Astrophysics

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[1825] viXra:1811.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-12 15:13:07

Neptune Data shows The Solar Group Geometry (Part 2)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 10 Pages.

Simply…. Are these relationships found based on Geometrical Reasons or by pure coincidences? Some Examples (1) -Mercury Saturn Distance = Neptune Pluto Distance = 1375 mkm -Saturn Pluto Distance =Mercury Neptune Distance = 4437 mkm -Mars orbital circumference 1433.5 mkm = Saturn orbital distance = Uranus Saturn distance = Neptune orbital distance /π = -Jupiter Pluto distance 5092 mkm = Uranus Neptune distance x π -Saturn orbital distance 1433.5mkm= Saturn diameter x Venus diameter = (Venus Circumference)2= (2) i.Earth Moon Distance at Perigee point =363000 km = Solar Outer Planets Diameters Total (error 1%) ii.Earth Moon Distance at Apogee point =406000 km = Solar Planets Diameters Total iii.The Distance between Perigee and Apogee = 40000km = Inner Solar Planets Diameters Total = Earth Circumference. iv.Earth daily motion = The moon orbit circumference at apogee radius (r=406000 km) v.Saturn Circumference = Earth Moon Distance at total solar eclipse radius (r=377000km) vi.Note Please/ Solar Planets Diameters Total= 2 Jupiter diameters + 1 Saturn diameter (i.e. Jupiter diameter = 8 solar planets diameters total) vii.2 Neptune Circumference = outer planets diameters total (without Neptune) (1.8%) (3) -Sun Diameter = Jupiter Diameter x π2 (error 1.4%) And -Saturn Diameter = Venus Diameter x π2 (error 0.8%) (4) -Jupiter orbital Period 4331 days = Mars Orbital Period 687 days x 2π (error 0.3%) -Mars Orbital Period 687 days = Earth Orbital Period 365.25 days x 1.9 (Mars orbital inclination = 1.9 degrees) -Mars Orbital Period 687 days = Moon Orbital Period 27.3 days x 25.2 (Mars axial tilt= 25.2 degrees) -Saturn orbital period10747 d.=Earth orbital period 365.25 d. x Synodic month 29.5 d. (5) -17.4 degree (inner planet orbital inclinations total) x 0.99 = 17.2 degree (Pluto orbital inclination) -23.6 degree (outer planet orbital inclinations total) x 0.99 = 23.4 degree (Earth axial tilt (6) -Mercury moves a distance = 720 mkm during his day period (4222.6 hours) (Mercury Jupiter Distance = 720 mkm)! -Venus orbital circumference = 680 mkm but Venus Jupiter distance = 670 mkm (error 1.5%) -Earth orbital circumference = 940 mkm but Earth Jupiter distance (when both of them be at 2 different sides from the sun = 778.6 mkm +149.6 mkm = 928.2 mkm (error 1.25%)… why 3 planets define their orbital distances relating to their positions from Jupiter?!
Category: Astrophysics

[1824] viXra:1811.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-11 09:52:40

Sea to Land Animal Transformation: An Expansion to the Elysium Transition in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 hand drawn illustration

An expansion to the Elysium transition is made concerning the evolution of life on Earth. It is proposed that life transformed from sea to land capable animals at the poles, and moved its way towards the equator as the oceans thinned during late ocean world stages of stellar evolution. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[1823] viXra:1811.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-11 19:03:29

"Neptune Data shows The Solar Group Geometry"

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 10 Pages.

Neptune Data supports the following conclusions: 1-The solar group is created from one energy only 2-The solar group is built by one geometrical structure and each planet is a part in this geometrical structure (or the solar group is a body and each planet is a member in it) 3-This geometrical structure causes to produce all solar planets data to be suitable for its job in this geometrical structure (which guarantees the planets motions harmony) 4-The solar planet motion real trajectory is square but we see it as an ellipse because of the moon orbit geometrical effect. 5-The Metonic Cycle (6939.75 days) is a motion in a vertical level relative to the solar inner planets horizontal level. 6-The moon orbit regression yearly 19 degrees is done because of Neptune and Uranus effect on the moon orbit geometrical structure.
Category: Astrophysics

[1822] viXra:1811.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-12 02:05:51

Computational Assignment of Vibrational Frequency Bands Facilitates the Identification of Interstellar Peptides and Spectroscopic Parallaxes.

Authors: Pardis Tabaee Damavandi, Richard W Pickersgill, Martin T Dove
Comments: 5 Pages.

Spectroscopic parallax is the measure of the distance between two stars or celestial objects and relies on the stellar spectral type and luminosity class defined by the Morgan-Keenan classification system. UV, IR (Infrared), Raman or Optical spectrographic instruments are integrated in many telescopes and are used to obtain information on brightness, temperature (surface), density and velocities. Stars are classified based on their type and on their brightness, which allow us to obtain distances to them, however, with previous classification systems, the star’s size (dwarf, giant or supergiant) and composition (heavy metal versus carbon stars) were also used. The Morgan-Keenan classification offers information on the star colour (very blue, red) and the type, although the infrared wavelengths are approximately > 9000 Å, falling in the near-infrared range; spectra can be ulteriorly divided into continuous, band and linear. Band spectra are usually descriptive of molecular compounds and are the ones that we immersed in, by venturing an interpretation of the Raman-IR band spectra of neutral glycine (or NT glycine). Our method consisted in using vibrational dynamics (VD), the study of atomic oscillations within a molecule, after obtaining experimental vibrations for glycine through Raman or IR literature data. These techniques have been widely used in the past, along with X-ray or neutron scattering diffraction techniques, however, in recent years, researchers have used density functional theory, ab intio, or other computer simulation methods that facilitate band recognition. The goal of this work is to apply vibrational dynamics studies to the structure of NT glycine, and to then compare these values with its IR and Raman frequencies. By analyzing both simulation results and empirical data, we gain important information about the vibration modes of glycine. This study also shows that ‘invisible’ bands can be ‘detected’ with this technique. VD could therefore be used in the measurement of stellar abundances and to refine the quality of experimental Raman-IR data.
Category: Astrophysics

[1821] viXra:1811.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-10 08:45:23

The Charge Engine of Stellar Evolution

Authors: Daniel Archer
Comments: 4 pages, 1 page is only references, 5 pictures

All matter recycles photons . This charge engine is explained, demonstrated visually and applied to the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis (GTSM). The charge engine is the underlying driver of all evolutionary processes of Astrons (stars and planets); it is what enables astrons to be dynamic and open systems and have lifespans of many billions of years.
Category: Astrophysics

[1820] viXra:1811.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-10 19:31:57

Solar Planet Motion Trajectory Is A Square (Proves No.2)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 10 Pages.

Solar Planet Motion Trajectory Is Square And Not An Ellipse This papers provides 2 proves for this claim 1-Earth Cycle (365+365+365+366) = 1461 days… the previous Cycle consists of 4 years and can be used as square form..! but the square is 4 equal distances and not periods of time…?! But We have discussed before that the time and distance values can be equivalent in some cases in the solar group geometrical structure… which means the value which we see as period of time may work as distance for another observer… (Why Earth has this 4 sidereal years Cycle?) Please review The Time definition 2-Mars Immigration proves that the solar planet motion trajectory is square and not an ellipse (This Paper discusses This Point Only) Please review Mars Immigration Proves (Revised)
Category: Astrophysics

[1819] viXra:1811.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-09 19:27:36

Solar Planet Motion Trajectory Is A Square (Proves)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 22 Pages.

The Moon Orbit Uses Earth Circumference To Cover The Solar Planet Motion Real Trajectory (Which Is A Square) And To Show The Imaginary One (An Ellipse) i.e. The Solar Planet Real Trajectory Is A Square But The Moon Orbit Uses Earth Circumference To Cover This Real Trajectory And Shows The Imaginary One Which Is The An Ellipse…
Category: Astrophysics

[1818] viXra:1811.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-08 19:03:19

Solar Planet Motion Trajectory Is A Square And Not An Ellipse

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 9 Pages.

Research Paper "Solar Planet Motion Trajectory Is A Square And Not An Ellipse" Abstract The Solar Planet Motion Trajectory Is A Square And Not An Ellipse, And We See This Trajectory As Ellipse Because Of The Earth Moon Structure I provide here a clear claim …. let's summarize it in following: 1-The solar planet motion trajectory is a square and not an ellipse, 2-We see the planet motion trajectory as ellipse (kepler 1st law is correct) 3-The moon orbit geometrical structure prevents us to see the solar planet motion real trajectory (the square) and covers it by an imaginary trajectory (the ellipse) This paper tries to prove this claim Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Category: Astrophysics

[1817] viXra:1811.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-06 10:06:10

Can Energy Possessed by a Galaxy Cluster Account for its Dark Matter Content?

Authors: Karan R.Takkhi
Comments: 2 pages

In this paper I present the study of massive galaxy clusters. I take into account the energy possessed by the galaxy clusters and the equivalent amount of mass that gets added to them due to that much amount of energy possessed by them. The study shows that the mass of dark matter within galaxy clusters that is believed to account for 90% of their mass nearly coincides with the mass equivalent to the energy possessed by them. The mass equivalent to the energy possessed by the galaxy clusters should amicably account for the observed gravitational lensing associated with galaxy clusters, stability of the clusters, as well as for the observed cluster kinematics and dynamics.
Category: Astrophysics

[1816] viXra:1811.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-06 11:46:42

Time-Resolved Imaging of Model Astrophysical Jets

Authors: Theodoros Smponias
Comments: 31 Pages.

An approximate, time-delayed imaging algorithm is implemented, within existing line-of- sight code. The resulting program acts on hydrocode output data, producing synthetic images, depicting what a model relativistic astrophysical jet looks like to a stationary observer. The software has the potential to study a variety of dynamical astrophysical phenomena, in collaboration with other imaging and simulation tools. A number of tests are performed, in order to confirm the validity of code results, and also to present the features of the software. The above demonstrate the potential of the computer program to help interpret astrophysical jet observations.
Category: Astrophysics

[1815] viXra:1811.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-06 16:22:46

Solar Planets Motions Trajectory is A Pyramid or A Cone? (Part II)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 10 Pages.

The Solar Planets Motions Trajectory is A Pyramid Form and Not A Cone Let's summarize the idea in following: I-The Solar Planets are Found On Different Horizontal Levels (Steps) Which makes The Solar Group As A Ladder. Based On That, When The Planets revolve Around The Sun, They create A Pyramid Form For Their Motions Trajectory (The Main Hypothesis) II-The Planet revolution around the sun which we see in ellipse form in fact it's square form. III-i.e. What we see in circle (ellipse form), Its real form is (a square) IV-For that reason the Planets motions Trajectory is A Pyramid and not A Cone This Paper tries to prove this fact
Category: Astrophysics

[1814] viXra:1811.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-05 19:17:23

Solar Planets Motions Trajectory is a Pyramid (Part i)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 7 Pages.

Research Paper "Solar Planets Motions Trajectory is A pyramid (Part I)" Abstract The Study Hypothesis: The Solar Planets are Found On Different Horizontal Levels Which makes The Solar Group As A Ladder (Different Steps Of Ladder) Based On That, When The Planets revolve Around The Sun, They create A Pyramid Form For Their Motions Trajectory…. The solar planets are found on horizontal level (even in different steps) which creates the ladder form for the solar group… but "Uranus – Neptune – Pluto" are found on vertical direction relating to the other planets We complete the discussion of The Solar Group Geometrical Structure is A Pyramid (Revised)
Category: Astrophysics

[1813] viXra:1811.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-04 13:18:44

The Solar Group Geometrical Structure is A Pyramid (Revised)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 46 Pages.

The Solar Group Is A Pyramid Abstract Let's explain this idea in following: -The sun is found on the Pyramid Apex -Each Planet is found on different level which makes the solar group as a ladder -The planets (Mercury - Saturn - Neptune – Pluto) form the Pyramid Base -The players (The sun – Earth – Moon – Mars) form the pyramid Height (The Pyramid Main Column) -The rest planets form the Pyramid walls -The pyramid is consisted by the planets motions i.e. -The Pyramid Is The Solar Planets Motions Trajectory… -The Pyramid Base and Height consist from different planets levels on the ladder… Best Regards Gerges Francis Tawdrous TEL +201022532292
Category: Astrophysics

[1812] viXra:1811.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-04 21:28:47

Spiral Galaxy Rotation Curves and Arm Formation Without Dark Matter or MOND

Authors: Tarun Biswas
Comments: 6 pages, 7 figures

Usual explanations of spiral galaxy rotation curves assume circular orbits of stars. The consequences of giving up this assumption were investigated through a couple of models in an earlier communication. Here, further investigations of one of these models (the spinner model) shows that it can explain the formation of the spiral arms as well. It is also shown that the behavior of the tail of the rotation curve is related to the age of the galaxy. The spinner model conjectures the existence of a spinning hot disk around a spherical galactic core. The disk is held together by local gravity and electromagnetic scattering forces. However, it disintegrates at the edge producing fragments that form stars. Once separated from the disk, the stars experience only the centrally directed gravitational force due to the massive core and remaining disk. A numerical simulation shows that a high enough angular velocity of the disk produces hyperbolic stellar trajectories that agree with the observed rotation curves. Besides the rotation curves, the simulation generates two other observable features of spiral galaxies. First, it shows the formation of spiral arms and their nearly equal angular separations. Second, it determines that, for large radial distances, younger galaxies have rotation curves that dip downwards and older galaxies have a rising trend. The strength of this model lies in the fact that it does not require the postulation of dark matter or MOND. This model also revisits the method of estimation of star age. As the stars are formed from an already hot disk, they do not start off as cold collections of dust and gas. Hence, their ages are expected to be significantly less than what current models estimate. This explains why they have not escaped the galaxy in spite of their hyperbolic trajectories.
Category: Astrophysics

[1811] viXra:1811.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-03 16:44:10

Elemental Mass Equilibrium in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 illustration

A new concept is introduced to further expand the general theory. It is the concept of elemental mass equilibrium. When the star evolves the total mass of all its hydrogen will be equal to the total mass of iron, reaching what is called the elemental mass equilibrium point. All highly evolved stars have passed through this point. Explanation is provided with a hand drawn graph to illustrate the concept.
Category: Astrophysics

[1810] viXra:1811.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-02 07:47:23

On Anomaluos Acceleration, Atypical Shape and Others Unexpected Features of First Detected Interstellar Interloper ´OUMUAMUA

Authors: José J. Astorkia
Comments: Pages.

The first interstellar interloper observed 1I/2017 U1 OUMUAMUA presents unexpected features in a interstellar minor body. This paper shows plausible scenery that cause changes in these features in solar system journey, from expected in a interstellar minor body to observed in ´Oumuamua.
Category: Astrophysics

[1809] viXra:1811.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-02 20:21:42

The Solar Group Geometrical Structure is A Pyramid

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 37 Pages.

I claim that The solar group geometrical structure is a pyramid Form Where the sun is in the Pyramid Head And the solar outer planets form the Pyramid Base…. This paper tries to prove this fact..
Category: Astrophysics

[1808] viXra:1811.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-01 16:39:51

Earth Axial Tilt

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 9 Pages.

Earth axial tilt 23.4 degrees effects on many other solar planets in addition to the Earth, Which proves that, The solar group is one body (or one machine), each planet should be considered as a member in this same body where all solar planets are created from the same energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[1807] viXra:1810.0510 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-30 09:30:22

Dark Matter Day

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Researchers have declared October 31st "Dark Matter Day," a day with many events dedicated to dark matter all over the world. [21] Scientists have a new window into the search for dark matter – an acrylic vessel that features a grouping of 12-foot-tall transparent tanks with 1-inch-thick walls. [20] Fermilab scientists are harnessing quantum technology in the search for dark matter. [19] According to a new study, they could also potentially detect dark matter, if dark matter is composed of a particular kind of particle called a "dark photon." [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called " dark photons " in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1806] viXra:1810.0498 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-31 06:19:39

Material Orbiting Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

ESO's exquisitely sensitive GRAVITY instrument has added further evidence to the long-standing assumption that a supermassive black hole lurks in the centre of the Milky Way. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1805] viXra:1810.0494 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-29 10:00:23

Electrons Mimic Astrophysical Dynamos

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 82 Pages.

The authors say that it's not yet clear how best to kickstart a dynamo on a small sliver of Weyl semimetal. [44] Schematic of a magnetic nozzle rf plasma thruster (helicon plasma thruster) having two open source exits and photographs of the three operation modes in the laboratory test. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36]
Category: Astrophysics

[1804] viXra:1810.0485 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-29 18:28:13

Kepler 3rd Law Explanation (Part No.2) (To Support my Claim Against Nobel Prize Board Decision in Physics 2018)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 9 Pages.

In my previous paper Kepler 3rd Law Explanation (a Claim against Nobel Prize Board Decision in Physics 2018) http://vixra.org/abs/1810.0053 I have discussed another vision for Kepler 3rd law… In that paper I claimed, Kepler 3rd Law proves that, the solar group is one machine or one body where each planet should be considered as a member in this same body… Also I claimed, Kepler 3rd law contradicts Newton Mechanics basically because Newton Mechanics considers each planet is separated and independent from other planets in his data and motion where the gravity forces produce the harmony in their motions… In this paper we'll discuss one more question …let's ask it here? Do we understand correctly Kepler Laws' Vision? And why we misunderstood them? Let's see deeply as possible… Kepler stated a clear rule that, "The Planet Velocity varies inversely with his Orbital Distance" What did we conclude from this rule? The force is related to the sun, So The further Planet from the sun the slower velocity he has….! The meaning is clear ….. this idea is the base on which the gravity concept is created Let's try to see Kepler 3rd Law with more depth… d3/t2 = constant (C) (Kepler 3rd Law) But we know that… a (acceleration) = d/t2 ……that means…… a (acceleration) x d2 = constant i.e. d2 = Constant / a (acceleration)(I) The equation tells us that, the planet acceleration various inversely with his squared orbital distance! Is this meaning = the previous one?! The Space is Energy Can we deduce another vision from Equation No. I ?! Let's use my description to explain this Equation….let remember it… -The solar group is one body each planet is a member in this body -The mass is Energy (E=mc2), and the space is energy (my hypothesis), and planet motion needs energy… -The mass and distance are created from the same energy which guarantees the planets motions general harmony. Now let's suppose that, -Each planet has an equal amount of Energy for these 3 purposes (mass, distance and motion) That means More area from the sun needs more energy which means the planet velocity will be decreased because the mass energy is fixed and can't be changed in ordinary cases … That's the meaning we have got from Equation No. (I) which told us the area (not distance) varies inversely with the planet motion acceleration…. Deep Discussion I try here to explain the negative effects which are resulted because of basic definitions absence Where we have no definitions of Space, matter, time …etc and have no explanation how the matter is created or by what mechanism the gravity works…. Many basics were ignored in the way to create a description for the solar group Geometry and the result of this process is to create an imaginary description has no proof. Again I try to attribute this process to Newton Mechanics and not to Kepler Laws…. Let's read C.M.Linton words while he claim that kepler knew there's a relationship between the planet diameter and his orbital distance….. "Kepler thus assumed that the volumes of the planets were proportional to their distances to the sun and the quantity of matter they contained to the square root of this distance, so that planetary densities varied inversely as square root of the orbital radius and is this ad hoc way be could reproduced his third law (T2 varies with a3) and absorb into physical Astronomy" "From Eudexus to Einstein A history of Mathematical astronomy" (page 198-199) C.M. Linton – Cambridge university Press… From that, we can conclude Kepler Laws were created in environment tried to define the matter origin and creation… So, the gravity force description which assumes that each planet is independent from the others… this description is the strange one from Kepler Laws environment, that tells us, Kepler laws were cut from their environment to be used in strange environment can't provide its basics… So again the contradiction is clear enough… Kepler Laws provide a description for the solar group as one body or one machine where the planets integrate with each other to provide the motions general harmony, at the contrary Newton Mechanics provides a vision of separated points (separated plants) which cause difficulties to provide the motions general harmony. This paper tries to answer 2 questions 1-Why d3/t2 = constant? 2-Why the inner planets are distinguished from the outer planets? Gerges Francis Tawdrous TEL +201022532292 E-mailgeorgytawdrous@yandex.ru Linkedln https://eg.linkedin.com/in/gerges-francis-86a351a1 Facebook https://www.facebook.com/gergis.tawadrous Academia https://rudn.academia.edu/GergesTawadrous
Category: Astrophysics

[1803] viXra:1810.0477 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-28 11:21:21

Helium Production in Stellar Metamorphosis, or Where Did Earth's Helium Come From?

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

It is taught and accepted by the establishment's dogma that most of the helium on Earth is produced by radioactive decay. This is false. Most of the helium on Earth was simply trapped during crust formation during later stages of stellar evolution. This is why it is found and extracted mostly from natural gas deposits, and not uranium mines.
Category: Astrophysics

[1802] viXra:1810.0454 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-27 16:43:57

Star Densities During Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

A graph has been drawn up to show that the densities of stars changes as they evolve into life hosting stars. This is in accordance with the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis and facilitates the complete replacement of the dogma. Explanation is built in to the questions of why big hot stars are diffuse, and small red dwarfs are dense, and even explains why some Earth type objects are different densities.
Category: Astrophysics

[1801] viXra:1810.0424 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-25 18:47:21

The Polymorphic System HD 87646 and Its Associated Evolving Stars

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

It is taught and accepted by the dogma that all stars are the same age if they are seen orbiting young stars. This is false. The system HD 87646 is polymorphic, meaning it has stars in various stages of evolution as is predicted by the general theory. Generalizations and future predictions are made concerning this system.
Category: Astrophysics

[1800] viXra:1810.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-25 04:25:32

Sun Neutrino Snapshot

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Solar neutrinos stream out of the star at the center of our system at nearly the speed of light, as many as 420 billion hitting every square inch of the earth's surface per second. [18] The largest liquid-argon neutrino detector in the world has just recorded its first particle tracks, signaling the start of a new chapter in the story of the international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE). [17] While these experiments seem miniature in comparison to others, they could reveal answers about neutrinos that have been hiding from physicists for decades. [16] In a paper published today in the European Physical Journal C, the ATLAS Collaboration reports the first high-precision measurement at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the mass of the W boson. [15] A team of researchers at the University of Michigan has conducted a thought experiment regarding the nature of a universe that could support life without the weak force. [14] The international T2K Collaboration announces a first indication that the dominance of matter over antimatter may originate from the fact that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently during those oscillations. [13] Neutrinos are a challenge to study because their interactions with matter are so rare. Particularly elusive has been what's known as coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, which occurs when a neutrino bumps off the nucleus of an atom. [12] Lately, neutrinos – the tiny, nearly massless particles that many scientists study to better understand the fundamental workings of the universe – have been posing a problem for physicists. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9]
Category: Astrophysics

[1799] viXra:1810.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-23 19:51:54

Criticism Against The BIG BANG Theory

Authors: John Roach
Comments: 2 Pages.

Criticism Against the BIG BANG Theory Dedicated to the professional association, The Alternative Cosmology Group http://cosmology.info/open-letter/index.html https://hiltonratcliffe.com/tag/alternative-cosmology-group.info/open-letter/index.html
Category: Astrophysics

[1798] viXra:1810.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-22 08:33:34

Gravitational Waves on Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Researchers from the University of Zurich have now found that LISA could also shed light on the elusive dark matter particle. [19] A NASA rocket experiment could use the Doppler effect to look for signs of dark matter in mysterious X-ray emissions from space. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium— the vast, largely empty space between galaxies—to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1797] viXra:1810.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-22 09:13:01

New Method Detecting Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

The IAC researchers Jorge Casares, and Miguel A. Pérez Torres have tested a novel technique measuring the brightness of these binary pairs with a combination of filters centred on the line of hydrogen H-alpha. [21] Answering the question "How did galaxies form and evolve during the 13.8-billion-year history of the universe?" has been one top issue in modern astronomy. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1796] viXra:1810.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-21 23:32:02

The Observer Effect On The Observation Results (Space = Energy=mc2)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 6 Pages.

The Universe Matter is effected by Human Mind Thinking Process and the knowledge logic.
Category: Astrophysics

[1795] viXra:1810.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-19 15:36:07

Definition of Space (Revised)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 18 Pages.

The Space is Energy This supports the claim "There's A Relationship Between Planet Diameter And Orbital Distance" This paper discusses and tries to prove this fact
Category: Astrophysics

[1794] viXra:1810.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-18 08:33:53

Bose-Einstein Condensate in Space

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

An international team of researchers has successfully produced a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in space for the first time. [15] Researchers at UCM and CSS have encountered a partial violation of the second law of thermodynamics in a quantum system known as Hofstadter lattice. [13] Any understanding of the irreversibility of the arrow of time should account the quantum nature of the world that surrounds us. [12] Entropy, the measure of disorder in a physical system, is something that physicists understand well when systems are at equilibrium, meaning there's no external force throwing things out of kilter. But new research by Brown University physicists takes the idea of entropy out of its equilibrium comfort zone. [11] Could scientists use the Second Law of Thermodynamics on your chewing muscles to work out when you are going to die? According to research published in the International Journal of Exergy, the level of entropy, or thermodynamic disorder, in the chewing muscles in your jaw increases with each mouthful. This entropy begins to accumulate from the moment you're "on solids" until your last meal, but measuring it at any given point in your life could be used to estimate life expectancy. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Astrophysics

[1793] viXra:1810.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-17 07:07:21

Simulating the Early Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

The Big Bang has captured our imagination like no other theory in science: the magnificent, explosive birth of our Universe. [26] Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, and their colleagues from the international ALICE collaboration recently collided xenon nuclei in the superconducting Large Hadron Collider in order to gain new insights into the properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). [25] On October 16, 2017, an international group of astronomers and physicists excitedly reported the first simultaneous detection of light and gravitational waves from the same source—a merger of two neutron stars. [24] Researchers at Oregon State University have confirmed that last fall's union of two neutron stars did in fact cause a short gamma-ray burst. [23] Quark matter – an extremely dense phase of matter made up of subatomic particles called quarks – may exist at the heart of neutron stars. [22] When a massive astrophysical object, such as a boson star or black hole, rotates, it can cause the surrounding spacetime to rotate along with it due to the effect of frame dragging. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16]
Category: Astrophysics

[1792] viXra:1810.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-17 07:51:59

The Shape of a Wormhole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

A RUDN physicist demonstrated how to describe the shape of any symmetrical wormhole—a black hole that theoretically can be a kind of a portal between any two points in space and time—based on its wave spectrum. [22] RUDN astrophysicists have suggested an approach to simplify calculations of observable effects in the vicinity of black holes to which the mathematical apparatus of Einstein's classic relativity theory does not apply. [21] Answering the question "How did galaxies form and evolve during the 13.8-billion-year history of the universe?" has been one top issue in modern astronomy. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1791] viXra:1810.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-17 11:01:29

Magnetic Black Hole Activity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

SOFIA data indicate that magnetic fields are trapping and confining dust near the center of the active galaxy, Cygnus A, and feeding material onto the supermassive black hole at its center. [23] A RUDN physicist demonstrated how to describe the shape of any symmetrical wormhole—a black hole that theoretically can be a kind of a portal between any two points in space and time—based on its wave spectrum. [22] RUDN astrophysicists have suggested an approach to simplify calculations of observable effects in the vicinity of black holes to which the mathematical apparatus of Einstein's classic relativity theory does not apply. [21] Answering the question "How did galaxies form and evolve during the 13.8-billion-year history of the universe?" has been one top issue in modern astronomy. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13]
Category: Astrophysics

[1790] viXra:1810.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-17 11:21:23

Acrylic Dark Matter Detection

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Scientists have a new window into the search for dark matter – an acrylic vessel that features a grouping of 12-foot-tall transparent tanks with 1-inch-thick walls. [20] Fermilab scientists are harnessing quantum technology in the search for dark matter. [19] According to a new study, they could also potentially detect dark matter, if dark matter is composed of a particular kind of particle called a "dark photon." [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called " dark photons " in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1789] viXra:1810.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-16 06:53:47

Early Universe was Fluid

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, and their colleagues from the international ALICE collaboration recently collided xenon nuclei in the superconducting Large Hadron Collider in order to gain new insights into the properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). [25] On October 16, 2017, an international group of astronomers and physicists excitedly reported the first simultaneous detection of light and gravitational waves from the same source—a merger of two neutron stars. [24] Researchers at Oregon State University have confirmed that last fall's union of two neutron stars did in fact cause a short gamma-ray burst. [23] Quark matter – an extremely dense phase of matter made up of subatomic particles called quarks – may exist at the heart of neutron stars. [22] When a massive astrophysical object, such as a boson star or black hole, rotates, it can cause the surrounding spacetime to rotate along with it due to the effect of frame dragging. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16]
Category: Astrophysics

[1788] viXra:1810.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-16 04:56:23

Light and Gravitational Wave Source

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

On October 16, 2017, an international group of astronomers and physicists excitedly reported the first simultaneous detection of light and gravitational waves from the same source—a merger of two neutron stars. [24] Researchers at Oregon State University have confirmed that last fall's union of two neutron stars did in fact cause a short gamma-ray burst. [23] Quark matter – an extremely dense phase of matter made up of subatomic particles called quarks – may exist at the heart of neutron stars. [22] When a massive astrophysical object, such as a boson star or black hole, rotates, it can cause the surrounding spacetime to rotate along with it due to the effect of frame dragging. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14]
Category: Astrophysics

[1787] viXra:1810.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-14 09:49:03

Dinosaurs in 3 to 5 Bar Atmospheric Pressure

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. follow up to Mr. Levenspiel's paper

It was reasoned by another scientist that Earth’s atmosphere was probably around 3-5 Bar in thickness during the dinosaur age. This is in line with the atmospheric thinning principle of stellar metamorphosis. The thickness of stars’ atmospheres diminishes as the star evolves, therefore the dinosaurs lived in any atmospheric density greater than what it is now. In Mr. Levenspiel’s paper it is reasoned they probably lived in an atmosphere that was 3-5 times thicker than what it is now. As well, the further you go back in time to even before the dinosaurs, the atmosphere becomes thicker and thicker. This means that the atmosphere the dinosaurs lived in was thinned considerably from even earlier stages of stellar evolution, when Earth did not host life as we know it.
Category: Astrophysics

[1786] viXra:1810.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-13 10:26:57

Technische Anwendungen Zur Umwandlung Der Rotationsenergie Der Erde in Elektrische Energie in Theorie Und Praxis 4

Authors: Robert Stach
Comments: 20 Pages.

Aufgezeigt werden Möglichkeiten zur Umwandlung der Rotationsenergie der Erde in elektrische Energie. Es wird der Bezug dieser Anlagen zum Michelson- Experiment verdeutlicht, ebenso die sich daraus ergebenen Veränderungen für das 2. Postulat (Konstanz der Lichtgeschwindigkeit). Aufbauend auf den dargelegten physikalischen Gesetzmäßigkeiten erfolgt zum Ende des Manuskriptes die Einordnung der elektromagnetischen Strahlung in die bisherigen Theorien zur Dunklen Energie.
Category: Astrophysics

[1785] viXra:1810.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-12 06:36:37

A Beyond the Standard Model Solution using a Two-Step Integrated Physics/Mathematics Methodology

Authors: Antonio A. Colella
Comments: 24 Pages.

Two astrophysics issue resolution methodologies are: the prevailing Hawking et. al. single primarily mathematics step and a two-step integrated physics/mathematics consisting of a conceptual physics step followed by an equally important mathematics step. The prevailing single step provided most if not all of the spectacularly successful astrophysics achievements over the last century. However, it provided near zero results for multiple interrelated theories such as a beyond the Standard Model (BSM) and a Theory of Everything (TOE) solution. The prevailing single primarily mathematics step and the two-step integrated physics/mathematics methodologies are complementary and essential for future astrophysics achievements. The Standard Model (SM) consists of 16 matter and force particles: six quark matter particles (up, down, charm, strange, top, and bottom); six lepton matter particles (electron, muon, tau, electron-neutrino, muon-neutrino, and tau-neutrino); and four force particles (photon, W/Z’s, gluon, and Higgs). Although the SM is the gold standard of particle physics, it is inadequate because it: does not emphasize Higgs particles’ supremacy; does not differentiate between more important permanent and less important transient particles; defines only a single Higgs force; does not include the graviton; and does not include dark matter, dark energy, supersymmetry (SUSY), and super supersymmetry (SSUSY) of Higgs particles. Via amplification of four independent theories (superstring, particle creation, Higgs forces or bosons, and spontaneous symmetry breaking), the SM was amplified to Fig. 7 Fundamental SM/supersymmetric/super supersymmetric matter and force particles. The latter contained a total of 64 fundamental matter and force particles of which 22 were permanent and 42 transient. Figure 7 resolved all SM inadequacies and was a conceptual physics BSM solution.
Category: Astrophysics

[1784] viXra:1810.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-12 15:51:57

Definition of Space

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 12 Pages.

The Space is Energy This fact can be proved directly by Earth Jupiter Distance Analysis (627 million km) That means the matter and distance are created from Energy regardless their different forms (The sun rays is different from the oil but both are energy) This fact supports the main idea in my research that: The solar group is a trajectory of Energy and each planet is a point on this trajectory.
Category: Astrophysics

[1783] viXra:1810.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-10 07:45:03

Cosmological Lithium Problem

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 85 Pages.

This problem is among the still unresolved questions of the current standard description of the Big Bang. [46] Recent observations have created a puzzle for astrophysicists: Since the Big Bang, fewer galaxy clusters have formed over time than were actually expected. [45] Scanning the sky for X-ray sources, ESA's XMM-Newton X-ray observatory has been busy with the XXL Survey, its largest observational programme to date. [44] A duo of researchers from the Czech Republic has performed a study of the neutral hydrogen supershell known as GS242-03+37, a large structure in the Milky Way galaxy. [43] The energy transfer processes that occur in this collisionless space plasma are believed to be based on wave-particle interactions such as particle acceleration by plasma waves and spontaneous wave generation, which enable energy and momentum transfer. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38]
Category: Astrophysics

[1782] viXra:1810.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-10 09:39:39

Planets are Made Of

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

UZH researchers have analyzed the composition and structure of faraway exoplanets using statistical tools. [14] A carbon cycle anomaly discovered in carbonate rocks of the Neoproterozoic Hüttenberg Formation of northeastern Namibia follows a pattern similar to that found right after the Great Oxygenation Event, hinting at new evidence for how Earth's atmosphere became fully oxygenated. [13] The conditions for life surviving on planets entirely covered in water are more fluid than previously thought, opening up the possibility that water worlds could be habitable, according to a new paper from the University of Chicago and Pennsylvania State University. [12] Scientists at Rutgers University–New Brunswick and elsewhere are at a crossroads in their 50-year quest to go beyond the Standard Model in physics. [11] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines also the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[1781] viXra:1810.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-08 09:10:40

Dark Energy in String Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

A new conjecture is the cause of excitement in the string theory community. [23] Since the 1970s, astronomers and physicists have been gathering evidence for the presence in the universe of dark matter: a mysterious substance that manifests itself through its gravitational pull. [22] Today, an international group of researchers, including Carnegie Mellon University's Rachel Mandelbaum, released the deepest wide field map of the three-dimensional distribution of matter in the universe ever made and increased the precision of constraints for dark energy with the Hyper Suprime-Cam survey (HSC). [21] Scientists are hoping to understand one of the most enduring mysteries in cosmology by simulating its effect on the clustering of galaxies. [20] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved nearly $1 million in funding for the research team, which has been tasked with leveraging large-scale computer simulations and developing new statistical methods to help us better understand these fundamental forces. [19] According to a new study, they could also potentially detect dark matter, if dark matter is composed of a particular kind of particle called a "dark photon." [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called " dark photons " in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1780] viXra:1810.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-07 11:24:36

Kepler 406c, 406b and 406 According to Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages. 2 scans of original handwritten documents

Kepler 406, Kepler 406b and Kepler 406c are placed on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram. We will see that they are all vastly different in ages and stages of their own metamorphosis, as is predicted. This is an excellent example of how polymorphic systems can be, as it contains a very young hot Sun-like star, an ocean world very close in that is boiling away, and an extremely old super-Mercury.
Category: Astrophysics

[1779] viXra:1810.0111 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-07 11:32:59

SpaceX Mission with Astronauts

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 85 Pages.

NASA has announced the first crewed flight by a SpaceX rocket to the International Space Station (ISS) is expected to take place in June 2019. [46] Recent observations have created a puzzle for astrophysicists: Since the Big Bang, fewer galaxy clusters have formed over time than were actually expected. [45] Scanning the sky for X-ray sources, ESA's XMM-Newton X-ray observatory has been busy with the XXL Survey, its largest observational programme to date. [44] A duo of researchers from the Czech Republic has performed a study of the neutral hydrogen supershell known as GS242-03+37, a large structure in the Milky Way galaxy. [43] The energy transfer processes that occur in this collisionless space plasma are believed to be based on wave-particle interactions such as particle acceleration by plasma waves and spontaneous wave generation, which enable energy and momentum transfer. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38]
Category: Astrophysics

[1778] viXra:1810.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-06 06:56:16

Cosmological Theories Challenge

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 84 Pages.

Recent observations have created a puzzle for astrophysicists: Since the Big Bang, fewer galaxy clusters have formed over time than were actually expected. [45] Scanning the sky for X-ray sources, ESA's XMM-Newton X-ray observatory has been busy with the XXL Survey, its largest observational programme to date. [44] A duo of researchers from the Czech Republic has performed a study of the neutral hydrogen supershell known as GS242-03+37, a large structure in the Milky Way galaxy. [43] The energy transfer processes that occur in this collisionless space plasma are believed to be based on wave-particle interactions such as particle acceleration by plasma waves and spontaneous wave generation, which enable energy and momentum transfer. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37]
Category: Astrophysics

[1777] viXra:1810.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-06 16:08:27

972 Stars in Different Stages of Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 25 Pages. 1 graph, 1 data set of 972 objects

A simple graph is provided on log10 scale for masses that young hot stars become colder older smaller stars, mislabeled "planets/brown dwarfs/exoplanets" by the establishment. The data is freely available online and is sourced in this paper.
Category: Astrophysics

[1776] viXra:1810.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-06 18:41:37

Does The Moon move by Gravity?

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 8 Pages.

The Moon doesn't move by the gravity forces between his and Earth masses… The solar planet generally doesn't move by gravity forces.. This paper provides proves for this conclusion….
Category: Astrophysics

[1775] viXra:1810.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-05 07:40:04

Quark-Gluon Plasma Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 80 Pages.

Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, and their colleagues from the international ALICE collaboration recently collided xenon nuclei, in order to gain new insights into the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (the QGP) – the matter that the universe consisted of up to a microsecond after the Big Bang. [43] The energy transfer processes that occur in this collisionless space plasma are believed to be based on wave-particle interactions such as particle acceleration by plasma waves and spontaneous wave generation, which enable energy and momentum transfer. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36]
Category: Astrophysics

[1774] viXra:1810.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-05 08:04:32

The Quest for Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Since the 1970s, astronomers and physicists have been gathering evidence for the presence in the universe of dark matter: a mysterious substance that manifests itself through its gravitational pull. [22] Today, an international group of researchers, including Carnegie Mellon University's Rachel Mandelbaum, released the deepest wide field map of the three-dimensional distribution of matter in the universe ever made and increased the precision of constraints for dark energy with the Hyper Suprime-Cam survey (HSC). [21] Scientists are hoping to understand one of the most enduring mysteries in cosmology by simulating its effect on the clustering of galaxies. [20] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved nearly $1 million in funding for the research team, which has been tasked with leveraging large-scale computer simulations and developing new statistical methods to help us better understand these fundamental forces. [19] According to a new study, they could also potentially detect dark matter, if dark matter is composed of a particular kind of particle called a "dark photon." [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called " dark photons " in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1773] viXra:1810.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-06 03:57:52

Protons of Extreme Energies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 82 Pages.

Approximately one year ago, a spectacular dive into Saturn ended NASA's Cassini mission—and with it a unique, 13-year research expedition to the Saturnian system. [44] Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, and their colleagues from the international ALICE collaboration recently collided xenon nuclei, in order to gain new insights into the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (the QGP) – the matter that the universe consisted of up to a microsecond after the Big Bang. [43] The energy transfer processes that occur in this collisionless space plasma are believed to be based on wave-particle interactions such as particle acceleration by plasma waves and spontaneous wave generation, which enable energy and momentum transfer. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37]
Category: Astrophysics

[1772] viXra:1810.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-04 10:39:54

X-Ray Cosmological Model

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 83 Pages.

Scanning the sky for X-ray sources, ESA's XMM-Newton X-ray observatory has been busy with the XXL Survey, its largest observational programme to date. [44] A duo of researchers from the Czech Republic has performed a study of the neutral hydrogen supershell known as GS242-03+37, a large structure in the Milky Way galaxy. [43] The energy transfer processes that occur in this collisionless space plasma are believed to be based on wave-particle interactions such as particle acceleration by plasma waves and spontaneous wave generation, which enable energy and momentum transfer. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37]
Category: Astrophysics

[1771] viXra:1810.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-04 12:03:15

Kepler 3rd Law Explanation (a Claim Against Nobel Prize Board Decision in Physics 2018)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 18 Pages.

A claim against Nobel Prize Board Decision – in Physics -2018 Best Greetings I send this paper as a claim to the Nobel Prize Decision Board - for their decision - for Nobel Prize in physics 2018 Of course I have nothing against the great people who receive the Nobel Prize in Physics 2018 and I congratulate them for their great works But at my side, I found there's a serious question here Because I explained frequently in my research that, there's a serious contradiction in physics current theories and we can't understand the solar group geometry if no one solves this contradiction… I Provided many hard arguments to prove this claim and thought that, the Nobel Prize Board will support me to solve this contradiction in physics. But I found the Board decision avoids my work! For that reason I summarized the main idea in this paper and send it as a claim to the Nobel Prize Decision Board And I wish the board will accept to give me a chance to explain and defend my point of view.. With the Best Regards Gerges Francis Tawdrous TEL +201022532292 E-mailgeorgytawdrous@yandex.ru Linkedln https://eg.linkedin.com/in/gerges-francis-86a351a1 Facebook https://www.facebook.com/gergis.tawadrous Academia https://rudn.academia.edu/GergesTawadrous
Category: Astrophysics

[1770] viXra:1810.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-03 23:48:46

Technische Anwendungen Zur Umwandlung Der Rotationsenergie Der Erde in Elektrische Energie in Theorie Und Praxis 3

Authors: Robert Stach
Comments: 19 Pages.

!#!COL!#! 2x 375 Aufgezeigt werden Möglichkeiten zur Umwandlung der Rotationsenergie der Erde in elektrische Energie. Es wird der Bezug dieser Anlagen zum Michelson- Experiment verdeutlicht, ebenso die sich daraus ergebenen Veränderungen für das 2. Postulat (Konstanz der Lichtgeschwindigkeit). Aufbauend auf den dargelegten physikalischen Gesetzmäßigkeiten erfolgt zum Ende des Manuskriptes die Einordnung der elektromagnetischen Strahlung in die bisherigen Theorien zur Dunklen Energie.
Category: Astrophysics

[1769] viXra:1810.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-02 10:13:29

Missing Dark Matter of Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

The results suggest that none of the universe's dark matter consists of heavy black holes, or any similar object, including massive compact halo objects, so-called MACHOs. [29] CfA astronomer Qirong Zhu led a group of four scientists investigating the possibility that today's dark matter is composed of primordial black holes, following up on previously published suggestions. If galaxy halos are made of black holes, they should have a different density distribution than halos made of exotic particles. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] " We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit. " [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22]
Category: Astrophysics

[1768] viXra:1810.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-02 14:36:12

Dynamics of the Solar Wind: Parker's Treatment and the Laws of Thermodynamics

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille, Stephen J. Crothers
Comments: 8 Pages.

This is a copy of the slides which were presented at the Ohio Section Fall Meeting of the American Physical Society in Toledo, Ohio on September 29, 2018: http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/OSF18/Session/E01.3
Category: Astrophysics

[1767] viXra:1809.0584 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-29 13:00:57

The Stellar Disintegration Zone

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 52 Pages. 1 graph, 1 data set of 2,504 objects

The stellar disintegration zone is the area that separates hot Jupiters from their more evolved and evolving counterparts. It shows that hot Jupiters lose their thick helium/hydrogen atmospheres faster if they orbit close to a much hotter host star, which is predicted by the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis. The SDZ on this graph is between 5-9 Earth Radii, with a period shorter than 10 days. As well, the SDZ's can be different for different stars, this graph is only a generalization. Data is taken from various telescopes including the Kepler, and 2,504 evolving/dead stars are on the graph. The periods of the dead/evolving stars on the graph do not include the ones beyond 50 days, and objects beyond a radius of 23 Earths. Data for the points on the graph is included, as well as the objects' names.
Category: Astrophysics

[1766] viXra:1809.0568 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-28 13:07:59

Appearances of the Haybusa2 and Osiris-Rex Target Asteroids Ryugu and Bennu

Authors: A. Soumbatov-Gur
Comments: 48 Pages.

Properties and features of asteroid (101955) Bennu to be reached this fall by NASA’s OSIRIS-REx probe are anticipated. As of September 2018 we reconcile distant groundwork data on the asteroid in a unified approach based on the paradigm of ejective formation of celestial bodies. Recent JAXA’s observations of diamond-shaped asteroid (162173) Ryugu are also systematically considered to give grounds to Bennu’s study as explosively casted out rock body. We as well analyze data on top-like main belt and near-Earth asteroids: (2867) Steins, (341843) 2008 EV5, (65803) Didymos, and others. Dozens Bennu’s constraints and properties redicted include diamond shapes, North-South dichotomy, strong equatorial mountain range, curved northern relief features, global fault, regular equatorial depressions, ten meters wide crater in high outhern latitudes, angular crater shapes, side difference in crater statistics, larger than expected density, recent geologic activity, lined distributions of substances and minerals, restricted positions of locally synthesized organic materials, x-ray and electromagnetic transients, etc.
Category: Astrophysics

[1765] viXra:1809.0559 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-28 16:32:23

Metonic and Saros Cycles Harmony Reason

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 8 Pages.

In all my papers I try to prove just one idea, that The solar planets data are created depending on each other, that because the solar group is one machine or one body. The idea simply tells us that, the solar planets data are found based on a geometrical structure connects all solar planets together, that's why any solar planet data depends on others'… For example, if we found 3 angles their total =180 degrees we may conclude that these 3 angles are triangle angles… Similar to that …. I found 687 days (Mars orbital period) = 365.25 days (Earth orbital period) x 1.9 (Mars orbital inclination = 1.9 degrees) The previous relationship between Mars and Earth is considered as Pure coincidence by the current theories, but I try to prove that this relationship is found because there's a geometrical structure connects Earth with Mars and causes this relationship. Let's summarize the idea: -A geometrical structure connects and unifies all solar planets together to make the solar group as one body or one machine. And this geometrical structure causes each planet data to be created depending on other planets data which guarantees the planets motions harmony with each other. Now the idea is almost clear, but questions are needed to be solved..! 1-What's this geometrical structure which unifies the solar planets? 2-How this geometrical structure can be found? Let's start by answer the 2nd question: How this structure can be found? The solar group is created from one energy i.e. The solar planet matter is created from this Energy as the Equation (E=mc2) tells us, and the planet orbital distance is created also from this same Energy (my hypothesis), Let's see that in details… Suppose the Energy started her trajectory from the sun toward Mercury (this supposition is for explanation only because the Energy real trajectory is more complex) The Energy will build Mercury orbital distance (Distance =Energy) and then the same energy will build Mercury Matter (Matter = Energy), So Mercury diameter and Mass should be related to Mercury orbital distance Then the Energy causes Mercury motion, and then the Energy travels toward Venus, where in her trajectory will build Mercury Venus Distance, then will build Venus Matter, and causes Venus Motion to be in Harmony with Mercury Motion… etc So, how this geometrical structure can be found? By the Energy which creates the matter, distances and motions… this same energy needs geometrical structure to use all solar planets in one machine… So, the geometrical structure is a fact and necessity…..means, if the solar group is created from one Energy, that means there's a geometrical structure controls all these planets data … Now let's try to answer the 1st question… What's this geometrical structure, which unifies the solar planets? This is the hard question, I don't know yet this geometrical structure and I try to reach to him In fact I face real difficulties in my way…. basically because we don't know this geometrical structure rules.. For Example I found an Equation d2 = 4do(d-do) where d = Planet orbital distance do= Previous Planet orbital distance So, if we use Jupiter and Saturn orbital distances in the previous equation we'll find that it's correct Equation.. (in Fact there are 3 exceptions for this Equation) Any way the question is why? Why Jupiter and Saturn orbital distances follow the previous equation? It's a geometrical rule, but why this rule is found? No one can answer! Let's see another example The light with velocity c (=0.3mkm/sec) will travel a distance 2088 mkm (Jupiter Uranus distance) during 6939.75 seconds (but Metonic Cycle is 6939.75 days!) Also The light with velocity c (=0.3mkm/sec) will travel a distance 627 mkm (Jupiter Earth distance) during 2088 seconds This geometrical rule or feature I found frequently… The same value is used in time units and distance units!? This feature I found frequently in the solar group… why the same value is used in time and distance units?!! It's a geometrical rule but we don't know this rule and we don't understand its reason… In fact the solar group geometry is beyond our Geometry books I wish I explained my idea as clear as possible… In this paper I try to show and prove that, Metonic and Saros cycles harmony depends on the geometrical structure which unifies all solar planets. i.e. Metonic and Saros cycles harmony proves there's a geometrical structure which unifies all solar planets.
Category: Astrophysics

[1764] viXra:1809.0556 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-29 04:27:28

Effects of Planetary Rotation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

The earth's rotation causes the Coriolis effect, which deflects massive air and water flows toward the right in the Northern Hemisphere and toward the left in the Southern Hemisphere. [14] A carbon cycle anomaly discovered in carbonate rocks of the Neoproterozoic Hüttenberg Formation of northeastern Namibia follows a pattern similar to that found right after the Great Oxygenation Event, hinting at new evidence for how Earth's atmosphere became fully oxygenated. [13] The conditions for life surviving on planets entirely covered in water are more fluid than previously thought, opening up the possibility that water worlds could be habitable, according to a new paper from the University of Chicago and Pennsylvania State University. [12] Scientists at Rutgers University–New Brunswick and elsewhere are at a crossroads in their 50-year quest to go beyond the Standard Model in physics. [11] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines also the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[1763] viXra:1809.0518 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-26 02:51:47

Dark Matter Maps in the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Today, an international group of researchers, including Carnegie Mellon University's Rachel Mandelbaum, released the deepest wide field map of the three-dimensional distribution of matter in the universe ever made and increased the precision of constraints for dark energy with the Hyper Suprime-Cam survey (HSC). [21] Scientists are hoping to understand one of the most enduring mysteries in cosmology by simulating its effect on the clustering of galaxies. [20] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved nearly $1 million in funding for the research team, which has been tasked with leveraging large-scale computer simulations and developing new statistical methods to help us better understand these fundamental forces. [19] According to a new study, they could also potentially detect dark matter, if dark matter is composed of a particular kind of particle called a "dark photon." [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called " dark photons " in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1762] viXra:1809.0508 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-24 09:38:30

Hydrogen Supershell in the Milky Way

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 80 Pages.

A duo of researchers from the Czech Republic has performed a study of the neutral hydrogen supershell known as GS242-03+37, a large structure in the Milky Way galaxy. [43] The energy transfer processes that occur in this collisionless space plasma are believed to be based on wave-particle interactions such as particle acceleration by plasma waves and spontaneous wave generation, which enable energy and momentum transfer. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36]
Category: Astrophysics

[1761] viXra:1809.0484 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-24 01:11:39

Heretical Physics Fake 'G'

Authors: John E. Miller
Comments: 15 Pages.

Newton’s ‘G’ is a measure of the error in assigning gravitational ‘g’ to be caused by mass. Newspapers continually report the failure of Students to enroll for the Physics curriculum. Also for those who do, there is a high attrition rate. Prof. Brian Cox (T.V. fame) stated “…common sense is completely worthless and irrelevant when trying to understand reality…” In an average galaxy of a few billion binary stars, each pair shares a common Aether Sphere. Their charge fields keeping them separated within the confines of a compression ‘Aether’ envelope. Pairing seems to be the best compromise of volume to minimum surface area. At a remote location at the extremities, there is a ‘single’ contained in a dust spec a few light hours across, having lost its companion after exploding but leaving behind a debris field. Debris matter, is now compressed by its surroundings, curved SPACE (EVERT; EINSTEIN), and such that each bit of debris is enveloped in an Aether Sphere to minimize energy contact. Such Aether Compression at contact initiates a force labelled ‘gravity’ or ‘g’.(Einstein;- matter tells Space how to curve) Inhabitants of a bit of debris, a blue coloured sphere, calculate this event as occurring 4.5 Billion years past. Each component of the debris field form into helical orbits around their star uniquely. These helixes travel around the Galaxy at 390km/s. There is no energy source between debris components; all energy is supplied by the Galaxy. Aether spheres maintain charge separation, while transporting their polluting debris matter. In this paper a spreadsheet will confirm each Planet and Moon has an independent SUN orbit. The helical 3D structure of planetary transport destroys the Newtonian concept of a 2D disk and its associated tangent as the defining planetary gravitational energy hypothesis. The 390km/s travel of the ‘Ecliptic Plane, a cross section of helical volume, transports Aether spheres in a spin pattern. The “Innate Tangential Velocity?” of all planets is a common 390km/s in a third dimension;- ‘Z’ Quoting Mathis;- ”… Physics no longer exists as mechanics, but replaced by ‘slippery maths’…”
Category: Astrophysics

[1760] viXra:1809.0478 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-22 05:44:27

Was Mars Terraformed

Authors: Greg Orme
Comments: 103 Pages.

This consists of a chapter from my book “Why We Must Go to Mars” and two unpublished papers. It examines the hypothesis that Mars was visited billions of years ago by aliens. They terraformed Mars by a series of oblique impacts aimed at the poles, these formed volcanoes on them including Tharsis, Olympus Mons, and Elysium Mons. The volcanoes outgassed thickening the atmosphere, they also sublimated the frozen atmosphere at the poles. The polar ice was also melted, this is traced in how it formed the Martian oceans. The rise of these volcanoes, particularly Tharsis, caused an imbalance of the planet inducing polar wander. The South Pole settled for a time a few hundred kilometres west of Hellas, the three main Martian faces (Cydonia Face, King Face, and Nefertiti) were on a great circle probably defining this former equator. Many possibly artificial formations follow this old equator. When the volcanoes cooled the atmosphere and oceans froze again at the poles, this moved them to their current positions. It also caused the extinction of the hypothesized alien colony. These papers are dated but indicate how the hypotheses of polar wander explain many of the fluvial and glacial formations on Mars.
Category: Astrophysics

[1759] viXra:1809.0468 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-22 19:01:29

The Solar Group Main Equation (Part 2)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 8 Pages.

C2= 90000 mkmm (my claim) 90000 mkm = 86400 mkm +3413 mkm +187 mkm We continue our discussion concerning the solar group main equation… The Equation tells new information: 1-The Planet Motion depends on the solar group geometrical structure and not on the gravity forces. 2-Metonic and Saros Cycles both of them originated from the same source which causes their relationship and dependency
Category: Astrophysics

[1758] viXra:1809.0438 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-19 10:25:03

Collision-Free Energy Transfer in Plasma

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 78 Pages.

The energy transfer processes that occur in this collisionless space plasma are believed to be based on wave-particle interactions such as particle acceleration by plasma waves and spontaneous wave generation, which enable energy and momentum transfer. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino— the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34]
Category: Astrophysics

[1757] viXra:1809.0435 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-19 12:48:23

Our Universe and a Dark Flow.

Authors: Durgadas Datta.
Comments: 2 Pages. NEW PHYSICS AND EMERGENT THEORIES.

Our confusing universe with dark flow, dark matter, dark energy and our observations from a separating speeding vehicle.
Category: Astrophysics

[1756] viXra:1809.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-18 06:39:38

Nuclear Pasta in Neutron Stars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Nuclear pasta is incredibly dense, about 100 trillion times the density of water. It’s impossible to study such an extreme material in the laboratory, says physicist Constança Providência of the University of Coimbra in Portugal who was not involved with the research. [24] Researchers at Oregon State University have confirmed that last fall's union of two neutron stars did in fact cause a short gamma-ray burst. [23] Quark matter – an extremely dense phase of matter made up of subatomic particles called quarks – may exist at the heart of neutron stars. [22] When a massive astrophysical object, such as a boson star or black hole, rotates, it can cause the surrounding spacetime to rotate along with it due to the effect of frame dragging. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14]
Category: Astrophysics

[1755] viXra:1809.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-17 11:35:22

Symmetry Breaking Between Fundamental Forces

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

A fraction of a second after the Big Bang, a single unified force may have shattered. Scientists from the CDF and DZero Collaborations used data from the Fermilab Tevatron Collider to recreate the early universe conditions. [28] Now researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI have helped to better understand the first minutes of the universe: They collected artificially produced beryllium-7 and made it into a sample that could be investigated. [27] Researchers have developed a new way to improve our knowledge of the Big Bang by measuring radiation from its afterglow, called the cosmic microwave background radiation. [26] The group's results reinforce a disagreement over the value of the Hubble constant as measured directly and as calculated via observations of primordial radiation – a disparity, say the researchers, which likely points to new physics. [25] Neutron stars consist of the densest form of matter known: a neutron star the size of Los Angeles can weigh twice as much as our sun. [24] Supermassive black holes, which lurk at the heart of most galaxies, are often described as "beasts" or "monsters". [23] The nuclei of most galaxies host supermassive black holes containing millions to billions of solar-masses of material. [22] New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. [21] Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. [19]
Category: Astrophysics

[1754] viXra:1809.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-16 06:16:43

The Evolution of Star Habitable Zones

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

It was discovered that planets are older, evolving stars. This means the Circumstellar Habitable Zone collapses and/or shrinks into the star itself, thus evolves as the star evolves. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[1753] viXra:1809.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-14 11:33:03

Gravity Theory Saved

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

An international group of astronomers, including physicists at the University of St Andrews, has revived a previously debunked theory of gravity, arguing that motions within dwarf galaxies would be slower if close to a massive galaxy. [19] While last year's discovery of gravitational waves from colliding neutron stars was earth-shaking, it won't add extra dimensions to our understanding of the universe—not literal ones, at least. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called " dark photons " in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1752] viXra:1809.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-13 15:25:58

Alternative Reflections on Gravitational Anomalies During Solar Eclipses

Authors: Johann Albers
Comments: 8 Pages.

Since the first reports by Allais about gravitational anomalies during solar eclipses, a large number of papers appeared until now which assume that these anomalies are due to a shielding or an absorption of the attracting force of the Sun by the mass of the Moon. In the meantime it became more and more clear that this is not the case. Instead of a single maximum of the anomaly at totality, as expected from a shielding effect, due to several recent observations, a quite different effect seems to exist: The appearance of two maxima of the gravitational anomalies, one near the first and a second near the fourth contact. This curious behavior can hardly be explained by classical theories of gravitation. On the basis of the "Alternative Reflections on Gravitation" (ARG), however, just such a behavior of the anomalous gravitational effects can very well be expected. This can be derived quite straightforward from the principles of the ARG, considering the interaction of ALPs from the Sun with the unusual spatial arrangement of the magnetic field of the Moon.
Category: Astrophysics

[1751] viXra:1809.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-10 07:14:43

The Real Meaning of the Hubble Diagram

Authors: Karan R.Takkhi
Comments: 17 pages, 16 tables, 9 equations, 5 graphs, 1 figure (Manuscript submitted to a journal)

The Hubble diagram continues to remain one of the most important graphical representations in the realm of astronomy and cosmology right from its genesis that depicts the velocity-distance relation for the receding large-scale structures within the observable Universe. The linear behaviour of the Hubble diagram has remained consistent right from the very beginning when it got plotted for the very first time. In this paper I unravel the real meaning of the Hubble diagram by introducing the molecular diffusion model in order to explain the expansion of the Universe. The molecular diffusion model considers the distribution of large-scale structures as molecules inside a vacuum chamber. Since large- scale structures are ensemble of atoms, therefore, they can be treated as molecules possessing finite amount of energy. Instead of considering that space is expanding, the paper emphasizes upon the actual recession of large-scale structures. The study conducted in this paper finds the recessional behaviour of large-scale structures to be consistent with the recessional behaviour of molecules.
Category: Astrophysics

[1750] viXra:1809.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-10 11:41:33

Dark Matter Clusters

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Scientists are hoping to understand one of the most enduring mysteries in cosmology by simulating its effect on the clustering of galaxies. [20] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved nearly $1 million in funding for the research team, which has been tasked with leveraging large-scale computer simulations and developing new statistical methods to help us better understand these fundamental forces. [19] According to a new study, they could also potentially detect dark matter, if dark matter is composed of a particular kind of particle called a "dark photon." [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called " dark photons " in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1749] viXra:1809.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-09 16:00:27

The Solar Group Main Equation

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 6 Pages.

The Solar Group Main Equation C2 = 90000 mkm = 86400 mkm +3600 mkm (c= light velocity = 300000 km/sec) -The Equation tells us that, the solar planets and the sun herself are created from this same energy c2 -The solar group geometrical structure causes that c2= 90000 mkm
Category: Astrophysics

[1748] viXra:1809.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-09 23:23:27

Hubble Law Extended for the Accelerating Universe

Authors: Hui Peng
Comments: 7 Pages. your comment is very much welcomed

Hubble law describes both the uniformly expanding universe originally and then the accelerating universe. We argue that for describing an accelerating system, physics laws should include terms of acceleration for accuracy and completeness. We extend Velocity-Distance and Distance-Redshift relations of Hubble law to Acceleration-Velocity-Distance and Acceleration-Velocity-Distance-Redshift relation of Extended-Hubble-Law (denoted as EHL). The latter contains Doppler effect, Acceleration-Redshift, Hubble’s Distance-Redshift, and the cosmological redshift; and, thus, is appropriate for small and large redshift, slow and fast velocity, near and faraway source. EHL shows: (1) acceleration causes both redshift and the time change of redshift, which may be tested by sound wave; (2) the age of the accelerating universe is older. EHL provides an approach to test jerking motion of the universe. We suggest that EHL is worth to pursue for restudying Hubble law related phenomena including measurement of Hubble constant.
Category: Astrophysics

[1747] viXra:1809.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-07 19:05:09

The Solar Group Main Energy

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 17 Pages.

The main hypothesis "The Solar Group is created from one Energy, where this Energy creates the planet matter and his orbital distance, so the solar group can be similar to one body and each planet is considered as a member in this body. That means, the solar planets existence depends on their cooperation with each other". The solar Group energy is defined by the following Equation C2 = 90000 mkm = 86400 mkm +3600 mkm (c= light velocity = 300000 km/sec and c2 is the squared value) The previous Equation expresses the solar group main Energy This paper studies only this Equation to prove the main hypothesis
Category: Astrophysics

[1746] viXra:1809.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-06 12:55:08

Black Hole Disks Hiding

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

We now understand that massive stars and black holes typically segregate into a disk," said Ákos Szölgyén of Eötvös University, Hungary, who led the study that has been published in the journal Physical Review Letters. [21] Answering the question "How did galaxies form and evolve during the 13.8-billion-year history of the universe?" has been one top issue in modern astronomy. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1745] viXra:1809.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-04 06:52:15

Electron Anti-Neutrinos in Supernova

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

An international team of researchers has proposed a new method to investigate the inner workings of supernovae explosions. [38] The researchers used distant quasars, one of which emitted its light 7.8 billion years ago and the other 12.2 billion years ago, to determine the measurements to be made on pairs of entangled photons. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Astrophysics

[1744] viXra:1809.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-04 13:14:11

Gravitational Wave Detector Tricks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

A group of scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) at the University of Copenhagen will soon start developing a new line of technical equipment in order to dramatically improve gravitational wave detectors. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called " dark photons " in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1743] viXra:1809.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-05 03:10:58

Possible and Impossible in Physics. Hypotheses and Laws

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 7 Pages. -

Article F.M.Kanarev "Is origin an planets of solar system" http://sciteclibrary.ru/rus/catalog/pages/10112.html making a hypothesis of the formation of solar system caused by close flight of the "small star" were born.
Category: Astrophysics

[1742] viXra:1809.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-02 10:55:42

Life Requires Earth Clone

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

The conditions for life surviving on planets entirely covered in water are more fluid than previously thought, opening up the possibility that water worlds could be habitable, according to a new paper from the University of Chicago and Pennsylvania State University. [12] Scientists at Rutgers University–New Brunswick and elsewhere are at a crossroads in their 50-year quest to go beyond the Standard Model in physics. [11] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines also the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[1741] viXra:1809.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-02 13:27:57

Earth's Oxygen Increased Gradual

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

A carbon cycle anomaly discovered in carbonate rocks of the Neoproterozoic Hüttenberg Formation of northeastern Namibia follows a pattern similar to that found right after the Great Oxygenation Event, hinting at new evidence for how Earth's atmosphere became fully oxygenated. [13] The conditions for life surviving on planets entirely covered in water are more fluid than previously thought, opening up the possibility that water worlds could be habitable, according to a new paper from the University of Chicago and Pennsylvania State University. [12] Scientists at Rutgers University–New Brunswick and elsewhere are at a crossroads in their 50-year quest to go beyond the Standard Model in physics. [11] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines also the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[1740] viXra:1809.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-02 18:43:44

Jupiter Uranus Distance (Metonic Cycle Reason) (revised)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 45 Pages.

1- Metonic Cycle is Energy sent from Uranus to the moon 2- Pluto also effects on Metonic Cycle 3-There's a relationship between Earth and the Moon at one side and Pluto at the other side 4- There's a relationship between Jupiter and Uranus at one side and Pluto at the other side 5- There's a relationship between Mercury and Pluto. The previous relationships are found because The solar group is one body (or one machine), and the solar planets are members in this body, and as the body blood connects all remembers. similar to that, the solar group is created from one energy, and this one energy creates the planet matter and orbital distance and connects all planets together in one system, which makes the solar group as one body (or one Energy trajectory).
Category: Astrophysics

[1739] viXra:1809.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-01 10:19:25

Resolution for Expanding Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Astronomers are engaged in a lively debate over plans to rename one of the laws of physics. [28] Unexpected hot spots in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) could have been produced by black holes evaporating before the Big Bang. [27] Researchers have developed a new way to improve our knowledge of the Big Bang by measuring radiation from its afterglow, called the cosmic microwave background radiation. [26] The group's results reinforce a disagreement over the value of the Hubble constant as measured directly and as calculated via observations of primordial radiation – a disparity, say the researchers, which likely points to new physics. [25] Neutron stars consist of the densest form of matter known: a neutron star the size of Los Angeles can weigh twice as much as our sun. [24] Supermassive black holes, which lurk at the heart of most galaxies, are often described as "beasts" or "monsters". [23] The nuclei of most galaxies host supermassive black holes containing millions to billions of solar-masses of material. [22] New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. [21] Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18]
Category: Astrophysics

[1738] viXra:1809.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-01 11:51:42

Estimating the Number of Water Worlds in the Milky Way Galaxy with Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Since the dogma has no method for determining how many water worlds are in the Milky Way galaxy, an estimate method and estimate is given using the assumptions garnered by stellar metamorphosis theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[1737] viXra:1808.0640 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-29 16:20:40

Jupiter Uranus Distance (Metonic Cycle Reason)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 15 Pages.

Metonic Cycle is Energy sent from Uranus to the moon Pluto also effects on Metonic Cycle and that explains his data convenience with Earth and Moon Data
Category: Astrophysics

[1736] viXra:1808.0639 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-29 22:01:16

Sunqm-3s6: Predict Mass Density R-Distribution for Earth and Other Rocky Planets Based on {N,n} QM Probability Distribution

Authors: Yi Cao
Comments: 18 Pages.

My previous papers (SunQM-3, SunQM-3s1, SunQM-3s2) have shown that the structure of our solar system can be described by Solar {N,n} QM model. Therefore, everything inside solar system (including all planets) should be able to be described by the QM probability density distribution. In this paper, from studying Earth’s known internal structure and mass density distribution, I have developed a method which can be used to estimate any planet’s internal structure and mass density. This method can be expressed as: Planet mass = 4π ∫ (planet’s QM probability density r-distribution) * W *D * r^2 dr, where mass density D = a*r +b, and W is a scaling factor. I applied this method to all four rocky planets, and predicted the internal structure and the (close to the true) mass density r-distribution for these planets. Besides the p{-1,4//4} surface and p{-1,2//4} core, a p{-1,3//4} QM structure is found to be the foundation both for Earth’s liquid iron core, and for Mars current size. Furthermore, Earth’s current mantle structure is found to be the p{-1,15//16} QM structure of Earth. Dynamics of this QM structure evolution has been discussed. The results from this paper (as well as from papers of SunQM-3s7 and SunQM-3s8) convinced me that all planets and stars were formed and evolved under planet’s (or star’s) QM.
Category: Astrophysics

[1735] viXra:1808.0638 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-29 22:00:51

Star Count Biases Expanded with Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is observed that stars evolve into what are called “planets/exoplanets”, this meaning planets/exoplanets are simply evolved/evolving stars. Therefore the biases in counting stars need to be expanded considerably to account for transits and outdated classifications.
Category: Astrophysics

[1734] viXra:1808.0637 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-29 22:13:40

Sunqm-3s8: Using {N,n} QM to Study Sun’s Internal Structure, Convective Zone Formation, Planetary Differentiation and Temperature R-Distribution

Authors: Yi Cao
Comments: 17 Pages.

From previous papers, using Bohr’s formula rn = r1 * n^2, we found that Sun’s internal structure is correlated to {N,n} QM. In current paper, we find that Sun’s internal structure and mass density is formed according to the QM probability density curve’s peaks. This result confirms that the formation of Sun and all planets are based on Schrodinger equation and solution! According to Sun QM’s probability density r-distribution, Sun’s internal structure has been predicted as one Earth-sized core plus 5 shells, each with mass density about 160000, 75000, 45000, 25000, 12000, and 6000→ 0 kg/m^3 from center to edge of the Sun. In Sun’s {0,1}o orbit shell, the radiative zone belongs to the {-1,n=6..9}o orbit shells, and the convective zone belongs to {-1,n=10..11}o orbit shells. The onset of convection in {-1,11}o and {-1,10}o orbit shells might have caused the onset of two “snowball Earth” periods in the Earth history. The further analysis of Solar {N,n} QM structure shows that the melting (or convection) of the {-1,n=1..5}o super shell causes elements repositioned as Au, Pb mainly inside {-1,1} Earth-sized core, Fe mainly in {-1,1}o orbit shell, O, C, Ne, mainly in the {-1,2}o orbit shell, He mainly in {-1,n=3..4}o orbit shells, and H mainly in the {-1,5}o orbit shell. As the result, inside the Sun’s inner core, the H-fusion is not happening everywhere, but only in {-1,5}o orbit shell. The apparent temperature at Sun surface (=5800 K) is due to that ions shooting out of the Sun surface (at vrms =4.37E+5 m/s) are all in +r dimension and lost the micro randomness, so that this vrms no longer associated with the temperature.
Category: Astrophysics

[1733] viXra:1808.0630 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-30 04:49:12

Primordial Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

What is dark matter? How do supermassive black holes form? Primordial black holes might hold the answer to this longstanding question. [21] Answering the question "How did galaxies form and evolve during the 13.8-billion-year history of the universe?" has been one top issue in modern astronomy. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1732] viXra:1808.0597 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-28 01:54:21

Jupiter as Potential Second Sun: Some Remarks

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 2 Pages.

Consequencies of „electromagnetic” Second Sun concept are discussed in brief. Probability of phenomenon should be considered in Mars colonisation mission planning.
Category: Astrophysics

[1731] viXra:1808.0593 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-25 09:43:48

Stars Can Become Water Worlds/Ocean Worlds

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Astronomers accept the idea that water cannot exist in stars. This is false, in fact, water is formed inside of stars as they evolve and they literally become water worlds. Explanation is provided with the theory that explains why this is true.
Category: Astrophysics

[1730] viXra:1808.0590 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-25 12:00:33

The Elysium Transition

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

There is a point where the water on an ocean/water world has its surface breached due to volcanic growth or crustal deformation bending upwards to great submarine heights. This is in addition to the water evaporating and the world losing its mass, thus making land easier to expose itself above the water. This happens in late ocean world stages, and is called the Elysium transition. Reasoning is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[1729] viXra:1808.0588 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-25 15:51:39

Mercury Day = 3 Mercury Rotation Periods =2 Mercury Orbital Periods, Why?

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 40 Pages.

Abstract Mercury Day = 4222.6 hours, Mercury rotation period = 1407.6 hours and Mercury orbital period = 88 days I claim the following: -These three cycles are related to each other -These three cycles depend on Jupiter Uranus distance (2095 mkm) -Please remember that, Earth moon Metonic Cycle also depends on Jupiter Uranus distance which makes these 4 cycles are related to each other By proving the previous claim I try to support my basic claim in all my papers that: The Solar Group is one machine or one body, each planet should be considered as a gear in this machine or as a member in this body. i.e. No Planet Motion is Found Independent From Other Planets Motions
Category: Astrophysics

[1728] viXra:1808.0587 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-25 22:15:34

The Photons Who Pulses is a Dark Matter.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 5 Pages.

A photon pulsating in a 4-dimensional space has positive and negative masses. In case It is a particle in the Culur-Klein state. In case Photons are perfect candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1727] viXra:1808.0568 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-26 15:38:49

Phase Curves in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Phase curves are presented to make more sense of the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram. They are curves on the graph which show the stage of evolution an object is in, as compared to a younger/older star. Explanation and clarification is presented so that stellar evolution (planet formation) is more easily understood. This graph is also subject to change as more data comes in, regardless this sets the precedent for thinking about astronomical matters in the 21st century.
Category: Astrophysics

[1726] viXra:1808.0566 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-26 20:36:37

Metonic Cycle Proves,, Solar Planets Motions Depend on Their Cooperation,,

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 8 Pages.

I provide a new vision for the solar group The solar planets existence and motions depend on their cooperation with each other This vision in fact contradicts the solar group current vision… For example, the current vision refuses to have any relationship between Earth and Pluto because of the great distance between them, where the gravity force depends on the masses and decreases with the squared distance… My vision, on contrary, uses the Energy as source for Matter and Distance, means, the matter is created from Energy as the Equation E=mc2 tells us, and the distance is created from Energy which is my hypothesis… That means, the solar group is created from one energy Let's imagine that the solar group is similar to a creature body, now the same blood in this body goes to all members and connect all these members by this same blood So, Earth is connected with Pluto by the same energy which creates the matter and distance The main advantage in my vision or about the solar group is The Cooperation Between The Solar Planets… Metonic Cycle which is a cycle of Earth Moon extends for 19 sidereal years = 6939.75 days provides us a good proof for my claim So, we shall see in this paper, how Metonic Cycle can be seen as energy transports from point to another point through the solar which proves and supports my point of view. In fact that adds more extension for our thinking about the solar group and provides a great background for Metonic Cycle which is done by the Moon without explanation, where Earth doesn't rotate this cycle which answers our old question, if the planet moves by gravity and the moon under the Earth gravity, how does the moon rotate the Metonic Cycle which the Earth (his parent) doesn't? Actually my vision provides new knowledge for the solar group where we'll use the cooperation between the solar planets as a real factor to perform their existence and motions Note Please/ Metonic Cycle period = 6939.75 days = 19 x 365.25 days (19 sidereal years) = 235 x 29.53 days (235 Synodic Months) = 20 x 346.6 days (20 nodal years) The previous data tell that, there's a harmony between Earth, Moon and Moon orbit motions? why? We try to answer this question in this paper…
Category: Astrophysics

[1725] viXra:1808.0542 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-23 09:17:49

Simulation Shed Light on Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

The U.S. Department of Energy has approved nearly $1 million in funding for the research team, which has been tasked with leveraging large-scale computer simulations and developing new statistical methods to help us better understand these fundamental forces. [19] According to a new study, they could also potentially detect dark matter, if dark matter is composed of a particular kind of particle called a "dark photon." [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called " dark photons " in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1724] viXra:1808.0536 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-23 12:38:50

Why Supermassive Black Hole Move

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

These new data have inspired much interest in the astrophysical community, because studying the position of the SMBH in M87 is critical for understanding the evolution of the galaxy, and for the analysis of jets in other AGNs. [22] RUDN astrophysicists have suggested an approach to simplify calculations of observable effects in the vicinity of black holes to which the mathematical apparatus of Einstein's classic relativity theory does not apply. [21] Answering the question "How did galaxies form and evolve during the 13.8-billion-year history of the universe?" has been one top issue in modern astronomy. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1723] viXra:1808.0522 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-22 09:34:59

Simpler Black Hole Description

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

RUDN astrophysicists have suggested an approach to simplify calculations of observable effects in the vicinity of black holes to which the mathematical apparatus of Einstein's classic relativity theory does not apply. [21] Answering the question "How did galaxies form and evolve during the 13.8-billion-year history of the universe?" has been one top issue in modern astronomy. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1722] viXra:1808.0512 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-22 18:54:29

Please Help ..our Lives Are in Danger

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 8 Pages.

Please Help ..Our lives are in danger My Father tortures my mother by starvation and by using electrical shocks he'll kill her My father is abnormal man and tries to force me for a relationship with him for that he tortures my mother Notice Any medical examination will prove the following: My Father is abnormal man My mother suffered from torture by starvation and by using electrical shocks My Father Name / Francis Tawdrous Gerges We live in 11 Mohamed Rageb st- Madeenet El Saada – El Materiya – Cairo – Egypt (3rd apartment) Home Telephone / +222550186 My telephone No/ +201022532292
Category: Astrophysics

[1721] viXra:1808.0510 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-23 05:26:57

Movimientos de la Luna Y el Sol. Una Introducción

Authors: Wenceslao Segura González
Comments: 276 Pages. Spanish

Se puede entender que este es un libro de astronomía general pero centrado exclusivamente en los movimientos aparentes del Sol y de la Luna. Prácticamente todos los tópicos básicos de astronomía son tratados: determinación de las coordenadas celestes de la Luna y el Sol; transformación de coordenadas; ortos y ocasos; tránsito por el horizonte; cálculo de las fechas de la estaciones; fases lunares; etc.
Category: Astrophysics

[1720] viXra:1808.0498 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-21 09:15:37

Cyclic Universe Evidence

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Unexpected hot spots in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) could have been produced by black holes evaporating before the Big Bang. [27] Researchers have developed a new way to improve our knowledge of the Big Bang by measuring radiation from its afterglow, called the cosmic microwave background radiation. [26] The group's results reinforce a disagreement over the value of the Hubble constant as measured directly and as calculated via observations of primordial radiation – a disparity, say the researchers, which likely points to new physics. [25] Neutron stars consist of the densest form of matter known: a neutron star the size of Los Angeles can weigh twice as much as our sun. [24] Supermassive black holes, which lurk at the heart of most galaxies, are often described as "beasts" or "monsters". [23] The nuclei of most galaxies host supermassive black holes containing millions to billions of solar-masses of material. [22] New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. [21] Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17]
Category: Astrophysics

[1719] viXra:1808.0495 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-21 17:06:53

Mercury Jupiter Distance (Revised)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 33 Pages.

Mercury Jupiter Distance with Mercury other data supports my claim that, "The Solar Group is One Machine, Each planet is One Gear In It" Let's review this idea here again….. I suggest that, The Matter is created from Energy (this is true based on the Equation E=mc2) The Distance is created from Energy (my hypothesis) That means, the Matter and Distance are created from the same Energy, That means, the whole solar group is created from the same one energy which guarantees the motions harmony. The matter should be seen as point of light coherence or energy lines connection where the energy is carried in the distances as in matters
Category: Astrophysics

[1718] viXra:1808.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-20 08:47:43

Quasars Confirm Quantum Entanglement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

The researchers used distant quasars, one of which emitted its light 7.8 billion years ago and the other 12.2 billion years ago, to determine the measurements to be made on pairs of entangled photons. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Astrophysics

[1717] viXra:1808.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-20 19:11:28

Mercury Jupiter Distance

Authors: Gerges Tawdrous
Comments: 8 Pages.

Mercury data provides us with many unsolved puzzles… let's take a look at some of them in following: -Mercury orbital Circumference = 360 million km ….. i.e. 1 million km for each 1 degree. - Mercury Ceres distance = 360 million km also… i.e. Mercury during his orbital period moves a distance = Mercury Ceres distance -Mercury Jupiter distance = 720.7 million km…. i.e. Mercury during 2 orbital periods moves a distance = Mercury Jupiter distance! Not only that -Mercury day = 2 Mercury orbital periods approximately (just minus 84 minutes)… that means, Mercury during his day period moves a distance = Mercury Jupiter distance.. In fact there are more puzzles in Mercury data, let's see that in following: -Mercury day 4222.6 hours = 3 x Mercury rotation period 1407.6 hours (no error) -Venus rotation period 5832.5 hours = Mercury rotation period 1407.6 x (Π+1) But -Mercury orbital distance = 57.9 mkm if we use this value to find the ordinary orbital circumference by the equation 2ΠR we'll reach to 364 million km, that means Mercury Velocity daily = (Π+1) x 1 million km that means 88 days (Mercury orbital period) x (Π+1) x 1 million km = 364 million km = 2ΠR where R =57.9 million km Please remember -Mercury actual velocity = 47.4 km/ second which means Mercury orbital circumference = 360 million km, means 1 million km for each 1 degree… The current theories tell us easily, all previous data are found by Pure coincidences and there are no geometrical or physical reasons behind And I claim that, Because the solar group is one machine, each planet is one gear in this same machine, for that reason the previous data are created depending one each other… To see the picture as clear as possible, we should answer the basic question which is Why Mercury moves during his day a distance = mercury Jupiter distance? Let's try to answer this question in this paper
Category: Astrophysics

[1716] viXra:1808.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-20 22:05:36

Stars and Planets Contain Dark Matter in Proportion to Their Mass

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 190 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

“Stars and planets contain Dark Matter in proportion to their mass” Adrian Ferent “Sun’s core is Ferent Matter” Adrian Ferent “Ferent Matter is matter with density higher than Planck density” Adrian Ferent “Matter was created from Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Black holes are Ferent Matter” Adrian Ferent “Dark Matter is in the core of stars and planets” Adrian Ferent “Ferent Matter is responsible for the Gravitational interactions in the Universe” Adrian Ferent You learned that the Sun was formed 4.6 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of gas and dust within a region. The central mass became hot and dense that it eventually started nuclear fusion in its core. You learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists…that formation of the Sun was triggered by shockwaves from one or more nearby supernovae, or by waves of energy traveling through space pressed clouds of such particles closer together! In Ferent Quantum Gravity theory the gravitational field created by Dark Matter collapsed the gas and dust within a region and the Sun was formed. Matter looks like foam or bubbles in contrast with Ferent matter that is why: “Sun’s core is Ferent Matter” Adrian Ferent A bigger star contains more Ferent Matter! Ferent Matter is high density Dark Matter: Ferent density ≥ Ferent matter density > Planck density “Ferent Matter is matter with density higher than Planck density” Adrian Ferent “Matter was created from Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent How much Dark Matter do stars and planets contain? “Stars and planets contain Dark Matter in proportion to their mass” Adrian Ferent More Dark Matter will attract more matter and will result a bigger Star or a bigger Planet. What is Dark Matter in my Gravitation theory? At Ferent wall due to the extraordinarily small scale of the universe at that time, gravitation was the only physical interaction. At Ferent wall were created Ferent matter and gravitons. Only a small percentage of Ferent matter becomes matter at Planck wall. This means high density Dark matter is Ferent matter, interacts only gravitationally with matter. Where is the Dark Matter? “Black holes are Ferent Matter” Adrian Ferent “Dark Matter is in the core of stars and planets” Adrian Ferent “Ferent Matter is responsible for the Gravitational interactions in the Universe” Adrian Ferent 98. I am the first who discovered that Stars and planets contain Dark Matter in proportion to their mass 99. I am the first who discovered that the Sun’s core is Ferent Matter 100. I am the first who discovered that Matter was created from Dark Matter
Category: Astrophysics

[1715] viXra:1808.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-18 05:47:25

New Telescope for Dark Energy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

It's an interferometer array that will be made up of 1024 6-metre dishes. Interferometer arrays are really cool because they combine signals from many telescopes to provide the resolution of a larger telescope. [19] According to a new study, they could also potentially detect dark matter, if dark matter is composed of a particular kind of particle called a "dark photon." [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called " dark photons " in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1714] viXra:1808.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-18 06:36:20

Impossibility of the Existence of Black-Holes in Nature

Authors: Gokaran Shukla
Comments: 2 Pages.

Existence of the Black-holes are the direct threat to the Pauli exclusion principle and Bragg’s diffraction condition. In this paper we will show that there will “never” be Black-holes in nature, otherwise Pauli exclusion principle and Bragg’s diffraction condition (indirectly whole quantum mechanics) will break down!
Category: Astrophysics

[1713] viXra:1808.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-18 04:48:49

Pairing Properties of Nuclei

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

A team of Ohio University nuclear physicists has proposed a new theoretical model for calculating pairing properties of atomic nuclei including those found in extreme astrophysical environments. [28] In nature, the nuclear reactions that form stars are often accompanied by astronomically high amounts of energy, sometimes over billions of years. [27] Dark matter halos are theoretical bodies inside which galaxies are suspended; the halo's mass dominates the total mass. [26] An international team of researchers extended their results from a previous study to directly measure the cosmic-ray all-electron (electron + positron) spectrum in an energy range from 11 GeV to 4.8 TeV with the Calorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET). [25] Mysterious radiation emitted from distant corners of the galaxy could finally be explained with efforts to recreate a unique state of matter that blinked into existence in the first moments after the Big Bang. [24] Researchers at Oregon State University have confirmed that last fall's union of two neutron stars did in fact cause a short gamma-ray burst. [23] Quark matter – an extremely dense phase of matter made up of subatomic particles called quarks – may exist at the heart of neutron stars. [22] When a massive astrophysical object, such as a boson star or black hole, rotates, it can cause the surrounding spacetime to rotate along with it due to the effect of frame dragging. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18]
Category: Astrophysics

[1712] viXra:1808.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-16 09:03:49

Dark Matter Search with Gravitational Wave Detectors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

According to a new study, they could also potentially detect dark matter, if dark matter is composed of a particular kind of particle called a "dark photon." [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called " dark photons " in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1711] viXra:1808.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-15 09:13:56

Neutron Stars Answer Neutron Puzzle

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Free neutrons decay in about 900 s but, bound in nuclei, they are stable and make up somewhat more than half the mass of the visible universe." [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved funding and start of construction for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, which will begin operations in the early 2020s to hunt for hypothetical dark matter particles called weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. [32] Thanks to low-noise superconducting quantum amplifiers invented at the University of California, Berkeley, physicists are now embarking on the most sensitive search yet for axions, one of today's top candidates for dark matter. [31] The Axion Dark Matter Experiment (ADMX) at the University of Washington in Seattle has finally reached the sensitivity needed to detect axions if they make up dark matter, physicists report today in Physical Review Letters. [30] Now our new study – which hints that extremely light particles called neutrinos are likely to make up some of the dark matter – challenges our current understanding of its composition. [29] A new particle detector design proposed at the) could greatly broaden the search for dark matter—which makes up 85 percent of the total mass of the universe yet we don't know what it's made of—into an unexplored realm. [28] University of Houston scientists are helping to develop a technology that could hold the key to unraveling one of the great mysteries of science: what constitutes dark matter? [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26]
Category: Astrophysics

[1710] viXra:1808.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-14 13:46:48

Beacon for Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

By measuring intracluster light, scientists could " perhaps learn something about the nature of dark matter, " says astrophysicist James Bullock of the University of California, Irvine, who was not involved with the research. [33] For almost 10 years, astronomers have been studying a mysterious diffuse radiation coming from the centre of our galaxy. [32] Deep beneath a mountain in the Apennine range in Italy, an intricate apparatus searches for the dark matter of the universe. [31] A Multiverse—where our Universe is only one of many—might not be as inhospitable to life as previously thought, according to new research. [30] Astrophysicists from the University of Surrey and the University of Edinburgh have created a new method to measure the amount of dark matter at the centre of tiny "dwarf" galaxies. [29] A research team of multiple institutes, including the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and University of Tokyo, released an unprecedentedly wide and sharp dark matter map based on the newly obtained imaging data by Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25]
Category: Astrophysics

[1709] viXra:1808.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-15 00:34:25

Kepler`s Laws After Simple Alteration Sectoral Speed and Replace the Orbital Velocity Another Measure

Authors: Oleg Tcherepanov
Comments: 3 Pages. Title of papir by rassian language:

The replacement of the sectorial velocity of the N-th planet of the Solar system by the ratio of the area within the orbit to the annual period estimated in solar days reveals that the obtained renormalization analogs of the area characteristics of the elliptical motions of the terrestrial planets have values close to integers. This allows us to introduce into astrophysics the concept of area-velocity, acceptable for a number of satellites of the Sun. In addition, the identical transformations of the formula of the third Kepler's law convince that in the system of two spheroids, for example, such as the Earth and the Moon, the mechanical motion in the form of quadra-velocity is divided between the components of the gravitational dipole inversely proportional to their masses. In this case, the scalar area-and quadra-velocities of celestial spheroids do not obey the сhrono-geometric metrology of astronomical observations. Background and applications of non-standard metrology of observed movements are presented in detail in the monograph ISBN 978-3-659-60213-9 (Palmarium Academic Publishing).
Category: Astrophysics

[1708] viXra:1808.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-14 03:52:51

Protons Influence Neutron Stars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

A new study in Nature, co-led by MIT researchers, suggests that some properties of neutron stars may be influenced not only by their multitude of densely packed neutrons, but also by a substantially smaller fraction of protons—positively charged particles that make up just 5 percent of a neutron star. [23] Quark matter – an extremely dense phase of matter made up of subatomic particles called quarks – may exist at the heart of neutron stars. [22] When a massive astrophysical object, such as a boson star or black hole, rotates, it can cause the surrounding spacetime to rotate along with it due to the effect of frame dragging. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13]
Category: Astrophysics

[1707] viXra:1808.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-11 05:23:00

Mysterious X-ray Source

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

An enigmatic X-ray source revealed as part of a data-mining project for high-school students shows unexplored avenues hidden in the vast archive of ESA's XMM-Newton X-ray Observatory. [17] There's nothing quite like an ice cream on a hot day, and eating it before it melts too much is part of the fun. [16] Studying the fleeting actions of electrons in organic materials will now be much easier, thanks to a new method for generating fast X-rays. [15] In a laboratory at the University of Rochester, researchers are using lasers to change the surface of metals in incredible ways, such as making them super water-repellent without the use of special coatings, paints, or solvents. [14]
Category: Astrophysics

[1706] viXra:1808.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-07 10:18:51

Big Improvement at Nuclear Astrophysics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

In nature, the nuclear reactions that form stars are often accompanied by astronomically high amounts of energy, sometimes over billions of years. [27] Dark matter halos are theoretical bodies inside which galaxies are suspended; the halo's mass dominates the total mass. [26] An international team of researchers extended their results from a previous study to directly measure the cosmic-ray all-electron (electron + positron) spectrum in an energy range from 11 GeV to 4.8 TeV with the Calorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET). [25] Mysterious radiation emitted from distant corners of the galaxy could finally be explained with efforts to recreate a unique state of matter that blinked into existence in the first moments after the Big Bang. [24] Researchers at Oregon State University have confirmed that last fall's union of two neutron stars did in fact cause a short gamma-ray burst. [23] Quark matter – an extremely dense phase of matter made up of subatomic particles called quarks – may exist at the heart of neutron stars. [22] When a massive astrophysical object, such as a boson star or black hole, rotates, it can cause the surrounding spacetime to rotate along with it due to the effect of frame dragging. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18]
Category: Astrophysics

[1705] viXra:1808.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-07 10:48:32

Complex Dust Behavior in Plasmas

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

400 kilometers above Earth, researchers examined waves in complex plasma under microgravity conditions and found that the microparticles behaved in nonuniform ways in the presence of varying electrical fields. [28] In nature, the nuclear reactions that form stars are often accompanied by astronomically high amounts of energy, sometimes over billions of years. [27] Dark matter halos are theoretical bodies inside which galaxies are suspended; the halo's mass dominates the total mass. [26] An international team of researchers extended their results from a previous study to directly measure the cosmic-ray all-electron (electron + positron) spectrum in an energy range from 11 GeV to 4.8 TeV with the Calorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET). [25] Mysterious radiation emitted from distant corners of the galaxy could finally be explained with efforts to recreate a unique state of matter that blinked into existence in the first moments after the Big Bang. [24] Researchers at Oregon State University have confirmed that last fall's union of two neutron stars did in fact cause a short gamma-ray burst. [23] Quark matter – an extremely dense phase of matter made up of subatomic particles called quarks – may exist at the heart of neutron stars. [22] When a massive astrophysical object, such as a boson star or black hole, rotates, it can cause the surrounding spacetime to rotate along with it due to the effect of frame dragging. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18]
Category: Astrophysics

[1704] viXra:1808.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-06 12:04:52

The Solar Group is One Machine (Proves)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 11 Pages.

The Solar group is one machine each planet should be considered as a gear in this same machine The Planet matter and orbital distance are created together from the same energy, so both of them are players in the solar group geometrical structure and motions i.e. The Matter is Energy (E=mc2) The Distance is Energy (Hypothesis) The Solar group is created from one energy. This same energy created the planets matters and their orbital distances to guarantee the solar group general harmony. This paper provides the proves for this claim
Category: Astrophysics

[1703] viXra:1808.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-06 12:59:59

Galactic Centre Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

For almost 10 years, astronomers have been studying a mysterious diffuse radiation coming from the centre of our galaxy. [32] Deep beneath a mountain in the Apennine range in Italy, an intricate apparatus searches for the dark matter of the universe. [31] A Multiverse—where our Universe is only one of many—might not be as inhospitable to life as previously thought, according to new research. [30] Astrophysicists from the University of Surrey and the University of Edinburgh have created a new method to measure the amount of dark matter at the centre of tiny "dwarf" galaxies. [29] A research team of multiple institutes, including the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and University of Tokyo, released an unprecedentedly wide and sharp dark matter map based on the newly obtained imaging data by Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24]
Category: Astrophysics

[1702] viXra:1808.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-06 17:24:29

The WASP-12 Polymorphic System

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

I place the polymorphic system WASP-12 on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram according to stellar metamorphosis. We can see that WASP-12b's proximity to its host will rip it apart quite quickly leaving a small moon-like object that will never form life. It will eventually resemble something like Io if it does not escape its annihilation orbit or AO path.
Category: Astrophysics

[1701] viXra:1808.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-04 09:42:05

Saturn on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Saturn is placed on the Wolynski-Taylor diagram. Explanation is provided of why it is placed at its specific location.
Category: Astrophysics

[1700] viXra:1808.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-04 13:07:56

The Polymorphic System HD 10180 on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

I place the polymorphic system HD 10180 on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram. Using this information we can imagine what these systems are, versus what the dogma thinks they are.
Category: Astrophysics

[1699] viXra:1808.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-02 07:46:34

The Moon on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

The Moon is placed on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram. It should be noticed that it is a dead moon, an ancient star vastly older than the Earth and literally all of the larger objects in the solar system.
Category: Astrophysics

[1698] viXra:1808.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-03 07:20:14

Invisible Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

Deep beneath a mountain in the Apennine range in Italy, an intricate apparatus searches for the dark matter of the universe. [31] A Multiverse—where our Universe is only one of many—might not be as inhospitable to life as previously thought, according to new research. [30] Astrophysicists from the University of Surrey and the University of Edinburgh have created a new method to measure the amount of dark matter at the centre of tiny "dwarf" galaxies. [29] A research team of multiple institutes, including the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and University of Tokyo, released an unprecedentedly wide and sharp dark matter map based on the newly obtained imaging data by Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] " We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark
Category: Astrophysics

[1697] viXra:1808.0012 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-01 12:40:00

Solar Planet Gravity Equation

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Planet Gravity = (Earth Diameter / The Planet Diameter)2 x ((The Planet Mass/ The Earth Mass) x Earth Gravity
Category: Astrophysics

[1696] viXra:1807.0529 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-31 09:58:32

A Method for Calculating Orbital Velocities in Expanding or Contracting Space-Time

Authors: John S. Huenefeld
Comments: 8 Pages. Up to now, an unsolved problem in physics.

We are told that as expansion of the universe continues to accelerate, stars will eventually be ripped from galaxies, then planets will be ripped from their stars. Eventually the planets themselves will be torn apart by the force of expanding space-time and then even molecules and atoms. When asked at what specific expansion rates these things will happen, no one has an answer. Galaxy models used to estimate the amount of dark matter required to explain observed rotation rates do not account for universal expansion in the calculations, as if expansion is not happening within galaxies at all. The consensus is that expansion is very small, and is easily overcome by local forces. This may be true on Earth, or in our solar system, but galaxies are very large, and orbits in galaxies take place in a realm of very small accelerations acting over very large distances. Within a galaxy the size of the Milky Way, outward drift due to expansion may exceed inward fall due to gravity, on a per second basis, by up to thirteen orders of magnitude. It is difficult to imagine how gravity overcomes these relatively large expansion rates and calls into question the correctness of ignoring universal expansion in galaxy models. If ignoring expansion is correct, then does it mean that universal expansion does not actually happen within galaxies? And if not, why not? Why do we see red shift in the light from distant galaxies, clearly a sign of an expanding universe, and yet see no evidence of expansion going on locally in the solar system or within our galaxy? If a method for calculating the orbital velocities of gravitationally bound objects including the effect of expansion (or contraction) of space-time could be developed, these questions will have definitive answers. That is the object of this paper.
Category: Astrophysics

[1695] viXra:1807.0513 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-30 19:17:57

The Locations of M, L, T and Y Brown Dwarfs on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 4 Pages.

According to establishment brown dwarfs are strange and not connected to the regular path of stellar evolution or planet formation. Unfortunately this is false, and has been false since brown dwarfs have been discovered, and will continue to be false well into the future after the failed star false knowledge is scrubbed from the science textbooks. Brown dwarfs straddle the line between strongly radiant stars and stars that no longer shine brightly, the line between very massive stars and small ones, and the line between young and old stars. They are not failed stars at all as is accepted by the establishment, but intermediate aged ones. This means M, L, T and Y type brown dwarfs can be easily placed on the Wolynski-Taylor diagram with reference to the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[1694] viXra:1807.0470 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-27 19:12:21

Model of Universe as Described by Dynamic Universe Model

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 36 Pages. This is a new model of Universe, where all the processes of Universe oare explained without USING bibang based physics

In this paper we will see the model of Universe according to Dynamic Universe Model of Cosmology by visualizing various processes that are happening in the Universe as per experimental evidences. For simplifying the matter here we will see in part1: about the Galaxy life cycle, where the birth and death of Galaxies discussed. Probably Universe gives guidance for the movement of Galaxies. We call this Part 1: Thinking and Reproducing Universe or Mindless Universe? (Galaxy life cycle). We see every day Sun, Stars, Galaxies etc., dissipating enormous energy in the form of radiation by the way of fusion of Hydrogen to helium. So after sometime all the Hydrogen is spent and Universe will die, is it not? … Dynamic Universe Model says that the energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation passing grazingly near any gravitating mass changes its in frequency and finally will convert into neutrinos (mass). Hence Dynamic Universe Model proposes another process where energy will be converted back into matter and the cycle energy to mass to energy continues, sustaining the Universe to maintain this present status for ever in this form something like a Steady state model without any expansion. This we will see in Part2: Energy – Mass - Energy Cycle. After converting energy into mass “how various elements are formed and where they are formed?” will be next logical question. Dynamic Universe Model says that these various particles change into higher massive particles or may get bombarded into stars or planets and various elements are formed. Here we bifurcate the formation of elements into 6 processes. They are for Elementary particles and elements generated in frequency changing process, By Cosmic rays, By Small stars, By Large Stars, By Super Novae and Man made elements By Neutron Stars. This we will discuss in Part3: Nucleosynthesis.
Category: Astrophysics

[1693] viXra:1807.0465 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-28 04:06:03

Making Sense of C-nu-B Anisotropies, Predictions from Antimatter Black Hole Physics

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 2 Pages.

some final predictions from antimatter black-hole physics that relate to the CMB and C-nu-B, cosmic neutrino background
Category: Astrophysics

[1692] viXra:1807.0449 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-27 03:30:47

The Moon Orbit Geometrical Structure (revised)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 39 Pages.

The first question in this research was why we see the sun disc = the moon disc? i.e. why (the Sun diameter/ the moon diameter) = (Earth orbital distance/ Earth Moon distance)? The answer was "That's only Pure Coincidence" (No.1) Then I found another question… The Earth-Moon Orbit circumference at apogee radius (r=406000 km) = 2.58 mkm = Earth daily motion… why? "That's also Pure Coincidence" (No.2) Then I found the moon orbit geometrical relationships which are: 1.Earth Moon Distance at Perigee point =363000 km = Solar Outer Planets Diameters Total (error 1%) 2.Earth Moon Distance at Apogee point =406000 km = Solar Planets Diameters Total 3.The Distance between Perigee and Apogee = 40000km = Inner Solar Planets Diameters Total = Earth Circumference. 4.Saturn Circumference = Earth Moon Distance at total solar eclipse radius (377000km) 5.Note Please/ Solar Planets Diameters Total= 2 Jupiter diameters + 1 Saturn diameter (i.e. Jupiter diameter = 8 solar planets diameters total) Why the previous relationships are found? "Surely these are Pure Coincidence" (No.3) Let's think more deeply, The moon has to move daily a distance = Earth daily motion, otherwise The Earth and Moon will be separated from each other.. that means -The moon should move daily =2.58 mkm, -We know Earth moves daily = 2.58 mkm -Also the moon orbit circumference at apogee radius (406000km) = 2.58 mkm Is There any relationship between the three value 2.58 mkm… ? The answer is "No, this is Pure Coincidence" (No.4) Then Metonic Cycle question is produced Why the moon orbit regresses yearly 19 degrees? Why the moon rotates Metonic Cycle which Earth doesn't? let's think more deeply Metonic Cycle period = 6939.75 days = 19 x 365.25 days (19 sidereal years) = 235 x 29.53 days (235 Synodic Months) = 20 x 346.6 days (20 nodal years) The previous data tells us that, the Earth motion is in harmony with Moon and Moon orbit motions, that's why the three motions finish their cycles in the same time. Why? (by the way how The moon orbit regresses alone with the moon? does it occur with any other planet? "Just Pure Coincidence" (No.5) Also I found some interesting relationship Earth Circumference = inner planets diameters total i.e. diameters of (Mercury + Venus + The moon + Earth + Mars) = Earth Circumference but 2 Neptune Circumference = Jupiter diameter + Saturn diameter + Uranus diameter (error 1%) Also I found Earth Mass = Mercury Mass + Venus Mass+ Moon Mass + Mars Mass (error 1%) Neptune Mass= inner Planets masses total + Uranus mass + Pluto Mass (3.3%) Is there any geometrical reason behind all these relationships? "Simply these are only Pure coincidences" (No.6)
Category: Astrophysics

[1691] viXra:1807.0448 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-27 03:59:19

Gravitational Wave Disappear Clouds

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Yuter and colleagues suggested that if gravity waves are the true cause of the cloud dissipation, they are most likely to be triggered by the interaction between offshore winds flowing perpendicular to the African coastline with the more stable marine boundary layer in the atmosphere. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called " dark photons " in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1690] viXra:1807.0441 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-27 09:17:12

X-ray Around Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

In an international collaboration between Japan and Sweden, scientists clarified how gravity affects the shape of matter near the black hole in binary system Cygnus X-1. [22] New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. [21] Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12]
Category: Astrophysics

[1689] viXra:1807.0438 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-25 07:42:39

Inconsistences in the Big Bang Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Now researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI have helped to better understand the first minutes of the universe: They collected artificially produced beryllium-7 and made it into a sample that could be investigated. [27] Researchers have developed a new way to improve our knowledge of the Big Bang by measuring radiation from its afterglow, called the cosmic microwave background radiation. [26] The group's results reinforce a disagreement over the value of the Hubble constant as measured directly and as calculated via observations of primordial radiation – a disparity, say the researchers, which likely points to new physics. [25] Neutron stars consist of the densest form of matter known: a neutron star the size of Los Angeles can weigh twice as much as our sun. [24] Supermassive black holes, which lurk at the heart of most galaxies, are often described as "beasts" or "monsters". [23] The nuclei of most galaxies host supermassive black holes containing millions to billions of solar-masses of material. [22] New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. [21] Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17]
Category: Astrophysics

[1688] viXra:1807.0437 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-25 08:33:21

Preference for Dual Herbig Haro Black Hole Consumption by the Central MW Black Hole, Leaving Plasma Jets Behind.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 25 Pages.

Recent observations by the new MeerKat telescope system show unprecedented details of Herbig Haro jet alike objects around the central black hole of our Milky Way. According to the Quantum FFF Model, Herbig Haro jets are connected between the central baby star and both Stellar Anchor Black Holes ( SABHs) , which are responsible for the spacetime polarization forming a kind of vacuum/ ether pressure cooker, for fast star formation in between the two SABHs. It is well known, that all black holes are the same as electric charged dark matter, able to attract each other up to a certain distance and forming a plasma bar in between, which evaluate later into dual plasma jets, keeping the two black holes at a certain mass related distance. However only black holes of the same gravitational potential ( nuclear quantum knot size) are able to perform such a process, leading to so called Herbig Haro systems. If different sized black holes approach each other, it is assumed that the smallest black hole is able to split the larger one into two equal sized quantum knots, which will form a stable Herbig Haro system with star or even failed star formation in between. Also well known is, that the smallest black holes in galaxies seem to have a preference for group around the central galaxy position, which mostly is equipped with a central black hole. The central black hole is supposed to be the gate to the end of the galaxy and even the universe itself into a big crunch black hole as a start for a new cyclic multiverse.. As a consequence, the central black hole seem to feed mostly on the smaller dual Herbig Haro black holes, which is probably the origin of the numerous remaining former plasma jets which are found in the MeerKat ( precursor releases) observations.
Category: Astrophysics

[1687] viXra:1807.0421 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-24 13:46:11

The Moon Orbit Geometrical Structure

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 10 Pages.

The first question in this research was why we see the sun disc = the moon disc? i.e. why (the Sun diameter/ the moon diameter) = (earth orbital distance/ Earth Moon distance)? The answer was "That's only Pure Coincidence" (No.1) Then I found another question… The Earth-Moon Orbit circumference at apogee radius (406000km) = 2.58 mkm = Earth daily motion… why? "That's also Pure Coincidence" (No.2) Then I found the moon orbit geometrical relationships which are: 6.Earth Moon Distance at Perigee point =363000 km = Solar Outer Planets Diameters Total (error 1%) 7.Earth Moon Distance at Apogee point =406000 km = Solar Planets Diameters Total 8.The Distance between Perigee and Apogee = 40000km = Inner Solar Planets Diameters Total = Earth Circumference. 9.Saturn Circumference = Earth Moon Distance at total solar eclipse radius (377000km) Why the previous relationships are found? "Surely these are Pure Coincidence" (No.3) Let's then with more depth, the moon has to move daily a distance = Earth daily motion, otherwise they will be separated from each other.. that means the moon should move daily =2.58 mkm, but we know that the moon orbit circumference at apogee radius (406000km) also 2.58mkm ..why? "We all know this is Pure Coincidence" (No.4) Then Metonic Cycle question is produced Why the moon orbit regresses daily 19 degrees? Why the moon rotates Metonic Cycle which Earth doesn't? let's think with some deep vision Metonic Cycle period = 6939.75 days 6939.75 days = 19 x 365.25 days (19 sidereal years) = 235 x 29.53 days (Synodic Month) = 20 x 346.6 days (nodal year) The previous data tells us that, the Earth motion is in harmony with Moon and Moon orbit motions, that's why the three motions finish their cycles in the same time \ Why? "Just Pure Coincidence" (No.5) I found we need to find some logical and physical explanation behind all these data, I can't accept any of these as Pure coincidences…
Category: Astrophysics

[1686] viXra:1807.0412 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-23 13:58:21

84 Minutes Are Required for Mercury Day

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 29 Pages.

Mercury Day needs 84 = 5040 seconds minutes to be 176 days This Data analysis supports my claim that "The Matter and Distance are created together by the Same Energy" i.e. The Matter is Energy The Distance is Energy The Space (distance) is a complementary to the Matter, Means the matter can't be created without Space Imagine a classroom The classroom is NOT a space will be filled with desks.. It's mistaken Each desk is brought inside the classroom, brought with it a part of the classroom floor Now, the classroom floor is created with the desks and NOT without.. That's the concept I want to suggest The matter and distance are complementary to each other … no one of both can found alone This idea can easily be concluded from Matter Theory of Creation Where the Theory supposes that the Matter is bright fringes and the distance is dark fringes We can see that the matter is created as a rate to its complementary distance.. This meaning we concluded easily from the Equation Planet orbital distance = Planet diameter * 1092 Note Please: 84 minutes = 5040 seconds but (71)2 = 5041
Category: Astrophysics

[1685] viXra:1807.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-23 22:36:03

Star System Polymorphism

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

All star systems are polymorphic/polymorphous. This means they contain stars in various stages to their own metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[1684] viXra:1807.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-24 04:27:14

Black Holes and Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Leiden physicists have now found a surprising connection with auxiliary black holes. [32] For a long time, physicists have tried to understand the relationship between a periodic pattern of conduction electrons called a charge density wave (CDW), and another quantum order, superconductivity, or zero electrical resistance, in the same material. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Astrophysics

[1683] viXra:1807.0391 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-24 12:16:10

Eternal Sun

Authors: Moninder Singh Modgil
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper seeks to explain three solar puzzles - namely - (1) Solar Neutrino Problem, (2) Coronal Temperature Problem, and (3) Ion and electron teperature discrepancy. It considers a hypertoroidal cosmological model, in which space time have the toplogy $S^3 \times S^1$ - which have also been explored by Segal and Guillemin. The retarded fluxes, emanating from the sun, interact with the advanced fluxe returning to their origin - provide solution.
Category: Astrophysics

[1682] viXra:1807.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-22 10:10:29

Naturally Occurring Haber Process During Stellar Metamorphosis, or How to Find Water Worlds in Exoplanet Data

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages. 2 diagrams

Ammonia is found in late stage stars such as Neptune and Uranus. It is also present in intermediate aged stars such as Jupiter and Saturn. Given the sheer amount of hydrogen and nitrogen available to chemically combine into ammonia, it is clear that production of ammonia is a natural process in stellar evolution/metamorphosis, and we can mimic this with the Haber Process. A naturally occurring Haber process runs counter to the establishment's false worldview that stars can not cool down enough to form huge amounts of organic and non-organic molecules. We know it happens because we have direct and indirect observational evidence of it happening.
Category: Astrophysics

[1681] viXra:1807.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-20 06:22:23

Pluto was "The Mercury Moon"

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 8 Pages.

Pluto was "The Mercury Moon" I claim the following: 1-Pluto was – The Mercury Moon- 2-Pluto had to immigrate from his original point to his new point at orbital distance =5870 mkm because of Mars immigration 3-Mars original orbital distance = 84 mkm and he immigrated from this point to his current point at orbital distance = 227.9 mkm 4-Mercury day was 176 days and decreased by 84 minutes = 5040 seconds because of Mars Immigration 5-The solar planets, found before Mars Immigration were: Pluto – Mercury- Mars – Earth- Jupiter – Uranus – Neptune (the order is incorrect) 6-The solar planets, created after Mars Immigration were: Venus – Saturn – The Earth Moon – the Sun "Pluto was The Mercury Moon" is a claim aims to supports the relationship between planet diameter and his orbital distance which supports the concept that "the Matter and distance are created together from the same Energy"
Category: Astrophysics

[1680] viXra:1807.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-20 08:04:47

Cosmic Ray Electron Spectrum

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

An international team of researchers extended their results from a previous study to directly measure the cosmic-ray all-electron (electron + positron) spectrum in an energy range from 11 GeV to 4.8 TeV with the Calorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET). [25] Mysterious radiation emitted from distant corners of the galaxy could finally be explained with efforts to recreate a unique state of matter that blinked into existence in the first moments after the Big Bang. [24] Researchers at Oregon State University have confirmed that last fall's union of two neutron stars did in fact cause a short gamma-ray burst. [23] Quark matter – an extremely dense phase of matter made up of subatomic particles called quarks – may exist at the heart of neutron stars. [22] When a massive astrophysical object, such as a boson star or black hole, rotates, it can cause the surrounding spacetime to rotate along with it due to the effect of frame dragging. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15]
Category: Astrophysics

[1679] viXra:1807.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-20 09:19:07

Gravitational Lensing Study

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Dark matter halos are theoretical bodies inside which galaxies are suspended; the halo's mass dominates the total mass. [26] An international team of researchers extended their results from a previous study to directly measure the cosmic-ray all-electron (electron + positron) spectrum in an energy range from 11 GeV to 4.8 TeV with the Calorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET). [25] Mysterious radiation emitted from distant corners of the galaxy could finally be explained with efforts to recreate a unique state of matter that blinked into existence in the first moments after the Big Bang. [24] Researchers at Oregon State University have confirmed that last fall's union of two neutron stars did in fact cause a short gamma-ray burst. [23] Quark matter – an extremely dense phase of matter made up of subatomic particles called quarks – may exist at the heart of neutron stars. [22] When a massive astrophysical object, such as a boson star or black hole, rotates, it can cause the surrounding spacetime to rotate along with it due to the effect of frame dragging. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16]
Category: Astrophysics

[1678] viXra:1807.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-18 06:11:38

Super-Cool Kit for Dark Matter Experiment

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

A huge U.K.-built titanium chamber designed to keep its contents at a cool-100C and weighing as much as an SUV has been shipped to the United States, where it will soon become part of a next-generation dark matter detector to hunt for the long-theorised elusive dark matter particle called a WIMP (Weakly Interacting Massive Particle). [32] An international team of scientists that includes University of California, Riverside, physicist Hai-Bo Yu has imposed conditions on how dark matter may interact with ordinary matter—constraints that can help identify the elusive dark matter particle and detect it on Earth. [31] A Multiverse—where our Universe is only one of many—might not be as inhospitable to life as previously thought, according to new research. [30] Astrophysicists from the University of Surrey and the University of Edinburgh have created a new method to measure the amount of dark matter at the centre of tiny "dwarf" galaxies. [29] A research team of multiple institutes, including the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and University of Tokyo, released an unprecedentedly wide and sharp dark matter map based on the newly obtained imaging data by Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26]
Category: Astrophysics

[1677] viXra:1807.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-17 13:57:41

Saturn Data Proves Mars Immigration

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 4 Pages.

Abstract Saturn Data proves that, Saturn is created after Mars Immigration Saturn Data Analysis provides us the following conclusions: -The Planets were found before Mars Immigration: Mercury – Pluto – Mars – Earth – Jupiter- Uranus – Neptune (7 planets) -The Planets were found after Mars Immigration: Venus – Saturn – The Earth Moon - (and the sun) Please Note: I claimed Mars immigrated from his original point in 84 mkm to his new point in 227.9 mkm Please review "Mars Immigration Proves (Revised)" http://vixra.org/abs/1807.0268
Category: Astrophysics

[1676] viXra:1807.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-17 16:41:14

Neo-Heraclides Model, Part 2

Authors: John Roach
Comments: Pages.

Neo-Heraclides Model, Part 2 Dedicated to the memory of Dr. Russell Arndts. "The Truth Will Win Out"
Category: Astrophysics

[1675] viXra:1807.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-17 17:36:01

The Cosmic Thread

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: 2 Pages.

Think of a tennis net - if you pulled on opposite diagonal corners of the net: the threads would fold-up into a thick section. That is what is happening with a cosmic thread.
If a section of space compresses and flattens in 2 directions it will become a thread or string-like object approximately the thickness of a proton.
Category: Astrophysics

[1674] viXra:1807.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-17 03:49:01

Antimatter Plasma

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Mysterious radiation emitted from distant corners of the galaxy could finally be explained with efforts to recreate a unique state of matter that blinked into existence in the first moments after the Big Bang. [24] Researchers at Oregon State University have confirmed that last fall's union of two neutron stars did in fact cause a short gamma-ray burst. [23] Quark matter – an extremely dense phase of matter made up of subatomic particles called quarks – may exist at the heart of neutron stars. [22] When a massive astrophysical object, such as a boson star or black hole, rotates, it can cause the surrounding spacetime to rotate along with it due to the effect of frame dragging. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14]
Category: Astrophysics

[1673] viXra:1807.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-16 07:34:37

The Corrections of Pressure And Mass of The White Dwarf Star

Authors: Ting-Hang Pei
Comments: 9 Pages.

Traditional explanation for the white dwarf star is based on the ideally degenerate Fermi electron gas to produce the pressure against gravity. This theory predicts the upper mass limit of the white dwarf star is 1.44 times as large as our sun although the Fermi electron gas is calculated at the temperature T of absolute zero. In this research, first considering the electron-electron interaction in the high-density Fermi electron gas at T=0 K, this interaction causes the pressure 2/137 time less than the original value. Then we estimate the temperature effect using statistical mechanics and find the total pressure is mainly proportional to T/(lnT) at the given particle number N and volume V. The Fermi electron gas is about 4.343 times at 108 K larger than it at 107 K. According to this, the relationship between radius and mass of the white dwarf star is obtained and it depends on temperature, electron mass, and proton mass. An unknown parameter δ=0.02716 is calculated by using an example of a white dwarf star with the mass of our sun and the radius of Earth. This relationship is useful for estimating the inner temperature of a white dwarf star.
Category: Astrophysics

[1672] viXra:1807.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-16 13:13:38

Mars Immigration Proves (Revised)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 16 Pages.

The solar planets order tells us clearly that there's a relationship between the planet diameter and his orbital distance… this conclusion we get easily from the following planets order: Mercury – Venus – Earth.. The previous planets order tells us a clear rule "Planet Greater Diameter has A Greater Orbital Distance" Something was happened with Mars After Mars this rule is reversed as we see in the following planets: Jupiter – Saturn - Uranus – Neptune – Pluto The rule became "Planet Greater Diameter has A Shorter Orbital Distance" (Please Note/ Uranus greater in diameter and less in Mass from Neptune that tells us the planets order depends on their diameters and NOT on their Masses) What happened with Mars? Mars immigration from his original point in 84 mkm to his new point in 227.9 mkm Let's return Mars to his original point at orbital distance = 84 mkm What the solar planets order will be: Mercury – Mars - Venus – Earth.. This follows completely the rule "Planet Greater Diameter has A Greater Orbital Distance" Based on this description there are 2 planets at least immigrated from their original points: 1-Mars immigrated from his original point in 84 mkm to his new point in 227.9 mkm 2-Pluto who belonged before to the solar inner planets (my hypothesis) and had to move to the End of the solar group because the rule became reversed… \ This paper tries to prove these facts To do that we have to prove the following: 1-Mars moved from his original point (Mars is exceptional Planet) 2-Pluto belonged before to the solar inner planets.. This paper contains 2 points 3- Mars Original orbital distance was 84 mkm 4- An Alternative Solar Group Description
Category: Astrophysics

[1671] viXra:1807.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-14 14:03:42

Mars Immigration Proves

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 12 Pages.

I claim that Mars immigrated from his original Point at orbital distance =84 mkm to dwell in his point at orbital distance 227.9 mkm.. And this immigration causes the following results: 1- A disturbance for the planet diameter and orbital distance relationship (which is proven clearly from the solar planets order) 2- Pluto Immigration, because Pluto had to move to the Solar group End where he before belonged to the inner planets. This study tries to prove these facts Also I provide in this Study my suggested description for the solar group.
Category: Astrophysics

[1670] viXra:1807.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-13 10:39:56

Dark Matter Interact with Ordinary Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

An international team of scientists that includes University of California, Riverside, physicist Hai-Bo Yu has imposed conditions on how dark matter may interact with ordinary matter—constraints that can help identify the elusive dark matter particle and detect it on Earth. [31] A Multiverse—where our Universe is only one of many—might not be as inhospitable to life as previously thought, according to new research. [30] Astrophysicists from the University of Surrey and the University of Edinburgh have created a new method to measure the amount of dark matter at the centre of tiny "dwarf" galaxies. [29] A research team of multiple institutes, including the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and University of Tokyo, released an unprecedentedly wide and sharp dark matter map based on the newly obtained imaging data by Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25]
Category: Astrophysics

[1669] viXra:1807.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-11 14:26:31

Solar Planet Motion

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 7 Pages.

Theory of Matter Creation supposes that, the matter is bright fringes and the distance is dark fringes.. i.e. The planet is bright fringes and his orbital distance is dark fringes both of them are created from the same light coherence that explains the planet diameter and his orbital distance relationship… Please review Solar Group Geometrical Structure http://vixra.org/abs/1805.0081 This study tries to answer the question "How does the planet move?" let's summarize the answer in following: -The planet is created and connected with a light beam.. -So this light beam moves firstly -Then the Planet moves following this light beam with different rate of time (the planet original motion) -This motion (action) has a reaction (another motion) which =99% of the original one i.e. -The planet motion contains 3 motions together (the light beam motion- the planet original motion and the planet reacted motion which =99% of the original one) (hypothesis) -Do these 3 motions of the solar planet interpret the planet 3 cycles (Planet rotation cycle – Planet day – Planet orbital period)? This paper discusses this idea trying to prove it…
Category: Astrophysics

[1668] viXra:1807.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-11 20:37:00

Stages of Iron Absorption and Deposition in a Star

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Stars deposit iron in three basic levels. First they form the core in a very pure form alloyed with nickel. Secondly once that inner core is formed, material then deposits that is chemically combined with the iron forming molecules. Third, anymore deposited iron lands on the surface as meteorites. This shows how different the star was throughout its metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[1667] viXra:1807.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-10 13:30:35

Mercury Velocity

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 8 Pages.

Solar Data Analysis tells us that…… Mercury has 2 velocities 1st Velocity = 47.4 km/sec which is registered in NASA Planetary Fact Sheet 2nd Velocity= 47.8 km/sec which is necessary velocity to cover Mercury Orbital Circumference 57.9 mkm x 2π= 364 mkm in Mercury Orbital Period 88 days The difference between both velocities = 1% Why are there 2 velocities for the same Planet? And how that can be possible? This question is similar to the old question concerning Newton 3rd Law "why for Each Action there's reaction equal in value and opposite in direction? In brief… why the forces are created in double?
Category: Astrophysics

[1666] viXra:1807.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-10 23:29:39

Anti-Neutron Stars Within the Milky Way

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 1 Page.

a very brief article about them
Category: Astrophysics

[1665] viXra:1807.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-09 14:18:52

Solar Planet Diameter Creation Rule

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 34 Pages.

Abstract D =R *1092 Where D= Planet Orbital Distance R= Planet Diameter This equation can be concluded easily from Mercury Data Where Mercury Orbital distance 57.9 million km = Mercury Diameter 4879 km * 1092 The previous Equation works perfectly with Mercury, Earth and Saturn only But doesn’t work with the rest planets data… Why? Because Mars immigrated from his original point at 84 mkm to the sun and dwell in his current point in 227.9 mkm to the sun I claim Mars immigration causes the planet diameter and orbital distance relationship disturbance This paper tries to prove that, Mars immigration causes the following results: 1-The planet diameter and orbital distance relationship disturbance 2-Metonic Cycle 3-A Cycle happened once each 2737 years
Category: Astrophysics

[1664] viXra:1807.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-10 11:07:56

Dark Matter Effect on Early Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

New research lends further support to the idea that a detection of surprisingly strong absorption by primordial hydrogen gas, reported earlier this year, could be evidence of dark matter. [29] Physicists in Italy are about to start up a new experiment designed to hunt for hypothetical particles such as the " dark photon " and carriers of a possible fifth force of nature. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] " We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit. " [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22]
Category: Astrophysics

[1663] viXra:1807.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-08 11:53:54

PDS 70 on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. It is suggested to abandon the nebular hypothesis and all disk theories.

PDS 70 and its companion PDS 70b are claimed to be a new born star at ~10 million years old, with a companion new born planet. This is replaced with stellar metamorphosis and a diagram shows why. PDS 70 is a normal orange dwarf star that is slightly less massive than the Sun at about 130 million years old, and PDS 70b is a low mass brown dwarf about 330-350 million years old.
Category: Astrophysics

[1662] viXra:1807.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-08 17:00:18

Pregeologic Time or Pregeology, a Bridge for Geology and Astronomy

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 illustrative graph

Earth predates its own prescribed geological record. The case is made that Earth was too hot and energetic in its past to have even formed crystalline structure such as rocks/minerals, much less allowed them to be in their molten state. This is not a fact that disregards the geological history, it just shows that the geological record can only draw conclusions from rocks and minerals, long after the majority of the primary processes that formed them have ceased. As well, it shows that the assumption of Earth having always been solid/liquid material is flawed, due to overwhelming observational evidence of stars in all stages of evolution. A simple graph is provided showing the issue.
Category: Astrophysics

[1661] viXra:1807.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-09 01:43:49

Shapiro Delay, A Frequency Dependent Transit Time Effect, Not A Space Time Effect

Authors: Ghanzanshahi, Shahin, Dowdye, Edward H.
Comments: 9 Pages. The Shapiro Delay has been very much misinterpreted as having something to do with Space Times or a Relativistic Effect. In fact, it is very much frequency dependent, which totally separates its effect from that of Relativity.

Irvin L. Shapiro first noticed in 1964 that the transit time required for a microwave signal to propagate through space, arrive at a satellite orbiting Venus or Mercury and then return back to the earth by the sun to be received at the observatory, had a measurable time delay that varied as a function of the impact parameter of the microwave beam relative to the sun. The delays were observed to be in the order of 100's of microseconds when the impact parameter of the microwave beam was at a minimum. These measurements permitted a precise determination of the electron density profile of the solar wind as a function of the radial distance r from the sun. The electron density profile of the solar wind is found to behave very nearly as an inverse square of the radial distance r from the sun. The solar wind is found to engulf the outmost planets of the solar system. The bulk of all the measurements were done using microwave frequencies from 500 MHz to 8.8MHz. Significant findings of this research reveal that, for all microwave signals propagating in the solar wind atmosphere of the solar system, the waves are subjected to a frequency dependent plasma index of refraction n that exceeds unity, i.e., n > 1.0. For optical, IR and UV wavelengths, the plasma index of refraction n is 1.0000000000 for these wavelengths which are virtually unaffected by the solar wind electron density. As a consequence of these findings, the Shapiro delay cannot be related to a space-time effect of General Relativity which is independent of frequency.
Category: Astrophysics

[1660] viXra:1807.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-07 09:39:12

Gauss's Law of Gracvity and Observational Evidence Reveal no Solar Lensing in Empty Vacuum Space

Authors: Edward H Dowdye
Comments: 10 Pages. Supporting references pertaining to the Author of this original work are found on the Website: http://www.extinctionshift.com

Findings show that the rays of star light are lensed primarily in the plasma rim of the sun and hardly in the vacuum space just slightly above the rim. Since the lower boundary of this vacuum space is only a fraction of a solar radius above the solar plasma rim, it is exposed to virtually the same gravitational field. The thin plasma atmosphere of the sun appears to represent an indirect interaction involving an interfering plasma medium between the gravitational field of the sun and the rays of star light. The very same light bending equation obtained by General Relativity was derived from classical assumptions of a minimum energy path of a light ray in the plasma rim, exposed to the gravitational gradient field of the sun. The resulting calculation was found to be independent of frequency. An intense search of the star filled skies reveals a clear lack of lensing among the countless numbers of stars, where there are many candidates for gravitational lensing according to the assumptions of General Relativity. Assuming the validity of the light bending rule of General Relativity, the sky should be filled with images of Einstein rings. Moreover, a lack of evidence for gravitational lensing is clearly revealed in the time resolved images of the rapidly moving stellar objects orbiting about Sagittarius A*. Subject headings: black hole – gravitational lensing – galaxy center – plasma atmosphere – Gauss’s law
Category: Astrophysics

[1659] viXra:1807.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-07 12:47:52

The Significant Improvement of The Upper Mass Limit of The White Dwarf Star

Authors: Ting-Hang Pei
Comments: 8 Pages.

Traditional explanation for the white dwarf star is based on the ideally degenerate Fermi electron gas to produce the pressure against gravity. This theory predicts the upper mass limit of the white dwarf is 1.44 times as large as our sun although the Fermi electron gas is treated at the temperature of absolute zero. In this research, first we estimate the temperature effect and find the correction only about 1/100 at 107 K but about 1/10 at 108 K. Some parts of this Fermi electron gas are the relativistic electrons. Then we consider that some electrons can escape the gravity resulting in a positive charged star. These rest positive charges produce strong repulsive force and the pressure to against gravity. This positive-charged effect makes the upper mass limit higher than previous value. One demonstration shows that when the rest positive charges is 1.406x104 C and the radius of the white dwarf star is the same as Earth, its upper mass limit can be 1.98 times as large as our sun.
Category: Astrophysics

[1658] viXra:1807.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-03 16:00:14

The Mesogranulation Convective Power Spectrum

Authors: Laurence J. November
Comments: 17 Pages.

Some authors have pointed out that the observed spectrum of long-lived solar horizontal velocity shows only a single peak at wavelength ≃35 Mm, ‘supergranulation’. However the corresponding verticalvelocity spectrum looks very different with power shifted to higher wavenumber in a broad divided peak representing a range of plume sizes or half wavelengths from 4–12 Mm, i.e. ‘mesogranulation’. Vertical-velocity spectra derived from the Hathaway et al. (2000) SOHO-MDI 62 day full-disk Dopplervelocity spectrum and based upon the Koutchmy (1994) granulation intensity spectrum show expected Kolmogorov-inertial and eddy-noise power-law wavenumber subranges, giving evidence for energy injection into the vertical flow around three coherent length scales &1.01, 5.4, and 10.5 Mm, i.e. granulation, and ‘mesogranular’ and ‘supergranular’ subsurface counterparts. The three energy-injection scales correspond reasonably to interior-model convective mixing lengths for H I, He I, and He II 50% ionization depths, respectively. The two larger scales are nearly one-to-two also suggestive of a possible resonant overtone structure. The horizontal supergranulation flow seems evident as a distinct scale of eddy noise without energy injection around wavelength 45.3 Mm, consistent with the first subharmonic of the supergranular subsurface counterpart.
Category: Astrophysics

[1657] viXra:1807.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-02 09:09:05

Heavier Elements Made in the Cosmos

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Nuclear binding energies of several rare-earth isotopes have been measured for the first time. [9] Analyses of the gravitational waves from the neutron star merger observed by LIGO and Virgo improve models describing the dense nuclear matter inside a neutron star. [8] Using data from the first-ever gravitational waves detected last year, along with a theoretical analysis, physicists have shown that gravitational waves may oscillate between two different forms called "g" and "f"-type gravitational waves. [7] Astronomy experiments could soon test an idea developed by Albert Einstein almost exactly a century ago, scientists say. [6] It's estimated that 27% of all the matter in the universe is invisible, while everything from PB&J sandwiches to quasars accounts for just 4.9%. But a new theory of gravity proposed by theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde of the University of Amsterdam found out a way to dispense with the pesky stuff. [5] The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community— it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Astrophysics

[1656] viXra:1807.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-02 23:53:20

Gravitational Effect on the Final Stellar to Planetary Mass Ratio

Authors: Steven Suan Zhu
Comments: 35 Pages. This is the 2nd version originally published on Feb 26th, 2018 on Researchgate, DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.32829.77288

The discovery of exoplanets and possible future detection of exomoons led to the question if any relationship holds between the mass of its host star and mass of its planets. That is, if the mass of planets is constrained by the final mass of the hosting star. If relationship such as this exists, then several key questions can be answered. First of all, based on the mass of the star, what is the upper limit mass budget available for the creation of terrestrial planets. Secondly, if we know the mass budget availability, then what is the upper limit of the mass budget for the water in the system. Thirdly, finding the probability of the formation of exomoons with sizes comparable to earth around Jovian planets. Fourthly, explaining the rare occurrence of Jupiter sized planets around red dwarf systems.
Category: Astrophysics

[1655] viXra:1806.0443 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-28 12:51:17

The Black Hole With A Finite-Size Nucleus Based On The Conservation of Energy And Asymptotic Freedom

Authors: Ting-Hang Pei
Comments: 15 Pages.

From analysis of light geodesic along the radial direction, an infinite time for light passing through the event horizon in the black hole seems to be an unreasonable physical solution. The same situation is also for the massive particle. To compress all particles to a singularity also causes another energy problem because the black hole is evolutional from a star which only has finite mass and stored energy. From the viewpoint of the gravitation self-energy, we deduct that the black hole should have a finite-size nucleus. Then the black hole with finite-size nucleus is proposed and satisfies the gravitational criteria of the black hole. According to the successful theorem of the asymptotic freedom in the strong interaction, several possible structure models are considered in the high-density quark matter phases. Then using the Kerr-Newman metric, light propagating along the radial direction demonstrates finite speed forwardly and backwardly at any position larger than the Schwarzschild radius and no mathematical singularity at r=0 and θ=π/2. This very important fact shows that light can propagate from the outer space into a black hole and vice versa. The proposed structure model for the black hole is either rotational or charged and its nucleus can have strong magnetic dipole that causes the relativistically charged mass ejection from the black hole as happened in GRS 1915+105 and Galaxy M87. In thermal equilibrium, the nucleus of the black hole should have temperature higher than the cosmic microwave background temperature of 2.726 K. The entropy increases and the second law of thermodynamics should be still useful.
Category: Astrophysics

[1654] viXra:1806.0440 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-28 15:06:46

The Variable Rate of Mass Loss Principle of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. 2 references

A new principle of stellar metamorphosis is introduced to clarify the star sciences even more period. Stars lose mass at variable rates throughout their metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[1653] viXra:1806.0433 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-29 02:36:01

A Potential Way to Unify Classical and Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Roberto Napolitano
Comments: 163 Pages. The paper is written both in English and in Italian.

In the present work, by moving from the assumption that the Sun (and all the massive bodies) produces, starting from a certain distance from it, attractive and repulsive gravitational forces at the same time, giving life to the movement of the planets around the Sun according to the same principle of pendulum, I managed to derive a perihelion precession formula, a black hole radius formula and, above all, a formula of atomic nuclear radius, which was missing until now, all in excellent agreement with the observation and in a completely independent way of the Einstein’s theory of relativity. I have also found — always through the same principles that allowed me to achieve the above results, in particular through the modification of the Newtonian gravitational potential, in turn due to the different modus-operandi of gravity force — a formula of the non-decreasing orbital velocity of galactic stars, without considering dark matter. Then I have demonstrated the black hole is composed only of protons, and that it’s similar to the atomic nucleus and, analogously, the galaxy is similar to the atom, since the stars moving around the central nucleus in the same way as the electrons move around the atomic nucleus. I have also found another similitude between atomic nucleus and black hole, by having demonstrate that in the first we have that energy is E = Mc2, and in the second we have that energy is E = Qc2. From the mathematical findings obtained in the present work, it has also emerged the existence, both at the microscopic and the macroscopic level, of the gravito-electric force (or, if you prefer, electro-gravitational force), resulting from the merging of the gravitational force with the electric one, and working exactly in accordance with Newtonian mechanics, although modified by the introduction of a repulsive force in addition and in opposition to the attractive one, that makes us understand the universe works always in the same way, both in macro and in micro. Then I have also demonstrated that in the universe the principle of conservation of energy is always satisfied, since we having shown what is the function of nuclear energy E = Mc2 (i.e. to make the electrons orbit the atomic nucleus), and what is the function of the energy E = Qc2 possessed by the protons of the blacks holes (i.e. to make the stars orbit the black hole itself). In this perspective, the present work can represent a potential unifying way between the macrocosm and microcosm mechanics.
Category: Astrophysics

[1652] viXra:1806.0408 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-27 22:36:39

Martian Papers 1

Authors: Greg Orme
Comments: 211 Pages.

A series of published papers on possible Martian artifacts.
Category: Astrophysics

[1651] viXra:1806.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-27 23:19:02

Evolution of the Ring of Gravitating Bodies with and Without the Central Body and Properties of Their Chaotic Behavior

Authors: A.V. Melkikh, E.A. Melkikh, V.A. Kozhevnikov
Comments: 35 Pages.

The time dependence of distribution function for the system composed of material points having circular orbits at initial moment of time with and without massive central body is obtained. As a result of chaotization of orbits, a part of material points evaporates (acquires positive total energy). Dependence of the fraction of evaporated material points on the width of the disk, their mass and initial distance to the central body is obtained. Wherein, the maximum fraction of evaporated particles for the case with central body is equal to 0.4. Initial stage of evaporation of a ring of particles with a central body is a subdiffusion with the dependence of the mean square bias on time =Kαt^α, where α = 0.27. For the case without a central body, the fraction of evaporated particles is obtained as a function of the number of particles in the ring and virial ratios. The dependence of the fraction of particle pairs leaving the system on the number of particles in the ring is obtained. The average fraction of pairs for the virial ratio K = -U turned out to be 0.2. Power spectra characterizing the evaporation of particles, approximated by a power-law dependence on frequency, are obtained.
Category: Astrophysics

[1650] viXra:1806.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-28 04:41:12

Size of Neutron Stars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Astrophysicists at the Goethe University Frankfurt and the FIAS have now succeeded in determining the size of neutron stars to within 1.5 kilometres by using an elaborate statistical approach supported by data from the measurement of gravitational waves. [24] Researchers at Oregon State University have confirmed that last fall's union of two neutron stars did in fact cause a short gamma-ray burst. [23] Quark matter – an extremely dense phase of matter made up of subatomic particles called quarks – may exist at the heart of neutron stars. [22] When a massive astrophysical object, such as a boson star or black hole, rotates, it can cause the surrounding spacetime to rotate along with it due to the effect of frame dragging. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14]
Category: Astrophysics

[1649] viXra:1806.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-27 05:16:45

Residual Annual and Diurnal Periodicities of the Pioneer 10 Acceleration Term Resolved in Absolute CMB Rest Frame

Authors: Roland Pabisch
Comments: 6 Pages.

The phenomenon of the residual, so far unexplained annual and diurnal tracking signal variations on top of the constant acceleration term Anderson & Laing & Lau & et al. (2002), is resolved by applying the general, classical Doppler formula (CMB-Doppler formula) of first order for two-way radio Doppler signals in the fundamental rest frame of the isotropic cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) between earthbound Deep Space Network stations (DSN), and the Pioneer 10 space probe (P 10). The anomalous annual and diurnal variations of the constant acceleration term vanish, if instead of the relativistic Standard-Doppler formula (SRT-Doppler formula) of first and second order the CMB-Doppler formula is used. That formula contains the absolute velocities ue of Earth, and upio of P 10, derived from the absolute velocity usun of the solar system barycenter in the CMB, with usun = 369.0 ± 0.9 km/s, and the relative revolution velocity ve of Earth, and the relative velocity vpio of P 10 in the heliocentric frame from January 1987 until December 1996. The flyby radio Doppler and the proportional ranging data anomalies can be resolved as well by using the CMB-Doppler formula with the absolute, asymptotic velocities of the inbound and outbound flights during a gravity assist maneuver, which have usually slightly different magnitudes, inducing the so far unexplained frequency shift, and the unexplained difference in the ranging data, although the relative velocities are equal.
Category: Astrophysics

[1648] viXra:1806.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-26 08:49:09

A Fifth Force Vacuum Dipole Repeller, Needed to Create All Attraction Forces Even Around Black Holes in Quantum FFF Theory.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 17 Pages.

Quantum FFF ( Function Follows Form) theory is a Rigid String Theory which states, that there are no singular string based attraction forces. The vacuum is seeded with fast oscillating massless Axion/Higgs particles, oscillating along a complex chiral tetrahedral vacuum lattice, which has the ability to transfer Photon and Graviton information in wavelength bunches of oscillations, through the vacuum lattice with the local (mass related) speed of light and the origin of the so called Dark Energy observed e.g. in the Casimir effect. As a consequence there are no singular attraction forces on rigid stringy knots of propeller shaped Fermions. Only the sum of the different kinds of vacuum impulses with the local vacuum oscillation spectrum coming from all directions on Fermions are responsible for all energetic phenomena in the universe. At the same time we may call this force a fifth force as it opposes and interacts or compensates all Photon/Gluon pressure effects on fermions in the universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[1647] viXra:1806.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-26 11:19:37

Fundamental Connection Between the Planck and Hubble Constants (Eng)

Authors: Nikitin A P
Comments: 8 Pages.

This article claims that there is a fundamental relationship between the basic constant of the quantum theory - the Planck constant h and the basic constant of astrophysics the Hubble constant H, which states the material and energy unity of our world.
Category: Astrophysics

[1646] viXra:1806.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-24 07:16:18

The Milky Way and the Electron

Authors: Leonardo Rubino
Comments: 1 Page.

In our galaxy (the Milky Way) the Sun is at a distance of 8,5kpc from the centre and should have a rotation speed of 160 km/s, if it were due only to baryonic matter, that is that of the stars and of all visible matter. But we know that, on the contrary, the Sun speed is 220 km/s. So we have a discrepancy Δv of 60 km/s: (Δv=220-160=60 km/s). The laws about such discrepancies are astonishing, as we will see.
Category: Astrophysics

[1645] viXra:1806.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-25 01:57:27

N e U T R O N N e W M O D e L

Authors: Antonio Puccini
Comments: 35 Pages.

Initially the neutron (N) was considered made by the very close union of a proton (P) and an electron (e), i.e. a doublet:〔P, e〕. This is the electron capture process, which involves also an electronic neutrino (e): e+ P  N + e. This neutronization reaction occurs continuously in reality: in the Neutron Stars, or in the stellar and explosive nucleosynthesis, creating all the elements of the Periodic Table. Later it was found that some principles of Quantum Mechanics did not allow the presence of e in the nucleus, since e acquiring an energy of ~140 MeV immediately goes away. However, it was not considered that the electron capture occurs just because the e involved is provided with a relativistic energy: ~200 MeV. This explains why this bond lasts for hundreds of millions of years, as in the Neutron Stars. Then it emerged that the Spin Statistics categorically imposed that the N was a fermion, rather than a boson (if it was a doublet). However, if we considered the N as a multiplet, made of 3 particles with half-integer spin, the N would continue to be a fermion safeguarding, likewise, the Spin Statistics and making exhaustive and much more congruous the electron capture equation. It is therefore necessary to integrate the photoannihilation processes (γe+ῡe) to the neutronization, so that: e+P+γe+P+ῡe+eN+e; as we can see, N is equivalent to the multiplet [e, P, ῡe]. However, the N decay (N P+e+ῡe) is energetically unbalanced, since the mass of a ῡe is  5.8eV, against an energy gap between 0.7828-0.511MeV. The only possible solution to solve this striking mass gap problem could be given by a possible neutral electron (e°), or rather its anti-particle: the ē°. Thus the N multiplet (or neutral compound P) would be balanced too: N = [e, P, ē°].
Category: Astrophysics

[1644] viXra:1806.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-24 04:11:30

Holographic Permanent Cosmology in Newtonian Space-Time

Authors: F. M. Sanchez, V.A. Kotov
Comments: 5 Pages.

Using the electron wavelength as unity, and writing the Large Number Correlation in a micro-macrophysics symmetric way, this leads to the Topological Axis, showing the string characteristic series n = 2 + 4p exhibiting the Cartan-Bott periodicity connecting gauge bosons. This permits to observe very precise relations involving basic free-parameters of Particle Physics, tied to the Kotov's period. The associated time to the laking point n = 30 is observed to be directly related to the time defined from the mean cosmic mass density and the Fermi constant, which is directly related to the Kotov's period and the Monster order. This time 5.48 × 1057 s could be a large cosmic period. This lacking point n = 30 would correspond to a symmetry between a holon, a gauge boson with the Universe mass, and the Holographic Grandcosmos: string theory could be revisited on this basis with a quantified time 10^61 smaller than the Planck time. The Holic Principle, the arithmetical form of Holography, applies to cosmology. This means the ultimate physics laws are arithmetic, in a Newtonian absolute Space-Time.
Category: Astrophysics

[1643] viXra:1806.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-22 11:46:28

Is a Black Hole a Neutron Star?

Authors: Arieh Sher
Comments: 4 Pages.

The connection between a black hole and a neutron star is shown. I postulate that both bodies have the same physical structure, namely, the nucleons of both bodies are so packed that their densities are the maximum possible in the Universe. It is interesting to note that the density of the nucleus of the atom has the same structure and the same density. Neutron stars have been observed in the Universe, whereas black holes were not. The existence of black holes is deduced from observing motion of stars around an invisible object that has a huge mass. I postulate that the reason why neutron star is visible whereas a black hole is not, is the ratio between the physical radius of the body and its Schwarzschild radius.
Category: Astrophysics

[1642] viXra:1806.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-14 05:42:11

Neutron Star Mergers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Researchers at Oregon State University have confirmed that last fall's union of two neutron stars did in fact cause a short gamma-ray burst. [23] Quark matter – an extremely dense phase of matter made up of subatomic particles called quarks – may exist at the heart of neutron stars. [22] When a massive astrophysical object, such as a boson star or black hole, rotates, it can cause the surrounding spacetime to rotate along with it due to the effect of frame dragging. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13]
Category: Astrophysics

[1641] viXra:1806.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-21 09:45:10

Expanding Earth, by Growing Water based Crashed Comet core.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 33 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF Theory, Electric dark matter black holes, even in the form of microscopic, produced by magnetic quantum interference, produce plasma and water and are proliferated through stellar systems, such as unstable Ball Lightning up to stable Comets and Sunspots (crashed Comets). As a consequence, crashed comets in the earth are responsible for the volcanism and the base for so called “growing Earth” by its growing compressed water core, as a base for quarks and as such H2 and O and more complex atoms. Comet 67P CG, (Churyumov-Gerasimenko) seems to be a unique test bed for this theory. Recent measurements and photos are already suggesting that a large variety of atoms are ejected by the Comet and surface changes seem to be the origin of local crack shaped colour changes. The magnetic field of the comet seems to ring or sing 3 times every minute by the internal tectonic shocks. The dusty jets observed from the so called “Neck” of the comet seem to be a sign for a central Birkeland Alfven current circuit effect on dust acceleration and violating the solar heat erosion theory. If sunspots are former comet nuclei splashed into the sun, than we may assume that sunspots are also the creators of new solar plasma. Secondly, if Comet nuclei can survive the sun they also must be able to survive the crash into planets like earth or moons. As a consequence we may assume that all energetic and plasma (new matter) related production processes found around planets and moons could be based on the same process. Examples are found in the water vapor plumes of geysers observed on Jupiters moon Europa. Recent findings of water inclusions in volcanic diamonds are an extra support. The peculiar shape of the continents on earth has been a constant reason for discussion of the origin of the expanding earth. If these crashed comets also act as gravity point sources, then even the so called Flyby anomaly and the P-wave anomaly could be explained
Category: Astrophysics

[1640] viXra:1806.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-15 07:38:58

Dark Matter with Radio Pulsars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, have proposed a new experiment that makes use of super-dense stars to learn more about the interaction of dark matter with standard matter. [29] CfA astronomer Qirong Zhu led a group of four scientists investigating the possibility that today's dark matter is composed of primordial black holes, following up on previously published suggestions. If galaxy halos are made of black holes, they should have a different density distribution than halos made of exotic particles. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] " We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit. " [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22]
Category: Astrophysics

[1639] viXra:1806.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-17 13:02:43

Reinterpretation of the Robertson-Walker Metric, the Shapes of the Cosmos, and the Cosmological Constant

Authors: Ru-Jiao Zhang
Comments: 9 Pages.

The Robertson-Walker metric has been recognized for describing the global space-time Universe which could be one of the three models: flat ( = 0), closed ( = 0) or open ( = −0). This paper reinterprets the Robertson-Walker metric, which actually describe the geometrical shapes of the global space-time Universe and two local space-time. The global space-time is the “infinite” hyper-sphere of the Universe without boundary (open sphere). The two forms of local space-time caused by the agglomeration of matter into stars and stellar systems, which appeared as sphere (or ellipsoid) and flat. The shapes of spheres range from small elementary particles in quantum physics to planets, stars and giant objects such as globular nebulae in cosmological physics. The flat shapes are disk like galaxies, and the solar system in its infancy, etc. In last chapter, the cosmological constant was derived from the volume of the five dimension hyper-sphere. The cosmological constant is relevant with the Gaussian curvature 1/R^2 of the Universe. The value of the cosmological constant is: = 5(Ho^2)/(2πc^2)
Category: Astrophysics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[584] viXra:1807.0277 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-24 01:15:10

The Corrections of Pressure And Mass Limit of The White Dwarf Star

Authors: Ting-Hang Pei
Comments: 9 Pages.

Traditional explanation for the white dwarf star is based on the ideally degenerate Fermi electron gas to produce the pressure against gravity. This theory predicts the upper mass limit of the white dwarf star is 1.44 Mʘ although the Fermi electron gas is calculated at the temperature T of absolute zero. In this research, first considering the electron-electron interaction in the high-density Fermi electron gas at T=0 K, this interaction causes the pressure 2/137 time less than the original value. However, the pressure of the Fermi electron gas should have something to do with temperature at 10^7 K. Then we estimate the temperature effect using statistical mechanics and find the total pressure depends on temperature weakly at the given particle number N and volume V. According to this, the relationship between radius and mass of the white dwarf star is obtained and it mainly depends on temperature, electron mass, and proton mass. An unknown parameter δ=34.75 is calculated by using an example of a white dwarf star with the mass of our sun and the radius of Earth. This relationship is useful for estimating the inner temperature of a white dwarf star. The lowest limit of M/R^3 depends on neutron mass, electron mass, and temperature.
Category: Astrophysics

[583] viXra:1807.0277 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-23 00:24:02

The Corrections of Pressure And Mass of The White Dwarf Star

Authors: Ting-Hang Pei
Comments: 10 Pages.

Traditional explanation for the white dwarf star is based on the ideally degenerate Fermi electron gas to produce the pressure against gravity. This theory predicts the upper mass limit of the white dwarf star is 1.44 Mʘ although the Fermi electron gas is calculated at the temperature T of absolute zero. In this research, first considering the electron-electron interaction in the high-density Fermi electron gas at T=0 K, this interaction causes the pressure 2/137 time less than the original value. However, the pressure of the Fermi electron gas should have something to do with temperature at 10^7 K. Then we estimate the temperature effect using statistical mechanics and find the total pressure depends on temperature weakly at the given particle number N and volume V. According to this, the relationship between radius and mass of the white dwarf star is obtained and it mainly depends on temperature, electron mass, and proton mass. An unknown parameter δ=34.75 is calculated by using an example of a white dwarf star with the mass of our sun and the radius of Earth. Because the temperature effect is weak at 10^7 K, the relationship between mass M and radius R of the white dwarf star mainly depends on Fermi energy and neutron mass. This relationship is useful for estimating the inner temperature of a white dwarf star. The lowest limit of M/R^3 depends on neutron mass, electron mass, and temperature.
Category: Astrophysics

[582] viXra:1807.0277 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-20 10:52:10

The Corrections of Pressure And Mass of The White Dwarf Star

Authors: Ting-Hang Pei
Comments: 10 Pages.

Traditional explanation for the white dwarf star is based on the ideally degenerate Fermi electron gas to produce the pressure against gravity. This theory predicts the upper mass limit of the white dwarf star is 1.44 times as large as our sun although the Fermi electron gas is calculated at the temperature T of absolute zero. In this research, first considering the electron-electron interaction in the high-density Fermi electron gas at T=0 K, this interaction causes the pressure 2/137 time less than the original value. However, the pressure of the Fermi electron gas should have something to do with temperature at 10^7 K. Then we estimate the temperature effect using statistical mechanics and find the total pressure depends on temperature weakly at the given particle number N and volume V. According to this, the relationship between radius and mass of the white dwarf star is obtained and it mainly depends on temperature, electron mass, and proton mass. An unknown parameter δ=69.50 is calculated by using an example of a white dwarf star with the mass of our sun and the radius of Earth. Because the temperature effect is weak at 10^7 K, the relationship between mass M and radius R of the white dwarf star mainly depends on Fermi energy and neutron mass. This relationship is useful for estimating the inner temperature of a white dwarf star. The lowest limit of M/R3 depends on neutron mass, electron mass, and temperature.
Category: Astrophysics

[581] viXra:1807.0277 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-17 00:34:34

The Corrections of Pressure And Mass of The White Dwarf Star

Authors: Ting-Hang Pei
Comments: 9 Pages.

Traditional explanation for the white dwarf star is based on the ideally degenerate Fermi electron gas to produce the pressure against gravity. This theory predicts the upper mass limit of the white dwarf star is 1.44 times as large as our sun although the Fermi electron gas is calculated at the temperature T of absolute zero. In this research, first considering the electron-electron interaction in the high-density Fermi electron gas at T=0 K, this interaction causes the pressure 2/137 time less than the original value. Then we estimate the temperature effect using statistical mechanics and find the total pressure is mainly proportional to T/(lnT) at the given particle number N and volume V. The Fermi electron gas is about 4.343 times at 10^8 K larger than it at 10^7 K. According to this, the relationship between radius and mass of the white dwarf star is obtained and it mainly depends on temperature, electron mass, and proton mass. An unknown parameter δ=0.01975 is calculated by using an example of a white dwarf star with the mass of our sun and the radius of Earth. This relationship is useful for estimating the inner temperature of a white dwarf star.
Category: Astrophysics

[580] viXra:1807.0146 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-27 22:06:48

The Significant Improvement of The Upper Mass Limit of The White Dwarf Star

Authors: Ting-Hang Pei
Comments: 14 Pages.

The explanation for the pressure against gravity in the white dwarf star is based on the ideally degenerate Fermi electron gas at the temperature of absolute zero. It predicts the upper mass limit of the white dwarf star is 1.44 Mʘ. However, more conditions have to be considered like temperature and charges. In this research, first we use the grand partition function in statistical mechanics to build the expressions of the electron gas pressure and the particle number depending on temperature. At 10^7 K, there is about 1.50x10^(-4) of total electrons exceeding the Fermi energy. Because some of this Fermi electron gas are the relativistic electrons, then we consider that some of them can escape the gravity resulting in a positively charged star. These rest positive charges produce the strong repulsive force and the pressure to against gravity. Furthermore, due to the quantum effect, some electrons can tunnel the potential barrier even their energy is less than the maximal potential. By theoretical analysis, it is possible to be a positively charged star with 2.708x10^20 C as long as the attraction force is strong enough. The increases pressure is almost the same as that of the Fermi electron gas.
Category: Astrophysics

[579] viXra:1807.0146 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-22 22:39:06

The Significant Improvement of The Upper Mass Limit of The White Dwarf Star

Authors: Ting-Hang Pei
Comments: 15 Pages.

The explanation for the pressure against gravity in the white dwarf star is based on the ideally degenerate Fermi electron gas at the temperature of absolute zero. It predicts the upper mass limit of the white dwarf star is 1.44 Mʘ. However, more conditions have to be considered like temperature and charges. In this research, first we use the grand partition function in statistical mechanics to build the expressions of the electron gas pressure and the particle number depending on temperature and find the electron gas pressure is weakly temperature dependence at 10^7 K. At this temperature, there is about 1.50x10^(-4) of total electrons exceeding the Fermi energy. Because some of this Fermi electron gas are the relativistic electrons, then we consider that those relativistic electrons can escape the gravity resulting in a positively charged star. These rest positive charges produce the strong repulsive force and the pressure to against gravity. Furthermore, due to quantum effect, some electrons can tunnel the potential barrier even their energy is less than the maximal potential. From theoretical calculations, the 75 GeV electrons escaping to infinity can gradually accumulate through 5 billion years resulting in 2.067x10^20 C positively charged star as long as the attraction force is strong enough. This positive-charged effect makes the upper mass limit higher than the previous value to 4.073 Mʘ when the radius of the white dwarf star is twice that of Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[578] viXra:1807.0146 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-08 07:12:28

The Significant Improvement of The Upper Mass Limit of The White Dwarf Star

Authors: Ting-Hang Pei
Comments: 9 Pages.

Traditional explanation for the white dwarf star is based on the ideally degenerate Fermi electron gas to produce the pressure against gravity. This theory predicts the upper mass limit of the white dwarf star is 1.44 times as large as our sun although the Fermi electron gas is treated at the temperature of absolute zero. In this research, first we estimate the temperature effect and find the correction only about 1/100 at 10^7 K and about 1/10 at 10^8 K. Because some parts of this Fermi electron gas are the relativistic electrons, then we consider that some electrons can escape the gravity resulting in a positive charged star. These rest positive charges produce strong repulsive force and the pressure to against gravity. This positive-charged effect makes the upper mass limit higher than the previous value. One demonstration shows that when the rest positive charges is 1.406x10^4 C and the radius of the white dwarf star is the same as Earth, its upper mass limit can be 1.98 times as large as our sun.
Category: Astrophysics

[577] viXra:1806.0472 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-28 11:59:25

The Sloth of the Universe

Authors: Timoteo Briet Blanes
Comments: 23 Pages.

The main goal for any mathematician is create numeric models about nature phenomenon. For that, is necessary discovery (or create) patterns, and if is possible lineally, but that, is not easy, and normally not real. As a writer, a mathematician thinks with a language and as all language, have their rules, their pretty rules…. Is very nice is front a white paper and write ideas and translating dreams…. The fact of call one event as unpredictable, is to assume ignorance. Our goal so, is know the evolution (temporal or spatial) of any object or event from similarities. About the phenomenon prediction, if there are few laws which define him, it will be more complicated know the evolution (chaos essence). From all that, is necessary to ask us, if there some think common for all these cases, some law able to means these examples. That is the objective for me and this article: know how the nature think and decides, and create language mathematics, pretty and simple, in order to explain any event, as a fluid. One explanation about Galaxies Distribution, Rotation galaxies, Dark Matter and Universe Evolution in general. Also applied to human relations, temporals events, and a long etcetera. There is a special relation between sloth or minimum energy principle and fluid dynamics. ""If I must to go from here to there; yes, I will go. But with the minimum energy...."" Is a Article not finished yet. I will be publishing corrections and extensions. Thanks a lot. ALSO, IF YOU WANT TO ADD SOME THINK, WILL BE GENIAL. Thanks a lot again. ----------------------------------------- Richard Feymann: "MATHEMATICS. To those who do not know mathematics it is difficult to get across a real feeling as to the beauty, the deepest beauty, of nature. If you want to learn about nature, to appreciate nature, it is necessary to understand the language that she speaks in." Albert Einstein: "Look deep into nature, and then you will understand everything better." ----------------------------------------- I AM LOOKING FOR A UNIVERSITY WHERE I CAN ADVANCE MY RESEARCH. I DO NOT CARE HOW FARE THIS UNIVERSITY IS. I LIKE RESEARCH, TRAINING AND LEARNING. THERE ARE A LOT THEMES AND POINTS IN THIS ARTICLE, TO RESEARCH. ----------------------------------------- Others articles, of different area: -- https://drive.google.com/open?id=1juTqJlAoKinDr5tbMUke81hxC47cfFJ0 , -- https://drive.google.com/open?id=1NNqhGJF6mLLht01DZMhLsBpMJsh_4Rt9 .Linkedin Pag: -- https://www.linkedin.com/in/timoteobriet/
Category: Astrophysics

[576] viXra:1806.0472 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-14 16:11:58

The Sloth of the Universe

Authors: Timoteo Briet Blanes
Comments: 22 Pages.

The main goal for any mathematician is create numeric models about nature phenomenon. For that, is necessary discovery (or create) patterns, and if is possible lineally, but that, is not easy, and normally not real. As a writer, a mathematician thinks with a language and as all language, have their rules, their pretty rules…. Is very nice is front a white paper and write ideas and translating dreams…. The fact of call one event as unpredictable, is to assume ignorance. Our goal so, is know the evolution (temporal or spatial) of any object or event from similarities. About the phenomenon prediction, if there are few laws which define him, it will be more complicated know the evolution (chaos essence). From all that, is necessary to ask us, if there some think common for all these cases, some law able to means these examples. That is the objective for me and this article: know how the nature think and decides, and create language mathematics, pretty and simple, in order to explain any event, as a fluid. One explanation about Galaxies Distribution, Rotation galaxies, Dark Matter and Universe Evolution in general. Also applied to human relations, temporals events, and a long etcetera. There is a special relation between sloth or minimum energy principle and fluid dynamics. ""If I must to go from here to there; yes, I will go. But with the minimum energy...."" Is a Article not finished yet. I will be publishing corrections and extensions. Thanks a lot. ALSO, IF YOU WANT TO ADD SOME THINK, WILL BE GENIAL. Thanks a lot again. ----------------------------------------- Richard Feymann: "MATHEMATICS. To those who do not know mathematics it is difficult to get across a real feeling as to the beauty, the deepest beauty, of nature. If you want to learn about nature, to appreciate nature, it is necessary to understand the language that she speaks in." Albert Einstein: "Look deep into nature, and then you will understand everything better." ----------------------------------------- I AM LOOKING FOR A UNIVERSITY WHERE I CAN ADVANCE MY RESEARCH. I DO NOT CARE HOW FARE THIS UNIVERSITY IS. I LIKE RESEARCH, TRAINING AND LEARNING. THERE ARE A LOT THEMES AND POINTS IN THIS ARTICLE, TO RESEARCH. ----------------------------------------- Others articles, of different area: -- https://drive.google.com/open?id=1juTqJlAoKinDr5tbMUke81hxC47cfFJ0 , -- https://drive.google.com/open?id=1NNqhGJF6mLLht01DZMhLsBpMJsh_4Rt9 .Linkedin Pag: -- https://www.linkedin.com/in/timoteobriet/
Category: Astrophysics

[575] viXra:1806.0472 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-05 12:18:07

The Sloth of the Universe

Authors: Timoteo Briet Blanes
Comments: 21 Pages.

The main goal for any mathematician is create numeric models about nature phenomenon. For that, is necessary discovery (or create) patterns, and if is possible lineally, but that, is not easy, and normally not real. As a writer, a mathematician thinks with a language and as all language, have their rules, their pretty rules…. Is very nice is front a white paper and write ideas and translating dreams…. The fact of call one event as unpredictable, is to assume ignorance. Our goal so, is know the evolution (temporal or spatial) of any object or event from similarities. About the phenomenon prediction, if there are few laws which define him, it will be more complicated know the evolution (chaos essence). From all that, is necessary to ask us, if there some think common for all these cases, some law able to means these examples. That is the objective for me and this article: know how the nature think and decides, and create language mathematics, pretty and simple, in order to explain any event, as a fluid. One explanation about Galaxies Distribution, Rotation galaxies, Dark Matter and Universe Evolution in general. Also applied to human relations, temporals events, and a long etcetera. There is a special relation between sloth or minimum energy principle and fluid dynamics. ""If I must to go from here to there; yes, I will go. But with the minimum energy...."" Is a Article not finished yet. I will be publishing corrections and extensions. Thanks a lot. ALSO, IF YOU WANT TO ADD SOME THINK, WILL BE GENIAL. Thanks a lot again. ----------------------------------------- Richard Feymann: "MATHEMATICS. To those who do not know mathematics it is difficult to get across a real feeling as to the beauty, the deepest beauty, of nature. If you want to learn about nature, to appreciate nature, it is necessary to understand the language that she speaks in." Albert Einstein: "Look deep into nature, and then you will understand everything better." ----------------------------------------- I AM LOOKING FOR A UNIVERSITY WHERE I CAN ADVANCE MY RESEARCH. I DO NOT CARE HOW FARE THIS UNIVERSITY IS. I LIKE RESEARCH, TRAINING AND LEARNING. THERE ARE A LOT THEMES AND POINTS IN THIS ARTICLE, TO RESEARCH. ----------------------------------------- Others articles, of different area: -- https://drive.google.com/open?id=1juTqJlAoKinDr5tbMUke81hxC47cfFJ0 , -- https://drive.google.com/open?id=1NNqhGJF6mLLht01DZMhLsBpMJsh_4Rt9 .Linkedin Pag: -- https://www.linkedin.com/in/timoteobriet/
Category: Astrophysics

[574] viXra:1806.0472 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-31 16:01:14

The Sloth of the Universe

Authors: Timoteo Briet Blanes
Comments: 21 Pages.

The main goal for any mathematician is create numeric models about nature phenomenon. For that, is necessary discovery (or create) patterns, and if is possible lineally, but that, is not easy, and normally not real. As a writer, a mathematician thinks with a language and as all language, have their rules, their pretty rules…. Is very nice is front a white paper and write ideas and translating dreams…. The fact of call one event as unpredictable, is to assume ignorance. Our goal so, is know the evolution (temporal or spatial) of any object or event from similarities. About the phenomenon prediction, if there are few laws which define him, it will be more complicated know the evolution (chaos essence). From all that, is necessary to ask us, if there some think common for all these cases, some law able to means these examples. That is the objective for me and this article: know how the nature think and decides, and create language mathematics, pretty and simple, in order to explain any event, as a fluid. One explanation about Galaxies Distribution, Rotation galaxies, Dark Matter and Universe Evolution in general. Also applied to human relations, temporals events, and a long etcetera. There is a special relation between sloth or minimum energy principle and fluid dynamics. ""If I must to go from here to there; yes, I will go. But with the minimum energy...."" Is a Article not finished yet. I will be publishing corrections and extensions. Thanks a lot. ALSO, IF YOU WANT TO ADD SOME THINK, WILL BE GENIAL. Thanks a lot again. ----------------------------------------- Richard Feymann: "MATHEMATICS. To those who do not know mathematics it is difficult to get across a real feeling as to the beauty, the deepest beauty, of nature. If you want to learn about nature, to appreciate nature, it is necessary to understand the language that she speaks in." Albert Einstein: "Look deep into nature, and then you will understand everything better." ----------------------------------------- I AM LOOKING FOR A UNIVERSITY WHERE I CAN ADVANCE MY RESEARCH. I DO NOT CARE HOW FARE THIS UNIVERSITY IS. I LIKE RESEARCH, TRAINING AND LEARNING. THERE ARE A LOT THEMES AND POINTS IN THIS ARTICLE, TO RESEARCH. ----------------------------------------- Others articles, of different area: -- https://drive.google.com/open?id=1juTqJlAoKinDr5tbMUke81hxC47cfFJ0 , -- https://drive.google.com/open?id=1NNqhGJF6mLLht01DZMhLsBpMJsh_4Rt9 .Linkedin Pag: -- https://www.linkedin.com/in/timoteobriet/
Category: Astrophysics

[573] viXra:1806.0472 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-27 03:23:14

The Sloth of the Universe

Authors: Timoteo Briet Blanes
Comments: 21 Pages.

The main goal for any mathematician is create numeric models about nature phenomenon. For that, is necessary discovery (or create) patterns, and if is possible lineally, but that, is not easy, and normally not real. As a writer, a mathematician thinks with a language and as all language, have their rules, their pretty rules…. Is very nice is front a white paper and write ideas and translating dreams…. The fact of call one event as unpredictable, is to assume ignorance. Our goal so, is know the evolution (temporal or spatial) of any object or event from similarities. About the phenomenon prediction, if there are few laws which define him, it will be more complicated know the evolution (chaos essence). From all that, is necessary to ask us, if there some think common for all these cases, some law able to means these examples. That is the objective for me and this article: know how the nature think and decides, and create language mathematics, pretty and simple, in order to explain any event, as a fluid. One explanation about Galaxies Distribution, Rotation galaxies, Dark Matter and Universe Evolution in general. Also applied to human relations, temporals events, and a long etcetera. There is a special relation between sloth or minimum energy principle and fluid dynamics. ""If I must to go from here to there; yes, I will go. But with the minimum energy...."" Is a Article not finished yet. I will be publishing corrections and extensions. Thanks a lot. ALSO, IF YOU WANT TO ADD SOME THINK, WILL BE GENIAL. Thanks a lot again. ----------------------------------------- Richard Feymann: "MATHEMATICS. To those who do not know mathematics it is difficult to get across a real feeling as to the beauty, the deepest beauty, of nature. If you want to learn about nature, to appreciate nature, it is necessary to understand the language that she speaks in." Albert Einstein: "Look deep into nature, and then you will understand everything better." ----------------------------------------- I AM LOOKING FOR A UNIVERSITY WHERE I CAN ADVANCE MY RESEARCH. I DO NOT CARE HOW FARE THIS UNIVERSITY IS. I LIKE RESEARCH, TRAINING AND LEARNING. THERE ARE A LOT THEMES AND POINTS IN THIS ARTICLE, TO RESEARCH. ----------------------------------------- Others articles, of different area: -- https://drive.google.com/open?id=1juTqJlAoKinDr5tbMUke81hxC47cfFJ0 , -- https://drive.google.com/open?id=1NNqhGJF6mLLht01DZMhLsBpMJsh_4Rt9 .Linkedin Pag: -- https://www.linkedin.com/in/timoteobriet/
Category: Astrophysics

[572] viXra:1806.0472 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-25 11:36:49

The Sloth of the Universe

Authors: Timoteo Briet Blanes
Comments: 21 Pages.

The main goal for any mathematician is create numeric models about nature phenomenon. For that, is necessary discovery (or create) patterns, and if is possible lineally, but that, is not easy, and normally not real. As a writer, a mathematician thinks with a language and as all language, have their rules, their pretty rules…. Is very nice is front a white paper and write ideas and translating dreams…. The fact of call one event as unpredictable, is to assume ignorance. Our goal so, is know the evolution (temporal or spatial) of any object or event from similarities. About the phenomenon prediction, if there are few laws which define him, it will be more complicated know the evolution (chaos essence). From all that, is necessary to ask us, if there some think common for all these cases, some law able to means these examples. That is the objective for me and this article: know how the nature think and decides, and create language mathematics, pretty and simple, in order to explain any event, as a fluid. One explanation about Galaxies Distribution, Rotation galaxies, Dark Matter and Universe Evolution in general. Also applied to human relations, temporals events, and a long etcetera. There is a special relation between sloth or minimum energy principle and fluid dynamics. ""If I must to go from here to there; yes, I will go. But with the minimum energy...."" Is a Article not finished yet. I will be publishing corrections and extensions. Thanks a lot. ALSO, IF YOU WANT TO ADD SOME THINK, WILL BE GENIAL. Thanks a lot again. ----------------------------------------- Richard Feymann: "MATHEMATICS. To those who do not know mathematics it is difficult to get across a real feeling as to the beauty, the deepest beauty, of nature. If you want to learn about nature, to appreciate nature, it is necessary to understand the language that she speaks in." Albert Einstein: "Look deep into nature, and then you will understand everything better." ----------------------------------------- I AM LOOKING FOR A UNIVERSITY WHERE I CAN ADVANCE MY RESEARCH. I DO NOT CARE HOW FARE THIS UNIVERSITY IS. I LIKE RESEARCH, TRAINING AND LEARNING. THERE ARE A LOT THEMES AND POINTS IN THIS ARTICLE, TO RESEARCH. ----------------------------------------- Others articles, of different area: -- https://drive.google.com/open?id=1juTqJlAoKinDr5tbMUke81hxC47cfFJ0 , -- https://drive.google.com/open?id=1NNqhGJF6mLLht01DZMhLsBpMJsh_4Rt9 .Linkedin Pag: -- https://www.linkedin.com/in/timoteobriet/
Category: Astrophysics

[571] viXra:1806.0472 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-21 09:19:41

The Sloth of the Universe

Authors: Timoteo Briet Blanes
Comments: 20 Pages.

The main goal for any mathematician is create numeric models about nature phenomenon. For that, is necessary discovery (or create) patterns, and if is possible lineally, but that, is not easy, and normally not real. As a writer, a mathematician thinks with a language and as all language, have their rules, their pretty rules…. Is very nice is front a white paper and write ideas and translating dreams…. The fact of call one event as unpredictable, is to assume ignorance. Our goal so, is know the evolution (temporal or spatial) of any object or event from similarities. About the phenomenon prediction, if there are few laws which define him, it will be more complicated know the evolution (chaos essence). From all that, is necessary to ask us, if there some think common for all these cases, some law able to means these examples. That is the objective for me and this article: know how the nature think and decides, and create language mathematics, pretty and simple, in order to explain any event, as a fluid. One explanation about Galaxies Distribution, Rotation galaxies, Dark Matter and Universe Evolution in general. Also applied to human relations, temporals events, and a long etcetera. There is a special relation between sloth or minimum energy principle and fluid dynamics. ""If I must to go from here to there; yes, I will go. But with the minimum energy...."" Is a Article not finished yet. I will be publishing corrections and extensions. Thanks a lot. ALSO, IF YOU WANT TO ADD SOME THINK, WILL BE GENIAL. Thanks a lot again. ----------------------------------------- Richard Feymann: "MATHEMATICS. To those who do not know mathematics it is difficult to get across a real feeling as to the beauty, the deepest beauty, of nature. If you want to learn about nature, to appreciate nature, it is necessary to understand the language that she speaks in." Albert Einstein: "Look deep into nature, and then you will understand everything better." ----------------------------------------- I AM LOOKING FOR A UNIVERSITY WHERE I CAN ADVANCE MY RESEARCH. I DO NOT CARE HOW FARE THIS UNIVERSITY IS. I LIKE RESEARCH, TRAINING AND LEARNING. THERE ARE A LOT THEMES AND POINTS IN THIS ARTICLE, TO RESEARCH. ----------------------------------------- Others articles, of different area: -- https://drive.google.com/open?id=1juTqJlAoKinDr5tbMUke81hxC47cfFJ0 , -- https://drive.google.com/open?id=1NNqhGJF6mLLht01DZMhLsBpMJsh_4Rt9 .Linkedin Pag: -- https://www.linkedin.com/in/timoteobriet/
Category: Astrophysics

[570] viXra:1806.0472 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-18 03:11:03

The Sloth of the Universe

Authors: Timoteo Briet Blanes
Comments: 20 Pages.

The main goal for any mathematician is create numeric models about nature phenomenon. For that, is necessary discovery (or create) patterns, and if is possible lineally, but that, is not easy, and normally not real. As a writer, a mathematician thinks with a language and as all language, have their rules, their pretty rules…. Is very nice is front a white paper and write ideas and translating dreams…. The fact of call one event as unpredictable, is to assume ignorance. Our goal so, is know the evolution (temporal or spatial) of any object or event from similarities. About the phenomenon prediction, if there are few laws which define him, it will be more complicated know the evolution (chaos essence). From all that, is necessary to ask us, if there some think common for all these cases, some law able to means these examples. That is the objective for me and this article: know how the nature think and decides, and create language mathematics, pretty and simple, in order to explain any event, as a fluid. One explanation about Galaxies Distribution, Rotation galaxies, Dark Matter and Universe Evolution in general. Also applied to human relations, temporals events, and a long etcetera. There is a special relation between sloth or minimum energy principle and fluid dynamics. ""If I must to go from here to there; yes, I will go. But with the minimum energy...."" Is a Article not finished yet. I will be publishing corrections and extensions. Thanks a lot. ALSO, IF YOU WANT TO ADD SOME THINK, WILL BE GENIAL. Thanks a lot again. ----------------------------------------- Richard Feymann: "MATHEMATICS. To those who do not know mathematics it is difficult to get across a real feeling as to the beauty, the deepest beauty, of nature. If you want to learn about nature, to appreciate nature, it is necessary to understand the language that she speaks in." Albert Einstein: "Look deep into nature, and then you will understand everything better." ----------------------------------------- I AM LOOKING FOR A UNIVERSITY WHERE I CAN ADVANCE MY RESEARCH. I DO NOT CARE HOW FARE THIS UNIVERSITY IS. I LIKE RESEARCH, TRAINING AND LEARNING. THERE ARE A LOT THEMES AND POINTS IN THIS ARTICLE, TO RESEARCH. ----------------------------------------- Others articles, of different area: -- https://lnkd.in/ga9TidS , -- https://lnkd.in/gnde8mN .Linkedin Pag: -- https://www.linkedin.com/in/timoteobriet/
Category: Astrophysics

[569] viXra:1806.0472 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-17 03:38:11

The Sloth of the Universe

Authors: Timoteo Briet Blanes
Comments: 20 Pages.

The main goal for any mathematician is create numeric models about nature phenomenon. For that, is necessary discovery (or create) patterns, and if is possible lineally, but that, is not easy, and normally not real. As a writer, a mathematician thinks with a language and as all language, have their rules, their pretty rules…. Is very nice is front a white paper and write ideas and translating dreams…. The fact of call one event as unpredictable, is to assume ignorance. Our goal so, is know the evolution (temporal or spatial) of any object or event from similarities. About the phenomenon prediction, if there are few laws which define him, it will be more complicated know the evolution (chaos essence). From all that, is necessary to ask us, if there some think common for all these cases, some law able to means these examples. That is the objective for me and this article: know how the nature think and decides, and create language mathematics, pretty and simple, in order to explain any event, as a fluid. One explanation about Galaxies Distribution, Rotation galaxies, Dark Matter and Universe Evolution in general. Also applied to human relations, temporals events, and a long etcetera. There is a special relation between sloth or minimum energy principle and fluid dynamics. ""If I must to go from here to there; yes, I will go. But with the minimum energy...."" Is a Article not finished yet. I will be publishing corrections and extensions. Thanks a lot. ALSO, IF YOU WANT TO ADD SOME THINK, WILL BE GENIAL. Thanks a lot again. ----------------------------------------- Richard Feymann: "MATHEMATICS. To those who do not know mathematics it is difficult to get across a real feeling as to the beauty, the deepest beauty, of nature. If you want to learn about nature, to appreciate nature, it is necessary to understand the language that she speaks in." Albert Einstein: "Look deep into nature, and then you will understand everything better." ----------------------------------------- I AM LOOKING FOR A UNIVERSITY WHERE I CAN ADVANCE MY RESEARCH. I DO NOT CARE HOW FARE THIS UNIVERSITY IS. I LIKE RESEARCH, TRAINING AND LEARNING. THERE ARE A LOT THEMES AND POINTS IN THIS ARTICLE, TO RESEARCH. ----------------------------------------- Others articles, of different area: -- https://lnkd.in/ga9TidS , -- https://lnkd.in/gnde8mN .Linkedin Pag: -- https://www.linkedin.com/in/timoteobriet/
Category: Astrophysics

[568] viXra:1806.0472 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-13 10:54:29

The Sloth of the Universe

Authors: Timoteo Briet Blanes
Comments: 19 Pages.

The main goal for any mathematician is create numeric models about nature phenomenon. For that, is necessary discovery (or create) patterns, and if is possible lineally, but that, is not easy, and normally not real. As a writer, a mathematician thinks with a language and as all language, have their rules, their pretty rules…. Is very nice is front a white paper and write ideas and translating dreams…. The fact of call one event as unpredictable, is to assume ignorance. Our goal so, is know the evolution (temporal or spatial) of any object or event from similarities. About the phenomenon prediction, if there are few laws which define him, it will be more complicated know the evolution (chaos essence). From all that, is necessary to ask us, if there some think common for all these cases, some law able to means these examples. That is the objective for me and this article: know how the nature think and decides, and create language mathematics, pretty and simple, in order to explain any event, as a fluid. One explanation about Galaxies Distribution, Rotation galaxies, Dark Matter and Universe Evolution in general. Also applied to human relations, temporals events, and a long etcetera. There is a special relation between sloth or minimum energy principle and fluid dynamics. ""If I must to go from here to there; yes, I will go. But with the minimum energy...."" Is a Article not finished yet. I will be publishing corrections and extensions. Thanks a lot. ALSO, IF YOU WANT TO ADD SOME THINK, WILL BE GENIAL. Thanks a lot again. ----------------------------------------- Richard Feymann: "MATHEMATICS. To those who do not know mathematics it is difficult to get across a real feeling as to the beauty, the deepest beauty, of nature. If you want to learn about nature, to appreciate nature, it is necessary to understand the language that she speaks in." Albert Einstein: "Look deep into nature, and then you will understand everything better." ----------------------------------------- I AM LOOKING FOR A UNIVERSITY WHERE I CAN ADVANCE MY RESEARCH. I DO NOT CARE HOW FARE THIS UNIVERSITY IS. I LIKE RESEARCH, TRAINING AND LEARNING. THERE ARE A LOT THEMES AND POINTS IN THIS ARTICLE, TO RESEARCH. ----------------------------------------- Others articles, of different area: -- https://lnkd.in/ga9TidS , -- https://lnkd.in/gnde8mN .Linkedin Pag: -- https://www.linkedin.com/in/timoteobriet/
Category: Astrophysics

[567] viXra:1806.0472 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-10 10:42:10

The Sloth of the Universe

Authors: Timoteo Briet Blanes
Comments: 19 Pages.

The main goal for any mathematician is create numeric models about nature phenomenon. For that, is necessary discovery (or create) patterns, and if is possible lineally, but that, is not easy, and normally not real. As a writer, a mathematician thinks with a language and as all language, have their rules, their pretty rules…. Is very nice is front a white paper and write ideas and translating dreams…. The fact of call one event as unpredictable, is to assume ignorance. Our goal so, is know the evolution (temporal or spatial) of any object or event from similarities. About the phenomenon prediction, if there are few laws which define him, it will be more complicated know the evolution (chaos essence). From all that, is necessary to ask us, if there some think common for all these cases, some law able to means these examples. That is the objective for me and this article: know how the nature think and decides, and create language mathematics, pretty and simple, in order to explain any event, as a fluid. One explanation about Galaxies Distribution, Rotation galaxies, Dark Matter and Universe Evolution in general. Also applied to human relations, temporals events, and a long etcetera. There is a special relation between sloth or minimum energy principle and fluid dynamics. ""If I must to go from here to there; yes, I will go. But with the minimum energy...."" Is a Article not finished yet. I will be publishing corrections and extensions. Thanks a lot. ALSO, IF YOU WANT TO ADD SOME THINK, WILL BE GENIAL. Thanks a lot again. ----------------------------------------- Richard Feymann: "MATHEMATICS. To those who do not know mathematics it is difficult to get across a real feeling as to the beauty, the deepest beauty, of nature. If you want to learn about nature, to appreciate nature, it is necessary to understand the language that she speaks in." Albert Einstein: "Look deep into nature, and then you will understand everything better." ----------------------------------------- I AM LOOKING FOR A UNIVERSITY WHERE I CAN ADVANCE MY RESEARCH. I DO NOT CARE HOW FARE THIS UNIVERSITY IS. I LIKE RESEARCH, TRAINING AND LEARNING. THERE ARE A LOT THEMES AND POINTS IN THIS ARTICLE, TO RESEARCH. ----------------------------------------- Others articles, of different area: -- https://lnkd.in/ga9TidS , -- https://lnkd.in/gnde8mN .Linkedin Pag: -- https://www.linkedin.com/in/timoteobriet/
Category: Astrophysics

[566] viXra:1806.0443 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-30 23:34:42

The Black Hole With A Finite-Size Nucleus Based On The Conservation of Energy and Asymptotic Freedom

Authors: Ting-Hang Pei
Comments: 17 Pages.

From analysis of light geodesic along the radial direction, an infinite time for light passing through the event horizon of the black hole seems to be an unreasonable physical solution. The same situation is also for the massive particle. To compress all particles to a singularity also causes another energy conservation problem because the black hole is evolutional from a star which only has finite mass-equivalency energy. A discussed case about shrinking 10^30 Coulomb electrons into a sphere with the radius less than 1 m is theoretically impossible and it also reveals that the singularity in the black hole is unreasonable. From the viewpoint of the gravitation self-energy, we also deduce that the black hole have a finite-size nucleus. Then the black hole with finite-size nucleus is proposed and satisfies the gravitational criteria of the black hole. According to the successful theorem of the asymptotic freedom in the strong interaction, several possible structure models are considered in the high-density quark matter phases. Next, using the Kerr-Newman metric, light propagating along the radial direction demonstrates finite speed forwardly and backwardly at any position larger than the Schwarzschild radius and no mathematical singularity at r=0 and θ=π/2. This fact reveals that light can propagate from the outer space into a black hole and vice versa. The proposed structure model for the black hole is either rotational or charged and its nucleus can have strong magnetic dipole that causes the relativistically charged mass ejection from the black hole as happened in GRS 1915+105 and Galaxy M87. In thermal equilibrium, the nucleus of the black hole should have temperature higher than the cosmic microwave background temperature of 2.726 K. The entropy increases and the second law of thermodynamics should be still useful.
Category: Astrophysics

[565] viXra:1806.0443 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-08 10:40:43

The Black Hole With A Finite-Size Nucleus Based On The Conservation of Energy and Asymptotic Freedom

Authors: Ting-Hang Pei
Comments: 15 Pages.

From analysis of light geodesic along the radial direction, an infinite time for light passing through the event horizon of the black hole seems to be an unreasonable physical solution. The same situation is also for the massive particle. To compress all particles to a singularity also causes another energy problem because the black hole is evolutional from a star which only has finite mass and stored energy. From the viewpoint of the gravitation self-energy, we deduct that the black hole should have a finite-size nucleus. Then the black hole with finite-size nucleus is proposed and satisfies the gravitational criteria of the black hole. According to the successful theorem of the asymptotic freedom in the strong interaction, several possible structure models are considered in the high-density quark matter phases. Next, using the Kerr-Newman metric, light propagating along the radial direction demonstrates finite speed forwardly and backwardly at any position larger than the Schwarzschild radius and no mathematical singularity at r=0 and θ=π/2. This very important fact shows that light can propagate from the outer space into a black hole and vice versa. The proposed structure model for the black hole is either rotational or charged and its nucleus can have strong magnetic dipole that causes the relativistically charged mass ejection from the black hole as happened in GRS 1915+105 and Galaxy M87. In thermal equilibrium, the nucleus of the black hole should have temperature higher than the cosmic microwave background temperature of 2.726 K. The entropy increases and the second law of thermodynamics should be still useful.
Category: Astrophysics

[564] viXra:1806.0433 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-07 04:25:17

A Potential Way to Unify Classical and Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Roberto Napolitano
Comments: 188 Pages. The paper is written in English, but at the end there is also the Italian version

In the present work, by moving from the assumption that the Sun (and all the massive bodies) produces, starting from a certain distance from it, attractive and repulsive gravitational forces at the same time, giving life to the movement of the planets around the Sun according to the same principle of pendulum, I managed to derive a perihelion precession formula, a black hole radius formula and, above all, a formula of atomic nuclear radius, which was missing until now, all in excellent agreement with the observation and in a completely independent way of the Einstein’s theory of relativity. I have also found — always through the same principles that allowed me to achieve the above results, in particular through the modification of the Newtonian gravitational potential, in turn due to the different modus-operandi of gravity force — a formula of the non-decreasing orbital velocity of galactic stars, without considering dark matter. Then I have demonstrated the black hole is composed only of protons, and that it’s similar to the nucleus of the atom and, analogously, the galaxy is similar to the atom, since the stars moving around the central nucleus in the same way as the electrons move around the atomic nucleus. I have also found another similitude between atomic nucleus and black hole, that is in the first we have energy is E = Mc2, and in the second we have energy is E = Qc2. From the mathematical findings obtained in the present work it has also emerged the existence, both at the microscopic and the macroscopic level, of the gravito-electric force (or, if you prefer, electro-gravitational force), resulting from the fusion of the gravitational force with the electric one, working exactly in accordance with Newtonian mechanics, although modified by the introduction of a repulsive force in addition and in opposition to the attractive one, that makes us understand the universe works always in the same way, both in macro and in micro. It is also emerged the existence of the universal principle of specific asymmetry between gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy, as a cause of nuclear energy E = Mc2. In this perspective, the present work can represent a potential unifying way between the macrocosm and microcosm mechanics.
Category: Astrophysics

[563] viXra:1806.0433 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-24 04:14:30

A Potential Way to Unify Classical and Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Roberto Napolitano
Comments: 181 Pages. The paper is written in English, but at the end there is also the Italian version

In the present work, by moving from the assumption that the Sun (and all the massive bodies) produces, starting from a certain distance from it, attractive and repulsive gravitational forces at the same time, giving life to the movement of the planets around the Sun according to the same principle of pendulum, I managed to derive a perihelion precession formula, a black hole radius formula and, above all, a formula of atomic nuclear radius, which was missing until now, all in excellent agreement with the observation and in a completely independent way of the Einstein’s theory of relativity. I have also found — always through the same principles that allowed me to achieve the above results, in particular through the modification of the Newtonian gravitational potential, in turn due to the different modus-operandi of gravity force — a formula of the non-decreasing orbital velocity of galactic stars, without considering dark matter. Then I have demonstrated the black hole is composed only of protons, and that it’s similar to the nucleus of the atom and, analogously, the galaxy is similar to the atom, since the stars moving around the central nucleus in the same way as the electrons move around the atomic nucleus. I have also found another similitude between atomic nucleus and black hole, that is in the first we have energy is E = Mc2, and in the second we have energy is E = Qc2. From the mathematical findings obtained in the present work it has also emerged the existence, both at the microscopic and the macroscopic level, of the gravito-electric force (or, if you prefer, electro-gravitational force), resulting from the fusion of the gravitational force with the electric one, working exactly in accordance with Newtonian mechanics, although modified by the introduction of a repulsive force in addition and in opposition to the attractive one, that makes us understand the universe works always in the same way, both in macro and in micro. It is also emerged the existence of the universal principle of specific asymmetry between gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy, as a cause of nuclear energy E = Mc2. In this perspective, the present work can represent a potential unifying way between the macrocosm and microcosm mechanics.
Category: Astrophysics

[562] viXra:1806.0433 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-25 04:14:13

A Potential Way to Unify Classical and Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Roberto Napolitano
Comments: 163 Pages.

In the present work, by moving from the assumption that the Sun (and all the massive bodies) produces, starting from a certain distance from it, attractive and repulsive gravitational forces at the same time, giving life to the movement of the planets around the Sun according to the same principle of pendulum, I managed to derive a perihelion precession formula, a black hole radius formula and, above all, a formula of atomic nuclear radius, which was missing until now, all in excellent agreement with the observation and in a completely independent way of the Einstein’s theory of relativity. I have also found — always through the same principles that allowed me to achieve the above results, in particular through the modification of the Newtonian gravitational potential, in turn due to the different modus-operandi of gravity force — a formula of the non-decreasing orbital velocity of galactic stars, without considering dark matter. Then I have demonstrated the black hole is composed only of protons, and that it’s similar to the atomic nucleus and, analogously, the galaxy is similar to the atom, since the stars moving around the central nucleus in the same way as the electrons move around the atomic nucleus. I have also found another similitude between atomic nucleus and black hole, by having demonstrate that in the first we have that energy is E = Mc2, and in the second we have that energy is E = Qc2. From the mathematical findings obtained in the present work, it has also emerged the existence, both at the microscopic and the macroscopic level, of the gravito-electric force (or, if you prefer, electro-gravitational force), resulting from the merging of the gravitational force with the electric one, and working exactly in accordance with Newtonian mechanics, although modified by the introduction of a repulsive force in addition and in opposition to the attractive one, that makes us understand the universe works always in the same way, both in macro and in micro. Then I have also demonstrated that in the universe the principle of conservation of energy is always satisfied, since we having shown what is the function of nuclear energy E = Mc2 (i.e. to make the electrons orbit the atomic nucleus), and what is the function of the energy E = Qc2 possessed by the protons of the blacks holes (i.e. to make the stars orbit the black hole itself). In this perspective, the present work can represent a potential unifying way between the macrocosm and microcosm mechanics.
Category: Astrophysics

[561] viXra:1806.0433 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-19 10:13:27

A Potential Way to Unify Classical and Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Roberto Napolitano
Comments: 163 Pages. The paper is written in English, but at the end there is Italian translation

In the present work, by moving from the assumption that the Sun (and all the massive bodies) produces, starting from a certain distance from it, attractive and repulsive gravitational forces at the same time, giving life to the movement of the planets around the Sun according to the same principle of pendulum, I managed to derive a perihelion precession formula, a black hole radius formula and, above all, a formula of atomic nuclear radius, which was missing until now, all in excellent agreement with the observation and in a completely independent way of the Einstein’s theory of relativity. I have also found — always through the same principles that allowed me to achieve the above results, in particular through the modification of the Newtonian gravitational potential, in turn due to the different modus-operandi of gravity force — a formula of the non-decreasing orbital velocity of galactic stars, without considering dark matter. Then I have demonstrated the black hole is composed only of protons, and that it’s similar to the atomic nucleus and, analogously, the galaxy is similar to the atom, since the stars moving around the central nucleus in the same way as the electrons move around the atomic nucleus. I have also found another similitude between atomic nucleus and black hole, by having demonstrate that in the first we have that energy is E = Mc2, and in the second we have that energy is E = Qc2. From the mathematical findings obtained in the present work, it has also emerged the existence, both at the microscopic and the macroscopic level, of the gravito-electric force (or, if you prefer, electro-gravitational force), resulting from the merging of the gravitational force with the electric one, and working exactly in accordance with Newtonian mechanics, although modified by the introduction of a repulsive force in addition and in opposition to the attractive one, that makes us understand the universe works always in the same way, both in macro and in micro. Then I have also demonstrated that in the universe the principle of conservation of energy is always satisfied, since we having shown what is the function of nuclear energy E = Mc2 (i.e. to make the electrons orbit the atomic nucleus), and what is the function of the energy E = Qc2 possessed by the protons of the blacks holes (i.e. to make the stars orbit the black hole itself). In this perspective, the present work can represent a potential unifying way between the macrocosm and microcosm mechanics.
Category: Astrophysics

[560] viXra:1806.0433 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-13 15:23:15

A Potential Way to Unify Classical and Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Roberto Napolitano
Comments: 163 Pages. The paper is written in English, but at the end there is the translation in Italian

In the present work, by moving from the assumption that the Sun (and all the massive bodies) produces, starting from a certain distance from it, attractive and repulsive gravitational forces at the same time, giving life to the movement of the planets around the Sun according to the same principle of pendulum, I managed to derive a perihelion precession formula, a black hole radius formula and, above all, a formula of atomic nuclear radius, which was missing until now, all in excellent agreement with the observation and in a completely independent way of the Einstein’s theory of relativity. I have also found — always through the same principles that allowed me to achieve the above results, in particular through the modification of the Newtonian gravitational potential, in turn due to the different modus-operandi of gravity force — a formula of the non-decreasing orbital velocity of galactic stars, without considering dark matter. Then I have demonstrated the black hole is composed only of protons, and that it’s similar to the atomic nucleus and, analogously, the galaxy is similar to the atom, since the stars moving around the central nucleus in the same way as the electrons move around the atomic nucleus. I have also found another similitude between atomic nucleus and black hole, by having demonstrate that in the first we have that energy is E = Mc2, and in the second we have that energy is E = Qc2. From the mathematical findings obtained in the present work, it has also emerged the existence, both at the microscopic and the macroscopic level, of the gravito-electric force (or, if you prefer, electro-gravitational force), resulting from the merging of the gravitational force with the electric one, and working exactly in accordance with Newtonian mechanics, although modified by the introduction of a repulsive force in addition and in opposition to the attractive one, that makes us understand the universe works always in the same way, both in macro and in micro. Then I have also demonstrated that in the universe the principle of conservation of energy is always satisfied, since we having shown what is the function of nuclear energy E = Mc2 (i.e. to make the electrons orbit the atomic nucleus), and what is the function of the energy E = Qc2 possessed by the protons of the blacks holes (i.e. to make the stars orbit the black hole itself). In this perspective, the present work can represent a potential unifying way between the macrocosm and microcosm mechanics.
Category: Astrophysics

[559] viXra:1806.0433 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-11 09:55:42

A Potential Way to Unify Classical and Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Roberto Napolitano
Comments: 163 Pages. The paper is written both in english and in italian

In the present work, by moving from the assumption that the Sun (and all the massive bodies) produces, starting from a certain distance from it, attractive and repulsive gravitational forces at the same time, giving life to the movement of the planets around the Sun according to the same principle of pendulum, I managed to derive a perihelion precession formula, a black hole radius formula and, above all, a formula of atomic nuclear radius, which was missing until now, all in excellent agreement with the observation and in a completely independent way of the Einstein’s theory of relativity. I have also found — always through the same principles that allowed me to achieve the above results, in particular through the modification of the Newtonian gravitational potential, in turn due to the different modus-operandi of gravity force — a formula of the non-decreasing orbital velocity of galactic stars, without considering dark matter. Then I have demonstrated the black hole is composed only of protons, and that it’s similar to the atomic nucleus and, analogously, the galaxy is similar to the atom, since the stars moving around the central nucleus in the same way as the electrons move around the atomic nucleus. I have also found another similitude between atomic nucleus and black hole, by having demonstrate that in the first we have that energy is E = Mc2, and in the second we have that energy is E = Qc2. From the mathematical findings obtained in the present work, it has also emerged the existence, both at the microscopic and the macroscopic level, of the gravito-electric force (or, if you prefer, electro-gravitational force), resulting from the merging of the gravitational force with the electric one, and working exactly in accordance with Newtonian mechanics, although modified by the introduction of a repulsive force in addition and in opposition to the attractive one, that makes us understand the universe works always in the same way, both in macro and in micro. Then I have also demonstrated that in the universe the principle of conservation of energy is always satisfied, since we having shown what is the function of nuclear energy E = Mc2 (i.e. to make the electrons orbit the atomic nucleus), and what is the function of the energy E = Qc2 possessed by the protons of the blacks holes (i.e. to make the stars orbit the black hole itself). In this perspective, the present work can represent a potential unifying way between the macrocosm and microcosm mechanics.
Category: Astrophysics

[558] viXra:1806.0433 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-05 09:58:53

A Potential Way to Unify Classical and Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Roberto Napolitano
Comments: 163 Pages. The paper is written both in english and in italian

In the present work, by moving from the assumption that the Sun (and all the massive bodies) produces, starting from a certain distance from it, attractive and repulsive gravitational forces at the same time, giving life to the movement of the planets around the Sun according to the same principle of pendulum, I managed to derive a perihelion precession formula, a black hole radius formula and, above all, a formula of atomic nuclear radius, which was missing until now, all in excellent agreement with the observation and in a completely independent way of the Einstein’s theory of relativity. I have also found — always through the same principles that allowed me to achieve the above results, in particular through the modification of the Newtonian gravitational potential, in turn due to the different modus-operandi of gravity force — a formula of the non-decreasing orbital velocity of galactic stars, without considering dark matter. Then I have demonstrated the black hole is composed only of protons, and that it’s similar to the atomic nucleus and, analogously, the galaxy is similar to the atom, since the stars moving around the central nucleus in the same way as the electrons move around the atomic nucleus. I have also found another similitude between atomic nucleus and black hole, by having demonstrate that in the first we have that energy is E = Mc2, and in the second we have that energy is E = Qc2. From the mathematical findings obtained in the present work, it has also emerged the existence, both at the microscopic and the macroscopic level, of the gravito-electric force (or, if you prefer, electro-gravitational force), resulting from the merging of the gravitational force with the electric one, and working exactly in accordance with Newtonian mechanics, although modified by the introduction of a repulsive force in addition and in opposition to the attractive one, that makes us understand the universe works always in the same way, both in macro and in micro. Then I have also demonstrated that in the universe the principle of conservation of energy is always satisfied, since we having shown what is the function of nuclear energy E = Mc2 (i.e. to make the electrons orbit the atomic nucleus), and what is the function of the energy E = Qc2 possessed by the protons of the blacks holes (i.e. to make the stars orbit the black hole itself). In this perspective, the present work can represent a potential unifying way between the macrocosm and microcosm mechanics.
Category: Astrophysics

[557] viXra:1806.0357 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-05 06:49:32

Neutron New Model

Authors: Antonio Puccini
Comments: 35 Pages.

Initially the neutron (N) was considered made by the very close union of a proton (P) and an electron (e), i.e. a doublet:〔P, e〕. This is the electron capture process, which involves also an electronic neutrino (e): e+ P  N + e. This neutronization reaction occurs continuously in reality: in the Neutron Stars, or in the stellar and explosive nucleosynthesis, creating all the elements of the Periodic Table. Later it was found that some principles of Quantum Mechanics did not allow the presence of e in the nucleus, since e acquiring an energy of ~140 MeV immediately goes away. However, it was not considered that the electron capture occurs just because the e involved is provided with a relativistic energy: ~200 MeV. This explains why this bond lasts for hundreds of millions of years, as in the Neutron Stars. Then it emerged that the Spin Statistics categorically imposed that the N was a fermion, rather than a boson (if it was a doublet). However, if we considered the N as a multiplet, made of 3 particles with half-integer spin, the N would continue to be a fermion safeguarding, likewise, the Spin Statistics and making exhaustive and much more congruous the electron capture equation. It is therefore necessary to integrate the photoannihilation processes (γe+ῡe) to the neutronization, so that: e+P+γe+P+ῡe+eN+e; as we can see, N is equivalent to the multiplet [e, P, ῡe]. However, the N decay (N P+e+ῡe) is energetically unbalanced, since the mass of a ῡe is  5.8eV, against an energy gap between 0.7828-0.511MeV. The only possible solution to solve this striking mass gap problem could be given by a possible neutral electron (e°), or rather its anti-particle: the ē°. Thus the N multiplet (or neutral compound P) would be balanced too: N = [e, P, ē°].
Category: Astrophysics

[556] viXra:1806.0341 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-27 23:24:00

Holographic Permanent Cosmology in Quantized Absolute Space-Time

Authors: F. M. Sanchez, V.A. Kotov, M. Grosmann
Comments: 6 Pages.

Using the electron wavelength as unity, and writing the Large Number Correlation in a micro-macro-physics symmetric way, this leads to the Topological Axis, showing the string characteristic series n = 2 + 4p exhibiting the Cartan-Bott periodicity connecting gauge bosons. This permits to observe very precise (10^-6) relations involving basic free-parameters of Particle Physics, tied to the Kotov's period. The associated time to the point n = 30 is observed to be directly obtained by two different mandatory methods, and is directly related to the Kotov's period and the Monster order. This time 5.48 × 10^57 s could be a large cosmic period. This lacking point n = 30 would correspond to a symmetry between a holon, a gauge boson with the Universe mass, and the Holographic Grandcosmos: string theory could be revisited on this basis with a quantified time 10^61 smaller than the Planck time. The Holic Principle, the arithmetical form of Holography, applies to cosmology. This means the ultimate physics laws are arithmetic, in a quantized absolute Space-Time, where the reshift period 72 km/s takes a central place.
Category: Astrophysics

[555] viXra:1806.0341 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-26 23:37:26

Holographic Permanent Cosmology in Quantized Absolute Space-Time

Authors: F. M. Sanchez, V.A. Kotov, M. Grosmann
Comments: 6 Pages.

Using the electron wavelength as unity, and writing the Large Number Correlation in a micro-macro-physics symmetric way, this leads to the Topological Axis, showing the string characteristic series n = 2 + 4p exhibiting the Cartan-Bott periodicity connecting gauge bosons. This permits to observe very precise (10-6) relations involving basic free-parameters of Particle Physics, tied to the Kotov's period. The associated time to the point n = 30 is observed to be directly obtained by two different mandatory methods, and is directly related to the Kotov's period and the Monster order. This time 5.48 × 1057 s could be a large cosmic period. This lacking point n = 30 would correspond to a symmetry between a holon, a gauge boson with the Universe mass, and the Holographic Grandcosmos: string theory could be revisited on this basis with a quantified time 1061 smaller than the Planck time. The Holic Principle, the arithmetical form of Holography, applies to cosmology. This means the ultimate physics laws are arithmetic, in a quantized absolute Space-Time, where the reshift period 72 km/s takes a central place.
Category: Astrophysics

[554] viXra:1806.0341 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-26 04:38:57

Holographic Permanent Cosmology in Quantized Absolute Space-Time

Authors: F. M. Sanchez, V.A. Kotov
Comments: 6 Pages.

Using the electron wavelength as unity, and writing the Large Number Correlation in a micro-macro-physics symmetric way, this leads to the Topological Axis, showing the string characteristic series n = 2 + 4p exhibiting the Cartan-Bott periodicity connecting gauge bosons. This permits to observe very precise (10^-6) relations involving basic free-parameters of Particle Physics, tied to the Kotov's period. The associated time to the point n = 30 is observed to be directly related to the time defined from the mean cosmic mass density and the Fermi constant, which is directly related to the Kotov's period and the Monster order. This time 5.48 × 10^57 s could be a large cosmic period. This lacking point n = 30 would correspond to a symmetry between a holon, a gauge boson with the Universe mass, and the Holographic Grandcosmos: string theory could be revisited on this basis with a quantified time 10^61 smaller than the Planck time. The Holic Principle, the arithmetical form of Holography, applies to cosmology. This means the ultimate physics laws are arithmetic, in a quantized absolute Space-Time.
Category: Astrophysics

[553] viXra:1806.0341 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-25 03:10:28

Holographic Permanent Cosmology in Quantized Absolute Space-Time

Authors: F. M. Sanchez, V.A. Kotov
Comments: 6 Pages.

Using the electron wavelength as unity, and writing the Large Number Correlation in a micro-macrophysics symmetric way, this leads to the Topological Axis, showing the string characteristic series n = 2 + 4p exhibiting the Cartan-Bott periodicity connecting gauge bosons. This permits to observe very precise relations involving basic free-parameters of Particle Physics, tied to the Kotov's period. The associated time to the point n = 30 is observed to be directly related to the time defined from the mean cosmic mass density and the Fermi constant, which is directly related to the Kotov's period and the Monster order. This time 5.48 × 10^57 s could be a large cosmic period. This lacking point n = 30 would correspond to a symmetry between a holon, a gauge boson with the Universe mass, and the Holographic Grandcosmos: string theory could be revisited on this basis with a quantified time 10^61 smaller than the Planck time. The Holic Principle, the arithmetical form of Holography, applies to cosmology. This means the ultimate physics laws are arithmetic, in a quantized absolute Space-Time.
Category: Astrophysics

[552] viXra:1806.0329 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-05 07:31:11

Is a Black hole a Neutron star?

Authors: Arieh Sher
Comments: 5 Pages.

The connection between a Black hole and a Neutron star is shown. I postulate that both bodies have the same physical structure, namely, the nucleons of both bodies are so packed that their densities are the maximum possible in the Universe. It is interesting to note that the density of the nucleus of the atom has the same structure and the same density. Neutron stars have been observed in the Universe, whereas Black holes were not. The existence of Black holes is deduced from observing motion of stars around an invisible object that has a huge mass. I postulate that the reason why a Neutron star is visible whereas a Black hole is not, is the ratio between the physical radius of the body and its Schwarzschild radius.
Category: Astrophysics

[551] viXra:1806.0243 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-05 15:54:58

Reinterpretation of the Robertson-Walker Metric, the Shapes of the Cosmos, and the Cosmological Constant

Authors: Ru-Jiao Zhang
Comments: 9 Pages. Correct some typing errors in abstract.

The Robertson-Walker metric has been recognized for describing the global space-time Universe which could be one of the three models: flat ( = 0), closed ( = +1) or open ( = −1). This paper reinterprets the Robertson-Walker metric, which actually describe the geometrical shapes of the global space-time Universe and two local space-time, which explains why galaxies are disk shaped. The global space-time is the “infinite” hyper-sphere of the Universe without boundary (open sphere). The two forms of local space-time caused by the agglomeration of matter into stars and stellar systems, which appeared as sphere (or ellipsoid) and flat. The shapes of spheres range from small elementary particles in quantum physics to planets, stars and giant objects such as globular nebulae in cosmological physics. The flat shapes are disk like galaxies, and the solar system in its infancy, etc. In last chapter, the cosmological constant was derived from the volume of the five dimension hyper-sphere. The cosmological constant is relevant with the Gaussian curvature 1/R^2 of the Universe. The theoretical value of the cosmological constant is: = 5(Ho)^2/2πc^2 .
Category: Astrophysics

[550] viXra:1806.0243 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-23 12:48:31

Reinterpretation of the Robertson-Walker Metric, the Shapes of the Cosmos, and the Cosmological Constant

Authors: Ru-Jiao Zhang
Comments: 9 Pages.

The Robertson-Walker metric has been recognized for describing the global space-time Universe which could be one of the three models: flat (k=0), closed (k=0) or open (k=-0). This paper reinterprets the Robertson-Walker metric, which actually describe the geometrical shapes of the global space-time Universe and two local space-time. The global space-time is the “infinite” hyper-sphere of the Universe without boundary (open sphere). The two forms of local space-time caused by the agglomeration of matter into stars and stellar systems, which appeared as sphere (or ellipsoid) and flat. The shapes of spheres range from small elementary particles in quantum physics to planets, stars and giant objects such as globular nebulae in cosmological physics. The flat shapes are disk like galaxies, and the solar system in its infancy, etc. In last chapter, the cosmological constant was derived from the volume of the five dimension hyper-sphere. The cosmological constant is relevant with the Gaussian curvature 1/R^2 of the Universe. The value of the cosmological constant is: Λ= (5Ho^2)/(2πc^2 )
Category: Astrophysics