of a large international team systematically searching for new gravitationally lensed quasars. [20] For the first time astronomers have detected gravitational waves from a merged, hyper-massive neutron star. [19] A group of scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) at the University of Copenhagen will soon start developing a new line of technical equipment in order to dramatically improve gravitational wave detectors. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1866] viXra:1812.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-16 13:29:41

Stellar Metamorphosis vs. Columbia University and Forbes Magazine

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages. 2 references

There is a clear disconnect between Columbia University and writers for Forbes Magazine. The problem that media causes astronomy is made clear. The statement is very simple so as to not confuse the public. In a paper written by Columbia University researchers there are 4 types of worlds, in a Forbes article writer Ethan Siegal states that there are only 3 types of worlds, which directly references the very article that contradicts his statement. This means there is a direct disconnect between writers/editors of magazines and researchers. This issue can be cleared up with stellar metamorphosis. There are no distinct types of worlds, as stellar evolution is continuous, stars cool, shrink and lose mass becoming planets/exoplanets and moons. Explanation with pictures from the arxiv site and Forbes are provided with references.
Category: Astrophysics

[1865] viXra:1812.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-17 03:40:51

Ferent Equation of the Material and Spiritual Universe

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 270 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

Ferent equation of the material and spiritual Universe Scientists from the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, like Edward Witten, Paul Berg, Juan Martin Maldacena…were not able to discover a Transdisciplinarity equation or an equation to link Matter with Spiritual Matter. The greatest scientists tried to unify Science and Spirituality and to write a Transdisciplinarity equation without success. I am the first who discovered a Transdisciplinarity equation; the Ferent equation of the Soul. There are 3 walls in our Universe: the Planck wall with the constant ‘h’, the Ferent wall with the constant ‘a’ and the Spiritual wall with the constant ‘s’. At the Planck wall emerged Matter, at the Ferent wall emerged Dark Matter and at the Spiritual wall emerged Spiritual Matter. The most general form, is the time-dependent Ferent equation of the Universe, which gives a description of the Universe as quantum system made of Matter, Dark Matter and Spiritual Matter evolving in time. The most general form of the time-dependent Ferent equation of the Universe. “Ferent equation of the material and spiritual Universe:” Adrian Ferent Where: |Ψ(r,t)> – is the state vector of the Universe r and t are the position vector and time h – is the Planck constant a – is the Ferent constant s – is the Spiritual constant The evolution of N elementary particles quantum system is governed through the Ferent equation for N elementary particles. The time-dependent Ferent equation of the Universe, which gives a description of the Universe as quantum system, made of Matter, N elementary particles, Dark Matter, M elementary particles, and Spiritual Matter, L elementary particles, evolving in time. “Ferent equation of the material and spiritual Universe:” Adrian Ferent Where: Ψ – the wave function of the Universe, material and spiritual m1i – the mass of Matter elementary particle i m2j – the mass of Dark Matter elementary particle j m3k – the mass of Spiritual Matter elementary particle k r1N – the position of Matter elementary particle N r2M – the position of Dark Matter elementary particle M r3L – the position of Spiritual Matter elementary particle L 158. I am the first who discovered the Ferent equation of the Soul 159. I am the first who discovered the Ferent equation of the material and spiritual Universe
Category: Astrophysics

[1864] viXra:1812.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-14 10:20:21

Travel Through Wormholes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

A RUDN employee and Brazilian colleagues have called into question the concept of using stable wormholes as portals to different points of space-time. [21] CfA astronomer David James was a member of a large international team systematically searching for new gravitationally lensed quasars. [20] For the first time astronomers have detected gravitational waves from a merged, hyper-massive neutron star. [19] A group of scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) at the University of Copenhagen will soon start developing a new line of technical equipment in order to dramatically improve gravitational wave detectors. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1863] viXra:1812.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-13 08:50:51

Secrets of the Sun

Authors: Bernard Riley
Comments: 3 pages

When measured in Planck units the vital parameters of the sun take particular values.
Category: Astrophysics

[1862] viXra:1812.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-14 00:26:43

The Big Burst

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: 5 Pages.

Everyone has heard of various possible ends of the universe:
The Big Crunch, The Big Bounce, The Big Rip, The Big Freeze, etc.

Here is another...
The Big Burst - Welcome to the End of the World.
There will be a massive energy burst released by neutrinos into the fabric-of-space.
Then a massive drop-off in tension caused by too much "fabric" per given volume.
The fabric-of-space - that is the universe as we know it - becomes something like a floppy 3-D tennis net.
First Law? Energy? Gravity? Light? Heat? Pooof, Gone!
There will NOT even be time happening (as we know it).
Category: Astrophysics

[1861] viXra:1812.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-12 06:27:35

Equal Sized Rigid String Based New Black Holes do not Merge But, Form Herbig Haro Systems.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 24 Pages.

Equal sized Rigid String based Black Holes do not merge but, form Herbig Haro systems with a White Hole (also called Wormhole) in the middle as the center of plasma jet production. Clear example of a star forming Herbig Haro system HH34: two equal sized stringy Stellar Anchor Black Holes (negative charged SABHs / Bowshocks) with plasma Sink (White Hole) in the middle for pressure cooker star formation. (Quantum FFF Model). According to Einstein cosmology, a Wormhole is the opposite of a Black Hole. In Q-FFF Theory however, a Wormhole is a diluted spacetime area of the oscillating Axion Higgs lattice vacuum in between two or even more equal sized stringy black holes nuclei. Diluted spacetime area means, a vacuum lattice with longest Planck lattices of the surrounding area.
Category: Astrophysics

[1860] viXra:1812.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-12 03:07:28

The Moon Orbital Motion

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 3 Pages.

Abstract Why Earth daily motion 2.58 mkm = The moon orbital circumference at apogee radius r=0.406 mkm (Apogee radius is the longest distance between the Earth and Moon)? Conclusion: The Moon orbital motion depends on relativistic effects are found in the moon orbit. Introduction Paper Main Hypothesis: The rate 1.0725 is found by lorentz relativities effects (Apogee orbital Circumference 2.58/Moon orbital circumference 2.41) =1.0725 The Hypothesis Explanation: (28.3 deg Neptune axial tilt/ 26.7 deg. Saturn axial tilt)= (26.7 deg. Saturn axial tilt/ 25.2 deg. Mars axial tilt) = (25.2 deg. Mars axial tilt/ 23.4 deg. Earth axial tilt) =1.0725 The previous equation explain the hypothesis 28.3 degrees (Neptune axial tilt) is the main value which is contracted by lorentz effect (1.0725) to produce 26.7 deg (Saturn axial tilt) which also is contracted again to produce 25.2 deg. (Mars axial tilt) and then contracted again to produce 23.4 deg. (Earth axial tilt) so these 4 values are one value but the difference is found by relativistic effects (The prove of this rate 1.0725 will be discussed in point no. 3) -The moon orbital motion The moon moves 2.58 mkm daily = Earth motion daily (otherwise they will be separated from each other) If there's no relativistic effects in the solar system, the moon should be seen as a bright stationary point in the sky because Earth and Moon move by the same velocity. But Because of the relativistic effects this value (2.58 mkm) will be contracted with the rate 1.0725 to produce the value 2.41 mkm (Note please/ The length contraction rate 1.0725 we have discussed clearly in my previous paper) So the moon daily motion =2.58 mkm but this value is seen =2.41mkm (because of lorentz length contraction phenomenon) The difference between both = 0.17 mkm which causes The Moon Daily Displacement (0.17 mkm = 2 x 88000km) Why the difference 0.17 mkm = 2 x moon daily displacement 88000km? may that occur because of the motions opposite directions.
Category: Astrophysics

[1859] viXra:1812.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-09 06:18:51

PPPL Plasma Experiment

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 81 Pages.

As on Earth, so in space. A four-satellite mission that is studying magnetic reconnection—the breaking apart and explosive reconnection of the magnetic field lines in plasma that occurs throughout the universe—has found key aspects of the process in space to be strikingly similar to those found in experiments at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36]
Category: Astrophysics

[1858] viXra:1812.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-10 04:41:31

Pluto Velocity Analysis

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 12 Pages.

Earth velocity daily (2.58 mkm) = Pluto velocity daily (0.406 mkm) x 2π The previous relationship is found based on 2 reasons –at least- which are: 1-Earth and Pluto are the 2 ends of the solar group main energy trajectory. 2-Earth and Pluto Relationship is found through the moon orbit (Earth moon orbit) This paper tries to prove these facts.
Category: Astrophysics

[1857] viXra:1812.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-07 13:00:59

Negative Mass as a Driver for Cosmic Inflation and Dark Energy

Authors: Mark Ridler
Comments: 6 Pages.

I have conducted n-body simulations of a model universe. Initial conditions include a uniform mix of 4 types of particle: positive and negative charge and positive and negative mass. A "cold collapse" scenario is used, except that only parts of the model collapse, the rest expands. I contend that this is compatible with the known universe and a viable solution to the Dark Energy puzzle. Also discussed is a possible solution to the Dark Matter puzzle. This relies on the self-attractive effects of negative mass.
Category: Astrophysics

[1856] viXra:1812.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-07 16:10:26

The Moon Motion is A Relativistic Motion

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 8 Pages.

Hypothesis: The Moon is a physical point moves with light velocity (0.3million /sec), for that reason the moon motion causes relativistic effects The Moon Daily Motion -The moon moves 2.58 mkm daily = Earth daily motion (otherwise they will be separated from each other) -If there's no relativistic effect the moon should be seen as a bright stationary point in the sky because Earth and Moon move by the same velocity. But -Because of the relativistic effects this value (2.58mkm) will be contracted with the same rate 1.0725 to produce the value 2.41 mkm (the rate 1.0725 we have discussed before clearly) -So the moon daily motion =2.58 mkm but this value is seen =2.41mkm -The difference between both = 0.17 mkm which causes the moon daily displacement (0.17 mkm = 2 x 88000km) -Why the difference 0.17 mkm = 2 x moon daily displacement 88000km? may that occur because of the motions opposite directions. -So this explanation shows easily how the moon move and proves also that the moon motion causes relativistic effects.
Category: Astrophysics

[1855] viXra:1812.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-08 05:12:22

Gravity As A Unified Force

Authors: Mark Ridler
Comments: 15 Pages.

Model A is attractive; standard physics. Model AB is attractive / repulsive; Hermann Bondi. Model ABCD is likes vs opposites; non-standard physics. Also discussed is a is a new way of looking at Electron-Positron annihilation.
Category: Astrophysics

[1854] viXra:1812.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-06 07:55:50

Why Energy has Different Forms?

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 2 Pages.

Energy different forms are created because of the observer different positions relative to it. Why the observer positions are different relative to the energy? The observer position changes according to the observer knowledge and realization… The universe is reflected from the human knowledge and logic
Category: Astrophysics

[1853] viXra:1812.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-05 08:54:53

Dark Energy Mayall Telescope

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Key components for the sky-mapping Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), weighing about 12 tons, were hoisted atop the Mayall Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) near Tucson, Arizona, and bolted into place Wednesday, marking a major project milestone. [31] Scientists at the University of Oxford may have solved one of the biggest questions in modern physics, with a new paper unifying dark matter and dark energy into a single phenomenon: a fluid which possesses 'negative mass." [30] Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, have proposed a new experiment that makes use of super-dense stars to learn more about the interaction of dark matter with standard matter. [29] CfA astronomer Qirong Zhu led a group of four scientists investigating the possibility that today's dark HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/matter/" matter is composed of primordial black holes, following up on previously published suggestions. If galaxy halos are made of black holes, they should have a different density distribution than halos made of exotic particles. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27]
Category: Astrophysics

[1852] viXra:1812.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-05 09:44:47

Theoretical Dark Matter Hunt

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

Collisions between dark matter and regular matter would be an excellent source of information on the still-unknown 80 % of all matter in our Universe. [32] Key components for the sky-mapping Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), weighing about 12 tons, were hoisted atop the Mayall Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) near Tucson, Arizona, and bolted into place Wednesday, marking a major project milestone. [31] Scientists at the University of Oxford may have solved one of the biggest questions in modern physics, with a new paper unifying dark matter and dark energy into a single phenomenon: a fluid which possesses 'negative mass." [30] Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, have proposed a new experiment that makes use of super-dense stars to learn more about the interaction of dark matter with standard matter. [29] CfA astronomer Qirong Zhu led a group of four scientists investigating the possibility that today's dark HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/ matter/" matter is composed of primordial black holes, following up on previously published suggestions. If galaxy halos are made of black holes, they should have a different density distribution than halos made of exotic particles. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/detector/" detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25]
Category: Astrophysics

[1851] viXra:1812.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-05 09:56:01

E = not Mc2 in Massless Black Holes According to Quantum FFF Theory.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 33 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF Theory, stable Black Holes are growing by "eating" the gravitating ( Casimir) pressure vacuum without the standard gravity related inertial effects, the result is that 1: Energy is not the same as Mass x c2 for Black Hole nuclei, in detail: Black Hole nuclei are massless they do not radiate EM or graviton radiation and they have no Inertia, but they gravitate by the absorption of the local oscillating Casimir Axion –Higgs pressure 2: Small BHs seem to concentrate around the central giant Galaxy BH . 3: Galaxy cluster mergers like Abell 520 overshoot and leaving behind their own Dark Matter content. Mass is the potency of rigid strings, to produce and radiate Gravitons as a collision product, between mass less ring shaped oscillating Axion Higgs vacuum field particles and Fermions or Bosons also called Dipole Repeller gravity or dipole Emergent Gravity.
Category: Astrophysics

[1850] viXra:1812.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-05 05:16:56

Negative Dark Matter Mass

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Scientists at the University of Oxford may have solved one of the biggest questions in modern physics, with a new paper unifying dark matter and dark energy into a single phenomenon: a fluid which possesses 'negative mass." [30] Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, have proposed a new experiment that makes use of super-dense stars to learn more about the interaction of dark matter with standard matter. [29] CfA astronomer Qirong Zhu led a group of four scientists investigating the possibility that today's dark matter is composed of primordial black holes, following up on previously published suggestions. If galaxy halos are made of black holes, they should have a different density distribution than halos made of exotic particles. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] " We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark
Category: Astrophysics

[1849] viXra:1812.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-03 07:11:29

Macroscopic by Microscopic Physics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 79 Pages.

A research group led by Yasuhiro Kuramitsu at Osaka University has revealed a magnetic reconnection driven by electron dynamics for the first time ever in laser-produced plasmas using the Gekko XII laser facility at the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University. [47] By using this method for microscopic failure analysis, researchers and manufacturers could improve the reliability of the MEMS components that they are developing, ranging from miniature robots and drones to tiny forceps for eye surgery and sensors to detect trace amounts of toxic chemicals. [46] A KAIST team developed an optical technique to change the color (frequency) of light using a spatiotemporal boundary. [45] Researchers from the Structured Light group from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, have found a way to use the full beam of a laser single cells in a human body, tiny particles in small volume chemistry, or working on future on-chip devices. [44] This research work by the UEx, which has been published in Scientific Reports, explored the electromagnetic properties of specific materials that can make certain objects invisible when they are introduced into its interior. [43] A research team from ITMO University and the Australian National University has discovered that different metasurfaces exhibit the same behavior provided a symmetry breaking is introduced to their unit cells "meta-atoms."[42] Electron microscopy has allowed scientists to see individual atoms, but even at that resolution not everything is clear. [41] A half-century ago, the theorist Walter Henneberger wondered if it were possible to use a laser field to free an electron from its atom without removing it from the nucleus. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38]
Category: Astrophysics

[1848] viXra:1812.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-03 11:55:09

Black Holes

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 3 Pages.

A whirlpool on Earth has one jet due to gravity, so if gravity didn't apply to that whirlpool then it would have two jets. So why do we see two jets in a black hole or a galaxy?, because it's a whirlpool as well. And because a whirlpool always requires a medium that is made of loose particles, we can conclude that a black hole or a galaxy is an enormous invisible whirlpool in ether particles.
Category: Astrophysics

[1847] viXra:1812.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-02 13:44:40

Pluto Data Shows a Relationship with Earth

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 4 Pages.

Earth Pluto Relationship disproves the solar group current theory And proves that the solar group is one geometrical structure
Category: Astrophysics

[1846] viXra:1811.0523 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-30 08:27:11

The Solar Group is One Geometrical Structure

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 4 Pages.

The Solar Group is One Geometrical Structure 1st Hypothesis The Solar Group Is Created From One Energy 2nd Hypothesis The Solar Group Is One Geometrical Structure 3rd Hypothesis The Planet mass and orbital distance is created from the same energy (Theory of Matter Creation) 4th Hypothesis The solar group moves based on a physical law and not in chaos because of the human mind effect on the universe (the planet motion and human knowledge relationship) 5th Hypothesis Earth Moon is The Solar Group Energy Motion indicator The Conclusions 1-The Solar Planets motions trajectory is a pyramid 2-The planet motion trajectory is a square and not an ellipse 3-The energy concentration in the moon orbit aims to produce the sun rays where the sun rays are produced on the moon orbit energy
Category: Astrophysics

[1845] viXra:1811.0516 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-30 17:47:33

Technische Anwendungen Zur Umwandlung Der Rotationsenergie Der Erde in Elektrische Energie in Theorie Und Praxis Teil 6

Authors: Robert Stach
Comments: 20 Pages.

Aufgezeigt werden Möglichkeiten zur Umwandlung der Rotationsenergie der Erde in elektrische Energie. Neben einem geschichtlichen Exkurs erfolgt die detaillierte Beschreibung der Anlagen. Es wird zudem aufgezeigt, wie sich die Winkelgeschwindigkeit der Präzessionsbewegung exakt berechnen lässt. Zum Schluss wird der Bezug zum Michelson- Experiment verdeutlicht, ebenso die sich daraus ergebenen Veränderungen für das 2. Postulat (Konstanz der Lichtgeschwindigkeit). Aufbauend auf den dargelegten physikalischen Gesetzmäßigkeiten erfolgt zum Ende des Manuskriptes die Einordnung der elektromagnetischen Strahlung in die bisherigen Theorien zur Dunklen Energie.
Category: Astrophysics

[1844] viXra:1811.0493 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-28 07:26:54

Molecules May Explain the Expansion of the Universe

Authors: Karan R.Takkhi
Comments: 15 pages, 6 tables, 6 graphs, 1 figure

The Hubble diagram continues to remain one of the most important graphical representations in the realm of astronomy and cosmology right from its genesis that depicts the velocity-distance relation for the receding large-scale structures within the observable Universe; it is the diagram that helps us to understand the expansion of the Universe. In this paper I introduce the molecular diffusion model in order to explain the expansion of the Universe. The molecular diffusion model considers the distribution of large-scale structures as molecules inside a vacuum chamber. Since large-scale structures are ensemble of atoms, therefore, they can be treated as molecules possessing finite amount of energy. Instead of considering that space is expanding, the paper emphasizes upon the actual recession of large-scale structures. The study conducted in this paper finds the recessional behaviour of large-scale structures to be consistent with the recessional behaviour of molecules. Redshift-distance relation has been plotted for 580 Type Ia supernovae from the Supernova Cosmology Project; the reason for the deviation of the Hubble diagram from exhibiting a linear redshift-distance relation for the structures belonging to the remote Universe has been explained by introducing the concept of “acceleration phase”. This concept further explains the reason for the observed accelerating expansion of the Universe. It is suggested through this concept that accelerating structures belonging to the remote Universe will attain a constant recessional velocity in future.
Category: Astrophysics

[1843] viXra:1811.0451 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-27 13:50:21

Pioneering Astrophysics in a Pennsylvania Garage

Authors: Savior F. Eason
Comments: 44.5 Pages. Quantum experimentation methods self-funded/Auto-sourced, and NSA approved. Other proofs or links to them not provided in paper

A little bit about my own research in my garage, and astronomical discoveries such as; -A new star based on the fusion of new exotic particles, fueled by core seeming to signal itself to be some sort of singularity, a concentration of Quantum displacement -A new kind of collapsar -Waves of temporal displacement, how this could be applied to space tech and what this means, and how gravitational waves have already proved hyper-space -Artificial spatial displacement replicated on a mind-blowing scale -Universe power sources, The nature of dark matter and dark energy exposed, and "Project: Junkship" -A new kind of celestial object -Explaining my own fully operational invention, "The Navigator", which would generate Quantum waves using planck-scale ripples in Space-time made using natural gravity, and use them to create a full-map of our entire universe beyond what we could observe or ever observe -The true nature of Hyperfluid space-time and "Hyperstrings" exposed in the latest data, as well as a true faith-leaping challenge I've tasked myself with in "Project: Portal" and other related projects. -"Pioneer" expeditions, Extraterrestrial searches, and laser probing data -Energy applications of Neurotomic Waves, Planck energy tests, and additional Quantum tests of Neurotomic waves, plus what these waves actually are -How the navigator detected the cosmic Mandelbrot -The irony of my research, how I plan on getting this out into the public more(Besides through this paper) It also ends with my own cosmic perspective and my philosophy for my research, which I think all scientists should live by to be successful and think bigger. (The paper additionally describes where to get more updates on my research)
Category: Astrophysics

[1842] viXra:1811.0426 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-26 10:25:11

Magnetic Fields in White Dwarfs

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Magnetic fields are present in a large variety of stars across the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, during all evolutionary stages from pre-main sequence stars, to main sequence stars and evolved stars, up to the final stages when the star explodes as a supernova. [22] Based on a new theoretical model, a team of scientists explored the rich data archive of ESA's XMM-Newton and NASA's Chandra space observatories to find pulsating X-ray emission from three sources. [21] CfA astronomer David James was a member of a large international team systematically searching for new gravitationally lensed quasars. [20] For the first time astronomers have detected gravitational waves from a merged, hyper-massive neutron star. [19] A group of scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) at the University of Copenhagen will soon start developing a new line of technical equipment in order to dramatically improve gravitational wave detectors. [18]
Category: Astrophysics

[1841] viXra:1811.0422 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-26 16:29:43

The Moon Orbit Analysis

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 48 Pages.

The Moon Orbit Analysis Earth Moon motion has specific 4 points which are: 1.Perigee Point (R1): Radius 363000 km from Earth (the nearest point) 2.Total Solar Eclipse (R2): Radius 377000 km from Earth 3.Average Moon Orbit (R3) : Radius 384000 km (registered) 4.Apogee Point (R4): Radius 406000 km from Earth (the most far point) These 4 points are defined by 4 geometrical rules which are: -(1st Rule) Pythagoras rule : R2n + (86000km)2= R2n+1 (why 86000 km? we'll discuss that in this paper) -(2nd Rule) Moon Orbital Circumference at Rn= (1/Rn+1) -(3rd Rule) (Moon Orbital Circumference at Rn+1/ Moon Orbital Circumference at Rn) =1.0725 -(4th Rule) The Rate 365.25 This paper tries to prove this fact, and discusses more deep question… why the moon orbital different radiuses are defined by these 4 geometrical rules?
Category: Astrophysics

[1840] viXra:1811.0404 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-25 06:02:39

Towards Helmholtz’s Electron Vortex from Kolmogorov’s Theory of Turbulenc

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Robert Neil Boyd
Comments: 23 Pages. This paper has been submitted to Applied Physics Letters. Your comments are welcome

In the present paper, these authors argue on actual reasons why Hilbert’s axiomatic program to unify gravitation theory and electromagnetism failed completely. An outline of plausible resolution of this problem is given here, based on: a) Gödel’s incompleteness theorem, b) Newton’s aether stream model. More experiments and observations are called to verify this new hypothesis, albeit it is inspired from Newton’s theory himself. A new theory of electron creation process was proposed based on Helmholtz's electron vortex and Kolmogorov's theory of turbulence.
Category: Astrophysics

[1839] viXra:1811.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-25 06:05:22

A Few Calculations of Receding Moon from Spherical Kinetic Dynamics, Receding Planetary Orbits, and the Quantization of Celestial Motions

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Robert Neil Boyd
Comments: 12 Pages. This paper has been submitted to EuroSciConf 2019. Your comments are welcome

The present article discusses some interesting phenomena including the Lense-Thirring type anomalous precession, using a known spherical kinetic dynamics approach. Other implications include a plausible revised version of the celestial quantization equation described by Nottale and Rubcic & Rubcic. If the proposition described herein corresponds to the facts, then this kinetic dynamics interpretation of ‘frame-dragging’ effect could be viewed as a step to unification between GTR-type phenomena and QM. Further observation to verify or refute this conjecture is recommended, plausibly using LAGEOS-type satellites. Keywords: Lense-Thirring effect, celestial quantization, LAGEOS satellite, boson condensation, gravitation
Category: Astrophysics

[1838] viXra:1811.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-25 15:01:10

How to Destroy Dead Stars So They Can Be Recycled

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 4 Pages. 1 hand drawn illustration, 2 illustrations, 1 pie chart

Methods for destroying dead stars are shown. Some methods leave rings and disks, some asteroids, some meteorites, some giant interstellar dust clouds. This is all based on the discovery outlined via stellar metamorphosis. All stars evolve into what scientists call "planet/exoplanet". This means planets are ancient stars, and nature destroys and recycles them.
Category: Astrophysics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[638] viXra:1904.0054 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-04 03:54:59

Pioneer 10 Anomaly Calling Into Question Einstein's Second Postulate

Authors: Fabien Sabinet
Comments: 3 Pages. Some precisions in the title and in the article...

Based on the anomalous acceleration acting on Pioneer 10 with a magnitude of 8.7×10-10 m/s² directed towards the Sun, we can demonstrate that there is serious indication that the anomaly is due to the use of a wrong Doppler shift formula by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Indeed if we compare the result given by the formula used by JPL based on the Einstein's second postulate, and the result given by the classic Galilean velocity addition formula, we found exactly the value of the anomalous acceleration acting on Pioneer 10 toward the Sun.
Category: Astrophysics

[637] viXra:1902.0326 [pdf] replaced on 2019-02-20 04:49:03

Comment on “Flat Rotation Curve Without Dark Matter: the Generalized Newton’s Law of Gravitation”

Authors: M.E. Hassani
Comments: 4 Pages ; 4 References

In a relatively recent article by Arbab I. Arbab (Astrophys. Space Sci. 355, 343, 2015), the author claimed that the problem of flat rotation curve could be solved in the context of the so-called‘generalized Newton's law of gravitation’ without resorting to the dark matter. However, the present comment proves more conclusively that the proposed formulae and the calculations are physico-mathematically wrong. Consequently, the author's claim is mathematically and physically highly questionable.
Category: Astrophysics

[636] viXra:1901.0012 [pdf] replaced on 2019-02-08 10:30:52

An ab Initio Definition of Life Pertaining to Astrobiology

Authors: Ian Hegner von Hegner
Comments: 13 Pages.

Abstract Many definitions of life have been put forward in the course of time, but none have emerged to entirely encapsulate life. Putting forward an adequate definition is not a simple matter to do, despite many people seeming to believe they have an intuitive understanding of what is meant when it is stated that something is life. However, it is important to do define life, because we ourselves, individually and collectively, are life, which entails an importance in itself. Furthermore, humankind’s capability to look for life on other planets is steadily becoming a real possibility. But in order to realize that search, a definition of life is required. Progress has been made. Life is a complex, but natural phenomena that emerged and has been maintained under the dual demands of thermodynamics and evolution. Thus, any definition of life must include thermodynamics specifically, as well as evolution generally. A definition of life can be obtained through the application of first principles from physics, chemistry and biology. It must encapsulate the minimal properties that are shared between all life and demonstrate that the interconnected aspects of life are unique for precisely life and that it collectively does things other phenomena do not, as well as describe what life is. Thus, the following ab initio definition can be put forward: LifeTerra is a genome-containing, self-sustaining, chemical dissipative system that maintains its localized level of organization at the expense of producing entropy in the environment; which has developed its numerous characteristics through pluripotential Darwinian evolution.
Category: Astrophysics

[635] viXra:1812.0318 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-10 00:58:18

Sunqm-3s9: Using {N,n} QM to Explain the Sunspot Drift, the Continental Drift, and Sun’s and Earth’s Magnetic Dynamo

Authors: Yi Cao
Comments: 20 Pages.

In this paper, a Ylm cycle model with two phases has been proposed. In phase-1 of Ylm cycle, nLL effect induces a |nLL> mode mass peaking and upwelling below the surface of an {N,n}o orbit shell, and generates a equatorial fast flow stream at the surface. As phase-1 progress, the equatorial fast flow stream gets narrower and shallower, and eventually diminished. In phase-2 of Ylm cycle, |n,L,m=0..L-1> modes cause mass peaking and upwelling below the surface of the same {N,n}o orbit shell but at high latitude region, and generates an effective equatorial slow flow stream at the surface. This (equivalent) slow flow stream also gets narrower and shallower, and eventually diminished. This single model has been used to explain the sunspot drift on Sun’s surface, the continental drift on Earth surface, and both Sun’s and Earth’s magnetic dynamo. The alternation between two phases of Ylm cycle not only alternates the orientation of Sun’s (or Earth’s) magnetic field, but also supports the supercontinent cycle model. Under this model, the apparent random drift of post-Pangaea continents can be nicely depicted as an expected hydrodynamic result of a broken dam through a mouth located near the south end of South America continent. In papers of SunQM-3s6, SunQM-3s7, and SunQM-3s8, I used radial wave function R(nl) to predict the mass density r-distribution for all planets and Sun, plus the QM structure evolution for rocky planets and Sun. In papers of SunQM-3s3 and SunQM-3s9, I used spherical wave function Y(lm) to explain planets’ and Sun’s atmosphere movement, surface (or mantle) movement, and internal mass movement. Therefore, results from all these papers reveal that for all planets and stars, not only they were formed and evolved under planet’s (or star’s) QM, but the current movement of their internal mass is also determined by the planet’s (or star’s) QM.
Category: Astrophysics

[634] viXra:1812.0302 [pdf] replaced on 2019-03-08 23:04:26

Sunqm-3s7: Predict Mass Density R-Distribution for Gas/ice Planets, and the Superposition of {N,n//q} or |qnlm> QM States for Planet/star

Authors: Yi Cao
Comments: 18 Pages.

Using the same method developed in paper SunQM-3s6, the (close to the true) mass density r-distribution for gas/ice planets has been estimated based on {N,n} QM probability distribution. Based on this calculation (as well as on other scientists’ calculation), the center core mass density for Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and the undiscovered {3,2} planet (if it does formed) are estimated to be: ~ 26000 kg/m^3, ~ 23000 kg/m^3, ~ 16500 kg/m^3, ~ 17000 kg/m^3, and ~ 16000 kg/m^3 respectively. Although a celestial body’s formation is primarily based on G-force, after passing a critical mass point (estimated between 1E+19 kg to 7E+22 kg), the {N,n} QM-force starts to affect the internal structure of this celestial body. For an in situ formed (large) celestial body, its {N,n} QM governed radial structure is always coupled with its gravity governed radial structure, although they may be de-coupled under certain situation. If we define the pFactor's quantum number as “q”, then a p{N,n//q} QM state can be written as |qnlm>. The analysis suggests that q is also a superpositioned quantum number in |qnlm> QM state. The analysis reveals that Jupiter’s current QM structure p{N,n//5} may not be at a Jupiter-massed celestial body’s “global energy minimum” state. In other words, among all possible superpositional q(s), q=5 may not be the ground state for a Jupiter-massed celestial body’s |qnlm> state. The analysis also suggests that q=6 is a Sun-massed celestial body’s “global energy minimum” state, so Solar system’s {N,n//6} QM structure is a |qnlm> ground state for the quantum number q.
Category: Astrophysics

[633] viXra:1812.0228 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-16 05:09:34

Equal Sized Rigid String Based New Black Holes do not Merge But, Form Herbig Haro Systems.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 25 Pages.

In Q-FFF Theory, equal sized Rigid String based Black Holes do not merge but, form Herbig Haro systems with a White Hole (also called Wormhole) in the middle as the center of plasma jet production. Q-FFF Theory postulates, that all rigid string based black holes (Bhs), with variable sizes, from semi-stable Ball lightning up to stable Comets, Dual Herbig Haro black hole bow shocks and even dual Galaxy Anchor Bhs, are negative charged from the outside and positive charged from the inside. Q-FFF = Quantum Function Follows Form at the stringy quantum scale. The origin of different charged Bh zones, is counter intuitive 1: the Bh repulsion of all Fermions and 2: the continuous pair production out of the chiral oscillating Axion-Higgs particle based vacuum lattice at the BH horizon and 3: the preference for positrons in the chiral vacuum, to merge with photons, forming a positive charged quark plasma at the inside of the Bh horizon. (see poster below)
Category: Astrophysics

[632] viXra:1811.0493 [pdf] replaced on 2019-03-17 10:18:05

Molecules May Explain the Expansion of the Universe

Authors: Karan R.Takkhi
Comments: 18 pages, 9 figures, 8 tables

The Hubble diagram continues to remain one of the most important graphical representations in the realm of astronomy and cosmology right from its genesis that depicts the velocity-distance relation for the receding large-scale structures within the Universe; it is the diagram that helps us to understand the Universe’s expansion. In this paper I introduce the molecular expansion model in order to explain the expansion of the Universe. The molecular expansion model considers the large-scale structures as gas molecules undergoing free expansion. Since large-scale structures are ensemble of atoms, therefore, they must behave like molecules possessing finite amount of energy. Instead of considering that space is expanding, the paper emphasizes upon the actual recession of large-scale structures. I show in this paper that the linear velocity-distance relation or the Hubble diagram is actually a natural feature of gas molecules undergoing free expansion. Molecules being natural entities provide a natural and viable explanation. The study conducted in this paper finds the recessional behaviour of large-scale structures to be consistent with the recessional behaviour of molecules. The free expansion of gas molecules is found to be homogeneous, isotropic and in agreement with the Copernican principle. Redshift-distance relationship has been plotted for 580 type Ia supernovae from the Supernova Cosmology Project data and the reason for the deviation of the Hubble diagram from linearity at high redshifts has been explained by introducing the concept of differential molecular expansion.
Category: Astrophysics

[631] viXra:1811.0493 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-13 04:32:22

Molecules May Explain the Expansion of the Universe

Authors: Karan R.Takkhi
Comments: 15 pages, 6 tables, 6 graphs, 1 figure

The Hubble diagram continues to remain one of the most important graphical representations in the realm of astronomy and cosmology right from its genesis that depicts the velocity-distance relation for the receding large-scale structures within the observable Universe; it is the diagram that helps us to understand the expansion of the Universe. In this paper I introduce the molecular expansion model in order to explain the expansion of the Universe. The molecular expansion model considers the distribution of large-scale structures as molecules inside a vacuum chamber. Since large-scale structures are ensemble of atoms, therefore, they can be treated as molecules possessing finite amount of energy. Instead of considering that space is expanding, the paper emphasizes upon the actual recession of large-scale structures. The study conducted in this paper finds the recessional behaviour of large-scale structures to be consistent with the recessional behaviour of molecules. Redshift-distance relation has been plotted for 580 Type Ia supernovae from the Supernova Cosmology Project, and, the reason for the deviation of the Hubble diagram from exhibiting a linear redshift-distance relation for the structures belonging to the remote Universe has been explained by introducing the concept of “acceleration phase”. This concept further explains the reason for the observed accelerating expansion of the Universe. It is suggested through this concept that accelerating structures belonging to the remote Universe will attain a constant recessional velocity in future.
Category: Astrophysics